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Europe During Medieval Times 1
The Legacy of the Roman Empire To what extent have the contributions of ancient Rome influenced modern society?
The Development of Feudalism in Western Europe How well did feudalism establish order in Europe in the Middle Ages?
The Roman Catholic Church in Medieval Europe How influential was the Roman Catholic Church in medieval Europe?
Life in Medieval Towns What was life like in medieval European towns?
The Decline of Feudalism How did events in Europe contribute to the decline of feudalism and the rise of democratic thought?
The Byzantine Empire How did the Byzantine Empire develop and form its own distinctive church?
Islam in Medieval Times 7
The Origins and Spread of Islam How did Islam originate and spread?
Learning About World Religions: Islam How do the beliefs and practices of Islam shape Muslimsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lives?
Muslim Innovations and Adaptations What important innovations and adaptations did medieval Muslims make?
10 From the Crusades to New Muslim Empires How did the Crusades affect the lives of Christians, Muslims, and Jews?
The Culture and Kingdoms of West Africa 11 Early Societies in West Africa What was the most significant factor in the development of early societies in West Africa?
12 Ghana: A West African Trading Empire To what extent did trans-Saharan trade lead to Ghanaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s wealth and success?
13 The Influence of Islam on West Africa In what ways did Islam influence West African society?
14 The Cultural Legacy of West Africa In what ways do the cultural achievements of West Africa influence our culture today?
Imperial China 15 The Political Development of Imperial China Which method of selecting officials led to the best leaders for China?
16 China Develops a New Economy How did the Chinese improve their economy during the Tang and Song dynasties?
17 Chinese Discoveries and Inventions How have medieval Chinese discoveries and inventions influenced the modern world?
18 Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Contacts with the Outside World How did the foreign-contact policies of three medieval Chinese dynasties affect China?
Japan During Medieval Times 19 The Influence of Neighboring Cultures on Japan In what ways did neighboring cultures influence Japan?
20 Heian-kyo: The Heart of Japan’s Golden Age What was life like for aristocrats during the Heian period?
21 The Rise of the Warrior Class in Japan What was the role of the samurai in the military society of medieval Japan?
Civilizations of the Americas 22 The Maya What led to the rise, flourishing, and fall of the Maya civilization?
23 The Aztecs How did the Aztecs rise to power?
24 Daily Life in Tenochtitlán What was daily life like for Aztecs in Tenochtitlán?
25 The Incas How did the Incas manage their large and remote empire?
26 Achievements of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas What were the significant achievements of the Maya, Aztecs, and Incas?
Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Renaissance and Reformation 27 The Renaissance Begins What changes in Europe led to the Renaissance?
28 Florence: The Cradle of the Renaissance What advances were made during the Renaissance?
29 Leading Figures of the Renaissancee In what ways have various leading figures of the Renaissance affected modern society?
30 The Reformation Begins What factors led to the weakening of the Catholic Church and the beginning of the Reformation?
31 The Spread and Impact of the Reformation What were the effects of the Reformation?
Europe Enters the Modern Age 32 The Age of Exploration How did the Age of Exploration change the way Europeans viewed the world?
33 The Scientific Revolution How did the Scientific Revolution change the way people understood the world?
34 The Enlightenment How have the ideas of the Enlightenment influenced modern government?
What makes us different? History Alive! The Medieval World and Beyond
Introduction presents six historical themes
Setting the Stage provides historical and geographical background for the unit
Primary Source Investigations + Reading Further in every unit
Lessons include over 50 engaging activities
Timeline Challenges conclude each unit
Program Components I N T E R A C T I V E
S T U D E N T
N O T E B O O K
China’s Contacts with the Outside World
Bring Learning Alive!
How did the foreign-contact policies of three medieval Chinese dynasties affect China?
TCI offers programs for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms.
Bring Science Alive!
P R E V I E W
Read the situation below.
Social Studies Alive!
The Johnsons have just moved to a new neighborhood. They are debating whether to have an open- or closed-door policy toward their neighbors. If they have an open-door policy, they will invite the neighbors to parties, ask for and perform favors for them, and borrow from and lend things to them. If they have a closed-door policy, they will keep to themselves and not interact with their neighbors at all.
