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Exploring Science Practices— Grade 4


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Science Journals

Picture Cards

During Fast Track Lessons, students use the journal to access hands-on investigations, checks for understanding, and text with notes for each science unit.

P I C T U R E

Grade 4

Waves and Information

Grade 4

Environment?

1and Plant and 9 Animal How DoStructures Animals Respond to Their Environment?

C A R D

Unit 3

Grade 4

Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary t Plant Structures Are Used for Support and 6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support, Creature wth? Movement, and Protection? TCI’s Grade 4 program includes four units. Each

unit has a Science Journal, complete 7 What Animal Structures Are Used for Reproduction? with hands-on investigations, text with notes, and checks for understanding. 8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the

Earth’s Changing Surface Grade 4

Science Journal

Assessment: Creating a SafetyEnvironment? Do PlantsPerformance Respond to Their Environment? Pamphlet Unit 1 Plant Structures 9 How Do Animals Respond to Their Environment? t?Animal Structures Are Used for Digestion andand Animal Heat? 5 How Is Energy Stored and Used? ulation? Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary 1 What Plant Structures Are Used for Support and 6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support, 6 How Do People Choose Energy Resources? Creature Growth? Movement, and Protection? TCI’s Grade 4 program includes four units. Each unit has a Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device 2 What Plant Structures Are Used for Protection? What Animal Structures Are Used Reproduction? with7 hands-on investigations, text for with notes, and checks

2 Energy

Energy

Science Journal, complete for understanding.

Pamphlet w Is Energy Transferred byAssessment: Colliding Objects? Unit 1 and Plant and9 Animal Structures Performance Investigating Changes How Do Animals Respond to Their Environment? 5 What Animal Structures Areto Used for Digestion 5 How Is Energy Stored and Used? Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary the Appalachian Mountains w Is Energy Transferred by Sound, Light, and Heat? Circulation? 1 What Plant Structures Are Used for Support and 6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support, 6 How Do People Choose Energy Resources? 6 Transferred Where on by Earth Are Earthquakes,Volcanoes, and w Is Energy Electric Currents? Creature Growth? Movement, and Protection? Mountains Found? Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device 2 What Plant Structures Are Used for Protection? 7 What Animal Structures Are Used for Reproduction? Unit 2 Energy 7 What Can People Do About Natural Hazards? 3 What Plant Structures Are Used for Reproduction? 8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the 3 Earth’s Changing Surface Performance Assessment: Developing Hazard Plans Environment? 1 How Are Energy and Motion Related? 4 How Do Plants Respond Performance Assessment: Creating a Safety to Their Environment?

Pamphlet t Are Some Clues That Earth’s Surface Performance Assessment: Changes to 2 How Is Energy Transferred by Colliding 5Objects? WhatInvestigating Animal Structures Are Used for Digestion and

9 How Do Animals Respond to Their Environment?

nges?

Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary

the Appalachian Mountains Circulation? 3 How Is Energy Transferred by Sound, Light, and Heat?

5 How Is Energy Stored and Used?

Does Water Change 6 Messages? Whereby onElectric Earth Are Earthquakes,Volcanoes, and Creature 6 How Do People Choose Energy Resources? 4 How Is Energy Transferred Currents? 5 How Can Earth’s SoundSurface? Waves Be Used to Send

Picture Cards

Unit 1

Plant and Animal Structures

Photographs Photographs Primary Sources Primary Sources

Science Journal

Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device

Unit 2 Energy 7 What Can People Do About Natural Hazards? Do LivingPerformance Things Change Earth’s Surface? Assessment: Developing a Performance Developing Hazard Plans Unit 3Using Earth’s Changing Surface Assessment: Do Fossils Form and What DoMethod They Show? Communication Waves 1 How Are Energy and Motion Related?

Performance Assessment: Creating a Safety

Pamphlet 2 How Is EnergyPerformance Transferred byAssessment: Colliding Objects? 1 What Are Some Clues That Earth’s Surface Investigating Changes to Engineering 5 How Is Energy Stored and Used? 3 How Is Energy Transferred by Sound, Light, and Heat? Changes? the Appalachian Mountains

6 Howand Do People Choose Energy Resources? 4 How Energy Transferred Electric 2 How Does Water Change Earth’s Surface? Where onby Earth Are Currents? Earthquakes,Volcanoes, t Are Some Examples of Waves? 5 How Can Sound Waves BeIsUsed to 6 Send Messages? Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device Mountains Found? 3 How Does Wind Change Surface? t Are Some Properties of Waves? 6 How Earth’s Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages? 7 aWhat Can People Do About Natural Hazards? 4 How Do Living Things Change Earth’s Surface?Developing Do Waves Affect Objects? Performance Assessment:

Unit 3 Earth’s Changing Surface

Performance Assessment: Developing Hazard Plans Communication Method What Do They Show? Using Waves ch Waves Travel Through Earth? 5 How Do Fossils Form and Name:

Unit 4 Waves and Information

1 What Are Some Clues That Earth’s Surface Changes?

Engineering

Performance Assessment: Investigating Changes to the Appalachian Mountains

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

6 Where on Earth Are Earthquakes,Volcanoes, and 1 What Are Some Examples of Waves? 2 How Does Water 5 Change How CanEarth’s SoundSurface? Waves Be Used to Send Messages? Mountains Found? Earth’s Surface? 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves? 3 How Does Wind6 Change How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

3 How Do Waves Affect Objects? 4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?

7 What Can People Do About Natural Hazards? 4 How Do Living Things ChangeAssessment: Earth’s Surface? Performance Developing a

Assessment: Developing Hazard Plans 5 How Do Fossils Form and What Do They Show? Communication Method Using WavesPerformanceName:

Unit 4 Waves and Information 1 What Are Some Examples of Waves?

The thick, waxy leaves serve another purpose. Better than most plants, they do an excellent job of keeping water in the leaves. But the holly plant has needs too. It likes lots of sunlight and nutrient rich soils. And it cannot survive extremely cold winters.

Engineering 6 How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages? Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves

The holly plant has unique-looking leaves! Most people can easily recognize its spiky-edged shaped leaves. But the holly doesn’t make its leaves1for show. The thick, tough leaves with spiky edges don’t make a very good meal for most animals. Animals like deer usually leave it alone, unless they are very hungry.

Lesson 5 - How Do Fossils Form and What Do They Show?

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5 How Can Sound Waves Be Used to Send Messages?

2 What Are Some Properties of Waves? 3 How Do Waves Affect Objects? 4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?

UNIT 1 - PLANT AND ANIMAL STRUCTURES

Holly

Grade 4

Science Journal

3 What Plant Structures Are Used for Reproduction? 8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the w Are Energy and Motion Related? Performance Assessment: Creating a Safety Environment? 4 How Do Plants Respond to Their Environment?

Mountains Found? Does Wind Surface? 6 Change How CanEarth’s Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

A

Unit 2

Grade 4

4 Waves and Information

P I C T U R E

Science Journal

8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the

t Plant Structures Are Used for Protection?

UNIT 3 - EARTH’S CHANGING SURFACE

Unit 4

Grade 4

6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support,

t Plant Structures Are Used for Reproduction?

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Fossil A

and Protection? TCI’s Movement, Grade 4 program includes four units. Each unit has a Science Journal, complete 7 What Animal Structures Are Used Reproduction? with hands-on investigations, textforwith notes, and checks for understanding.

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C A R D

Grade 4

Examine these fossils. Notice the ridges on them. Does this organism’s trait remind you of a feature on an organism you know?

s four units. Each unit has a Science Journal, complete text with notes, and checks for understanding.

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Students analyze powerful images, graphs, data sets, and engaging primary sources printed on reusable placards.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

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Name:

Lesson 2 - W hat Plant Structures Are Used for Protection?

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Engineering

Name:

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Resources available in Spanish


Bring Science Alive! Exploring Science Practices Grade 4 Unit 1 - Plant and Animal Structures Anchoring Phenomenon: All animals have eyes, but the location of the eyes are different depending on the animal. Storyline: A comic book artist wants to come up with new creatures for his latest work. Study the structures of plants and animals to give him ideas for how these creatures can survive.

1 What Plant Structures Are Used for Support and Growth? Phenomenon: Palm trees can remain standing during strong winds.

2 What Plant Structures Are Used for Protection? Phenomenon: Some plants, like cacti, have sharp spines.

3 What Plant Structures Are Used for Reproduction? Phenomenon: Dandelion seeds blow away in the wind.

4 How Do Plants Respond to Their Environment? Phenomenon: Plants move their leaves toward the sun.

5 What Animal Structures Are Used for Digestion and Circulation? Phenomenon: Snails have mouths, but they aren’t the same as people’s mouths.

6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support, Movement, and Protection? Phenomenon: Snakes move without legs.

7 What Animal Structures Are Used for Reproduction? Phenomenon: Peacocks show off their feathers around peahens.

8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the Environment? Phenomenon: Owls have huge eyes.

9 How Do Animals Respond to Their Environment? Phenomenon: Every year, sandhill cranes fly to New Mexico.

Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary Creature

Anchoring Phenomenon: All animals have eyes, but the location of the eyes are different depending on the animal.

Unit 2 - Energy Anchoring Phenomenon: Bike helmets protect you. Storyline: Energy is all around us! Sometimes we use it to help us and sometimes it can cause us harm. Help teach students about how energy transfers from one place to another by creating a safety pamphlet about how bike helmets work and by creating a device that uses energy to keep you safe when riding a bike. 1 How Are Energy and Motion Related? Phenomenon: When a fast soccer ball hits the net, the net moves more than when a slow soccer ball hits it.

2 How Is Energy Transferred by Colliding Objects?

Phenomenon: When the ball on one end is released, the ball on the other end moves.

3 How Is Energy Transferred by Sound, Light, and Heat? Phenomenon: This car isn’t moving, but the woman’s hair is still blowing around.

4 How Is Energy Transferred by Electric Currents? Phenomenon: Battery-powered devices can move and light up.

Performance Assessment: Creating a Safety Pamphlet Anchoring Phenomenon: Bike helmets protect you.

5 How Is Energy Stored and Used?

Phenomenon: A traffic light can be powered by the sun.

6 How Do People Choose Energy Resources? Phenomenon: Lots of different resources can provide energy.

Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device Anchoring Phenomenon: Bike helmets protect you.


Unit 3 - Earth’s Changing Surface Anchoring Phenomenon: The Appalachian Mountains used to be tall and pointy, but now they are low and rounded. Storyline: As a geological assistant, you will examine how places like the Appalachian Mountains have changed over time.

1 What Are Some Clues That Earth’s Surface Changes? Phenomenon: Parts of this coastline seem to have broken off.

2 How Does Water Change Earth’s Surface?

Phenomenon: This water is washing away this person’s front porch.

3 How Does Wind Change Earth’s Surface?

Phenomenon: There are interesting repeating wave shapes on the sand.

4 How Do Living Things Change Earth’s Surface? Phenomenon: These machines are making holes in the dirt.

5 How Do Fossils Form and What Do They Show?

Phenomenon: This fossil shell from an aquatic animal was found on land.

Performance Assessment: Investigating Changes to the Appalachian Mountains Anchoring Phenomenon: The Appalachian Mountains used to be tall and pointy, but now they are low and rounded.

6 Where on Earth Are Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountains Found? Phenomenon: This mountain has a crater on top where lava came out.

7 What Can People Do About Natural Hazards? Phenomenon: Flood water is washing away parts of this city.

Performance Assessment: Developing Hazard Plans

Anchoring Phenomenon: The Appalachian Mountains used to be tall and pointy, but now they are low and rounded.

Unit 4 - Waves and Information Anchoring Phenomenon: People can communicate using sound waves. Storyline: Find out about waves and different ways information can be transferred to create a new communication method.

1 What Are Some Examples of Waves?

Phenomenon: At sporting events, the crowd does a movement called “the wave.”

2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

Phenomenon: Water waves can be big and fast enough to surf on.

3 How Do Waves Affect Objects? Phenomenon: Glitter jumps on this speaker.

4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?

Phenomenon: Earthquakes cause the earth to move in different ways.

5 How Can Sound Waves Be Used to Send Messages? Phenomenon: Emergency vehicles use sound to alert us.

6 How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

Phenomenon: You can send messages to and receive messages from people who are far away.

Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves Anchoring Phenomenon: People can communicate using sound waves.




Grade 4 TCI’s Grade 4 program includes four units. Each unit has a Science Journal, complete with hands-on investigations, text with notes, and checks for understanding.

Unit 4

Unit 1 Plant and Animal Structures 1 What Plant Structures Are Used for Support and Growth?

6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support, Movement, and Protection?

2 What Plant Structures Are Used for Protection?

7 What Animal Structures Are Used for Reproduction?

3 What Plant Structures Are Used for Reproduction?

8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the

4 How Do Plants Respond to Their Environment? 5 What Animal Structures Are Used for Digestion and Circulation?

Grade 4

Waves and Information Science Journal Sample

Environment? 9 How Do Animals Respond to Their Environment? Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary Creature

Unit 2 Energy 1 How Are Energy and Motion Related? 2 How Is Energy Transferred by Colliding Objects?

Performance Assessment: Creating a Safety Pamphlet

3 How Is Energy Transferred by Sound, Light, and Heat?

5 How Is Energy Stored and Used?

4 How Is Energy Transferred by Electric Currents?

6 How Do People Choose Energy Resources?

Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device

Unit 3 Earth’s Changing Surface 1 What Are Some Clues That Earth’s Surface Changes? 2 How Does Water Change Earth’s Surface? 3 How Does Wind Change Earth’s Surface?

Performance Assessment: Investigating Changes to the Appalachian Mountains 6 Where on Earth Are Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountains Found?

4 How Do Living Things Change Earth’s Surface?

7 What Can People Do About Natural Hazards?

5 How Do Fossils Form and What Do They Show?

Performance Assessment: Developing Hazard Plans

Unit 4 Waves and Information 1 What Are Some Examples of Waves?

5 How Can Sound Waves Be Used to Send Messages?

2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

6 How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

3 How Do Waves Affect Objects?

Performance Assessment: Developing a

4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?

Communication Method Using Waves

Engineering

Name:


Grade 4 Bring Science Alive!

Unit 4

Waves and Information Find out about waves and different ways information can be transferred to create a new communication method.

1 What Are Some Examples of Waves?........................................6 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?.....................................28 3 How Do Waves Affect Objects?...............................................50 4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?.........................................70 5 How Can Sound Waves Be Used to Send Messages?.............92 6 How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

............ 110

Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves............................................................. 130 Engineering

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Anchoring Phenomenon Think about this unit’s Anchoring Phenomenon: People can communicate using sound waves. Complete the chart. • List what you know about this unit’s phenomenon. • Write questions you wonder about this phenomenon. Know

Wonder

3


Unit Checkpoints As you complete each lesson, look for this icon learned in the lesson. Lesson

and return to record what you’ve

What I Learned

1 What Are Some Examples of Waves?

2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

3 How Do Waves Affect Objects?

4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?

5 How Can Sound Waves Be Used to Send Messages?

6 How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

4

Unit 4 Waves and Information

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


Using what you’ve learned, explain the unit’s Anchoring Phenomenon: People can communicate using sound waves.

Claim

Evidence

Reasoning

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Unit 4 Waves and Information

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Lesson 2

What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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INVESTIGATION

Observing Phenomena Discuss: Have you ever been to the ocean? Did you see people surfing on the waves?

Observe this phenomenon: Water waves can be big and fast enough to surf on.

Try It!

Fill a plastic container with water. What sort of water waves can you make?

Think of what you already know about the different types of waves and their properties. Write questions you have.

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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INVESTIGATION

Creating and Describing Waves Follow these steps to make waves on a string: • Have one group member make a wave with the string by shaking it side to side. • Have another group member make a wave that looks different from the first one. As a group, describe two ways the second wave was different from the first wave. • Draw and describe both waves. • Repeat this process until each group member has made a wave. Draw and describe each wave.

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


INVESTIGATION

Write each group member’s name next to the wave they make. Then, draw a diagram of the wave they make with the string. Describe two ways each wave is different from the last one.

Name

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Picture of Wave

First Difference

Second Difference

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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INVESTIGATION

Modeling Waves Modeling Water Waves Let’s make some other types of waves! In your container, carefully create water waves that have the following properties: • Small amplitude • Large amplitude • Short wavelength • Long wavelength

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


INVESTIGATION

Draw a diagram of each of the four water waves you make in your container. Small Amplitude

Large Amplitude

Short Wavelength

Long Wavelength

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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INVESTIGATION

Modeling Sound Waves Now we’re going to use a spring toy to model how sound waves work. Sound waves are a little different from waves on a string and water waves. • Stretch the spring toy across a table, with one person holding it at either end. • One person holds his or her end still. Freeze! • The other person pushes his or her end forward and backward, toward his or her partner. Keep the spring toy in a straight line. Like in other waves, the wavelength in sound waves is the distance between the crests. Unlike other waves, the amplitude in sound waves refers to how much matter is pushed together and spread apart. Use your spring toy to model these sound waves: • Small amplitude • Large amplitude • Short wavelength • Long wavelength

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


INVESTIGATION

Draw a diagram of each of the four sound waves you make with your spring toy. Small Amplitude

Large Amplitude

Short Wavelength

Long Wavelength

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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INVESTIGATION

Complete the following statements to explain your model of what waves are and how you can describe them. We modeled three examples of waves: 1)

2)

3)

The shape and size of all of these waves are described by two properties: _______________________________ and ____________________________ Describe the two properties: ____________________ is the _________________ the crests and troughs. ____________________ is the _________________ the crests and troughs. 36

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

Š Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


INVESTIGATION

Vocabulary Match the term to its definition. Word Bank dependent

independent

wavelength

amplitude

frequency

1. How large a wave is. The largest distance that matter in a wave moves from its rest position. 2. Two things that affect each other. 3. Two things that do not affect each other. 4. How long a wave is. The distance between a crest and the next crest in a wave. 5. How often a wave passes a certain point. The number of waves that are made in a certain amount of time

My Science Concepts Reflect on your understanding. Draw an X along each line. The amplitude of a wave tells how large it is. The wavelength tells how long it is. The frequency tells how often a wave passes a certain point. still learning

know it

Models help show how waves work. Models are especially helpful to analyze things that cannot be seen or that move very quickly. Diagrams and physical replicas (real objects) show how matter moves in different types of waves. In each model, you were able to change the amplitude and wavelength to see how these properties affect waves. still learning

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know it

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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NOTES

1. The Properties of Water Waves Think about being in a swimming pool on a warm summer day. The water is cold, so you step into it slowly. Your friend has a different idea. He jumps into the pool. SPLASH! The waves that you make are small. But the waves that your friend makes are much larger. The Amplitude of Water Waves

The water waves that you and your friend made are both water waves, but different. One of the ways you can tell these waves apart is by their amplitude. A wave’s amplitude describes how big the wave is. Amplitude is the largest distance that matter moves from its rest position. In water waves, the rest position is midway between the crest of the wave and the trough of the wave. The amplitude of a water wave is the Amplitude is the largest distance that distance from its rest position to its crest. The matter in a wave moves from its rest distance from the rest position to the trough position. A wave’s amplitude describes is also the amplitude of the wave. Matter its height. returns to its rest position after a wave has passed through it. Amplitude of a Water Wave When you and your friend jumped into the pool, the waves you caused had different patterns. When you stepped in, the waves had a small amplitude. When your friend jumped in, the waves had a large amplitude. 38

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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The Wavelength of Water Waves

Wavelength of a Water Wave

The crests and troughs of a water wave can also be used to measure another property called wavelength. Wavelength is how stretched out a wave looks. It is the distance between one crest and the next crest in a wave. The distance between a trough and the next trough in a wave is also wavelength. These distances are the same. If the crests of a water wave are close together, the wave has a short wavelength. If the crests are far apart, the wave has a long wavelength. Water waves can have very different wavelengths. The wavelength of a wave in a pool might be one meter long. In a sink, the wavelength might only be a few centimeters long. The crests are farther apart in the wave in the pool than the wave in a sink. The water wave in the pool has a longer wavelength and the water wave in the sink has a shorter wavelength.

Wavelength describes how long a wave is. If a wave’s crests or troughs are close together, the wave has a short wavelength. If they are far apart, the wave has a long wavelength.

The Frequency of Water Waves Water waves have a third property called frequency. Frequency is how often a crest passes a certain point in a certain amount of time. The frequency of a wave depends on its wavelength and on how fast the wave moves. You can count crests to measure the frequency. For example, you could count how many crests pass you in one minute while you stand in the shallow part of a pool. If 12 crests pass you, then the frequency would be 12 crests per minute.

© Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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NOTES

Label the diagram below. Use the vocabulary you have learned.

How can you calculate the frequency of a water wave?

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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2. The Properties of Waves on a String As you have learned, waves on a string are repeating patterns of crests and troughs, just like water waves. So, the properties of waves on a string are very similar to the properties of water waves. Amplitude of Waves on a String

Just like a water wave, the amplitude of a wave on a string describes the size of the wave. Picture a jump rope lying on the ground in a straight line. It is at its rest position. You can draw a line with chalk along the rope to see where the rest position is. Then you take one end of the rope and shake it side to side, creating a wave. The amplitude of the wave is the distance from the wave’s rest position to its crest. The amplitude is also the distance from its rest position to its trough because these two distances are the same. You can shake the rope using your whole arm by swinging your arm side to side as far as you can. You reach as far as you can to To measure the amplitude of a wave the left, then as far as you can to the right. on a string, measure the distance from You make very big waves that have a large one crest or trough to the wave’s rest amplitude. position. This distance is the wave’s amplitude. You can also shake the rope using just your wrist. You keep your whole arm Amplitude of a Wave on a String still and shake only your hand side to side. You make very small waves. These waves have a small amplitude. © Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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Wavelength of Waves on a String

In a water wave, the wavelength is the distance between the crests of the wave. In a wave on a string, the wavelength is also the distance between the crests of the wave. The distance between the troughs of the wave is also the wavelength. You can make waves of different wavelengths in a jump rope. You can shake your hand very quickly side to side. The crests and troughs are close together, so the wave has a short wavelength. You can shake your hand side to side very slowly. The crests and troughs are far apart, so the wave has a long wavelength. For all waves, wavelength and amplitude are independent of each other. Two things are independent if they do not affect each other. So, a wave with a large amplitude can have a short or a long wavelength. A wave with a small amplitude can also have a short or long wavelength. Frequency of Waves on a String

The distance between a wave’s crests or troughs is the wavelength. These distances are the same.

Waves on a string also have frequency. Think about shaking a jump rope. You could draw a mark on Wavelength of a Wave on a String the sidewalk that is next to the middle of the jump rope. Then you could shake the rope and count how many crests pass the mark in a minute. That number per minute is the frequency of the wave. 42

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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Complete the prompts in order from left to right. Wave 1

Draw a wave that has two crests and two troughs.

Wave 2

Wave 3

Wave 4

Draw what happens to Draw what happens to Draw what happens Wave 1 if you increase Wave 1 if you increase to Wave 1 if you only its amplitude. only its wavelength. increase its amplitude and decrease its wavelength.

Are wavelength and amplitude independent of each other? Why or why not?

Are wavelength and frequency independent of each other? Why or why not?

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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3. The Properties of Sound Waves You have learned that water waves and waves on a string both have amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. Sound waves also have these three properties. Amplitude of Sound Waves

Like the other types of waves, the amplitude of sound waves is the size of the waves. But crests and troughs in sound waves are different from those in the other types of waves. