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T A B L E

O F

C O N T E N T S

Bring Science Alive! 7th Grade Integrated Unwrapping a TCI Segment....................................................1

Sample NGSS-Designed Assessment..................................92

Program Contents...................................................................2

Engineering Challenge

Unwrapping a TCI Segment

A Phenomena-Rich Program............................................6

Interactive Student Notebook......................................107

Three-Dimensional Learning............................................8

Handouts.....................................................................113

Thinking Like an Engineer..............................................10

Performance Assessment

Checking Student Progress............................................12

Lesson Guide.................................................................97

Lesson Guide...............................................................117

Segment Integrated Phenomenon

Interactive Student Notebook......................................120

Lesson Guide.................................................................14

Handouts.....................................................................136

Interactive Student Notebook........................................16

Learning Sequence

Handout.........................................................................20

Segment Correlations..................................................138

Anchoring Phenomenon

7th Grade Integrated Learning Progressions...............142

Lesson Guide.................................................................22

Materials............................................................................161

Interactive Student Notebook........................................24

Credits ..............................................................................163

Three-Dimensional Lesson Investigations

Lesson Guide.................................................................26

Student Text..................................................................48

Interactive Student Notebook........................................58

Handouts.......................................................................74


Unwrapping a TCI Segment

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7th Grade Integrated  1


P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Bring Science Alive! 7th Grade Integrated Segment 1 - Organisms and Nonliving Things Are Made of Atoms

Integrated Phenomenon: Coal is found in locations that were once full of lush swamps. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

The Composition of Matter

Anchoring Phenomenon: To create stage makeup, chemists must account for the properties of the substances they will use. 1 Atoms and Elements

Phenomenon: Balloons have more mass when filled with air, despite air being invisible to the eye.

2 Molecules and Extended Structures

Phenomenon: The millions and millions of types of materials in the world are composed of some combination of only 92 different types of atoms.

3 Substances and Their Properties

Phenomenon: Some liquids do not mix with other liquids, so they form distinct layers when poured in a bottle. Performance Assessment: Determining the Best Material for a Makeup Pen Base Anchoring Phenomenon: To create stage makeup, chemists must account for the properties of the substances they will use.

Energy and Matter in Ecosystems

Anchoring Phenomenon: Over a period of five years, a local park has grown a lot, acquiring an incredible amount of new matter and energy. 4 Capturing the Sun’s Energy

Phenomenon: Epiphytes, plants that can live high in trees, grow and flower in spite of having no roots that touch the ground.

5 Using Stored Energy

Phenomenon: Antlions use a lot of energy to build sandy pits and then lie in wait until an ant falls in, at which point an antlion pegs the ant with sand until it falls to the very bottom of the pit.

6 Food Webs and Trophic Pyramids

Phenomenon: In Yellowstone National Park, it is very easy to observe hundreds of types of plants but nearly impossible to spot a wolf.

7 Global Cycles of Matter

Phenomenon: Runoff from a fertilized field empties into a pond, triggering the growth of green muck. Performance Assessment: Animating Global Pathways Anchoring Phenomenon: Over a period of five years, a local park has grown a lot, acquiring an incredible amount of new matter and energy.

Earth Processes Through Geologic Time

Anchoring Phenomenon: Despite the lack of volcanoes and flowing water, igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks are found throughout the Black Hills. 8

Investigating Rock Strata Phenomenon: The rock layers at the bottom of the Grand Canyon are much older than those found at the top of the Grand Canyon.

9

Reconstructing Earth’s History Phenomenon: The moon contains rocks that are very much like Earth’s and formed at about the same time as many of Earth’s oldest rocks. Performance Assessment: Explaining the Black Hills Anchoring Phenomenon: Despite the lack of volcanoes and flowing water, igneous rocks and sedimentary rocks are found throughout the Black Hills.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about the composition of matter, energy and matter in ecosystems, and Earth processes through geologic time. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon. 2  7th Grade Integrated

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P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 2 - Matter Cycles and Energy Flows Integrated Phenomenon: A rose bush placed in a sunny location grew faster than a rose bush placed in a shady location. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

Earth’s Systems

Anchoring Phenomenon: Flowing, bright molten rock in the form of lava moves across Earth’s surface forming new land and erasing vegetation. 10 Energy in Earth’s Systems

Phenomenon: When the bottom of a tank of water is heated, warm water rises, cools, and falls back again.

11 Scales of Change on Earth’s Surface

Phenomenon: Ice breaks off a glacier and falls into the ocean. Performance Assessment: Changes in Earth’s Surface at the Kilauea Volcano Anchoring Phenomenon: Flowing, bright molten rock in the form of lava moves across Earth’s surface forming new land and erasing vegetation.

Chemical Reactions

Anchoring Phenomenon: Survival kits often include portable gear, such as hot packs and butane torches, that can be activated at a moment’s notice. 12 Identifying Chemical Reactions

Phenomenon: Mixing vinegar and baking soda causes the substances to bubble up and spill over a container’s edge.

13 Atoms in Chemical Reactions

Phenomenon: Burning steel wool causes the mass of the steel wool to increase.

14 Energy in Chemical Reactions

Phenomenon: When magnesium is lit on fire, it burns with a bright light. In contrast, when chicken is lit on fire, it changes color from pink to white.

Engineering Challenge: Designing a Hot Pack

15 Chemical Engineering and Society

Phenomenon: Faux leather is made from synthetic materials but can serve the same functions as real leather. Performance Assessment: Modifying and Explaining Survival Gear Anchoring Phenomenon: Survival kits often include portable gear, such as hot packs and butane torches, that can be activated at a moment’s notice.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about Earth’s systems and chemical reactions. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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7th Grade Integrated  3


P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 3 - The Distribution of Earth’s Resources Integrated Phenomenon: At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land. Create an initial model to explain this phenomenon.

Processes that Shape Earth

Anchoring Phenomenon: Earth’s natural resources, like minerals, energy, and groundwater, are unevenly distributed across communities.

16 Earth’s Tectonic Plates

Phenomenon: Fossils of plants that had broad, flat leaves are found in Antarctica.

17 The Rock Cycle

Phenomenon: Some rock types can be found in a community, but not others.

18 The Water Cycle

Phenomenon: During the first week of January, New York was covered in four feet of snow, but by the end of May the streets were bare. Engineering Challenge: Test and Improve a Solar Distiller

19 Earth’s Natural Resources

Phenomenon: Every device contains parts that are made from natural resources. Performance Assessment: Fund a Natural Resource Company Anchoring Phenomenon: Earth’s natural resources, like minerals, energy, and groundwater, are unevenly distributed across communities.

Resources in Ecosystems

Anchoring Phenomenon: When various species of cichlid fish are combined in aquariums, some stop eating to the point of dying.

20 Resources in Living Systems

Phenomenon: Poison dart frogs kept in captivity lose their toxicity over time so they are no longer poisonous.

21 Interactions Among Organisms

Phenomenon: Acacia trees produce a nectar that does not help the tree itself, but is eaten by stinging ants that live on the tree. Engineering Challenge: Preserving Frog-Bat Interactions

22 Changing Ecosystems

Phenomenon: Although the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens destroyed all life near the eruption, the area is now covered in green and full of life. Performance Assessment: Changing Resources for Cichlid Fish Anchoring Phenomenon: When various species of cichlid fish are combined in aquariums, some stop eating to the point of dying.

States of Matter

Anchoring Phenomenon: Ice eventually turns into water when it is left out, and water boils and seems to disappear when it is heated. 23 The Motion of Particles

Phenomenon: Drops of food coloring dissolve into water at very different rates depending on the temperature of the water.

24 Heat, Temperature, and State Changes

Phenomenon: In a warm room, water droplets form on a can of cold liquid. Performance Assessment: Writing to your Alien Pen Pal Anchoring Phenomenon: Ice eventually turns into water when it is left out, and water boils and seems to disappear when it is heated.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about the processes that shape Earth, resources in ecosystems, and states of matter. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon. 4  7th Grade Integrated

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P R O G R A M

C O N T E N T S

Segment 4 - Sustaining Living Systems in a Changing World Integrated Phenomenon: Dams affect river ecosystems whether they are natural, like the one at Quake Lake, or manmade, like the Hoover Dam.

Earth’s Natural Hazards

Anchoring Phenomenon: Bridges in some places risk damage or destruction from multiple natural hazards including flooding, mass wasting, earthquakes, and even volcanic activity. 25 Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes

Phenomenon: Volcanoes erupt and earthquakes shift the ground at similar places around the globe, but there are other places that see very little earthquake and volcanic activity.

26 Mass Wasting, Tsunamis, and Floods

Phenomenon: Data on maps shows that Northen California has more mass wasting than Missouri, even though Missouri has more floods. Engineering Challenge: Designing a Bridge for Floods and Landslides Performance Assessment: Planning Bridges to Withstand Natural Hazards Anchoring Phenomenon: Bridges in some places risk damage or destruction from multiple natural hazards including flooding, mass wasting, earthquakes, and even volcanic activity.

Humans and Changing Ecosystems

Anchoring Phenomenon: Abalone populations in southern California have been declining steadily since the 1960s. 27 Biodiversity

Phenomenon: The kakapo is a flightless parrot that lives in New Zealand. In the 1970s, only 18 individuals were left alive; now there are about 160 living individuals.

28 The Importance of Healthy Ecosystems

Phenomenon: Almond farms in California truck in billions of honey bees from around the nation to pollinate their orchards each spring.

29 Engineering Solutions and Protecting Ecosystems

Phenomenon: The populations of wild animals, such as the lynx and rabbit, tend to rise and fall in cycles, but the global human population is just rising—dramatically. Engineering Challenge: Designing a Fishing Net Performance Assessment: People and Ecosystems Anchoring Phenomenon: Abalone populations in southern California have been declining steadily since the 1960s.

Using Your Model to Explain the Phenomenon

Return to the model created at the beginning of the segment, and revise it based on what you learned about Earth’s natural hazards and humans and changing ecosystems. Then, use your model to explain the Integrated Phenomenon.

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7th Grade Integrated  5


U N W R A P P I N G

A

T C I

S E G M E N T :

P H E N O M E N A

A Phenomena-Rich Program TCI believes that phenomena makes science more meaningful for students. Bring Science Alive! provides many opportunities for students to engage with, investigate, and make sense of natural phenomena in their own lives.

Integrated Phenomenon The integrated phenomenon ties together multiple disciplines. Students come up with an initial model to explain the phenomenon and revise it throughout the segment.

Anchoring Phenomenon The anchoring phenomenon encourages students to make connections with the world around them. Students then further explore the phenomenon during the Performance Assessment.

Lesson Phenomenon

Local Phenomenon

Each lesson begins with an investigative phenomenon that is used to pique students’ interest and drive instruction throughout the investigations. At the end of a lesson, students use what they learned to make sense of the phenomenon.

Students build a deeper, personal connection to the phenomenon through direct observation or by conducting research to find out more about the phenomenon in their local area.

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U N W R A P P I N G

A

T C I

S E G M E N T :

P H E N O M E N A

Bring Science Alive! covers a variety of phenomena topics to engage every student.

Multimedia Phenomena

Phenomena are presented through videos, images, and hands-on observations.

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Rich multimedia throughout the program provide easy ways for students to interpret the phenomena.

7th Grade Integrated  7


U N W R A P P I N G

A

T C I

S E G M E N T :

I N V E S T I G A T I O N S

Three-Dimensional Learning Students set forth to investigate each lesson’s phenomenon. Each carefully-designed investigation guides students through mastering the lesson’s science practices, crosscutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas.

Lessons are broken out into modules so that teachers can pick and choose what works for their classroom.

Lessons are presented in an easy-to-use, customizable slideshow format.

Pacing is provided for teachers to plan in advance.

Each and every lesson focuses on at least one Science and Engineering Practice, one Disciplinary Core Idea, and one Crosscutting Concept.

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Investigations are designed to meet Math and ELA Common Core standards as specified by NGSS.

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U N W R A P P I N G

A

T C I

S E G M E N T :

I N V E S T I G A T I O N S

Material Kits are prepared and organized to seamlessly integrate into each lesson.

Consumable Materials can easily be ordered online.

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Everything needed for one lesson is grouped together into a clearly labeled bag.

7th Grade Integrated  9


U N W R A P P I NG

A

TC I

S EG M EN T:

ENG I N EER I NG

C H A L L ENG ES

Thinking Like an Engineer Engineering Challenges throughout the program allow for students to think like engineers as they solve real-world problems related to the Anchoring Phenomenon.

Students are assigned roles and come together to solve an engineering problem. This mirrors a real-world engineering team.

Teams develop solutions, conduct iterative testing, and use data (or results) to improve their solutions.

10  7th Grade Integrated

Students come up with their own metrics to measure the success of their design solution.

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U N W R A P P I NG

A

TC I

S EG M EN T:

ENG I N EER I NG

C H A L L ENG ES

Rubrics detail what is expected at each achievement level.

Engineering Challenge Rubric

Students go through the engineering design process for each challenge.

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Rubrics are provided for the students so that they can thoughtfully answer questions knowing what they will be graded on.

7th Grade Integrated  11


U N W R A P P I N G

A

T C I

S E G M E N T :

A S S E S S M E N T S

Checking Student Progress Bring Science Alive! offers a variety of assessments types to evaluate student learning.

Formative Assessment

Lesson Game In a Lesson Game, students answer selectedresponse questions about the lesson. Results are automatically tracked in your gradebook.

Key Science Concepts Videos, diagrams, and detailed illustrations provide an additional check for students’ understanding.

Notebook Monitor students’ progress in their notebooks as they go through the lesson and investigations.

Interactive Tutorials Students can check their own understanding of main ideas with Interactive Tutorials.

Simulations Students explore scientific concepts through an interactive game-like environment, which allows them to check and evaluate predictions.

Wrap-Up Slides Lead a culturally-responsive discussion with carefully designed three-dimensional questions.

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U N W R A P P I N G

A

T C I

S E G M E N T :

A S S E S S M E N T S

Summative Assessment Assessment items evaluate mastery of all three NGSS dimensions. Questions range in Depth of Knowledge levels 1-4.

Interactive stimuli engage students and prepare them for digital state tests.

A series of discrete items and performance tasks create a well-rounded assessment.

Performance Assessment

Students work collaboratively or individually to complete the tasks.

Analytical rubrics are provided to assess student work individually.

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Hands-on Performance Assessments provide opportunities to check student understanding of the Performance Expectations. 7th Grade Integrated  13


Integrated Phenomena

I N T EG R AT E D P H EN O M EN O N : T H E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F E A R T H ’ S R E S O U R C E S

Integrated Phenomenon The Distribution of Earth’s Resources

Materials: • Notebook: Integrated Phenomenon • Handout A: Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Planner Lesson Support: • The Integrated Phenomenon is meant to integrate instruction throughout the lessons from each discipline. • After you introduce the phenomenon on the following slides, give students time to ask questions and develop a rough model that attempts to explain the phenomenon. • Have students return to their model throughout the lessons in order to revise it and fill in new information that helps explain the phenomenon.

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

SLIDE 3

• The variability of features on Earth’s surface is obvious even when seen from afar.

• Up close, the diversity of life all packed together in some areas boggles the mind!

SLIDE 4

• In others, it’s tough to find any sign of life. • Scientists look for patterns of features and conditions that can explain these differences.

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SLIDE 4

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SLIDE 5 •

Integrated Phenomenon: At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land. • What questions do you have about this phenomenon?

SLIDE 5

SLIDE 6 • • • •

Develop an initial model to try to explain this phenomenon. After each lesson, record information related to the integrated phenomenon. Revise and develop your model. After all the lessons, use your final model to write an explanation of the phenomenon.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 6

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials.

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7th Grade Integrated  15

Integrated Phenomena

I N T EG R AT E D P H EN O M EN O N : T H E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F E A R T H ’ S R E S O U R C E S


Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D

P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

I N T E G R AT E D S E G M E N T: THE DISTRIBUTION OF EARTH’S RESOURCES

Integrated Phenomenon: At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land. 1. What questions do you have about this phenomenon? How might you investigate to find answers?

2. In the space below, come up with an initial model that attempts to explain this phenomenon.

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P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

3. After you complete each lesson, return to the table below and add what you learned that relates to or might help explain part of the phenomenon: At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land.

Lesson

Questions to Consider

Earth’s Tectonic Plates

What patterns do scientists see across landforms on Planet Earth that support the idea that the continents have moved around? How does this explain similarities between distant continents? Do some research to see if you can identify some similar parks on opposite sides of the ocean.

The Rock Cycle

What factors influence the types of rock found at different places around the Earth? How does rock break down into sand? Do you think the rocks making up the Earth’s surface in one National Park change over time?

The Water Cycle

How does water change state as it cycles? What influences how much water is found in different National Parks?

Earth’s Natural Resources

What influences the amount of fresh water in a National Park? What influences the amount of soil in a National Park? What influences whether forests grow in a National Park?

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What I Learned to Help Explain Part of the Phenomenon

7th Grade Integrated  17

Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D


Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D

Lesson

P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

Questions to Consider

Resources in Living Systems

What resources do living things need? What determines which species can live in an area like a National Park? Consider that Big Bend National Park is in Texas, and Yasuni National Park is in Ecuador. Look at the map in Investigation 3 to learn about rainfall.

Interactions Among Organisms

When is a living thing itself a resource that can impact the distribution of other living things?

Changing Ecosystems

What causes change in an ecosystem’s resources? How does this impact living things?

The Motion of Particles

How does temperature affect the state of matter? How does temperature affect water?

Heat, Temperature, and State Changes

What causes an object to melt or evaporate? What causes an object to condense or freeze? Why would trees in a forest care if water melted, evaporated, condensed, or froze?

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What I Learned to Help Explain Part of the Phenomenon

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P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

4. In the space below (or on your original model in question 2), revise your model based on what you learned throughout the lessons.

5. Use what you have learned, and the final model that you developed, to explain the phenomenon: At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land. Fill in Handout A: Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Planner to plan your explanation. Then write it out in the space below.

6. How does this explanation relate to questions that have come up in your own life experience?

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7th Grade Integrated  19

Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D


Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D

P H E N O M E N O N :

H A N D O U T

A

Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning Planner A well made argument includes the following parts. 1. A clear claim that supports an explanation for a phenomenon Describe the phenomenon and its explanation here.

. My argument will be organized to support the following claim: . 2. Empirical evidence in support of the claim A. Describe one piece of information you think is related to your claim: . How was this data collected? (For example: An investigation by you, research done by someone else, observations you’ve made in your daily life) . Do you trust the source of this evidence? Explain. . Is the evidence empirical? . B. Describe one piece of information you think is related to your claim: . How was this data collected? (For example: An investigation by you, research done by someone else, observations you’ve made in your daily life) . Do you trust the source of this evidence? Explain. . Is the evidence empirical? .

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P H E N O M E N O N :

H A N D O U T

A

C. Describe one piece of information you think is related to your claim: . How was this data collected? (For example: An investigation by you, research done by someone else, observations you’ve made in your daily life) . Do you trust the source of this evidence? Explain. . Is the evidence empirical? . Look back at your evidence. Is the data you’ve compiled sufficient to support your entire claim? If not, print more copies of the handout and fill out more evidence bars until you have sufficient support for your claim. 3. Scientific reasoning that links the evidence to the claim A. For the evidence in 2.A, what is a clear way to state why the evidence supports the claim?

. B. For the evidence in 2.B, what is a clear way to state why the evidence supports the claim?

. C. For the evidence in 2.C, what is a clear way to state why the evidence supports the claim?

. To combine your claim, evidence, and reasoning into an argument, write out the claim followed by each piece of evidence with the reasoning that makes it appropriate to include.

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7th Grade Integrated  21

Integrated Phenomena

I N T E G R A T E D


ANCHORING

PHENOMENON:

RESOURCES

IN

ECOSYSTEMS

Anchoring Phenomenon Resources in Ecosystems

Anchoring Phenomena

Materials: • Notebook: Anchoring Phenomenon

SLIDE 2

• Let’s find out about the unit phenomenon and storyline. • Anchoring Phenomenon: When various species of cichlid fish are combined in aquariums, some stop eating to the point of dying.

SLIDE 3

• Throughout this unit, you will investigate the anchoring phenomenon. You’ll solve a problem at your zoo by making a fish exhibit more like the natural ecosystem. • Complete the first two columns of the KWL chart in your Interactive Student Notebook, and then take the unit Self-Assessment.

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SLIDE 2

SLIDE 3

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ANCHORING

PHENOMENON:

RESOURCES

IN

ECOSYSTEMS

Interdisciplinary Connections Make connections between life, earth, and physical sciences.

Lesson Support: • The Interdisciplinary Connection is meant to enhance learning by helping students to recognize the connections between related areas of content in distinct disciplines. • After you introduce the Crosscutting Concept, give students an opportunity to answer the Connection Questions. Let them know that they will have an opportunity to return to these questions and revise their answers after they complete the lessons. • Encourage students to point out interdisciplinary connections they notice throughout the lessons.

SLIDE 5

• Patterns are important to every scientific field. • This image shows where different biomes occur on Earth, showing how patterns of resource distribution impact life. • What topics from Life, Earth, and Physical sciences do you think are connected in this image?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 5

Lesson Support If students have already seen these questions with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

SLIDE 6

• Discuss the Connection Questions in your notebook as a class. • This image shows where different biomes occur on Earth, showing how patterns of resource distribution impact life. • Throughout the lessons, pay attention to the connections between Life, Earth, and Physical sciences.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Don’t worry if students have trouble with the Connection Questions right now. By the end of the Performance Assessment and Connection Activity, they will have learned more about these topics. Have them return to refine their answers after the lessons. If they have already worked on these Connection Questions, ask them to use their prior knowledge in answering the questions.

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SLIDE 6

7th Grade Integrated  23

Anchoring Phenomena

Materials: • Notebook: Interdisciplinary Connections


A N C H O R I N G

P H E N O M E N O N :

N O T E B O O K

ANCHORING PHENOMENON

Anchoring Phenomena

Anchoring Phenomenon: When various species of cichlid fish are combined in aquariums, some stop eating to the point of dying.

1. Complete the first two columns of this chart. • List what you think you already know about this unit’s phenomenon. • Then write at least three questions you have about this phenomenon.

Return to this chart at the end of the unit. Add the key information you learned about this phenomenon. Give evidence! Know

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Want to Know

Learned

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS

Connection Questions

Anchoring Phenomena

1. How can we use interactions between individual rocks or individual organisms to understand systems as big as the whole geosphere or whole ecosystem?

2. How can we use patterns in geosphere interactions to predict the location of resources?

3. Why does the temperature in a geographic area have such a major impact on what organisms and resources are found in an ecosystem?

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7th Grade Integrated  25


R E S O U R C E S

I N

L I V I N G

S Y S T E M S :

O B S E R V I N G

P H E N O M E N A

Observing Phenomena

Students learn about the phenomenon of poison dart frogs losing their toxicity in captivity. Materials: • Notebook: Observing Phenomena

SLIDE 4 •

Phenomenon: Poison dart frogs kept in captivity lose their toxicity over time so that they are no longer poisonous. • What questions do you have about this phenomenon?

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Local Phenomena Research your local environment to determine if any toxic animals live there. Remember to consider poisonous invertebrates like spiders, ants, and mites. How do they get their poison? Lesson Support Have students record questions they have about this phenomenon in their notebooks. Throughout the investigations, encourage students to continue to ask questions and make connections to this lesson phenomenon. You can access the Interactive Student Notebook in two ways: Go to the “Student View,” and navigate to the Notebook or go to the “Materials” tab, and print out the PDF notebook pages. NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

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SLIDE 4

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R E S O U R C E S

I N

L I V I N G

S Y S T E M S :

I N V E S T I G AT I O N

1

Investigation 1: How Resources Impact Organisms

In this investigation, students make observations about baby alligators that are not thriving in a zoo exhibit. Students analyze data about resources and record information in their notebooks with class discussions throughout the lessons. Students also take a closer look at the resources organisms need to survive and thrive: sunlight, water, food, and oxygen. Materials: • Notebook: Investigation 1 SLIDE 6

Lesson Investigations

• Alligator eggs have recently hatched at the zoo! • However, the baby alligators don’t seem to be doing well. They look sick, eat little, and are not very active.

TEACHER NOTES

Connections to Your Life Have you ever owned a pet or kept a houseplant? Did it thrive? If it did, what resources did you provide it? If it didn’t thrive, what happened? What resources do you think it needed? Lesson Support Phenomenon: Encourage students to try to determine what could cause the phenomenon of baby alligators not thriving in a zoo exhibit. In determining what is causing this problem, students will need to develop a fuller understanding of what resources organisms need to survive, and how they get those resources from their environment. You may wish to remind students that the living and nonliving things that organisms need in order to survive are called resources. NGSS LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. Math and ELA Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. Expanding • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. Bridging • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses. www.teachtci.com

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• To better understand the problem, an expert collected a variety of data about the alligator exhibit. • Describe any patterns that you can identify in the table.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Review with students how to read the data on the table shown. You may need to explain to students who are unfamiliar with the term “density (individuals/m2)” that it refers to the number of organisms in 1 square meter of area (exception: note the difference for the “prepared raw meat” category). After students answer the questions in their notebooks, you may wish to discuss their answers as a class. NGSS Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. Patterns: Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. Math and ELA Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. Summarize and describe distributions.: Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by -- a. Reporting the number of observations. -- b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. -- c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data was gathered. -- d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data was gathered. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with basic modal expressions. • Justify opinions by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with substantial support. • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with familiar modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with moderate support. • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Better understand register. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with nuanced modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed textual evidence or background knowledge, with minimal support. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

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• Describe any patterns that you can identify in the graph.

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• Analyzing data can help us understand how resource availability affects living things. • Use data from the graph and table as evidence to explain what is wrong with the baby alligators. Then finish answering the questions in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

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NGSS MS-LS2-1: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

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Scientists collect many kinds of data to learn how individuals are affected by variable access to resources. Let’s consider these resources: • sunlight • water • food • oxygen Generally, not getting enough of these resources can limit an individual’s growth or reproduction.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support The following examples focus on both plants and animals. For each example, students use drag and drop to predict the data a scientist would observe about the effect of the resource’s availability on the organism. NGSS LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.

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Lesson Investigations

Lesson Support Note: the Student Notebook queries students about the various parts of the graph they are seeing including what the two lines represent, observed patterns, and the relationship between size of fish and successful attacks of baby and adult alligators. NGSS Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.


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Sunlight Many living things need energy from the sun to survive. Some use it to make food, and others use it to warm their bodies. • Suppose you notice that the palm trees around a hotel’s grounds are all different heights. • Do you think trees in full sun grow faster or slower than trees that are in the shade?

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Math and ELA MP.Reason abstractly and quantitatively: CC.K12.MP.2.Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

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• Show the relationship between sunlight and growth on the graph. Drag and drop the correct line to the graph.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Drag and drop one of the lines to the graph in order to show the students’ prediction. Click the Check My Answers button to see if the prediction is correct.

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Water All living things need water throughout their lives, but it’s especially obvious when a plant needs water because it wilts. • Suppose an ecosystem with many magnolia trees is experiencing a drought. Without water, magnolia trees can lose flower buds before they open. These flowers are critical for tree reproduction. • How do you think the amount of rainfall would impact a magnolia tree’s probability of reproducing in a given year?

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• Show the relationship between rainfall and probability of reproducing on the graph. Drag and drop the correct line to the graph.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Drag and drop one of the lines to the graph in order to show the students’ prediction. Click the Check My Answers button to see if the prediction is correct.

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Food All living things need food. Some make food from sunlight. Some can eat many different foods. Others eat only one kind of food. Some frog species only eat grasshoppers. • How do you think the body mass of frogs living near many grasshoppers will compare to the body mass of frogs living in a forest with few grasshoppers?

TEACHER NOTES

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NGSS Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking: Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions.

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• Show this relationship between population and average body mass on the graph. Drag and drop each bar to the correct location on the graph.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Drag and drop the bars to the graph in order to show the students’ prediction. Click the Check My Answers button to see if the prediction is correct.

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Oxygen Living things need oxygen in order to fuel activity in their cells. Without it, we cannot survive. • Some fish species swim through water that is periodically stripped of oxygen by algal bloom events. This can cause a fish to become stressed. • How do you think stress impacts an individual’s growth and reproduction?

TEACHER NOTES

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Lesson Investigations

Lesson Support You may wish to explain to students that algal blooms can be the result of an excess of nutrients (such as nitrogen, phosphorous, and carbon from sources like farmlands and lawns) that flows into bodies of water when it rains. High concentration of these nutrients cause increased growth of algae and green plants. This can produce toxic or harmful effects on fish, as well as people, marine mammals, and birds.

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• Show the relationship between oxygen and stress on the graph. Drag and drop the correct line. • Now that you have analyzed data about the impact of resource variability, answer the questions in your notebook and discuss as a class.

TEACHER NOTES

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Lesson Support Drag and drop one of the lines to the graph in order to show students’ prediction. Click the Check My Answers button to see if the prediction is correct.

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Wrap Up • Some organisms happen to live in ecosystems with abundant resources, while others face resource scarcity. What effect is caused by this variability in access to resources? • What are some ways that resources can vary between different ecosystems? • You looked at graphs showing how one resource impacts one factor in living things. How could you get a fuller picture of how access to resources impacts the growth and reproduction of a certain species?

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TEACHER NOTES

Connecting to Phenomenon Have students consider how varying resources impact an organism. Students should use this knowledge to make revisions to their notes on the Observing Phenomenon for the lesson.

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Investigation 2: How Resources Impact Populations

Working in groups, students review case studies about how populations of snakes, antelope, and birds differ or behave based on resource variability. Students present their findings to a larger group. Students also understand cause and effect relationships between resource availability and population response to complete a T chart. Teacher Prep: • Make one copy per group of Handouts A-C. Handouts are in color; a color photocopier is necessary. • Students will be working in groups of three, then gathering into a larger group of nine. You may want to arrange desks to support this.

Lesson Investigations

Materials: • Notebook: Investigation 2 • Handouts A-C: Resource Variability

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• Suppose you open up a package that arrived in the mail and a small group of insects flies out. They find their way to a door and disappear outside. • In your Interactive Student Notebook, answer the questions about this scenario and discuss as a class. • What do you think causes a population to be more or less likely to survive in an ecosystem?

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Phenomenon: Ask students what they think about the phenomenon of a population trying to survive in a new environment. What do they think makes it likely or unlikely that the population will survive and grow? Is there any way to predict which ecosystems are best suited to support a population? NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. Patterns: Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources.

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Case Study: Access to Resources • Get into groups of three. • Choose a case study from Handout A, B, or C. • Answer the questions in your notebook and prepare a two-minute presentation. • Join two other groups representing each of the other case studies to form a larger group. • Give your presentation and listen to the presentations of the other two case studies. • Answer the questions in your notebook, then work together to modify the original statements.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Presentation Information Information in your presentation may include: • Where were the two populations? • How did their geographic locations differ? • What resource impacted the populations? • How did variable resource availability impact the population? • What general prediction does this lead you to make for organisms across multiple ecosystems? • What is the cause and effect relationship between resource availability and populations? Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. Handout Answers: Snake Populations: • Coastal: A, D; Inland: B, C, E • Coastal areas are more wet and have slugs. • Coastal snakes eat slugs. • Coastal: 85.5; Inland: 16 individuals / km 2 • Sample Answer: The diet of slugs causes the difference. Antelope Populations: • Grasses • Development removes grass, livestock compete for grass, and drought kills grass. • No; all the factors influence habitat and food availability. • Sample answer: Antelope population density is higher with greater habitat availability. Bird Populations: • Yes they are in danger in most locations, unless they are supplemented with extra food. • Food; the trees bearing winter fruit are more common in the southern locations. • Sample Answer: Populations migrate in order to find food NGSS MS-LS2-1: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. Analyzing and Interpreting Data: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. Systems and System Models: Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions. LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. Math and ELA Text Types and Purposes: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 34  7th Grade Integrated

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ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Apply understanding of how connecting words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons. • Apply understanding of how texts are organized. • Condense ideas in simple ways, such as by compounding verbs, adding prepositional phrases, and using embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with basic modal expressions. • Justify opinions by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with substantial support. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Apply understanding of how connecting words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons and improve cohesion. • Apply understanding of organizational features of texts. • Condense ideas in multiple ways, such as by using different types of embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with familiar modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with moderate support. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Apply understanding of how connecting and transitional words or phrases link ideas, events, and reasons and improve cohesion. • Apply understanding of organizational structures of texts. • Better understand register. • Condense ideas in multiple ways, such as by using nominalization and different types of embedded clauses, to create detailed sentences. • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with nuanced modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed textual evidence or background knowledge, with minimal support. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

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• Now, choose a population in a local ecosystem. • Construct an explanation of the relationship between it and the resources it needs. • Include the following points in your explanation and write it out in your notebook: • Why does the organism need the resource? • Predict how resource variability would affect the organism—as an individual and as a population.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support You may wish to have students present their explanations to the class. Encourage students to use data from both investigations to provide support for their explanations. Students should also frame their explanations using the vocabulary and terms they’ve learned thus far associated with populations and resource variability. NGSS Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions: Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict(s) and/or describe(s) phenomena.

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• You’ve now learned how variable resource availability influences both individuals and • populations. • In your notebook, use the patterns you have learned about to fill in the T chart and complete the Cause and Effect relationships.

TEACHER NOTES

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NGSS Patterns: Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships.

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Wrap Up • In the case study you presented, what was the cause and effect relationship between resource availability and population response? • How can a population’s response to limited resources serve as evidence that they need that resource in order to survive? • Usually, there are multiple populations of a species spread around the range where that species can live. What are some patterns in how variable access to resources can shape population differences?

TEACHER NOTES

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Lesson Investigations

Connecting to Phenomenon Using the information they’ve learned from the investigations, students can review their explanations of how the poison dart frogs respond to resource variability in captivity and make revisions if necessary. Math and ELA Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas: Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

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Investigation 3: How Resource Needs Shape Ecosystems

Lesson Investigations

In this investigation, students work in biome stations. Students examine how resources shape the distribution of living things by playing a card game that demonstrates competition for resources between organisms in a shared biome. Students then explain how competition for resources impacts populations and ecosystems. Teacher Prep: 1. Arrange the desks in your classroom into 6 small groups—each is a biome station. Set up each biome station with the appropriate page from Handout F. Handout F is in color; a color photocopier is necessary. 2. Make 1 copy of Handouts D and E. It may be helpful to copy Handouts D and E using cardstock paper to make them sturdier for gameplay. 3. Cut the cards apart for the game. Keep Round 1 cards and Round 2 cards in separate piles. Materials: • Notebook: Investigation 3 • Handouts D-E: Living Things Game • Handout F: Biomes

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• Although alligators in the Florida Everglades eat rabbits, rabbits have been abundant in the ecosystem. Recently, however, rabbits have begun to disappear. • The release of pet Burmese pythons has thrown off the balance of resources, as the snakes eat many of the park’s small mammals. • In your Interactive Student Notebook, answer the question about this scenario.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Phenomenon: Encourage students to discuss the phenomenon of invasive species from the perspective of the native species that live in an ecosystem. Make sure they understand that the introduction of invasive species into an ecosystem throws the balance of resource consumption off. Ask them to predict how added competition from invasive species will impact local populations.

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• Drag each organism to the location it will be mostly likely to survive.

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• Resource needs also apply globally. • Look at the global map of precipitation. • As a class, decide where each of the organisms below will most likely survive.

TEACHER NOTES

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Lesson Support As a class, drag and drop each organism to the location where it will survive.

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Lesson Investigations

Organism Needs Resources shape the distribution of living things. Examine how sunlight changes with depth in the ocean. How might this impact where each organism is most likely to survive? • Filter Feeders are animals like sponges that look like plants but actually need no light. Instead, they eat tiny creatures from the water. • Green Algae need lots of sun. They are very short, so they can’t move around with wave motion. • Red Seaweed is short, but can absorb the kind of light that reaches deep water. • Kelp is tall and sways in waves to get many pockets of sunlight near the surface, so it can be anchored mid-depth. Lesson Support As a class, drag and drop each organism to the location where it will survive.


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• Now use your knowledge of resource needs in a classroom game. • In pairs, draw a card from Handout D: Living Things Round 1 Cards. This card will state your species and the resources you need. • Determine which biome you would survive in and go to that station. Compare resource needs with other students at your station. • Answer the questions in your notebook. • Repeat with cards from the Handout E: Living Things Round 2 Cards.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Teacher Prep 1. Arrange the desks in your classroom into 6 small groups—each is a biome station. Set up each biome station with the appropriate page from Handout F. Handout F is in color; a color photocopier is necessary. 2. Make 1 copy of Handouts D and E. It may be helpful to copy Handouts D and E using cardstock paper to make them sturdier for gameplay. 3. Cut the cards apart for the game. Keep Round 1 cards and Round 2 cards in separate piles. Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. Lesson Support Not every card will have just one reasonable placement. For example, different kinds of squirrels might live in temperate forests and tropical rainforests. It’s okay if students work out different solutions based on the small amount of information given on each card. Math and ELA Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. Expanding • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. Bridging • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses.

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• In an ecosystem, many populations interact with each other and the resources that surround them. This can lead to competition for resources. • Read about the species in competition for grasses shown here. Then, find the students that represent animals you compete with for resources in your biome. • Answer the questions about Round 2 of the game in your notebook. Brainstorm ways that the species could reduce competition for resources.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 31 Lesson Investigations

Competition for Grasses Yaks and wild horses compete for grass in the same ecosystem. But they use the resource in slightly different ways. Horses eat the tips of the grass. Yaks yank the grass out by the roots. This difference reduces competition. Connections to Your Life In your local park or backyard, what populations are present that compete for the resources available there? What is the impact of resource availability on these populations? How do different organisms there use the same resources in slightly different ways? Lesson Support If some students end up in a biome with no competition, you might want to have them join another group to help them brainstorm ways to reduce competition. NGSS LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction.

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• In your notebook, write four general predictions about patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

TEACHER NOTES

Questions to Answer • How does resource availability cause changes in species range? • How does resource availability cause changes in population size? • How does competition for resources cause population size to change? • How does competition for resources cause ecosystems to change? NGSS MS-LS2-2: Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. Math and ELA MP.Reason abstractly and quantitatively: CC.K12.MP.2.Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects.

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Wrap Up • What causes a living thing to survive in certain geographic locations but not others? • What are two effects of competition on populations that live in the same place and have resource needs in common? • What are some patterns of change that occur in ecosystems based on population needs for resources?

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Investigation 4: Making a Model Ecosystem

Teacher Prep: • This Investigation includes setting up an aquarium that will be used throughout the Ecosystems program. Your TCI materials kit includes a coupon to order the live materials. Order them on a Monday or Tuesday and have your aquarium ready for them. • Your kit includes two aquariums. For this lesson, one coupon provides enough living material for both aquariums. • Complete instructions for setting up the aquarium can be found in the Aquarium Setup Guide. Instructions for adding living organisms can be found on Handout G. Materials: • What you need • • • • • • • • • •

Air pump Air stone Apron, vinyl Aquarium cover Aquarium gravel, natural Aquarium light strip Aquarium tank, 5-gallon Aquarium thermometer Check valve Coupon, Duckweed, elodea, and snails

• • • • • • • • • •

Dissolved oxygen test kit Fish food Gloves, nitrile, medium Gloves, nitrile, small Goggles, safety Scissors Splitter, 3-way Tubing, airline Water Water conditioner

• Print • Aquarium Setup Guide • Handout G: Making a Model Ecosystem

• Notebook: Investigation 4

Safety Info: • Based on your students’ age and learning readiness, prepare the classroom for a safe experience. • Carefully review TCI’s risk assessment for each of the materials listed for this investigation. • Make sure to follow all district and state safety protocols for all potential risks. Please take careful note of the safety equipment you’ll need, and ensure that you have trained your students on proper handling and use of materials.

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Lesson Investigations

In this investigation, students observe live organisms in two model ecosystems and take measurements to assess the health of each ecosystem. Over the following lessons, students continue to make changes to these ecosystems, collect data, and observe changes. Students understand the cause and effect relationships between resources and living things in the model ecosystems.


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• The enormous whale shark needs a lot of resources to survive. It needs oxygen, salt water, a large space to swim, and a whole lot of plankton, tiny organisms that float through the water, to eat. • Despite this, you can see them at the Georgia Aquarium where people have built a giant model ecosystem! When people know what resources are needed by a living thing, it can live in captivity. • In your Interactive Student Notebook, answer the question about this scenario.

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TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Investigations

Lesson Support Phenomenon: Ask students if they understand the phenomenon of how an animal as big as a whale shark can survive in captivity. Make sure they frame their understanding in the resources it needs, and how those are provided.

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• A model ecosystem is helpful to scientists because they can control the conditions and keep it simple, with just a few kinds of living things. • This allows them to track any changes and understand how the living things interact.

TEACHER NOTES

Teacher Prep The tanks for this investigation should be set up prior to the arrival of living organisms. You need to plan ahead when you will use the tanks. Live organism coupons can be used on a Monday or Tuesday for the arrival of the organisms Wednesday through Friday. Live organisms cannot be left in their shipping box over the weekend, and they should not be left overnight. When the organisms arrive, open the box immediately. Give the organisms time to settle in the tank. Lesson Support You’ll be keeping these tanks running for the duration of the Ecosystems program and using them in different ways for different lessons. At the end of the program, you will need to determine how to dispose of the living items. Students can volunteer to take snails and plants home to keep the tanks going at their homes. Or, you can keep the tanks going at school. If this is not possible, do not dump the living things down a drain. Freezing the living materials before disposal according to your school’s biohazard disposal plan is considered a humane way to kill invertebrates and plant organisms. It is irresponsible to flush these organisms into a city water system, where they could spread as invasive species.

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• During this investigation, we will observe some model ecosystems. • You cannot see all of the resources in the ecosystem. For example, oxygen and carbon dioxide are important, but they are too small to see. But we will indirectly observe them by using tests that detect them.

TEACHER NOTES

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena.

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• The two aquariums in the classroom should be placed near a source of natural light, but not in full sun. • Read through the instructions in Handout G: Making a Model Ecosystem to learn about the aquarium setup and testing.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 38 Lesson Investigations

Teacher Prep See Aquarium Setup Guide and Handout G for complete details on the aquarium setup. Handout G describes procedures for adding live organisms to the aquariums. If you prefer to use local materials, you can collect water and bottom materials from a local pond, lake, or stream and use them in your aquarium. In this case, check with your local department of health for any reports of giardiasis (a microscopic protozoan) in untreated water that could potentially cause illness. If using local water and organisms, have students modify the answers given to reflect the local species in your ecosystem. Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. Lesson Support Consider having students help you set up the aquarium according to the Aquarium Setup Guide. If you teach one class this year, you’ll use the aquariums and coupon from the Materials Kit. And then next year, you can use the same aquariums but will need to purchase a Refill Kit to re-order the live materials. If you teach multiple periods this year, all classes can do the testing using the same two aquariums. But you will need a Consumables Kit for each class you teach. For this lesson, you will need additional dissolved oxygen testing kits from the Consumables Kit.

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Measuring Species Diversity and Population Density • You will be assigned to a group to collect measurements for one of the two tanks. Record data about the living things in your model ecosystem in your notebook using the guidelines in Handout G.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Have the students update their charts daily until the end of the investigation. Plan ahead how you want students to divide up testing responsibilities over this time. Consider having a sign-up sheet so students know who will test what on each day. Students will need safety gloves and goggles for the dissolved oxygen testing. Specific instructions for assessing population sizes can be found in Handout G.

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• In your notebook, write out the resources each living thing in the tank needs. • Discuss your answers as a class to make sure you thought of each resource.

Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

Math and ELA Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. Expanding • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. Bridging • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses.

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Measuring Tank Properties to Track Ecosystem Changes • Update the table in your notebook regularly to record data about your ecosystem. Use Handout G for details of how to make measurements.

TEACHER NOTES

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NGSS Planning and Carrying Out Investigations: Collect data about the performance of a proposed object, tool, process or system under a range of conditions.

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Wrap Up • How will analyzing the data you collect from this model help you understand the resource needs of the living things in this ecosystem? • How are the patterns that occur in natural ecosystems similar to and different from the patterns you expect to observe in your classroom ecosystem? • What is the cause and effect relationship between resources and living things in this model ecosystem?

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TEACHER NOTES

NGSS MS-LS2-1: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

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RESOURCES IN LIVING SYSTEMS: MAKING SENSE OF PHENOMENA

Making Sense of Phenomena

Students explain how resources impact captive poison dart frogs’ loss of toxicity. Materials: • Notebook: Making Sense of Phenomena

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• Phenomenon: Poison dart frogs kept in captivity lose their toxicity over time so they are no longer poisonous. • Use what you have learned to explain this phenomenon.

Sample Explanation When animals are kept in captivity, their access to resources changes. Poison dart frogs get their poison from foods they eat in the wild, such as toxic ants or mites. Their toxicity helps them avoid being eaten by predators that learn to avoid them. When kept in captivity, they don’t have access to the same foods that are in their natural environment. So, they can’t acquire poisons. However, they also don’t need protection from predators, so losing their toxicity doesn’t harm the frogs at the zoo! Lesson Support Have students record their explanations of the phenomenon in their notebooks. Tell them to think about the Science and Engineering Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas they learned throughout the investigations. NGSS Cause and Effect: Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems Math and ELA Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. Expanding • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. Bridging • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses.

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Lesson Investigations

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 44

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Lesson Investigations

Reference Text provides background for students as they conduct investigations.

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How do living things get the resources they need to grow and survive? Introduction

The lesson introduction clearly explains the purpose and carefully-crafted organization of the lesson.

The wild horses in this photo live on the Mongolian steppe, a region of Asia characterized by its rich grasslands. How are these horses able to survive in the wild, often far away from humans? The grasslands of the Mongolian steppe provide the wild horses with all the resources they need to survive and grow. You would not expect to find a wild horse living on ice near the North Pole, like a polar bear. You would also be surprised to see a penguin in the grassy landscape of Mongolia. That is because nonliving elements, like temperature and rainfall, have an effect on what kinds of living things can survive there. Understanding this cause and effect relationship can help you predict where living things like wild horses can survive. In this lesson, you will discover why different places on Earth are filled with different kinds of living things. You will also discover why ecosystems are different around the world. First, you will start your journey by thinking about what living things need in order to survive and reproduce. You will then explore how living things compete with one another for the things they need. Next, you will examine how certain types of living things are found only where conditions are right for them. You will then be able to use this knowledge to explain why living things, like these wild horses and the grasses they eat, are found naturally only in places that have the right amount of water, warmth, light, nutrients, and other resources. Standards Next Generation Science Standards Performance Expectations MS-LS2-1.  Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. MS-LS2-2.  Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. Science and Engineering Practices Analyzing and Interpreting Data  Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions  Construct an explanation that includes

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related to each lesson are provided.

qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict phenomena. Crosscutting Concepts Cause and Effect  Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. Patterns  Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. Disciplinary Core Ideas LS2.A. • Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. • In any ecosystem, organisms and populations

resource  any material or energy needed by living things to survive, grow, and reproduce organism  an individual living thing species  a group of living things that share traits and can breed successfully with each other, but not with other groups competition  an interaction between living things that need the same limited resource population  a group of individuals of a species that lives and reproduces in the same area ecosystem  a group of populations of living things and the nonliving parts of their environment that support them biome  a large area of Earth characterized by certain physical conditions and the living things that are found there biosphere  the parts of Earth in which organisms are able to live

Students preview new science terms and their definitions before they read the lesson. with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. • Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. • Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.

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Lesson Investigations

Resources in Living Systems

Vocabulary


Lesson Investigations

Living things get the resources they need from their environment. In the wild, a horse and her young foal get their food, water, air, and everything else they need from their surroundings. These resources allow both animals to survive, grow, and reproduce.

Short sections, each with an informative title, make it easier for readers to understand and remember the main ideas.

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1. Living Things Need Resources A wild foal, or baby horse, stands up on all four legs within an hour of being born. The newborn drinks its mother’s milk, which provides it with the nourishment it needs to grow and move. And move it will! The foal will walk and run in a meadow with its mother the very same day of its birth because of the nourishment it receives. But where does its mother get her nourishment? Living things need other living things and nonliving elements in the environment in order to survive, grow, and reproduce. A mother horse gets her nourishment by eating grasses and other plants as food. Any material or energy needed by living things to survive, grow, and reproduce is called a resource. Resources include living things, which may be eaten as food, and nonliving things, such as sunlight, water, or oxygen. Living things obtain the resources they need from their surroundings. Wild horses graze on grasses in meadows where they live. They get the oxygen they need by breathing in the air that surrounds them. Nearby creeks and ponds supply wild horses with water. Other species need resources that are different from those needed by the horse. The grass in the meadow needs water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight to grow. It also needs nutrients and minerals found in soil. There are different kinds of living things. Scientists call an individual living thing an organism. A wild horse and her foal are the same kind of organism because they are the same species. A species is a group of closely related organisms. Only members of the same species can reproduce and have offspring, like the horse who gave birth to a foal. A dandelion is also a species. Its flowers produce seeds that can grow and become new dandelion plants. The grass in the meadow surrounding the horses is another species of plant.

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2. Competition for Resources Affects Populations

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The paragraph that begins each section orients and engages the reader.

Because of competition, the amount of a limited resource in an area has an effect on how many individuals can survive in an area. Individual horses that can compete well for a limited amount of grass in a meadow will get more of that resource. They will then be more likely to survive and reproduce than other horses that do not compete as well.

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Lesson Investigations

In everyday language we use the word competition to describe a race or a struggle against a rival to win an event. Organisms, like wild horses, experience competition, too. They must compete to get resources that other organisms might also use. But the prize in this competition is not a trophy, it is survival. What happens when individuals of the same species compete for the same resource? Organisms of the same species need the same resources. But there is a limit to how much of any one resource there is in an area. When living things require the same limited resource, an interaction called competition can arise. For example, there may be competition among wild horses for the limited amount of grass in an area. Horses that find and eat more grasses are more successful in the competition for this limited resource. They are able to get enough food to survive, to grow, and to reproduce. Individuals that are not successful go hungry and may die. In this way, competition changes the number of individuals that can survive in an area. Unlike species, a population is a group of individuals of a species that lives and reproduces in the same area. Competition for limited resources can change the size of populations. When there is an abundance of a resource that a population depends on, the population can grow. For example, if a meadow has a lot of grass, it can support the survival of many horses. As a result, the horse population grows. Sparse resources cause a decrease in population size. When there is not a lot of grass, fewer horses get enough nourishment. Fewer horses survive and the population shrinks. This link between the amount of a limited resource and the size of a population that depends on it is a cause and effect relationship. The limited resource, grass abundance, is the cause and the change in wild horse population size is the effect. Because this is a cause and effect relationship, scientists can predict whether a population will grow or shrink based on how sparse or abundant a limited resource is.


Lesson Investigations

Important new science and engineering vocabulary is in bold type, defined in the same sentence, and used throughout the rest of the text. Yaks and wild horses interact with each other through competition for grass.

When grazing animals use a resource in slightly different ways, such as by eating grass differently, competition is reduced.

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3. Competition for Resources Affects Ecosystems A herd of yaks grazes in a mountain meadow while wild horses look on. Every mouthful of grass eaten by a yak is a mouthful of grass that a horse cannot eat. What happens when different species compete for the same resource? Populations of different species can compete for the same limited resources, which limits the size of both populations. Wild horses and yaks depend on grass for food. In dry years, grass populations will be low. Scientists predict wild horse and yak populations will decrease as competition for grass increases. When resources are not as limited, such as when grass is abundant, there is less competition, and populations of wild horses and yaks increase. Different species often have different ways of using the same resource. Most grazing animals, like yaks and wild horses, are slightly different in how they eat grass. Yaks use their tongue and gums to yank out grass plants by the roots. Wild horses have sharp teeth that clip off the tops of grasses. These different ways of eating are more or less successful under different conditions, which can reduce competition and allows competing species to co-exist. An ecosystem is a group of populations of living things and the nonliving parts of their environment that support them. In a grassland ecosystem, the amount of rainfall in a year will cause a change in grass populations. Changes in grass populations will have an effect on wild horses and yaks, which will cause a change in their populations.

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Key Science Concept

Limited Resources Affect Populations When the amount of a resource changes, the populations that depend on that resource also change. If the amount of a resource increases, the size of a population that uses that resource may increase. If the amount of a resource decreases, then the size of a population that uses that resource may decrease. These types of cause and effect relationships can be shown with line graphs, like these, and be used to predict what will happen to a population when a resource is limited. Key science concepts support visual learners. Students can interact with these key science concepts online.

6000 5000 4000

Lesson Investigations

Annual Grass Population Size (kg/hectare)

Relationship Between Rainfall and Grass Population Size

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Grass population size increases when rainfall amounts increase.

Annual Zebra Population Size (1000 individuals)

Relationship Between Rainfall and Zebra Population Size 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

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Zebra population size increases when more grass is available, so zebra populations are also influenced by amounts of rainfall.

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4. Biomes are Shaped by Limited Resources Suppose you want to observe a wild horse. Would you go to the North Pole? You’re not likely to see one there. Why? What determines the kinds of organisms that live in an area? The types of limited resources in an area determine which species can live there. Wild horses depend on grasses for food, and grasses require rich soil, a range of temperatures, and a medium amount of rainfall. These conditions are typical of grasslands, which are one type of biome. A biome is an area characterized by certain physical conditions that are resources for certain species. There are many kinds of biomes. Figure 4 shows areas of Earth where different kinds of grassland biomes are found and some of the grassland animals that live in those places.

Figure 4 Limited resources on Earth determine where biomes are found. Earth’s grasslands are usually found at middle latitudes, between polar regions and the equator. These areas receive enough rainfall to support the growth of grasses but not so much that forests grow there. Different kinds of grassland biomes are savannas, pampas, prairies, and steppes.

Lesson Investigations

Grassland Biomes from Around the World Pronghorn

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antelope

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Terrestrial biomes

Coastal

Boreal forest

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Aquatic biomes

Tundra

Tropical rainforest

Scientific illustrations are carefully labeled and titled.

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Savanna

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Terrestrial Biomes  Some biomes are found on land. These are called terrestrial biomes. Each terrestrial biome experiences a particular range of temperatures and amount of rainfall. These limited resources determine which plants can survive there. Boreal forests, like the one in the photo, receive enough water to support the growth of trees. However, boreal forest trees must be able to survive cold winters with heavy snowfall. As a result, they have needle-like leaves that let snow slide off their branches.

Boreal forest biomes on Earth

Lesson Investigations

Like grassland biomes, other biomes are found in places where the physical conditions will support them. In addition to grasslands, Figure 4 also shows where biomes such as forests and coral reefs are found. Areas near the poles tend to be colder than areas near the equator. Some biomes are found only on land and some are found only in aquatic areas. Some areas have distinct seasonal changes in temperature, while others do not. As a result, the types of limited resources differ from place to place. These patterns of limited resources shape the patterns of biomes on Earth.

Lake and river biomes on Earth

Aquatic Biomes  Aquatic biomes are areas of fresh water or salt water. As with terrestrial biomes, the limited resources in an aquatic biome determine the kinds of living things found there. In aquatic biomes, the limited resources are generally light and nutrients. The amount of sunlight that reaches into aquatic biomes decreases as the depth of the water increases. For this reason, plants that live in a lake or river biome often have leaves or other structures that float on the surface to reach the sunlight.

The types of plants found in a biome are determined by the resources found there. A boreal forest biome has cold winters and plenty of snow and rainfall to support the growth of tall evergreen trees. In a lake or river biome, aquatic plants such as reeds and lilies grow because there is enough sunlight and nutrients to support their growth.

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Levels of Organization in Earth’s Biosphere

Lesson Investigations

Organism

Population

Ecosystems

5. Organization of Earth’s Biosphere You are a citizen of a town, a state, a nation, and of Earth itself. Each of these levels is larger and has more people in it than the level below it. All living things on Earth can also be organized into levels. What are these levels and how are they related? Scientists group living things into different levels of organization, or categories. Look at the young wild horse in the photo. That horse is an organism, which is one level of organization. All of the other wild horses that live in the area, including its mother, make up a larger level of organization—a wild horse population. Wild horses are all members of a single species. The next level of organization includes nonliving things and all of the populations of living things that interact in the area. This level is called an ecosystem. In this case, it is a grassland ecosystem that the horse population is a part of. What would be the level of organization that includes all ecosystems on Earth, including all of the grassland ecosystems and any other kind of ecosystem? All Earth’s ecosystems together, including all of the living things and all of the nonliving parts of ecosystems, are collectively known as Earth’s biosphere. The parts of Earth in which organisms are able to live are part of the biosphere. Earth’s biosphere extends to the highest mountaintops and the atmosphere that surrounds them. It also includes the deepest parts of the ocean and the layer of Earth’s crust just beneath all aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. And it includes every interacting living and nonliving thing from Earth’s crust to the atmosphere. Captions reinforce the main idea of the section and provide supporting details.

Biosphere

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Figure 5 Scientists organize life on Earth into different categories. Earth’s biosphere is the largest category. The biosphere is made up of all ecosystems, such as this grassland. Ecosystems include many populations, like this wild horse population. Each population is made up of many individuals of one species, like this young foal.

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Humans affect both living and nonliving things that make up ecosystems in the biosphere. They also benefit from the different parts of the biosphere, including using and caring for horses that came from wild populations.

LESSON SUMMARY

Resources in Living Systems

A summary reinforces the key concepts in the lesson.

Living Things Need Resources  Living things need other living things and nonliving elements in order to survive, grow, and reproduce. Scientists call an individual living thing an organism. Competition for Resources Affects Populations  Competition over limited resources affects the number of individuals that can survive in an area. A group of living things of the same species that lives and reproduces in the same area is called a population. Competition for Resources Affects Ecosystems  Populations of different species can compete for the same limited resources. This can limit the size of both populations. Populations that compete often use resources in different ways, which can reduce competition. An ecosystem is a group of populations of living things and the nonliving parts of their environment that support them. Biomes are Shaped by Limited Resources  Patterns of limited resources shape the patterns of biomes on Earth. A biome is a large area of Earth characterized by certain physical conditions. Organization of Earth’s Biosphere  All Earth’s ecosystems together, including all organisms and all of the nonliving parts of ecosystems, are collectively known as Earth’s biosphere, which extends from deep underground to the atmosphere above the highest mountains.

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Lesson Investigations

Every organism has a role in the biosphere. Even you! Have you ever wondered where the food you eat or water you drink comes from? They come from ecosystems that are part of Earth’s biosphere. When you use resources, like food and water, you are an organism that is part of an ecosystem, even if you live in a city! When humans use resources, they affect populations of other species. For example, humans have affected wild horse populations. For centuries, humans have transformed grassland ecosystems. They grazed cattle, goats, and sheep in grasslands, increasing competition for grass. They transformed grasslands into farms and neighborhoods, causing these ecosystems to shrink. Humans also affected wild horse populations by capturing wild horses and domesticating them. When humans use resources and impact populations, they affect ecosystems. When humans gather food and use water, they reduce the amount of resources available to other species. As the populations of those species decline, the ecosystem changes. Humans also change ecosystems by changing their structure, such as when they grow crops and build homes. Humans live in many ecosystems around the world. Because humans change ecosystems, humans have a dramatic impact on Earth’s biosphere.


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Resources in Living Systems Lesson Investigations

OBSERVING PHENOMENA

Phenomenon: Poison dart frogs kept in captivity lose their toxicity over time so they are no longer poisonous. 1. What questions do you have about this phenomenon?

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1. What does a zoo exhibit need to keep alligators healthy?

2. What do you think could be wrong here?

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4. What is different about the adult and baby food preferences?

5. Does the table give any clues about what is wrong with the babies?

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Lesson Investigations

3. Which type of resource does the table focus on?


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This graph shows data from previous alligator research. Size of Prey and Attack Success 100 90 80

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Lesson Investigations

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6. What question is answered by the data from this graph?

7. What do the x-axis and the y-axis represent?

8. What do the two lines represent?

9. What patterns do you see in the shape of the graphed lines?

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10. What do those patterns mean in terms of the size of the fish and the successful attacks of baby and adult alligators?

Lesson Investigations

11. How do the resource needs of adults and babies differ?

12. Why were the baby alligators not thriving?

13. What can you do to fix the problem?

14. Every living thing has different resource needs. What happens in the wild where there is no zoo staff to solve resource problems?

15. How do you think resource availability impacts living things in nature?

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1 - Living Things Need Resources

1. What is a resource?

2. Name three nonliving resources from your local ecosystem.

Lesson Investigations

3. What is an example of a living resource?

4. In the image here, find and label two individuals of the same species. Point out two different species, as well.

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1. Suppose you open up a package that arrived in the mail and a small group of insects fly out. They find their way to a door and disappear outside. Do you think they will survive? Explain.

3. Which case study are you focusing on? What resource varies in your case study?

4. How does the resource vary geographically? Is this permanent or temporary? Explain.

5. Why do the animals need this resource?

6. What impact does resource scarcity or abundance have on the populations?

7. How do the populations in your case study differ?

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Lesson Investigations

2. What causes a population to be more or less likely to survive in an ecosystem?


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8. Using the information you’ve learned from your own case study, write out a general statement that predicts how populations might react to changes in resource availability in any ecosystem.

9. After listening to all the case studies, write out two pieces of evidence from presentations you heard that show how populations react to changes in resource availability.

Lesson Investigations

10. Consider the new information you gained from other groups and re-write your general statement about how populations react to differences in resource availability to be more broadly applicable.

11. Construct an explanation of the relationship between a local population and the resources it needs.

12. Fill in the Cause and Effect chart demonstrating how access to resources affects individuals and populations. Cause

Effect The individual grows less and cannot reproduce

A population cannot find very much of a needed resource An individual has a decrease in competition when a competitor is killed The population size increases as everyone gets enough resources to reproduce

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2 - Competition for Resources Affects Populations

1. How is a population different than a species?

2. What conditions can cause a population to grow?

4. Draw a scene showing an example of an interaction between living things that can make resources more scarce for each population. What is this interaction called?

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Lesson Investigations

3. What conditions can cause a population to decrease?


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I N V E S T I G AT I O N 3

1. How do you think the alligator population will change with the competition from invasive snakes?

Classroom Game Round 1

Lesson Investigations

2. After talking to the other students at your Biome for Round 1, do you think you will compete with them for resources?

3. What relative population size would you predict with abundant resources? With scarce resources?

4. How do resources impact species ranges?

5. How do resources impact population sizes?

Classroom Game Round 2 6. When Round 2 species are added, how could this impact the population sizes you predicted in Round 1? Answer for both conditions: abundant and scarce resources.

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7. How does competition for resources impact population sizes?

9. If all the populations competing for a resource are healthy and strong, what could you predict about their resource strategies?

10. Brainstorm ways that the species could reduce competition for resources. Make a list here.

11. Use your experience in the game to write four general predictions about patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems in your notebook.

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Lesson Investigations

8. How do you think competition for resources impacts ecosystems?


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3 - Competition for Resources Affects Ecosystems

1. Can competition occur within a species? Explain.

Lesson Investigations

2. Can competition occur between species? Explain.

3. Describe how wild horses and yaks eat grass. How does this impact the competition between them?

4. What is an ecosystem?

5. Label any part of the image below that is not part of the ecosystem. Label a nonliving part of the ecosystem. Label a living part of the ecosystem.

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4 - Biomes are Shaped by Limited Resources

1. What determines which species lives where?

2. What is a biome?

4. What are the limited resources that determine what living things are found in an aquatic biome?

5. On the map shown here, label where you think higher and lower temperatures would occur.

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Lesson Investigations

3. What are the conditions that determine which plants can live in a terrestrial biome?


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5 - Organization of Earth’s Biosphere

1. What is the biosphere?

2. What levels of organization of living things fall within the biosphere?

Lesson Investigations

3. Label the levels of organization shown in each image.

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I N V E S T I G AT I O N 4

1. Do you think the whale shark exhibit models an ecosystem? Explain.

3. You will use the chart below to measure the population size for each living thing in your tank daily. Time

Number of Species

Population Size (Elodea)

Population Size (Duckweed)

Population Size (Snails)

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7

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Lesson Investigations

2. Which tank are you assigned to?


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4. For each living thing in your tank, write out the resources it needs • Elodea:

• Snails:

• Duckweed:

Lesson Investigations

5. How do you think each organism meets its resource needs in these tanks?

6. Measure these properties for your assigned tank daily, and track them here. Timepoint

Temperature

Water Visibility

Dissolved Oxygen

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7

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MAKING SENSE OF PHENOMENA

Phenomenon: Poison dart frogs kept in captivity lose their toxicity over time so they are no longer poisonous. 1. Use what you have learned to explain this phenomenon. Be sure to address these points in your explanation:

Lesson Investigations

• Where do organisms get their resources? • How do resources help animals survive? • How do animals in captivity get their resources?

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A

Resource Variability

Lesson Investigations

What influences snake diet and population density?

B

A certain kind of snake can eat a variety of foods, including slugs, which live on wet leaf litter, and frogs and fish, which live in small pools and rivers. But the amount of each kind of food varies with geography. Coastal areas are very wet, with rain from the ocean. Inland areas are more dry, as rain is spent coming over the mountains. Rivers and ponds occur in both locations. How do you think this geographic variation impacts the different snake populations?

A

C

E D

Snake Population

Snake Population Density (Individuals/km2)

Slug Population Density (Individuals/km2)

Fish Population Density (Individuals/km2)

Frog Population Density (Individuals/km2)

A

75

583

336

265

B

15

0

227

164

C

21

0

341

255

D

96

772

441

312

E

12

0

264

278

Which populations are coastal, and which are inland? How do these environments vary? What differs between the diets of coastal and inland snakes? What is the average snake population density for inland and coastal populations? What do you think could cause this difference?

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B

Resource Variability What influences antelope population density? Antelope in North America have a large range, from northern Montana to southern Arizona. But the antelope population density along that path varies a lot. Antelope need lots of grassland to provide habitat and food. Some areas have more development as people build cities and industry. Some have lots of agriculture, including livestock that compete with antelope for grasses. Some areas experience drought that reduces grass growth. How do these factors influence population density in antelope?

A

C

Lesson Investigations

B

D

Population

A

B

C

D

Development (% land built up)

11

88

33

5

Livestock (% land where they can graze)

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0

25

17

Drought History (years in last 10 years)

4

4

4

4

Human Population Density (individuals /km2)

25

1,200

50

11

Antelope Population Density (individuals /km2)

17

1

46

88

What resource is especially important for antelope? How do development, livestock, drought, and human population density impact grass availability? Is it possible to predict antelope population density with just one of the factors that influences grass availability? Explain. What general statement can you make about how habitat availability influences antelope population density?

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C

Resource Variability What influences whether and when birds migrate?

A

Some birds are famous for migrating, or seasonally traveling huge distances. Others stay in the same location all year long. This variation in behavior can even occur within one species! Some populations migrate while others do not. Why is this?

B

Lesson Investigations

Consider data from a bird species with populations spread from cold Northern to warm Southern areas. Analyze the data shown, and see if you can figure out why some populations migrate and others do not.

C

D

A

B

C

D

October 1

November 1

November 15

Never migrates

% Population that survives if stays over winter

25%

43%

76%

95%

% Population that survives if stays over winter with food supplemented

95%

95%

95%

95%

% Trees that bear winter fruit

5%

12%

19%

48%

Date by which 75% of population has migrated south

Do you think that the birds are in danger of freezing to death if they do not migrate from these locations? Explain.

What resource varies with geographical location?

Why do you think some populations migrate and others do not?

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Living Things Game Round 1 Round 1

Round 1

Round 1

Species: reindeer

Species: fox

Species: perch

Species: antelope

Resources: grasses, plants, lichen

Resources: mice, rabbits, frog

Resources: worms, small fish, insects, aquatic plants

Resources: tall grasses, shrubs

Round 1 Species: butterflyfish Resources: corals, invertebrate worms Round 1

Round 1

Species: reindeer

Species: fox

Resources: fruit trees, bird eggs, insects

Resources: grasses, plants, lichen

Resources: mice, rabbits, frogs

Round 1 Species: antelope

Resources: worms, small fish, insects, aquatic plants

Resources: tall grasses, shrubs

Species: butterflyfish Resources: corals, invertebrate worms Round 1

Round 1

Round 1 Species: butterflyfish Resources: corals, invertebrate worms Round 1

Round 1 Species: toucan Resources: fruit trees, bird eggs, insects Round 1

Species: toucan

Species: reindeer

Species: fox

Resources: fruit trees, bird eggs, insects

Resources: grasses, plants, lichen

Resources: mice, rabbits, frogs

Round 1

Species: perch

Species: antelope

Resources: worms, small fish, insects, aquatic plants

Resources: tall grasses, shrubs

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Round 1

Species: toucan

Species: perch

Round 1

Round 1

Round 1 Species: butterflyfish Resources: corals, invertebrate worms

Round 1 Species: toucan Resources: fruit trees, bird eggs, insects

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Lesson Investigations

Round 1


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Living Things Game Round 2 Round 2

Round 2

Round 2

Species: reindeer

Species: fox

Species: lyrebird

Species: antelope

Resources: grasses, plants, lichen

Resources: mice, rabbits, frog

Resources: insects, spiders, leaf litter

Resources: tall grasses, shrubs

Round 2 Lesson Investigations

Round 2

Species: red squirrel Resources: nuts, trees, insects

Round 2

Round 2

Round 2

Round 2

Species: toucan

Species: capuchin

Species: elk

Resources: fruit trees, bird eggs, insects

Resources: fruit trees, bird eggs, seeds

Resources: grasses, plants, bark

Round 2

Round 2

Round 2

Species: badger

Species: bowerbird

Species: parrotfish

Species: perch

Resources: worms, insects, roots

Resources: insects, spiders, flowers, berries, branches

Resources: corals

Resources: worms, small fish, insects, aquatic plants

Round 2 Species: octopus Resources: crabs, clams, rocky or coral shelters

Round 2 Species: pumpkin-seed fish Resources: worms, insects, small fish, aquatic plants

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Round 2 Species: butterflyfish Resources: corals, invertebrate worms

Round 2

Round 2

Round 2

Species: chickadee

Species: nuthatch

Resources: tree seeds, insects

Resources: tree seeds, nuts, insects

Round 2

Round 2

Species: prairie dogs

Species: bison

Species: polar bear

Resources: grasses, seeds, insects

Resources: grasses, shrubs

Resources: seals, whale carcasses, ice floats

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F

Biomes: Coral Reef Coral reefs occur in salt water at shallow depths that receive substantial sunlight. Although they aren’t plants, the corals need sunlight to get energy. They have a close relationship with algae that live inside their cells. These algae use sunlight to make food that can be used as energy—for both the algae and the coral! Coral reefs are generally dense with life. Many species of fish and invertebrates find food and shelter in the coral reef. Organisms in the reef might eat the coral itself, or the invertebrates and/or fish that live there. Temperature: warm Rainfall: irrelevant (underwater) Sunlight: high Lesson Investigations

Oxygen: high

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Biomes: Tundra A tundra is so cold that in some areas the ground remains permanently frozen. For much of the year, snow covers a large area of this biome. This area is filled with short plants, like bearberry and cranberries, that can withstand cold. Lichens are abundant, and are an important source of food for large animals like reindeer. Some areas have rivers with seasonally abundant fish. Some areas border oceans, where thick ice at the surface extends the land area available for use by large animals. Temperature: cold Rainfall: low (much as snow) Sunlight: variable Lesson Investigations

Oxygen: moderate

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Biomes: Grassland Grasslands occur in moderate temperatures with variable seasons. The landscape is dominated by grasses as the most abundant form of life, and trees are rare. The seeds, roots, and leaves of the grass are important resources for many insects and rodents that live there, and these animals in turn are important resources for other animals.

Lesson Investigations

Temperature: moderate Rainfall: moderate Sunlight: high Oxygen: moderate

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Biomes: Tropical Rainforest Tropical rainforests occur in warm areas with little seasonal temperature variation, although rainfall can vary seasonally. Overall rainfall is high, and the abundant warmth, water, and light lead to abundant growth and dense living organisms. These areas have dense plant life that supports a diversity of insects and vertebrates, including reptiles, frogs, birds, and mammals. The trees provide shelter, and the leaves, fruit, and flowers serve as food.

Lesson Investigations

Temperature: high Rainfall: high Sunlight: variable Oxygen: high

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Biomes: Freshwater Lake In freshwater lakes, aquatic plants like reeds and water lilies support insects, other invertebrates, and a variety of fish. Mollusks like clams and snails are often abundant, as are crayfish and a variety of swimming insect larvae. Fish of many sizes use different types of aquatic vegetation as shelter and as breeding grounds. The water is generally consistent in having moderate light, oxygen, and temperature.

Lesson Investigations

Temperature: moderate Rainfall: irrelevant (underwater) Sunlight: moderate Oxygen: moderate

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Biomes: Boreal Forest A boreal forest has cold winters and enough snow and rainfall to support the growth of tall evergreen trees with needle-like leaves. The trees’ seeds serve as food to a variety of animals, including insects, birds, and mammals. They also provide shelter to many animals.

Lesson Investigations

Temperature: cold Rainfall: moderate (much as snow) Sunlight: moderate Oxygen: moderate

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Making Your Model Ecosystem The tanks should be set up prior to the arrival of living organisms. You need to plan ahead when you will use the tanks. Live organism coupons can be used on a Monday or Tuesday for arrival Wednesday through Friday. Live organisms cannot be left in their shipping box over the weekend, and they should not be left overnight. You will set up two tanks and divide all materials evenly between these tanks. Before Organisms Arrive

3. Set up the air pump and use a splitter so that the tubing reaches each tank. 4. Set up the cover and make sure the light source is working. 5. Attach the thermometer to the side of the tank. The strip should be placed so that it contacts glass that has water on the other side, not air. The temperature should be kept around 72-77 degrees F. When Organisms Arrive 6. When organisms arrive, open the box immediately. 7. For the Elodea plants, rinse them and check for any living organisms clinging to the stems or leaves, and remove them if found. Then place the plants in the water in the tanks. They can be left floating or grounded in the gravel. Separate them out so that each has maximum surface area exposed to the water or the surface. 8. For the pond snails, rinse them and add to the tank water. They will eat dying plant matter, but you should supplement their diet with fish flakes. 9. For the duckweed, split the amount in two and spread between the two tanks. 10. Give organisms time to settle in the tank. Monitoring Tank Properties: To measure temperature, check the strip attached to the tank. Read the number highlighted in green. To measure dissolved oxygen, follow the instructions included in the dissolved oxygen testing kit. Be sure to wear safety gloves and goggles for this test. To measure water visibility, assign a score of 5 (very clear), 4 (slightly cloudy), 3 (cloudy), 2 (murky), or 1 (opaque). To measure population size, count individuals for Elodea and pond snails. For duckweed, come up with your own solution to estimate population size. You might count individuals in a small area and then multiply by the water surface area covered, for example. Just be consistent in how you count each time. www.teachtci.com

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Lesson Investigations

1. Choose a spot with indirect light for your tanks. 2. Place gravel in the tank and spread to evenly cover bottom with 2 cm of material. Add water to within 3 cm of the top of the tank. Add the water conditioner. Put the cover on the tank.


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You’ll be keeping these tanks running for the duration of the Ecosystems program and using them in different ways for different lessons.

Lesson Investigations

At the end of the program, you’ll need to determine how to dispose of the living items. Students can volunteer to take snails and plants home to keep the tanks going at their homes. Or, you can keep them going at school. If this is not possible, do not dump the living things down a drain. Freezing the living materials before disposal according to your school’s biohazard disposal plan is considered a humane way to kill invertebrates and plant organisms. It is irresponsible to flush these organisms into a city water system, where they could spread as invasive species.

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Instructions for Aquarium Setup 1. Find a good location for your tanks. This depends on your local climate and time of year. Sunshine will be good for your plants, but direct sunlight can overheat tanks and kill the snails in some climates. Make sure you have enough space and enough outlets—one for the pump and two for the lights.

3. Fill each tank with tap water up to an inch below the black edge of the tank’s top rim. Note that it is easier to bring water to the tank than to bring the tank to the water source because a full tank will be too heavy to move safely.

4. Add 1 mL water conditioner to each tank. 5. Cut a small piece of the tubing to connect the air pump to the check valve. Find the black ring on the check valve and make sure this side faces the air pump. If it faces the wrong direction it will block air flow.

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Lesson Investigations

2. Set out both tanks and remove the cardboard. Dump gravel into bottom of each tank.


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6. Cut another short piece of the tubing. Use this to connect the other side of the check valve to the air flow dial that is included with the air pump.

Lesson Investigations

7. Cut another piece of tubing to connect the air flow dial to the splitter.

8. Finally, cut two more pieces of the tubing. These pieces will leave the splitter and each will connect to an air stone. You’ll get a more even air flow if these pieces are equal in length.

Here’s how the final tubing setup should look.

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9. Place one air stone in each tank of water.

Lesson Investigations

10. You can choose to tape the air tubing to the side of the tank to keep the air stone in place, ideally an inch above the rocks.

11. Plug in the air pump. You can adjust the air flow with the dial.

12. Set up the glass lid of the aquarium by sticking the provided handle onto the side of the lid that lifts up. This will be the front side of the glass lid.

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13. Add the vinyl attachment to the back edge of the glass lid.

Lesson Investigations

14. Add the light to the set up. Secure it by fitting its bottom edge into the vinyl strip groove on the tank cover. It should rest on the middle panel of the cover.

15. Plug the light in, and turn it on with the switch on the back side of the light casing.

16. Add the temperature strip to the setup by sticking its adhesive to the outside glass of the front or side panel, so the entire strip is below the water line.

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Lesson Investigations

This is what the final setup of your aquariums should look like.

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S A M P L E

L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS-Designed Summative Assessment

NGSS Assessments

Each lesson comes with a three-dimensional assessment designed to prepare students for your state’s NGSS test. The assessment items are a mix of discrete items and performance tasks and range from Depth of Knowledge levels 1 through 4.

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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L E S S O N

A S S E S S M E N T

NGSS Assessments

S A M P L E

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

Engineering Challenge: Preserving Frog-Bat Interactions Materials: • What you need • • • • • • •

Cardboard square Carpet square, 8” x 8” Craft stick Foam sheet Glue Miscellaneous items Paper, construction, assorted colors

• • • • • • •

Scissors Sound meter Speaker Stapler Tape, duct Tape, scotch Tube, cardboard

• Print • Handout A: Information to Consider when Designing a • Interactive Student Notebook Solution • Notebook Answer Key • Handout B: An Ecologist Responds

Engineering Challenges

Safety Info: • Based on your students’ age and learning readiness, prepare the classroom for a safe experience. • Carefully review TCI’s risk assessment for each of the materials listed for this investigation. • Make sure to follow all district and state safety protocols for all potential risks. Please take careful note of the safety equipment you’ll need, and ensure that you have trained your students on proper handling and use of materials.

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SLIDE 4

Introduction • Interactions between living things are important for healthy populations. Frogs need to hear each other’s calls in order to attract a mate. Bats listen for frog calls to find food. • What two interactions were described? • Why is it important for the rainforest ecosystem to protect these interactions?

TEACHER NOTES

Fringe-lipped bats Fringe-lipped bats also live in the rainforest. They listen for túngara frog calls—in order to find meals. When this bat hears a frog, it dives down to catch and eat the frog. Túngara frogs Túngara frogs are a species common to the rainforests of Central America. They call from dusk to midnight during the rainy season. NGSS LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems: Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors.

SLIDE 4

SLIDE 5

• In this engineering challenge, you are a Conservation Engineer at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. • You hear about plans to build a highway through the rainforest very near to a major pond. How might this affect the frogs and bats living nearby?

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 5

Engineering Challenges

NGSS Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World: All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.

SLIDE 6

• Say something to your partner. Then press play on the white noise button here, and say it again. • How does noise affect communication? Answer the questions in your notebook, and then discuss as a class.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 6

Reducing Impacts People need roads in order to reach places of work, hospitals, and grocery stores. Near a rainforest, having one main highway instead of many small roads probably helps reduce the impact on the ecosystem. Ecologically aware engineers try to reduce impacts to the environment as much as possible.

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 7

• Loud noise can drown out animal calls. • In this engineering challenge, your team will design a sound shield that protects vocalizations from being drowned out by highway noise.

TEACHER NOTES

NGSS Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World: The uses of technologies are driven by people’s needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

SLIDE 7

SLIDE 9

Defining the Engineering Problem • Engineers collect as much data as possible to define problems with precision. • You’ve found some information at the Smithsonian library, and this is included in Handout A: Information to Consider when Designing a Solution. • You’ve also sent a request to a rainforest ecologist for more information. You will start your project now, and modify your design later when you hear from the ecologist.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 9

Engineering Challenges

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.

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SLIDE 10

In your notebook, list your questions about • interactions between frogs and bats. • how people use the highway.

Engineering Challenges

TEACHER NOTES

NGSS Asking Questions and Defining Problems: Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions. Math and ELA Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with basic modal expressions. • Justify opinions by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with substantial support. • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with familiar modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with moderate support. • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Better understand register. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with nuanced modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed textual evidence or background knowledge, with minimal support. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

SLIDE 11

To take into account the needs of motorists that use the road, consider: • People need enough light to see • Heavy rain must drain from the road Answer the questions about this in your notebook.

100  7th Grade Integrated

SLIDE 10

SLIDE 11

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 12

• Now, look at this image of a road near a pond and consider how animal sounds interact with the highway sounds. • Discuss with your group the criteria and constraints that you’ll use for your design. In your notebook, record what you decide on.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 12

SLIDE 13

Developing Possible Solutions • Create a sound shield prototype to test. You will build a sound shield meant to protect the interactions that occur at a popular breeding pond located near a bend in the highway. • You will measure how much your sound shield reduces the level of noise from a speaker representing the highway, when read with a sound meter at a location representing the pond’s edge.

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SLIDE 13

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Engineering Challenges

NGSS MS-ETS1-1: Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. Math and ELA Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. Expanding • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. Bridging • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses.


ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 14

• The image here shows what the testing setup represents. You will place your sound shield between the speaker and the sound meter. • Your setup will model a sound reduction system. The original unfiltered white noise is the input, and the reduced noise level coming through the sound shield is the output. • You can use this model to test ideas about the best way to block highway noise from reaching the pond area.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 14

NGSS Developing and Using Models: Develop and/or use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.

SLIDE 15

• To test your solution, you will measure a change in sound. You can compare the dB of noise from a speaker with no barrier, and with a sound shield. • Review this table from Handout A to get a sense of what different dB levels represent.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support If students are confused by the decibel scale, consider giving them more information. You can tell them that dB is a logarithmic scale, designed such that an increase of 10 dB is equal to a 10x increase, and 20 dB is 100x increase, 30 dB is 1,000x increase, etc. So according to the table, a normal home conversation has 1,000 times the sound pressure level of a whisper at your ear.

SLIDE 15

Engineering Challenges

SLIDE 16

• For these trials, you will play white noise at a consistent volume, and measure it with a sound meter at a set distance. Do not move the speaker or sound meter between trials.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support Playing the sound at a volume where it reads around 76 dB at the “pond edge” location will work well. You can adjust the instructions according to your solution design. For example, if you want to measure sounds at a particular height from the ground, you can move the sound meter to that height. Just be sure you can repeat your plan each trial. Consider using tape to mark the location of the tip of the sound meter and the edge of the speaker to make sure they stay at the same location for each test.

102  7th Grade Integrated

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 17

• Consider the materials available and sketch out your plan, making sure to meet as many criteria as possible within constraints. • Then build your prototype.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support You might want to let students browse the materials table for a while before sketching out a plan. You might even consider demonstrating a few materials as a simple sound shield to show how little the dB level drops with a single sheet of paper or a single cardboard panel, for example. NGSS Structure and Function: Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used. Math and ELA Summarize and describe distributions.: Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by -- a. Reporting the number of observations. -- b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. -- c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data was gathered. -- d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data was gathered.

SLIDE 17

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SLIDE 18 Engineering Challenges

Start your trials You can play the sound embedded here. When you measure with the sound meter, write down the level displayed for each trial. Each group will take turns testing their prototype with the speaker and sound meter. Keep track of your measurements in your notebook. For each test, you will do the following: • Measure without the sound shield • Measure with the sound shield

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 19

• After testing, modify your design to try different materials, change its shape, or alter the structure. • Conduct another test at the testing station to see if your modifications improved the sound shield’s ability to reduce noise at the breeding pond. • As time allows, continue to modify and test your design.

SLIDE 19

SLIDE 20

Optimizing the Design Solution • Engineers change their plans when new data allow them a more precise understanding. You’ve recieved new information from a rainforest ecologist.

Engineering Challenges

TEACHER NOTES

Math and ELA Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with basic modal expressions. • Justify opinions by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with substantial support. • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with familiar modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with moderate support. • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Better understand register. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with nuanced modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed textual evidence or background knowledge, with minimal support. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

104  7th Grade Integrated

SLIDE 20

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 21

• Read through Handout B: An Ecologist Responds and then use this information to improve your criteria and constraints. • Identify aspects of your design that should be revised based on the new criteria and constraints. • Plan how you will modify your design to better meet these new guidelines. • Conduct iterative testing until you achieve an optimal design!

TEACHER NOTES

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SLIDE 21

Engineering Challenges

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS MS-ETS1-1: Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. Math and ELA Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. Research to Build and Present Knowledge: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. Comprehension and Collaboration: Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Summarize and describe distributions.: Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by -- a. Reporting the number of observations. -- b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. -- c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data was gathered. -- d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data was gathered. ELD Tips Based on your students’ proficiency levels, help them to: Emerging • Engage in conversation and express ideas on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and responding using simple phrases. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with basic modal expressions. • Justify opinions by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with substantial support. • Negotiate and persuade using learned phrases and open responses. • Write collaboratively and independently. • Write in complete sentences and use key words. Expanding • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, and paraphrasing key ideas. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with familiar modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing textual evidence or background knowledge, with moderate support. • Negotiate and persuade using an expanded set of learned phrases and open responses. • Organize text in an appropriate manner. • Write in a concise manner. Bridging • Better understand register. • Contribute to discussions by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information and evidence, paraphrasing key ideas, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. • Express attitudes and opinions, and temper statements with nuanced modal expressions. • Justify opinions or persuade others by providing detailed textual evidence or background knowledge, with minimal support. • Negotiate and persuade using appropriate register, learned phrases, indirect reported speed, and open responses. • Write in a clear and coherent manner.

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ENG IN EER ING C H A L L ENG E: P R ES ERV ING F RO G - B AT IN T ER AC T I O N S

SLIDE 22

• Why do acoustic interactions between frogs and bats matter to an ecosystem? • What did you need to know about frog-bat interactions in order to create a successful sound shield? • How did the shapes, sizes, and properties of the materials you used affect the success of your design? • What is the role of failed early attempts in reaching an engineering goal?

SLIDE 23

SLIDE 23

Engineering Challenges

Assessment Rubric • Use the rubric to evaluate your performance on this engineering challenge.

SLIDE 22

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

ENGINEERING CHALLENGE

Preserving Frog-Bat Interactions 1. Can you communicate clearly when the noise is playing?

2. What would happen to communication if the noise were playing very loud?

3. What would happen to communication if you were standing far apart while the noise was playing?

5. Do you think the noise from a highway could disrupt interactions for the organisms that live nearby? Explain.

6. How does noise affect communication between people?

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Engineering Challenges

4. What would happen to communication if you were standing on either side of a busy city street with buses going by?


E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Defining the Engineering Problem 1. What questions do you have about the interactions between frogs, and between bats and frogs?

2. What questions do you have about how people use the highway?

3. What kind of road shield would make it hard for people to see?

4. What kind of road shield would make it hard to drain rainwater?

Engineering Challenges

5. How loud is a frog call?

6. How loud is the highway?

7. How far away are female frogs listening for calling males?

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

8. Use the table to write down all the criteria and constraints that your group agrees on. Constraints

Engineering Challenges

Criteria

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Developing Possible Solutions 1. Consider the materials available, and then sketch out your plan for constructing a sound shield. Make notes where you are meeting any criteria or constraints.

2. Use the sound level meter to record how loud the noise is with and without the sound shields you build. Keep track of your testing measurements in this table. Sound level without sound shield

Sound level with sound shield

Engineering Challenges

Prototype #

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Optimizing the Solution 1. What relevant facts did you learn from the extra information you read?

2. How does this change your list of criteria and constraints?

3. Write about how each fact you identified as relevant might cause you to change your sound shield design.

Engineering Challenges

4. Determine which of these changes you will make in your next prototype and outline them here before you begin.

5. How did your changes to the sound shield impact your testing results?

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

N O T E B O O K

Engineering Challenge Assessment Use the rubric below to evaluate your work on this engineering task. Then record your score in the Score column. Engineering Process

Achievement Levels Proficient (2 points)

Emergent (1 point)

Score

Not Present (0 points)

Identified the criteria and constraints.

Understood the engineering task but the criteria and constraints are not clearly identified.

Did not identify the criteria and constraints of the engineering problem.

Developing Possible Solutions

Created and tested a prototype of a sound shield that blocks highway noise.

Created and tested a prototype of a sound shield but without applying the goals of the scenario.

Did not create or test a prototype of a sound shield.

Optimizing the Design Solution

Used extra data to modify the criteria and constraint list, and then modify the prototype to optimize the design solution.

Considered extra data and modified the prototype, but did not use it towards optimizing the design solution.

Did not modify the prototype based on extra data.

Engineering Challenges

Defining the Engineering Problem

112  7th Grade Integrated

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Information to Consider when Designing a Solution Sound To design a solution, you will need to understand and measure sound. We can measure sound quantitatively, rather than just saying if it’s loud or soft. To do this, we measure what scientists call ‘sound pressure level.’ You can think of this as loudness, with the unit of measurement being decibels, written as dB. The table shows some familiar sounds and the dB level associated with each, when located a certain distance away. You can measure sound pressure level by using a sound meter that you direct towards a sound source. This device displays the dB level of a sound on its screen. As you try to determine how sound changes over distance, you might want to know that for every doubling of the distance between the sound and the measuring device, sound gets 6 dB lower. And for every halving of distance, a sound will get 6 dB louder.

Sound

dB Level

Aircraft at take-off, from 200 ft

118 dB

Motorcycle, from 25 ft away

90 dB

Freeway, from 50 ft away

76 dB

Normal conversation at home

50 dB

Whisper at ear

20 dB

Frogs

Engineering Challenges

Túngara frogs are small brown rainforest frogs that have loud voices. The males call every evening during the rainy season (about May to September) in order to attract females to mate with them. The males call from around 6pm until about midnight. They call from water—anything from a small puddle to the edges of a large lake can be a place where frogs call. Males gather in large groups when they call. A typical call is about 76dB when heard at about 1m away, 70dB at 2m, and 64 dB at 4m. Females listen for males calling and approach the pools throughout the evening. Scientists think females begin approaching calls from a great distance away, when the calls are around 55 dB. Females will not approach a mate who is not calling.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Bats Fringe-lipped bats eat túngara frogs, diving down to attack males calling from the water’s surface. These bats use both echolocation and sounds made by their prey to locate their food. Echolocation is a behavior in which bats produce high pitched sounds, and then hear those sounds when they bounce back towards the bats’ ears after hitting objects in the environment. The sounds that reach the ears after bouncing back give the bats information about where objects (including prey) are located. Like hearing other sounds in the environment, it only works if the sounds bouncing back are not drowned out by noise.

Engineering Challenges

The impact of noise depends on how loud the noise is, and the loudness of the prey call or echolocation signal. In tests done where bats in captivity had to find speakers playing frog calls, they were very good at landing on the speakers to get a food reward. However, when obstacles were hung around the testing area (to mimic dense rainforest conditions) and white noise was played (similar to highway noise) at 69 dB at 1m, they no longer even landed anywhere in expectation of food. The echolocation is produced at a loudness of up to 100 dB when heard at 10cm from the bat. The intensity at which they would hear the returning echo depends on how far away the prey is, but it will be greatly reduced from the original loudness. The loudness of the frog calls that reach the bats’ ears will depend on how far away the frog is from the bat.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

A

Highway Highway noise is generally thought to be about 76dB when heard from 15m away. The highway in question cuts through the rainforest as one of few roads available in the area. The road faces heavy rainfall, and is sloped slightly in both directions from the middle to encourage drainage to the sides of the road. The rainforest is fairly dark due to overgrowth, but the road has few lights due to the difficulties of supplying electricity through the rainforest.

Engineering Challenges

The area of the road you will focus on is near a large pond that is very popular for breeding frogs. The highway bends at the pond, so the curve is directly next to the pond, about 10 meters away from the nearest edge of the pond.

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E N G I N E E R I N G

C H A L L E N G E :

H A N D O U T

B

An Ecologist Responds The rainforest ecologist has sent answers to your questions. Where are the female frogs when they look for a mate? Tungara frogs do not climb trees, and thus spend all of their time at ground level. Frog heads are typically 1-3cm in height from the ground. Females spend their time away from the breeding ponds unless they are ready to mate, because of the predation risk from being near so many calling males that attract predatory bats. They are thought to hunker down in the leaf litter of the forest floor and move towards calling males in bursts of activity. Where are the bats while they are searching for prey?

Engineering Challenges

The bats listen for information about prey location while flying or while hanging upside down on a perch. Either way, they are typically 2-4 meters above ground when listening for frog calls.

116  7th Grade Integrated

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P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: C H A N G I N G R E S O U R C E S F O R C I C H L I D F I S H

Performance Assessment: Changing Resources for Cichlid Fish Use your understanding of the resources and interactions in dynamic ecosystems to determine what needs changing in the cichlid fish exhibit.

Materials: • Print • Handout A: Cichlid Tank Abiotic and Biotic Factors • Handout B: Cichlid Resource Needs • Interactive Student Notebook • Notebook Answer Key

SLIDE 2

• Your zoo opened a hall of fish diversity. One huge tank is devoted to freshwater fish from African lakes. These cichlids are diverse in look and behavior. • The cichlids have lived in the zoo for a year with no problems. But when they were moved from small species-specific tanks into the large shared tank, some became unhealthy. • In this performance assessment, you will figure out how to make the cichlids healthy again.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 2

Lesson Support Phenomenon: Tell students they will examine the phenomena of captive animals in a zoo exhibit showing signs of stress, and dying. Point out that real life zoo exhibit coordinators must figure out how to address such problems by assessing the resource needs of animals and the interactions between species. Lead a discussion about whether students think it would be easier to figure out how to help animals meet their resource needs when they are in controlled artificial ecosystems or when they are in the wild.

SLIDE 3

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SLIDE 3 Performance Assessment

Performance Assessment Requirements Include in your recovery plan: • What changed when the new shared tank was created? • What interactions led to population changes in the new shared tank? • Describe how you solved the problem, including a timeline of ecosystem changes. • A prediction of patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. • An argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to components of an ecosystem affect populations.

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P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: C H A N G I N G R E S O U R C E S F O R C I C H L I D F I S H

SLIDE 4

To design your recovery plan, you will: • Analyze Data on Behavioral Changes • Your assistant has brought you data about the 12 species of fish in the shared tank. Compare their behavior before and after changing tanks. • Identify Changes in the Ecosystem • Read Handout A: Abiotic and Biotic Factors to compare every factor present in the original tanks and in the current tank. • Research Species Needs • Read Handout B: Cichlid Resource Needs to compare species differences. • Develop a Solution • Focus on one change that you suspect has been harmful to the cichlid species in decline. • Communicate Your Results • Prepare a 5 minute presentation for a Zoological Exhibit Design Conference that discusses how you solved the cichlid tank problem.

SLIDE 4

TEACHER NOTES

Materials Log in for a complete list of materials. NGSS MS-LS2-1: Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

SLIDE 5

Performance Assessment Rubric • Before you start, read each statement in the “Proficient” column of your rubric. Do you have any questions? • When you have no more questions, you may start designing a solution. • When you are finished, look at the rubric in your notebook. Read each row, and decide which statement best describes your work. Fill in your score in your notebook.

SLIDE 5

Performance Assessment

SLIDE 6

Unit Wrap Up • What data provided evidence that variable resource availability causes a change in cichlid behavior? • How do you think interactions between fish species led some to stay healthy and others to decline in health? • Do the changes that occurred to cichlid species that were placed in a multi-species tank indicate that changes are bad for the populations of an ecosystem? Explain.

118  7th Grade Integrated

SLIDE 6

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P E R F O R M A N C E A S S E S S M E N T: C H A N G I N G R E S O U R C E S F O R C I C H L I D F I S H

Interdisciplinary Connections Make connections between life, earth, and physical sciences.

Materials: • Notebook: Interdisciplinary Connections Lesson Support: • If students have already seen these questions with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

SLIDE 8

• By learning aboutpatterns, you build understanding in many areas of science. • Answer Questions 1 and 2 in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

Lesson Support If students have already seen these questions with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

SLIDE 8

SLIDE 9

Connection Activity • Complete the Connection Activity in your notebook.

TEACHER NOTES

SLIDE 9

Performance Assessment

Lesson Support If a connection topic feels advanced for students who have not yet learned the relevant material, just teach the connection with the depth that will work best for your class. If students have already seen this activity with another Performance Assessment, ask them how their understanding has grown with the latest lessons completed.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

Cr

ss

o

Changing Resources for Cichlid Fish

Science and neering Prac Engi tice s

cu

ttin g Con c e pt s

ry in a Discipl eas Core Id

Recently, your zoo opened a hall of fish diversity. One huge tank is devoted to freshwater fish from African lakes. These cichlids are diverse in look and behavior. You need to make sure each species gets the resources it needs. The cichlids have lived in the zoo for a year with no problems. But when they were moved from small species-specific tanks into the large shared tank, some became unhealthy. In this performance assessment, you will figure out how to make the cichlids healthy again.

Performance Assessment Requirements

Performance Assessment

Your recovery plan should take the form of a talk that includes the following points: • What problem did you face? • What changed when the new tank was created? • What positive and negative interactions led to population changes in the new tank? • Describe how you solved the problem, and include a timeline of ecosystem changes. • A statement predicting patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems based on what you learned. • An argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to components of an ecosystem affect populations.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 1: Analyzing Data on Behavioral Changes Describe what the bar graph entitled “Change in Food Eaten by Species” shows. Change in Food Eaten by Species Before

After

4.5 4

Food Eaten (g/fish/day)

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

Fish Species

Performance Assessment

Which species changed their eating behavior after switching to the new tank?

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Examine the bar graph entitled “Change in % Time Agitated Swimming.” What does it show? Change in % Time Spent Agitated Swimming Before

After

60

% Time Agitated Swimming

50

40

30

20

10

0 A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

Fish Species

Performance Assessment

Which species changed their agitated swimming behavior after switching to the new tank?

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Are all species equally affected by the change? Explain.

Do you think the fish that are not eating are being deprived of the food they need?

_____ Step 2: Identifying Changes in the Ecosystem How do you think you can figure out what is causing the problems with the new tank?

What ecosystem changes do you think might be harmful to the cichlid populations?

Performance Assessment

How could you test whether a certain ecosystem factor is the reason some cichlid populations are declining in the new tank environment?

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 3: Researching Species Needs Look at the list of species that showed behavioral change after moving tanks. What resource needs are shared by most of these species, but not the other species?

Are any traits shared by most of these species, but not the other species?

What species interactions might occur between these small cichlid species and the other larger ones?

Performance Assessment

Brainstorm possible reasons that only certain populations are in decline.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 4: Developing a Solution Fill in the table about species interactions. Write in where competition, predation, mutualism, and commensalism fit. Populations A&B

- For Population A

+ For Population A

0 For Population A

- For Population B + For Population B 0 For Population B

How do competition, predation, and commensalism impact each population involved in these types of interactions?

Performance Assessment

Do you think any interactions in the tank fit into these categories? How would this impact each species?

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Identify one or more resources that you can add or remove.

Identify one or more changes that you can make to the abiotic or biotic factors.

Describe any species interactions that you would expect to change as a result of your solution.

Describe the cause and effect relationship you used to make your prediction.

Performance Assessment

Pick one or more of these changes that you think could solve the problems in the tank, and write them out here.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Describe any species interactions that you would expect to change as a result of your solution.

How would you test whether your solution was effective?

Look at this graph. What would a third category of data, showing behavioral measures after introducing your solution, look like? Draw these bars in to the graph. Change in % Time Spent Agitated Swimming Before

After

Post-Solution

60

% Time Agitated Swimming

50

40

30

20

10

0 A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

How does this graph represent each population’s response to resource availability?

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Performance Assessment

Fish Species


P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

_____ Step 5: Communicating Your Results Draw a timeline (similar to the ones you worked on in Lesson 3) that demonstrates the sequence of changes that occurred in the tank ecosystem. Include this in your presentation.

Answer these questions to help you plan your presentation. • What problem did you face?

• What changed in the ecosystem when the new tank was created?

Performance Assessment

• What interactions led to population changes in the new tank?

• How did you solve the problem?

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Write out a statement predicting patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems based on what you learned.

Performance Assessment

Write out an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to components of an ecosystem affect populations.

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Performance Assessment Rubric Use the rubric to evaluate your work on this Performance Assessment. Achievement Levels Dimension Science and Engineering Practices Analyzing and Interpreting Data Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict phenomena.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence Construct an oral and written argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support of refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.

Crosscutting Concepts Cause and Effect Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Patterns

Performance Assessment

Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships.

Stability and Change Small changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in another part.

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Proficient (2 points)

Emergent (1 point)

Not Present (0 points)

Analyzed and interpreted graphs to understand how access to resources impacted cichlid populations.

Analyzed graphs with some errors of interpretation.

Did not analyze or interpret graphs.

Designed a solution to the competition for resources that was disrupting fish populations.

Attempted to design a solution to the competition for resources disrupting fish populations.

Did not design a solution to the competition for resources disrupting fish populations.

Used empirical evidence to support an argument that changes to an ecosystem affect populations.

Made an argument but did not use empirical evidence to support it.

Did not make an argument.

Predicted the effects of changing the resources available in the group tank.

Predicted the effects of introduction but with errors.

Did not predict how introducing more resources would impact the tank.

Described a consistent pattern of interactions represented in the fish tank ecosystem.

Described a consistent pattern but with errors.

Did not descibe a consistent pattern.

Described a change that harmed fish populations in the new tank, and a change that helped them.

Described changes, but with errors.

Did not describe changes to the tank ecosystem.

Score

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

N O T E B O O K

Achievement Levels Dimension

Proficient (2 points)

Emergent (1 point)

Not Present (0 points)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Composed a statement describing how competition for resources impacts cichlid populations.

Composed a statement about competition for resources with errors.

Did not make a statement about resource competition.

Described how the patterns of interactions in the tank ecosystem are consistent with patterns that occur in other ecosystems.

Described how patterns of interactions are consistent across ecosystems with some errors.

Did not describe patterns of interactions across ecosystems.

Made an argument that a change to an ecosystem led to population disruptions in the ecosystem.

Made an argument about the impact of ecosystem change, but with errors.

Did not make an argument about the impact of ecosystem change.

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared.

Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Performance Assessment

Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations.

Score

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

INTERDISCIPLINARY CONNECTIONS

1. How were patterns involved in this Performance Assessment?

2. Study the figure. How is it related to Life Science? To Earth Science? To Physical Science? Use evidence from the lessons and your prior knowledge. Grassland Biomes from Around the World Pronghorn

Wild

antelope

horses

Prairie

Terrestrial biomes

Steppe

Aquatic biomes

Tundra

Coastal

Boreal forest

Coral reefs

Temperate forest

Freshwater lakes

Tropical rainforest Grassland Desert

Pelagic Rivers

Rock and ice

TCI_L1_Eco_Map Second Proof

N Robinson Projection 2,000 0 0

2,000

4,000 Miles

4,000 Kilometers

Guanacos

W

E S

Wildebeest

Performance Assessment

and zebras

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

Connection Activity 3. What is a biome? How do you think the make-up of the geosphere underneath it impacts a biome? How do you think the temperature of the geographic area affects the biome?

4. Circle the coldest areas on the map with blue. Circle the hottest areas of the map with red. Grassland Biomes from Around the World Pronghorn

Wild

antelope

horses

Prairie

Terrestrial biomes

Aquatic biomes

Tundra

Coastal

Boreal forest

Coral reefs

Temperate forest

Freshwater lakes

Tropical rainforest Grassland Desert

Steppe

Pelagic Rivers

Rock and ice

N

TCI_L1_Eco_Map

Robinson Projection 2,000 0

Second Proof

0

2,000

4,000 Miles

4,000 Kilometers

W

E S

Guanacos

Wildebeest

Performance Assessment

and zebras

How would water behave differently in these two areas?

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

5. The map below shows precipitation patterns on the globe. How could geologists use this to predict the distribution of ground water?

Follow these directions: • Place an X on two areas that should have plenty of ground water. • Place an O on two areas that probably don’t have much ground water. • Then, name one animal more likely to live near the Xs and one animal more likely to live near the Os. • Draw and label an arrow to a location that might have a tropical rainforest.

Performance Assessment

• Draw and label an arrow pointing to a location that might have a desert.

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I N T E R D I S C I P L I N A R Y

C O N N E C T I O N S :

N O T E B O O K

6. How can thinking about patterns of interactions in ecosystems and throughout Planet Earth relate to your home, neighborhood, community, or culture? For example: • What is the temperature like where you live? • Does your community rely on any natural resources unique to your geographic area? • How does your culture depend on populations of organisms? Write a paragraph describing an important personal or local connection with patterns of interactions in ecosystems or throughout Planet Earth.

7. Refine your answers to the Connection Questions based on what you learned in the lessons.

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Performance Assessment


P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

H A N D O U T

A

Abiotic and Biotic Factors The abiotic and biotic factors in an ecosystem determine what resources are present, and who uses them. In a tank environment, it is possible to list each factor present, since it is a small controlled model ecosystem. In your zoo, the tank environment changed dramatically before and after the decision to mix several species in one large tank. Read through the lists below to determine what changes might have affected the cichlid species that are having trouble with the change. Individual Species Tanks

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

Bottom gravel

Plants for shelter

Medium sized shells

Same-species individuals

Species-appropriate nutrients

Snails for cleaning Species-appropriate food

Mixed Species Tanks

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

Bottom gravel

Plants for shelter

Medium sized shells

Same-species individuals

Multiple kinds of species-appropriate nutrients

Other species of fish Snails for cleaning

Performance Assessment

Multiple kinds of species-appropriate food

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P E R F O R M A N C E

A S S E S S M E N T :

H A N D O U T

B

Cichlid Resource Needs

Species

Diet

Mating Behavior

Sheltering Behavior

Maximum Length (cm)

A

Other fish, snails

Lay eggs in rocks

Hide behind rocks

22

B

Brine shrimp flakes, krill, other fish

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in plants

19

C

Artemia and plankton

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in shells

7

D

Algae and spirulina

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in shells or plants

9

E

Peas, zucchini, carrots, spirulina, algae

Lay eggs in plants

Hide in shells

10

F

Brine shrimp flakes, peas, spirulina

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in shells

5

G

Brine shrimp flakes, spirulina, zucchini, carrots

Lay eggs in rocks

Hide in rocks

18

H

Brine shrimp flakes, krill, other fish, spirulina

Lay eggs in plants

Hide in rocks

20

I

Peas, zucchini, spinach, spirulina

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in shells and plants

8

J

Algae, spirulina, peas

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in shells

9

K

Krill, shrimp, snails, other fish

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in plants

22

L

Other fish, brine shrimp flakes, spirulina

Lay eggs in shells

Hide in rocks

21

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7th Grade Integrated  137

Performance Assessment

Not every species of cichlid needs the same resources from its environment. But some resource needs do overlap between more than one species. This can lead to competition. Read about each species in the mixed species tank in order to understand how living together might impact the different cichlid species.


S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

Segment Alignment with NGSS Performance Expectations MS-PS1-4

Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.

MS-LS2-4

Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

MS-LS2-1

Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem.

MS-LS2-2

Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems.

MS-ETS1-1 Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. MS-ESS2-1 Develop a model to describe the cycling of Earth’s materials and the flow of energy that drives this process. MS-ETS1-4 Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. MS-ESS2-4 Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth’s systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity. MS-ESS2-3 Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. MS-ESS2-2 Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth’s surface at varying time and spatial scales. MS-ESS3-1 Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes. MS-ESS3-4 Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems. MS-ETS1-2 Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem.

Science and Engineering Practices Developing and Using Models • Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena. • Develop and/or use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales. • Develop and/or revise a model to show the relationships among variables, including those that are not observable but predict observable phenomena. • Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. • Develop and/or use a model to represent amounts, relationships, relative scales (bigger, smaller), and/or patterns in the natural and designed world(s). Analyzing and Interpreting Data • Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings. • Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. Engaging in Argument from Evidence • Construct, use, and/or present an oral and written argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem. • Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria. Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions • Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict(s) and/or describe(s) phenomena. • Construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources (including the students’ own experiments) and the assumption that theories and laws that describe the natural world operate today as they did in the past and will continue to do so in the future. Asking Questions and Defining Problems • Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions. • Ask questions that arise from careful observation of phenomena, models, or unexpected results, to clarify and/or seek additional information. Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information • Communicate scientific and/or technical information (e.g. about a proposed object, tool, process, system) in writing and/or through oral presentations. • Critically read scientific texts adapted for classroom use to determine the central ideas and/or obtain scientific and/or technical information to describe patterns in and/or evidence about the natural and designed world(s). Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking • Apply mathematical concepts and/or processes (e.g., ratio, rate, percent, basic operations, simple algebra) to scientific and engineering questions and problems. • Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions. Planning and Carrying Out Investigations • Collect data about the performance of a proposed object, tool, process or system under a range of conditions.

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S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

Crosscutting Concepts Cause and Effect • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. Scale, Proportion, and Quantity • Phenomena that can be observed at one scale may not be observable at another scale. • Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small. Stability and Change • Stability might be disturbed either by sudden events or gradual changes that accumulate over time. • Small changes in one part of a system might cause large changes in another part. • Explanations of stability and change in natural or designed systems can be constructed by examining the changes over time and processes at different scales, including the atomic scale. Patterns • Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. • Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data. • Patterns in rates of change and other numerical relationships can provide information about natural systems. Systems and System Models • Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions. Structure and Function • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions. • Structures can be designed to serve particular functions by taking into account properties of different materials, and how materials can be shaped and used. Energy and Matter • Within a natural or designed system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter.

Disciplinary Core Ideas PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter • Gases and liquids are made of molecules or inert atoms that are moving about relative to each other. • In a liquid, the molecules are constantly in contact with others; in a gas, they are widely spaced except when they happen to collide. In a solid, atoms are closely spaced and may vibrate in position but do not change relative locations. • The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter. PS3.A: Definitions of Energy • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. • The term “heat” as used in everyday language refers both to thermal motion (the motion of atoms or molecules within a substance) and radiation (particularly infrared and light). In science, heat is used only for this second meaning; it refers to energy transferred when two objects or systems are at different temperatures. • Temperature is not a measure of energy; the relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. • The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system’s material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material. Temperature is not a direct measure of a system’s total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called the total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material. LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience • Ecosystems are dynamic in nature; their characteristics can vary over time. Disruptions to any physical or biological component of an ecosystem can lead to shifts in all its populations. LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems • Organisms, and populations of organisms, are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. • Growth of organisms and population increases are limited by access to resources. • Similarly, predatory interactions may reduce the number of organisms or eliminate whole populations of organisms. Mutually beneficial interactions, in contrast, may become so interdependent that each organism requires the other for survival. Although the species involved in these competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial interactions vary across ecosystems, the patterns of interactions of organisms with their environments, both living and nonliving, are shared. • In any ecosystem, organisms and populations with similar requirements for food, water, oxygen, or other resources may compete with each other for limited resources, access to which consequently constrains their growth and reproduction. ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems • The more precisely a design task’s criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.

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S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems • All Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling within and among the planet’s systems. This energy is derived from the sun and Earth’s hot interior. The energy that flows and matter that cycles produce chemical and physical changes in Earth’s materials and living organisms. • The planet’s systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size, and they operate over fractions of a second to billions of years. These interactions have shaped Earth’s history and will determine its future. ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions • A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. • There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem. • Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions. ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth’s Surface Processes • Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land. • Global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity. ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth • Tectonic processes continually generate new ocean sea floor at ridges and destroy old sea floor at trenches. ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions • Maps of ancient land and water patterns, based on investigations of rocks and fossils, make clear how Earth’s plates have moved great distances, collided, and spread apart. ESS3.A: Natural Resources • Humans depend on Earth’s land, ocean, atmosphere, and biosphere for many different resources. Minerals, fresh water, and biosphere resources are limited, and many are not renewable or replaceable over human lifetimes. These resources are distributed unevenly around the planet as a result of past geologic processes. ESS3.C: Human Impacts on Earth Systems • Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise. ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution • The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.

Connections to Nature of Science Scientific Knowledge Is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence • Science findings are frequently revised and/or reinterpreted based on new evidence. Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World • Science knowledge can describe consequences of actions but is not responsible for society’s decisions.

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World • All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment. • The uses of technologies are driven by people’s needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

Common Core ELA Standards Reading Integration of Knowledge and Ideas • Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. • Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). Craft and Structure • Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics. Key Ideas and Details • Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts.

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S E G M E N T

C O R R E L A T I O N S

Writing Research to Build and Present Knowledge • Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. • Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. • Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. Text Types and Purposes • Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. • Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. Range of Writing • Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. Speaking and Listening Comprehension and Collaboration • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. • Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas • Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. • Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.

Common Core Math Standards Math MP.Reason abstractly and quantitatively • CC.K-12.MP.2.Mathematically proficient students make sense of the quantities and their relationships in problem situations. Students bring two complementary abilities to bear on problems involving quantitative relationships: the ability to decontextualize—to abstract a given situation and represent it symbolically and manipulate the representing symbols as if they have a life of their own, without necessarily attending to their referents—and the ability to contextualize, to pause as needed during the manipulation process in order to probe into the referents for the symbols involved. Quantitative reasoning entails habits of creating a coherent representation of the problem at hand; considering the units involved; attending to the meaning of quantities, not just how to compute them; and knowing and flexibly using different properties of operations and objects. Summarize and describe distributions. • Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by -- a. Reporting the number of observations. -- b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. -- c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data was gathered. -- d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data was gathered. Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. • Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. • Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, debits/credits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

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142  7th Grade Integrated

Atoms and Elements Balloons have more mass when filled with air, despite air being invisible to the eye.

Lesson Phenomenon

Understanding that substances are made from different types of atoms, students differentiate between energy and matter using observational data. (PS1.A) (ETS1.A)

Students explore the atomic scale and identify the sizes of different objects using models to study systems that are too small.

CCC

Students investigate how scientists engineered tools to observe atoms. Students determine the criteria and constraints necessary to provide a solution to the problem of seeing atoms directly.

SEP

MS-PS1-1 MS-ETS1-1

PE

Matter is anything that has mass and volume. Different kinds of matter are elements. An atom is an individual particle of an element. Carbon is an element, so there are atoms of carbon, and it is a type of matter. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

MS-PS1-1, MS-PS1-2, MS-LS1-6, MS-LS1-7, MS-LS2-3, MS-ESS1-4, MS-ETS1-1

Performance Expectations:

L E A R N I N G

DCI

In this integrated segment, students explore how living and nonliving things are made of atoms. Students are introduced to the integrated phenomenon of how coal is found in locations where swamps once were and create a model to explain it, revising their model throughout the segment. Students model simple molecules and more complex extended structures and examine different properties that can be used to identify a substance. Next, students explore the energy and matter present in ecosystems. They take a look at the sun’s energy through photosynthesis and examine how organisms use stored energy in food and oxygen. They track matter and energy moving through a food web, model energy transfer through trophic pyramids, and understand the matter cycle on a global scale. Students act as science animators to explain how matter and energy move through living and nonliving things. Last, students understand Earth processes through geologic time by investigating rock strata to create a fossil timeline. They act as forest rangers to answer a middle schooler’s questions about rock patterns and how igneous and sedimentary rocks can be found in the Black Hills and at Devils Tower National Monument where there are no volcanoes or flowing water. Using the knowledge they gained throughout the segment, what information will students use to explain how coal is found in areas that were once lush swamps?

Segment Progression:

G R A D E

3D Learning Sequence

Coal is found in locations that were once full of lush swamps.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: Organisms and Nonliving Things Are Made of Atoms

7 T H S E Q U E N C E

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Students are challenged to figure out how the millions and millions of types of materials in the world are composed of some combination of only 92 different types of atoms. Students explore how atoms form molecules that range in size as they describe relationships between molecular components as individual atoms, connected molecules, or repeated units in extended structures. (PS1.A)

Students determine that each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties that can be used to identify it. Students observe a series of objects and make predictions on their mass, volume, and density. Students take measurements to determine the objects’ densities and understand that some liquids do not mix with other liquids, but form distinct layers instead. (PS1.A) (PS1.B)

To create stage makeup, chemists must account for the properties of the substances they will use. Students determine a makeup pen base and make a recommendation by comprehending that substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways.

Substances and Their Properties Some liquids do not mix with other liquids, so they form distinct layers when poured in a bottle.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Molecules and Extended Structures The millions and millions of types of materials in the world are composed of some combination of only 92 different types of atoms.

Lesson Phenomenon

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MS-PS1-1

PE

By analyzing and interpreting data, students create a pitch explaining the chemical formula, molecular structure, and description of properties of one of the substances in the makeup pen to convince a client to choose the recommended base for the makeup pen.

K-ESS2-2

Analyzing and interpreting data to MS-PS1-2 determine similarities and differences, students apply their knowledge of properties to identify unknown substances found at a fictional crime scene.

Students develop and use models to describe why the behavior of substances depends on their structures at atomic and molecular levels.

SEP

What is matter? How are atoms combined to form different structures? What properties can be used to identify a substance? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model.

You can use tests of density, melting and boiling point, solubility, and flammability to test a substances properties. But mixtures contain several substances. Wood contains cellulose and lignin among other substances. Both cellulose and lignin contain a lot of carbon.

Atoms can be held together by chemical bonds as molecules. The same kinds of atoms can form many different kinds of molecules bound with chemical bonds. Mesitylene is a branching ring with lots of carbon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Using a model to study systems that are too small, students discuss whether the substance used in the pen base is a molecule or an extended structure, and record the chemical formula of the substance.

Understanding that macroscopic patterns are related to the nature of microscopic and atomic-level structures, students investigate the solubility of various liquids in water or oil, and then develop their own investigation to determine the solubility of solids in various liquids.

Interpreting scale, proportion, and quantity, students use models to analyze simple molecules and extended structures that vary in complexity and atomic composition.

CCC

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7th Grade Integrated  143


Students describe the variety of beautiful bromeliads that live on trees in the rainforest, and explain how these plants grow in spite of having no roots to dig in the soil. To do this, students examine how plants use the energy from light to make sugars from carbon dioxide and water through the process of photosynthesis. (LS1.C) (PS3.D)

Students observe how antlions use energy to build a pit and then to trap and eat their prey. Students understand the energy in chemical processes and the energy flow in organisms as they summarize that animals need food to make energy with cellular respiration. (LS1.C) (PS3.D)

Students discover why it’s easier to see plants than wolves in Yellowstone National Park as they examine how food webs demonstrate how matter and energy is transferred between producers, consumers, and decomposers as the three groups interact within an ecosystem. (LS2.B)

Using Stored Energy Antlions use a lot of energy to build sandy pits and then lie in wait until an ant falls in, at which point an antlion pegs the ant with sand until it falls to the very bottom of the pit.

Food Webs and Trophic Pyramids In Yellowstone National Park, it is very easy to observe hundreds of types of plants but nearly impossible to spot a wolf.

DCI

Capturing the Sun’s Energy Epiphytes, plants that can live high in trees, grow and flower in spite of having no roots that touch the ground.

Lesson Phenomenon

144  7th Grade Integrated Students develop a model to demonstrate the movement of energy through trophic levels, and then apply their understanding to make predictions about ecosystem management.

MS-LS2-3

Decomposers are consumers that use wastes or dead remains as a source of energy. Without them, the matter in wastes or organisms that die would be locked away from other organisms forever, left to be buried by layers of Earth over time. The only way to release the matter back to an ecosystem’s cycles would be through non-biological processes like fire.

Consumers get matter by eating food, which all stems from producers or consumers that ate producers. So consumer cells probably have lots of carbon in them.

All plants use photosynthesis to get carbon dioxide from the air and turn it into carbon based sugars that can make up their tissues. A fuel releases energy from chemical bonds that break when it is burned.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students compare and draw the paths of matter and energy in a food web to see where matter passes between living and nonliving things and how the paths of matter and energy differ.

MS-LS1-6

PE

Students develop a model of cellular MS-LS1-7 respiration by acting out the role of a molecule in the process. Students then work in groups to model what happens after cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

Students act out the process of photosynthesis and then develop a model that shows the movement of matter and energy during and after the process of photosynthesis.

SEP

G R A D E

Students explore energy and matter and visualize the invisible to understand cellular respiration by conducting an experiment to test whether both plants and animals conduct cellular respiration.

Students test whether access to sunlight influences how a water plant takes up carbon dioxide from its environment as they discover how the transfer of energy drives the motion and cycling of matter.

CCC

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Students consider how fertilizer run off in a lake can lead to an explosion of green muck as they understand the cycle of matter and energy transfer in an ecosystem. (LS2.B)

Students examine the phenomena of a forest gaining in living matter over time and explain the multiple steps of where the matter and the energy that is stored in the trees comes from. Students understand that within individual organisms, food moves through a series of chemical reactions to form new molecules to support growth.

Why are the rock layers at the bottom of the Grand Canyon much older than those found at the top? Students answer this question as they examine how the geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata provides a way to organize Earth’s history. (ESS1.C)

Performance Assessment

Investigating Rock Strata The rock layers at the bottom of the Grand Canyon are much older than those found at the top of the Grand Canyon.

DCI

Global Cycles of Matter Runoff from a fertilized field empties into a pond, triggering the growth of green muck.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Students use index fossils to identify the relative ages of rock strata while applying cause and effect relationships.

Acting as science animators, students show how the transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a natural system as they follow a single atom of carbon and a single unit of energy on their pathways.

Students compare open and closed systems when they track how water, carbon, and nitrogen move in their classroom ecosystems and on the planet.

CCC

PE

MS-LS1-6 MS-LS1-7 MS-LS2-3

Using patterns in a model of rock MS-ESS1-4 strata across an area to infer the sequence past events, students construct a scientific explanation based on evidence to identify rock strata through models of core samples.

Students develop and use a model in the form of a claymation video to demonstrate where new living material comes from as a forest grows.

Students use a model to predict MS-LS2-3 matter’s global pathways by playing a game in which they track the steps taken by water, carbon, and nitrogen moving from one step to another in their global cycles.

SEP

In undisturbed rock layers, the oldest layers are found below the newer layers. A layer of rock millions of years old would be found beneath all the layers that formed since that time.

How is carbon a part of plants that would be in a swamp? Where do consumers get the matter that makes up their cells? What is the only way besides decomposers to release matter back to the cycles of an ecosystem? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model.

When carbon atoms are stored under layers of soil for millions of years, they may form fossil fuels, which humans can use as a source of energy.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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7th Grade Integrated  145


146  7th Grade Integrated Students write a letter to a park visitor with an explanation of the sequence of cause and effect events in the geosphere that caused the Spearfish Sandstone, Gypsum Springs, and igneous formations.

Constructing a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence from the rock strata, students write a letter to a park visitor that references a timeline, describes the rocks of the area, and discusses how igneous rocks could form where there are no active volcanoes.

Students research the events that define a unit of geologic time to construct an explanation of Earth’s 4.6 billion year history.

SEP

MS-ESS1-4

MS-ESS1-4

PE

How does carbon from dead organisms form fossil fuels? Why would layers of coal that are millions of years old be found deep under many layers of rock? Were plants abundant on Earth millions of years ago? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Plants like ferns and forests grew in abundance in the Age of the Dinosaurs, beginning 230 million years ago.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Sample Explanation: Over millions of years, the remains of organisms from the lush swamps were turned to coal by non-biological processes as they were crushed under deep layers of rock. Both coal and the remains of organisms have lots of carbon atoms in their molecular make-up. The carbon atoms in dead remains can change their chemical bonds over time to become a new substance: coal. When dead remains are covered by rock for millions of years, they form fossil fuels. Without decomposers to break them down, there is no way for dead remains to cycle through an ecosystem unless non-biological processes are at work, like burning fossil fuels. According to the law of superposition, deeper layers of rock are older than shallow layers. As the dead remains became coal, they would be buried by many layers of rock over millions of years.

As rangers of Black Hills National Forest, students explain to visitors how igneous and sedimentary rocks are found throughout the Black Hills despite the lack of volcanoes and flowing water using the geologic time scale interpreted from rock strata.

Performance Assessment

Students act as Earth Detectives by taking on the role of paleontologists to analyze patterns of evidence in order to compete in a classroom game of “Who Stole the Triceratops Egg?”

CCC

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: Coal is found in locations that were once full of lush swamps.

Students question why the moon contains rocks that are very much like Earth’s and come to understand that analyses of rock strata and the fossil record provide only relative dates, not an absolute scale. (ESS1.C)

DCI

Reconstructing Earth’s History The Moon contains rocks that are very much like Earth’s and formed at about the same time as many of Earth’s oldest rocks.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Energy in Earth’s Systems When the bottom of a tank of water is heated, warm water rises, cools, and falls back again.

Students observe how warm water rises, cools, and falls back again when the bottom of a water tank is heated during the process of convection as they examine how all Earth processes are the result of energy flowing and matter cycling. (ESS2.A)

Students discover how energy flows through Earth’s systems and how, within a natural system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and cycling of matter by examining diagrams and discussing student models of energy flow.

PE By using a convection current in a MS-ESS2-1 tank as a model, students observe and describe how energy flows into matter and drives convection as they find out that within a natural system like the atmosphere, the transfer of energy drives the motion of matter.

SEP

Sunlight reaches Earth through space by radiation. Clouds form in the atmosphere when water vapor cools at high altitude. Solar energy is taken in by producers that use it to make food. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Lesson Phenomenon CCC

MS-ESS2-1, MS-ESS2-2, MS-PS1-2, MS-PS1-3, MS-PS1-5, MS-PS1-6, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-2, MS-ETS1-3, MS-ETS1-4

Performance Expectations:

DCI

In this integrated segment, students examine how matter cycles and energy flows. To understand this, students are introduced to the integrated phenomenon of how a rose bush thrives in the sun, rather than in the shade. Students create a model of the phenomenon to explain it and revise their model as they gain knowledge. Students examine how energy moves matter both within and between Earth’s four systems, causing changes in the systems. Students work to place a series of Earth processes on a time and spatial scale and observe crystallization as it forms. They identify evidence of processes working in Earth’s systems, and, using this evidence, create a design for an informational kiosk that explains how processes change Earth’s surface around an active volcano. Next, students investigate atoms and energy in chemical reactions. Applying their knowledge of energy flow, students design, build, and optimize a hot pack to meet an engineering challenge. Last, students find out about chemical engineering and society as they research different substances that have had impacts on society. Using what they know about matter cycles and energy flows, how will students explain why roses grow better in sunlight compared to how they grow in shade?

Segment Progression:

3D Learning Sequence

A rose bush placed in a sunny location grew faster than a rose bush placed in a shady location.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: Matter Cycles and Energy Flows

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7th Grade Integrated  147


148  7th Grade Integrated

Students evaluate how new Students understand the cause substances from chemical reactions and effect relationships between have different properties from those reactants to predict phenomena. of the reactants as they mix vinegar and baking soda and observe the bubbles rising. Students also learn how medicines are evaluated in clinical trials. (PS1.A) (PS1.B) (ETS1.B)

Identifying Chemical Reactions Mixing vinegar and baking soda causes the substances to bubble up and spill over a container’s edge.

Students analyze and interpret test data on the properties of reactants and products to determine whether or not a chemical reaction has occurred by mixing vinegar and baking soda.

MS-PS1-2 MS-ETS1-2

MS-ESS2-1 MS-ESS2-2

MS-ESS2-2

PE

In a chemical reaction, one or more new substances are formed from one or more other substances. Adding energy to reactants can start a chemical reaction.

How does sunlight reach Earth? How and where do clouds form? How could a plant’s growing roots cause weathering? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Weathering is the breakdown of rock on Earth’s surface. If a plant’s roots grow through sand, soil, or rock, they can push little bits of it aside and cause weathering. Plants depend on soil for nutrients, stability, and access to water. Each plant does best in a certain type of soil. Some grow well in rocky soils, some in soil with clay, and some in soil with lots of organic material.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Students construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence obtained from sources when then create a design for an exhibit that explains how geoscience processes change Earth’s surface around Kilauea.

Students construct a scientific explanation based on valid and reliable evidence as they explore the scales of time and space in crystallization and conduct an investigation by creating crystals in the classroom.

SEP

G R A D E

Knowing that models can be used to represent systems and their interactions, students identify evidence of processes working in Earth’s systems around the Kilauea volcano by creating a design for a park kiosk including graphics, pictures, and text.

Students understand the processes behind molten lava as it flows and changes Earth’s surface by summarizing the concepts behind Earth’s materials and systems.

Performance Assessment

Students explore how time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too large or too small, as they work through a variety of activities that help them to identify the size and rate of Earth’s processes.

CCC

Students watch how a glacier calves and falls into the ocean as they understand that the planet’s systems interact over scales that range from microscopic to global in size. (ESS2.A) (ESS2.C)

DCI

Scales of Change on Earth’s Surface Ice breaks off a glacier and falls into the ocean.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Students discover how plastics have been improved through engineering as they explore how substances react chemically in characteristic ways. (PS1.A) (PS1.B) (ETS1.A)

Students understand that structures can be designed to serve particular functions as they examine how faux leather is made from synthetic materials but can serve the same functions as real leather.

PE

MS-PS1-6 MS-ETS1-1 MS-ETS1-2 MS-ETS1-4

MS-PS1-6 MS-ETS1-4

Students find out why chemicals MS-PS1-3 and chemical reactions are important MS-ETS1-1 to society as they research by gathering, reading, and synthesizing information from multiple appropriate sources, and investigate different substances that have had profound impacts on society.

Students design, build, and optimize a hot pack that meets the criteria and constraints they determine as a team. Students use a rubric to evaluate their work.

Students find out about the energy in chemical reactions as they plan and carry out an investigation on exothermic and endothermic reactions that are used in chemical hand warmers or cold packs.

Students develop and use a model MS-PS1-5 to describe atoms before and after MS-ETS1-3 a chemical reaction as they observe how burning steel wool causes the mass of the steel wool to increase the changes to substances.

SEP

Natural resources are substances that are made in nature. Wood comes from plants that grow in nature. Glucose is a molecule in corn that holds energy in its chemical bonds. It has carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms. This is a product of photosynthesis.

Students are presented with an engineering challenge (with criteria and constraints) and use connections from previous lessons to construct, test and modify a hot pack.

An exothermic reaction releases energy during the chemical reaction, and an endothermic one uses up energy during a chemical reaction. Endothermic reactions can get energy from heat, light, or other sources. Photosynthesis is endothermic, because it uses up energy during the chemical reaction. The energy for photosynthesis comes from sunlight.

In a chemical reaction, the atoms of reactants are rearranged into different substances, the products. They can combine, break apart, or form new combinations. In photosynthesis, the carbon and oxygen in carbon dioxide are rearranged to become part of sugars and oxygen molecules. These sugars can become part of the plant.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Chemical Engineering and Society Faux leather is made from synthetic materials but can serve the same functions as real leather.

Students consider scientific principles Students explore ways in which the as they are introduced to a real-world transfer of energy can be tracked. problem of needing a device that releases thermal energy, such as a hot pack. (PS1.B) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.A) (ETS1.C)

Engineering Challenge

When magnesium is lit on fire versus a piece of chicken that is lit on fire, students understand how the transfer of energy in chemical reactions can be tracked by temperature changes as they compare what happens.

Students analyze what steps are involved in testing and improving hand warmers as they explore how some chemicals release energy while other store it. (PS1.B) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

Energy in Chemical Reactions When magnesium is lit on fire, it burns with a bright light. In contrast, when chicken is lit on fire, it changes color from pink to white.

Students explore energy and matter when they see how equations model conservation of matter in chemical reactions and discover how green medicines are engineered.

CCC

Students identify substance properties that can be used as evidence that a chemical reaction has occurred. (PS1.B) (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

DCI

Atoms in Chemical Reactions Burning steel wool causes the mass of the steel wool to increase.

Lesson Phenomenon

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7th Grade Integrated  149


Using the knowledge gained by exploring common survival kits contents such as hot packs and butane torches, students assess how materials can be shaped and used.

CCC Students create a short video-clip to communicate information that demonstrates the supplies necessary to make a survival pack for the reality TV show, “The Next Top Survivalist.”

SEP MS-PS1-2 MS-PS1-3 MS-PS1-5 MS-PS1-6

PE What happens in a chemical reaction? What happens to the atoms in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis? What kind of reaction (endothermic or exothermic) is photosynthesis? Where does the energy for photosynthesis come from? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

150  7th Grade Integrated

Sample Explanation: Sunlight provides energy to cause a chemical reaction called photosynthesis that lets plants make sugars that can build their tissues, so a plant with more sunlight will grow faster. Sunlight is taken in by producers that use it to make food, driving change in the biosphere. This level of explanation shows that a biosphere change like plant growth requires sunlight as a critical ingredient. Adding energy to the reactants of an endothermic chemical reaction can cause them to react and become products. Here, sunlight is the added energy, causing carbon dioxide and water to become sugar and oxygen. Glucose is a sugar found in plants that holds energy in its chemical bonds, and contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. This product of photosynthesis must not only be usable as food, but as a building block for plant tissues.

Understanding that survival kits often include portable gear that can be activated at a moment’s notice, students identify the characteristics of the hot pack and butane torch designs that perform the best.

DCI

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: A rose bush placed in a sunny location grew faster than a rose bush placed in a shady location.

Performance Assessment

Lesson Phenomenon

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Earth’s Tectonic Plates Fossils of plants that had broad, flat leaves are found in Antarctica.

Lesson Phenomenon

Students observe how fossil patterns of plant life in Antarctica do not match Antarctica’s climate. Students use their understanding of plate tectonics and large-scale system interactions to explain this phenomenon. (ESS2.B) (ESS1.C)

DCI

Looking for patterns in rates of change, students record data on the distribution of fossils and rocks that support Wegener’s Continental Drift hypothesis. Then students cut up and reassemble a world map into Pangea to see how Wegener analyzed evidence that supported his hypothesis.

CCC

Exploring how plate tectonic theory works, students develop and use models to construct a scientific explanation for how tectonic processes change Earth’s surface.

SEP

MS-ESS2-2 MS-ESS2-3

PE

Students find patterns in the distribution of fossils, mountain ranges, volcanoes, earthquakes, the shapes of continents, and seafloor structures. They create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

MS-ESS2-1, MS-ESS2-2, MS-ESS2-3, MS-ESS2-4, MS-ESS3-1, MS-PS1-4, MS-PS1.A, MS-PS3.A, MS-LS2-1, MS-LS2-2, MS-LS2-4, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-4

Performance Expectations:

G R A D E

3D Learning Sequence

In this integrated segment, students take a look at the distribution of Earth's resources. Students are introduced to the integrated phenomenon by comparing Yasuni National Park's dense forests to Big Bend National Park's vast open stretches of dry land. Students create a model of this phenomenon and revise it as they gain more knowledge. To understand the processes that distribute Earth's resources, students first investigate the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates, including continental drift, mountain ranges, and creation of the supercontinent Pangaea. Students explore the rock cycle and water cycle. In the first Engineering Challenge, students build, test, and improve a solar distiller as they examine renewable and nonrenewable resources. Next, students find out about resources in living systems and observe interactions among organisms in various ecosystems. In the second Engineering Challenge, students build a sound shield to protect acoustic interactions of frog and bats from disruptive highway noise. Students discover how the many interactions within an ecosystem cause even small changes to lead to other large changes. Students predict states of matter and examine the motion of particles as they relate it to heat, temperature, and state changes. Last, students write a letter explaining the natural phenomena of states of matter. Using what they know, how will students explain why Earth's resources are unevenly distributed as in the cases of Yasuni's forests and Big Bend's desert?

Segment Progression:

Sample Included p. 14

At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: The Distribution of Earth's Resources

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7th Grade Integrated  151


Why are some rock types found in a community while others are not? Students answer this question by exploring Earth’s materials and systems including finding out the ways rock form, identifying rocks, and modeling the rock cycle. (ESS2.A)

Students consider how snow on the streets of New York disappears within months. To explain this phenomenon, students use their understanding of the roles of water in Earth’s surface processes. (ESS2.C)

Students build and improve a solar distiller and use data to explain the rates of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation of the water in the distiller as they conclude that a solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results, in order to improve it. (ESS2.C) (ETS1.B)

The Water Cycle During the first week of January, New York was covered in four feet of snow, but by the end of May the streets were bare.

Engineering Challenge Build, test, and improve a solar distiller.

DCI

The Rock Cycle Some rock types can be found in a community, but not others.

Lesson Phenomenon

152  7th Grade Integrated MS-ESS2-4

Students retest their design, and MS-ESS2-4 then use data from the iterative MS-ETS1-4 testing to propose modifications and to test ideas about phenomena in designed systems such as the solar distiller.

Students use a model when they work with a selection of models to show how energy drives the cycling of water in the water cycle.

Students get an opportunity to design a system that uses renewable natural resources.

Water evaporates when heat from the sun makes molecules move faster and collide. Water vapor condenses or crystallizes when it cools. Climate and terrain have a big impact on how much water is found in a specific area like a National Park. Terrain can impact how water pools since gravity pulls water downward.

Since igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic processes influence how rocks change over time, the distribution of volcanoes, water, high mountain peaks, and tectonic plate edges influence what type of rock forms across Earth. Rock can break down into sand due to factors like energy from the sun and gravity causing weathering and erosion. Due to the rock cycle, one National Park can change its features over time.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Challenged by structure and function, students construct and test a solar distiller in order to evaluate the distiller performance. Students then work in teams to plan improvements to the solar distiller design using classroom materials.

PE

Students are challenged to evaluate MS-ESS2-1 a sample Rock Cycle diagram and then to develop and use their own improved model.

SEP

G R A D E

Understanding that the transfer of energy drives the cycling of matter, students develop a concept map to record their ideas of how water transfers from one place to another. Next, they observe processes of the water cycle, and use those processes to improve their concept map.

Exploring the ways rocks form, students describe and compare six rock forming processes by examining the changes over time and processes at different scales. Students then use a variety of tools to examine and classify 12 different types of rocks.

CCC

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Which natural resources make up everyday items? Students ask questions about the different natural resources that are used to create various devices and objects. (ESS3.A)

Students evaluate the natural resource needs of companies using their understanding of Earth’s natural resources and how they are unevenly distributed across communities. Students then decide which company should move into their region.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Earth’s Natural Resources Every device contains parts that are made from natural resources.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Working on the Board of Natural Resource Development, students use cause and effect relationships to prepare an argument for or against company proposals to set up business in their region. In their arguments, students identify the presence or absence of natural resources in their region from map evidence.

In the game, Resource Roundup, students evaluate cause and effect relationships as they compete to predict the most likely locations of natural resources.

CCC

Students construct an explanation of the geoscience processes that resulted in the formation of natural resources over time. Students use use what they know of the presence or absence of natural resources, and the geoscience processes, to support their arguments.

Using mathematics and computational thinking, students analyze patterns of data from the Resource Roundup game using a chart to describe the limited nature of natural resources.

SEP

MS-ESS2-1 MS-ESS2-2 MS-ESS2-3 MS-ESS2-4 MS-ESS3-1

MS-ESS3-1

PE

What patterns do scientists see across landforms on Planet Earth that support the idea that the continents have moved around? Do you think the rocks making up Earth’s surface in one National Park change over time? What influences how much water is found in different National Parks? What influences whether forests grow in a National Park? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Water availability is influenced by the amount of precipitation in the region as well as the type of rock, and the amount of human water use. The amount of soil is impacted by the rate of weathering in different locations, and soil fertility depends on the amount of minerals, nutrients, and water there. Where forests occur depends on climate, soil fertility, and human activities.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

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7th Grade Integrated  153


After students observe how captive poison dart frogs lose their toxicity over time, students set up a simple model pond ecosystem and track resources needed by living things to show that organisms are dependent on their environmental interactions both with other living things and with nonliving factors. (LS2.A)

Students observe the close relationship between ants and acacia trees and, using their knowledge of interdependent relationships in ecosystems, explain the relationship between the two organisms. Students choreograph dances to represent the interactions between living things. Students then evaluate each performance to classify interactions. (LS2.A)

Students examine acoustic interactions between frogs and bats and then design a sound shield that preserves those interactions near a noisy highway, as they explore the influence of engineering, technology, and science on the natural world. (LS2.A)

Interactions Among Organisms Acacia trees produce a nectar that does not help the tree itself, but is eaten by stinging ants that live on the tree.

Engineering Challenge Build a sound shield to protect acoustic interactions from highway noise.

DCI

Resources in Living Systems Poison dart frogs kept in captivity lose their toxicity over time so they are no longer poisonous.

Lesson Phenomenon

154  7th Grade Integrated Students ask questions and define MS-ETS1-1 a design problem that preserves the organisms’ interactions and identify criteria and constraints. Students improve their sound shield designs after receiving more scientific information from a rainforest ecologist.

Students construct explanations and MS-LS2-1 design solutions by focusing on an MS-LS2-2 interaction between two organisms MS-ETS1-1 and researching that interaction using reliable resources.

Sample

Sample

Students discover how sci- Included p. 97 entists studied the details of frog-bat interactions in order to preserve an ecosystem and its populations.

In predation, one organism uses another as a food resource. In commensalism and parasitism, one organism uses another as a resource. In mutualism, two organisms use each other as a resource.

Living things need living and Included p. 26 nonliving resources that provide food and water and meet needs for air and sunlight. The distribution of limited resources in an area determines what species can live there. Factors like the amount of fertile soil, the temperature, and the amount of rainfall really impact what resources are available, and what species live in an area.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Understanding how structures can be designed to serve particular functions, students create a sound shield using materials provided. Students test their design solution to see if it meets the criteria they chose.

PE

Students use graphs to analyze and MS-LS2-1 interpret data on how resources MS-LS2-2 impact populations. Students then present case studies and make general statements about the relationship between resources and populations.

SEP

G R A D E

Examining patterns in predation, students act out the predator-prey relationship to determine why these populations cycle over time.

Students use patterns to predict how resource availability impacts species distribution by playing a game modeling resource needs.

CCC

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Students observe that drops of food Students analyze the cause and coloring dissolve into water at very effect of pressure and temperature different rates depending on the on particle motion. temperature of the water. Students predict state changes as a result of pressure and temperature changes. (PS1.A)

The Motion of Particles Drops of food coloring dissolve into water at very different rates depending on the temperature of the water.

Understanding stability and change and cause and effect, students determine why an ecosystem change is causing some fish populations in a zoo to decline. Students figure out how to solve the problem by meeting the fishes’ resource needs and present their solution at a conference.

As students observe captive cichlid behavior, they summarize how populations use resources, how species in interdependent relationships in ecosystems interact, and how ecosystems change over time. Students use this knowledge to find a solution to save the fish.

Performance Assessment

Students track the impact of a biological and a physical change made to the model ecosystems as they explore how stability might be disturbed by sudden events.

CCC

Students observe how ecosystems change over time by seeing how the area devoid of life around Mt. St. Helens from the eruption is now full of life. Students brainstorm different types of ecosystem changes due to ecosystems being dynamic in nature. (LS2.C)

DCI

Changing Ecosystems Although the 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens destroyed all life near the eruption, the area is now covered in green and full of life.

Lesson Phenomenon PE

MS-PS1-4

Matter changes from solid to liquid to gas as it increases in temperature, although different substances change state at different temperatures. Water is liquid at room temperature, frozen at cold temperatures near the poles, and evaporates quickly in hot climates.

What determines which Included p. 117 species can live in an area like a National Park? When is a living thing itself a resource that can impact the distribution of other living things? How does a change in an ecosystem’s resources impact living things? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Sample

Slow changes occur in predictable timelines with ecological succession. Sudden changes occur with major events like volcanoes or strong storms. Change in the living or nonliving resources in an ecosystem cause changes in the populations that depend on those resources.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Students describe macroscopic particle motion and temperature changes in a system and develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and states of a pure substance under given conditions.

Students analyze and interpret data MS-LS2-1 on behavioral changes by examining MS-LS2-2 graphs about the 12 species of cichlid MS-LS2-4 fish in a shared tank. Students compare fish behavior before and after changing tanks.

Students assess three case studies, MS-LS2-4 present their data analysis, and construct explanations for how changes impact populations while predicting ecosystem changes.

SEP

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156  7th Grade Integrated Students write letters that describe the cause-and-effect relationships between melting and boiling points of dihydrogen monoxide (water) on our planet as well as the motions of the particles of water as a solid, liquid and gas.

PE

Students develop a conceptual non-visual model in the form of a letter that describes components, their interactions, and their relation to the real world.

MS-PS1-4

Students develop a model that MS-PS1-4 predicts and describes phenomena while allowing for qualitative comparison of thermal energy of two objects and the associated motions of particles as a result of the objects coming into contact with each other. Students also describe the macroscopic changes in a system in terms of heat, thermal energy, temperature, and thermal equilibrium.

SEP

How does temperature affect the state of matter? How does temperature affect water? Why would trees in a forest care if water melted, evaporated, condensed, or froze? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Gaining thermal energy causes an object to melt or evaporate. Losing thermal energy causes an object to condense or freeze. Since trees need water in liquid form to survive, they can only grow where liquid water is found. They need ice to melt, liquid not to completely evaporate, water vapor to condense, and liquid not to freeze.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Sample Explanation: The distribution of resources such as rock, water, soil, and living things resulting from tectonic processes and climate differences is such that forests only grow in certain places on Earth. An abundance of fertile soil depends on the rate of weathering and the amount of minerals, nutrients, and water found there. Yasuni must be located in an area with more minerals, nutrients, water, and soil. Growing plants need water in order to survive. The climate in Yasuni must include more abundant precipitation. High temperatures can lead water to evaporate. When it’s hot in Big Bend, what water is there will evaporate quickly, leaving little water for growing plants.

Concluding that a substance’s state of matter changes depending on the temperature and pressure of the environment it is in, students write a letter that explains the structure and properties of matter using the motion of particles and how thermal energy affects the state of matter.

Performance Assessment

Students deepen their understanding of cause and effect and how state changes occur as they differentiate between a substance’s thermal energy and the heat it gains or loses while predicting the direction of heat flow between two objects.

CCC

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: At Yasuni National Park, forests can be so dense they are difficult to walk through. But at Big Bend National Park, there are vast open stretches of dry land.

After observing how water droplets appear on a cold can of liquid in a warm room, students apply their understanding of the transference of energy due to temperature differences between two objects. (PS3.A)

DCI

Heat, Temperature, and State Changes In a warm room, water droplets form on a can of cold liquid.

Lesson Phenomenon

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Volcanic Eruptions and Earthquakes Volcanoes erupt and earthquakes shift the ground at similar places around the globe, but there are other places that see very little earthquake and volcanic activity.

Students explore why some places have volcanoes and earthquakes while other places don’t by examining maps of the history of natural hazards in a region. (ESS3.B)

Identifying patterns in data, students use the maps they generate of earthquake and volcano events and their understanding of magnitude and frequency to create a poster identifying areas of risk.

PE Students analyze and interpret MS-ESS3-2 data in tables of earthquake and volcano events around the globe in order to generate maps identifying the locations of earthquakes and volcanoes in a given year. Using this knowledge, students explore how different bridge designs mitigate the risks posed by earthquakes.

SEP

Earthquakes are caused by the sudden movement of rock beneath Earth’s surface, usually along the boundaries of tectonic plates. At Quake Lake, an earthquake caused mountain rock to fall into a river. Students create a model of the integrated phenomenon.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Lesson Phenomenon CCC

MS-ESS3-2, MS-ESS3-4, MS-LS2-5, MS-ETS1-1, MS-ETS1-3

Performance Expectations:

DCI

In this integrated segment, students explore how living systems sustain a changing world. Students are introduced to the integrated phenomenon of how dams affect river ecosystems, whether they are natural or man-made. Students create a model of this phenomenon and revise it as they gain more knowledge. Students first explore how certain areas are subject to natural disasters such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Students then discover relationships that relate to flooding and mass wasting and the hazards of a tsunami. In the first Engineering Challenge, students generate design criteria for bridges that can withstand certain natural hazards while meeting constraints. They find out why abalone populations are in decline as they examine humans impact in changing ecosystems. Students find out about biodiversity and investigate the impacts of changes to it over time. They consider the importance of healthy ecosystems as the human population grows and then see which engineering solutions help to protect ecosystems. In the second Engineering Challenge, students design a fishing net that targets certain species in effort to preserve biodiversity. Students report on how population growth impacts resources. Applying what they know about living systems impacted by change, how will students explain the many ways that dams affect river ecosystems?

Segment Progression:

3D Learning Sequence

Dams affect river ecosystems whether they are natural, like the one at Quake Lake, or man-made, like the Hoover Dam.

Integrated Phenomenon:

Segment Progression: Sustaining Living Systems in a Changing World

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Students question why there is more mass wasting in California than Missouri when examining the history of natural hazards in a region, combined with an understanding of related geologic forces. (ESS3.B)

Students are challenged to redesign a bridge to withstand floods and mass wasting events, improving upon their models using simulated flood events to forecast locations and likelihoods of future events. (ESS3.B)

Students understand that bridges have different levels of importance depending on where they are and how they face different natural hazards such as floods, mass wasting, earthquakes, and even volcanic activity.

Engineering Challenge Redesign a bridge to withstand floods and mass wasting events. Use tests to collect data and improve the performance of your bridge model using simulated flood events.

Performance Assessment

DCI

Mass Wasting, Tsunamis, and Floods Data on maps shows that Northern California has more mass wasting than Missouri, even though Missouri has more floods.

Lesson Phenomenon

158  7th Grade Integrated Acting as civil engineers, students MS-ESS3-2 analyze and interpret data to deter- MS-ETS1-1 mine the level of importance and natural hazards that might affect three different bridges in Placerville, CA, in order to submit proposals for bridge designs.

Students define a design problem MS-ESS3-2 that can be solved through the deMS-ETS1-1 velopment of a system and includes MS-ETS1-3 multiple criteria and constraints by using tests to determine the performance of their bridge designs in simulated flood events. Students use the data from those tests to propose changes to their bridge designs.

How was an earthquake involved in the formation of Quake Lake? What would happen if a huge landslide dumped lots of rock and soil into a narrow river at a shallow point? Students should review their answers to these questions to summarize their findings and make revisions to their model of the integrated phenomenon.

Students evaluate bridge designs that are made to withstand natural hazards such as flooding and mass wasting events.

Mass wasting is the downhill movement of earth material caused by gravity, also known as a landslide. When earthquakes occur in areas with steep slopes, they often cause landslides. A huge landslide falling into a narrow shallow river could dam the river and form a lake behind it.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Understanding cause and effect relationships between bridges and natural hazards, students recommend what kind of bridge should be designed at each site.

PE

Using mathematical representations MS-ESS3-2 to describe and support scientific conclusions, students test slopes and observe how slope angle and material changes the frequency of mass wasting. They compare this with the way precipitation, slope angle, and slope material contribute to runoff, and how this leads to flooding.

SEP

G R A D E

Using their knowledge of structure and function, and how stability might be disturbed by sudden events, students review the initial design of the bridge and the performance of that design in a model flood event. Students redesign the bridge by applying their knowledge of bridge designs and data from the tests of the initial bridge design.

Students explore the causes and effects of tsunamis by creating an “act it out� to describe the patterns of tsunami hazards.

CCC

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Students observe the flightless kakapo whose numbers rebounded back from 18 individuals to about 160 as they examine ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Students write about what can cause the loss of species and why people work hard to preserve biodiversity. (LS2.C)

Why are almond farmers trucking billions of honey bees from around the nation to pollinate their orchards? Students answer this question as they examine how changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on. (LS4.D) (ETS1.B)

Students observe how wild animal populations rise and fall while human populations only rise as they examine how human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise. (ESS3.C) (ETS1.B) (LS2.C) (LS4.D)

The Importance of Healthy Ecosystems Almond farms in California truck in billions of honey bees from around the nation to pollinate their orchards each spring.

Engineering Solutions and Protecting Ecosystems The populations of wild animals, such as the lynx and rabbit, tend to rise and fall in cycles, but the global human population is just rising— dramatically.

DCI

Biodiversity The kakapo is a flightless parrot that lives in New Zealand. In the 1970s, only 18 individuals were left alive; now there are about 160 living individuals.

Lesson Phenomenon

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MS-LS2-5

PE

Students ask questions and define problems when they examine the economic, social, and scientific factors in ecological problems to propose and evaluate solutions.

MS-ESS3-4 MS-LS2-5

Students evaluate and communicate MS-LS2-5 the costs of providing ecosystem services through other means as they engage in an argument for preserving healthy ecosystems.

In understanding why changes in biodiversity disrupt ecosystems, students examine case studies to construct and present an argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning about how change in biodiversity can disrupt ecosystems.

SEP

We use water for drinking, bathing, cleaning, cooking, and more. As a population increases, the strain on water resources increases. Since the Colorado River is diverted for drinking water and agriculture, more people using it would divert more water. To stop the problems, people need to study the ecosystem and the resources needed by its populations.

Ecosystems can provide people with clean water, food, pollination services, biodiversity, recreation, soil formation, air purification, and more. The loss of wetlands can lead to lost protection from flooding, loss of water purification, loss of biodiversity, and loss of food.

The loss of even one species can disrupt an entire ecosystem because the different species in an ecosystem interact and depend on each other. So, for example, if invertebrates in a river die when it becomes a lake, the fish that eat them might die due to starvation. This could disrupt the population of predatory birds that eat fish. The chain of effects could go on and on.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

G R A D E

Using cause and effect relationships to predict phenomenon, students play a game that models how different rates of population growth and per capita resource use impact ecosystems. They then collect and graph data from the game and analyze the results.

Students understand stability and change as they take the perspective of different stakeholders to design competing solutions to preserve different ecosystem services, then compromise to find one solution.

Students analyze patterns in data on biodiversity in ecosystems to learn how scientists use measures of biodiversity to monitor ecosystem health.

CCC

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160  7th Grade Integrated Students examine how changes in one part of a system may cause large changes in another part as they review an investigative report and research population change to generate ideas about what local resources are impacted by the human population.

MS-ETS1-3 MS-LS2-5

PE

Students put a story together by MS-ESS3-4 constructing an argument supported MS-LS2-5 by evidence. Students evaluate two competing solutions and then present their argument. Students compare their findings to those of their classmates.

Students define an engineering goal that can be solved through the development of a tool, and includes multiple criteria and constraints in the form of a fishing net that maximizes target catch but reduces by-catch.

SEP

If the invertebrates in a river die when it becomes a lake, how could this impact the ecosystem? Since blocking the Colorado River with the Hoover Dam has drained the downstream area and destroyed wetlands, what are the negative consequences for people? How can people solve an ecosystem’s health problems? Answering these questions helps students to summarize their findings and make the final revisions to their model. Students use their completed model to support their explanation of the integrated phenomenon.

Students test what kind of nets are best for capturing specific types of living things in the ocean. They can apply this knowledge to understanding how human activity impacts ecosystems and what humans can do to mitigate impact.

Connection to Segment Phenomenon

L E A R N I N G

Sample Explanation: Pooling water upstream changes a river ecosystem to a lake and also reduces the water downstream, destroying wetlands and the ecosystem services they provide. A natural dam caused by an earthquake triggering a landslide in Montana caused a new lake to form. The change here is visible in images showing dead tree trunks sticking up out of the lake—many species die when a lake replaces a river. The Hoover Dam has diverted water from the Colorado River, leading to wetland loss. Now coastal areas with reduced wetlands have lost flood protection, access to pure water, and biodiversity. A growing population puts increasing strain on ecosystem services, such as providing drinking water. The Colorado River will only become more strained as the nearby population grows unless people plan new policies to protect it.

Students act as TV investigative reporters focusing on human interactions with ecosystems and how abalone populations have been in steady decline due to the impact of human population growth on them and other Earth systems.

Performance Assessment

Students present their design solution and test results, and listen to the other engineering teams. Applying cause and effect, they combine the features that seem most likely to succeed into a new net, and test this one.

CCC

G R A D E

Integrated Phenomenon: Dams affect river ecosystems whether they are natural, like the one at Quake Lake, or man-made, like the Hoover Dam.

Students design a fishing net that helps to preserve biodiversity by targeting certain species rather than all species. Students develop the best possible solution and use a rubric to evaluate their work on this engineering challenge. (ETS1.B) (ETS1.C)

DCI

Engineering Challenge Design a fishing net that will help preserve biodiversity by targeting certain species rather than all species.

Lesson Phenomenon

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M A T E R I A L S

Materials • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Segment 1 Balloons, pack Aluminum foil Digital balances Glass marbles Hydrogen peroxide Isopropyl alcohol Balls, different materials Test tubes, plastic with caps Well plates Eyedroppers Food coloring Graduated cylinder Mineral oil Salt Vinegar Plastic containers Cups, 9 oz Stopwatch Beakers, 250 mL Tongs Cardboard boxes C-clamp Clay, modeling Funnel, small Gallium metal Needle, sewing Plastic tubing Test tube, glass Copper tubing Nitrile gloves, medium Eyedroppers Graduated cylinder Test tube rack Toothpicks Straws Bromothymol blue (BTB) Gloves, different sizes Name tags Pipettes Transparency sheets Yarn Masking tape Wax paper Modeling dough, different colors Construction paper Stickers

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Segment 2 Digital balance Containers, plastic shoebox Cups Food coloring Pipettes Thermometers Sodium borate, 300g Thread Jars, case Balloons Erlenmeyer flask Filter paper Hydrochloric acid Plastic spoons Steel wool Zinc, metal shot Baking soda Beakers, 250 mL Calcium chloride Lighter, long stem Magnesium sulfate Measuring teaspoons Sodium carbonate Tongs Vinegar Digital balance Ammonium chloride Plastic bags Plastic powder funnel Pleather, swatch Leather scrap

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Segment 3 Cardboard sheets Foam trays Food coloring Magnifying glasses Rock sets Cups, styrofoam, 16oz Plastic wrap Rubber bands Pipettes Thermometers Deli containers, 16 oz Gravel Lids Model trees Clay, modeling Toothpicks Play money set Carpet squares Construction paper Craft sticks Duct tape Sound meter Speaker Stopwatch Beakers, 250 mL Food coloring Tongs Cardboard boxes C-clamp Funnel, small Gallium metal Needle, sewing Plastic tubing Test tube, glass Copper tubing Nitrile gloves, medium Plastic containers Eyedroppers Graduated cylinder Salt Test tube rack

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M A T E R I A L S

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Segment 4 Rubber bands Trays, black Clay, modeling Toothpicks Dominoes Containers, plastic shoebox Centimeter cubes Funnel Beads Pie plates Spoons, plastic Cork Duct tape Embroidery hoop Fishing line Hex nuts Straws Paint stirrer Toy Fish Twine

View all Program Materials Kits online.

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C R E D I T S

Cover/Title page: T: Thinkstock BL: Thinkstock BR: Thinkstock 16L: Shutterstock 16R: Shutterstock 24: Pond5 48: Choups/Alamy 50: Shutterstock 51: Shutterstock 52T: Shutterstock 52B: Shutterstock 53T: Thinkstock 53B: Shutterstock 54TL: Thinkstock 54TL: Thinkstock 54TR: JeanLouis Klein & Marie-Luce Hubert/Science Source 54TR: Thinkstock 54BL: John Shaw/Science Source 54BL: Art Wolfe/Science Source 54BR: Thomas & Pat Leeson/Science Source 54BR: Charles V. Angelo/ Science Source 55T: Thinkstock 55B: Thinkstock 56B: Image created by Reto Stockli with the help of Alan Nelson, under the leadership of Fritz Hasler 57: Francis Cassidy/Alamy 58T: Choups/Alamy 58B: Shutterstock 62: Shutterstock 68: Shutterstock 70TC: Shutterstock 70BC: Thinkstock 70B: Image created by Reto Stockli with the help of Alan Nelson, under the leadership of Fritz Hasler 74L: Shutterstock 74R: Shutterstock 75L: Shutterstock 76L: Shutterstock 79: Shutterstock 80: Shutterstock 81: Thinkstock 82: Shutterstock 83: Thinkstock 84: Thinkstock 113: Wikimedia 114: Wikimedia

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Profile for Teachers' Curriculum Institute (TCI)

Bring Science Alive! 7th Grade Integrated  

Bring Science Alive! 7th Grade Integrated