History Alive! Geography Alive! Government Alive!
In the T-chart below, write two arguments in favor of the Johnsons following an open-door policy and two arguments in favor of a closed-door policy. One example is done for each.
Arguments for a Closed-Door Policy
Arguments for an Open-Door Policy An open-door policy is a good idea because if the Johnsons are friendly with their neighbors, their neighbors will share information about local services.
A closed-door policy is good because if the Johnsons are not friendly with the neighbors, the neighbors won’t ask to borrow their things.
China’s Contacts with the Outside World 1
© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute
Interactive Student Notebook
Students engage with their learning by expressing their ideas, completing graphically organized notes, and developing personalized responses in their Interactive Student Notebooks.
The Student Text provides a rich knowledge base of concepts and guides students through their learning.
The Medieval World and Beyond
7/23/18 3:12 PM
Print Lesson Guide Print Lesson Guides allow for teachers to prepare and prep for their lesson with ease from anywhere.
Teacher and Student Licenses Lesson Guides, customizable assessments, video quizzes, learning games, and more are at your fingertips.
Journey Through a TCI Inquiry-Based Unit Immerse your students in history with TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inquiry-based lessons. Each lesson comes with a readyto-teach slideshow to engage your students with guiding questions that facilitate class discussion and debate, stunning images for students to investigate, built-in audio tracks, and rich written and visual primary sources. Each unit gives several opportunities to further student inquiry through research projects and developing arguments centered around primary sources.
Geography Challenge Kick-off each unit with a Geography Challenge to introduce students to a region and inspire questions about the unit.
TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lesson Cycle Inquiry is built into each lesson within a unit, beginning with a Preview for students to ask questions and ending with assessments for students to apply what they learned.
3 Reading Furthers Reading Furthers are included in each lesson to enhance literacy and engage students with related topics.
Summative Assessments Each lesson comes with a TCI-created summative assessment, which is comprised of four question sets to fully assess student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but you can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of your classroom.
Each unit ends with a Timeline Challenge, an activity in which students practice their timeline and cause-and-effect skills to order major events from the unit.
4 Investigating Primary Sources In each unit, students have an opportunity to examine primary sources, connect it to their learning, and conduct an inquiry about them.
1. Geography Challenge
Asking Questions Students review guiding questions and ask their own questions about the region.
Practicing Geography Skills Students examine a map of the region and do a series of geography tasks based on the map.
Interacting with Maps Students use digital resources to interact with regional maps.
2. TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lesson Cycle
The lesson concludes with a Processing activity where students apply what they have learned in an authentic assessment.
TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lesson cycle begins with a Preview to spark interest, connect to prior learning, and inspire historical questions.
When they are ready, students take a carefully designed summative assessment to gauge their learning.
Students have an opportunity to read expository text and test their knowledge with interactive games and checks for understanding.
The lesson progresses to a handson Activity, which incorporates one of TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s six unique teaching strategies that engages students with rich historical materials and connects them to their reading. Through it all, students respond in their Interactive Student Notebooks as a formative assessment.
3. Reading Furthers
Reading Further The Explorations of Admiral Zheng He Six hundred years ago, Admiral Zheng He led Chinese sailors on seven extraordinary expeditions to India, Arabia, and Africa. At the time, Chinese ships called junks were far more advanced than European vessels. Sailing those magnificent ships, Zheng He traded with countries on two continents. However, in the 1430s, the Chinese suddenly stopped trading and exploring. What happened?
Chinese admiral Zheng He, shown here on a Chinese stamp from 2005, was one of the world’s great early explorers.
The year was 1405, and Admiral Zheng He stood on the deck of his ship. At almost seven feet in height, Zheng He towered over everyone around him. People who knew him said, “His eyebrows were like swords and his forehead wide, like a tiger’s.” When he gave an order, his sailors obeyed immediately. From his deck, Zheng saw his ships spread behind him as far as he could see. With pride, he looked at the vessels that followed his out of the harbor of Luijia, near Nanjing, China’s capital. The entire fleet, which carried about 28,000 people, was heading toward the cities of India. “Treat Distant People with Kindness” Known as the “Admiral of the Western Seas,” Zheng He led the greatest fleet of merchant vessels up to that time. The man who sent out the fleet was Emperor Chengzu, a bold and ambitious leader who wanted his people to explore the world and expand trade. In 1403, he ordered his royal carpenters to construct a huge fleet, and for the next three years, they tackled this vast job. The emperor selected Zheng He, his friend since boyhood, to be the admiral of this powerful new fleet. Zheng came from a Muslim family in western China. When the Chinese defeated the Mongols in the region in 1382, they took Zheng prisoner and brought him to Chengzu’s court. The two boys hunted and rode horses together, and soon became good friends. Later, when Zheng He served in the Chinese army, he showed a talent for strategy and commanded the respect and obedience of others. He also won Chengzu’s complete trust. The emperor directed Zheng He to sail west to faraway lands, “confer presents,” and “treat distant people with kindness.” We know the emperor’s exact words because Zheng He carved reports about the expeditions into stone tablets that still exist. Chengzu ordered merchants across China to supply trade goods for the expedition, including silk, cotton, wine, tea, silk robes, and porcelain.
The reading comes with a critical thinking activity, such as evaluating cost and benefits, developing arguments, or exploring cause-and-effect of historical events.
The Greatest Fleet in the World Zheng He’s ships were far more technologically advanced than were European ships of that time. The largest vessels in his fleet were the enormous treasure ships, measuring about 400 feet long and 160 feet wide. In contrast, the Santa Maria, Christopher Columbus’s flagship, measured about 85 feet in length. The treasure ships had 9 masts and 12 sails of red silk, and each vessel had more than 50 luxurious staterooms for officers and merchants. As the fleet sailed out of Luijia Harbor, Zheng He set a course toward Calicut, a city-state on the west coast of India. The most advanced navigation tools in the world helped the fleet sail across the Indian Ocean. Ninety years later, Columbus would not have equipment as good as Zheng He’s. The key was the magnetic compass, an essential tool the Chinese invented in the 11th century. The compass allowed the Chinese to steer their ships even under cloud cover. Chinese sailors could also determine their latitude, or distance from the equator. Each evening they took readings to find the North Star’s position above the horizon. The closer the star’s position to the horizon, the farther south they were. The farther the star’s position from the horizon, the farther north they were.
Equipped with advanced navigation tools, Zheng He was able to steer his huge fleet across the Indian Ocean on his great expeditions.
China’s Contacts with the Outside World
In the Reading Further, students dive into a highinterest topic and investigate the intricacies of social studies.
4. Investigating Primary Sources
Investigating Primary Sources What Was It Like to Take a Civil Service Examination? The effectiveness of the Chinese government depended on the people who served as government officials. Through several dynasties of imperial China, painstaking civil service exams determined who was placed in these government jobs. You will examine four primary sources about these tests and write an argument about what it was like to take civil service examinations.
The Investigating Primary Sources comes with a reading that provides a mix of visual and text-based primary sources.
Rather than handing out government jobs to the emperor’s family and friends, the Han dynasty began to award jobs to men who performed well on civil service examinations. Universities were set up to train students and then test their knowledge of Chinese literature, laws, poetry, and government administration. Many of the courses were based on the teachings of Confucius, a respected Chinese teacher. This primary source was written in 1804 by an ambassador from England, Sir John Barrow. He was sent to China to record his observations about Chinese life. In this excerpt of his report, Barrow describes China’s civil service examinations. How does Barrow’s background affect the reliability of this source? What does this primary source tell you about the experience of the person taking the exam? Why might someone be motivated to take these examinations?
Travels in China The examinations to be passed for the attainment of office are principally confined to the knowledge of the language; and as far as this goes, they are rigid to the utmost degree. The candidates are put into separate apartments, having previously been searched, in order to ascertain that they have no writing of any kind about them. They are allowed nothing but pencils, ink, and paper, and within a given time they are each to produce a theme on the subject that shall be proposed to them. The excellence of the composition, which is submitted to the examining officers, or men of letters, depends chiefly on the following points. That every character be neatly and accurately made. That each character be well chosen, and not in vulgar use. That the same character do not occur twice in the same composition. —John Barrow, 1804
The Chinese scholars who created the civil service exams agreed that successful students must have a solid understanding of texts called The Four Books. These included books, poems, and reports by Confucius and other Chinese philosophers. To prepare for the tests, which would require answering questions and writing essays, candidates memorized hundreds of classic passages. This next primary source is an excerpt from one of The Four Books called The Great Learning. It is one of the first texts that students learned to repeat word for word. It is a numbered list of virtues that historians believe to be the words of Confucius. The other sections of the book were written by philosophers in response to Confucius’s writing. What do you think the text means when it refers to the “cultivation of a person”? According to this primary source, why are education and knowledge important? Why would a Chinese emperor benefit from having civil servants in his government who understand this philosophy?
The Great Learning 1. What the Great Learning teaches, is—to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence . . . 3. Things have their root and their completion. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning. 4. The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the empire, first ordered well their own States. Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things . . . 6. From the emperor down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of every thing besides. 7. It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered. It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared for. —Confucius, date unknown
The Political Development of Imperial China
Students conduct an inquiry about the primary sources. They collect evidence from the primary sources to develop an argument about a compelling question.
5. Timeline Challenge
Analyzing Timelines Students analyze the timeline in the Students Text and answer questions about it.
Researching Events Students select more events to add to the timeline and conduct research on one of them.
Conducting an Inquiry Using their knowledge from the unit, students conduct an inquiry about world history themes. They write an argument answering a compelling question and publish their work.
6. Summative Assessments Mastering the Content This section’s selectedresponse questions are designed to evaluate understanding of the lesson’s content.
Applying Social Studies Skills This section’s constructedresponse questions allow students to demonstrate knowledge of skill through close examination of a rich stimulus or primary source.
Exploring the Essential Content This section’s open-ended questions challenge students to use their critical thinking skills to create a final product.
Universal Access TCI is designed to reach all of your learners. Here are some resources you can use in your classroom.
Reading Tools Digital text-to-audio, main ideas, and note taking tools support reading.
Enrichment Opportunities Students engage with primary sources, review literature, and study biographies of historical figures.
Differentiating Instructions Each lesson comes with modifications for English learners, learners reading and writing below grade level, learners with special education needs, and advanced learners.
Vocabulary Cards Students review important social studies terms with vocabulary flip cards.
English Language Arts (ELA) Opportunities to hone language skills are integrated into each lesson.
Notebook Students engage with the Student Text to record key ideas and make meaning out of what they read in their notebooks.
Writing for Understanding This strategy takes the class through a rich experience, such as debating complex issues, allowing students to develop ideas and form opinions to use as a springboard for writing.
H A N D O U T
Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens During your walking tour of Athens, you learned about six aspects of Greek culture that thrived during the Golden Age. On a separate sheet of paper, write a speech for the Athenian leader Pericles, using information that you learned on your tour. Your speech should clearly convince Athenians and Greeks from other city-states that Athens is a great city. Your speech must be at least four paragraphs and include these elements: • • • • •
a brief introduction to Athens and the Golden Age a statement explaining why Athens is a great city a description of two or more relevant examples from your walking tour of Athens an appeal to any listeners who might say that Athens is not a great city a brief conclusion that restates your position and reminds listeners of your main points
Reading Further Students write arguments supported with evidence and reasoning, engage and respond to high-interest Reading Furthers, and create historical news articles and journal entries.
Vocabulary Development Chapter ______
Follow these steps to create an Illustrated Dictionary for your Key Content Terms. Step 1: Choose a Key Content Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this chapter or in a previous chapter. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Key Content Terms. Sketch/Diagram
In Your Own Words
In a Sentence
These resources provide tools for students who need additional guidance and structure, such as strategies to develop vocabulary or guidelines for supporting arguments from evidence.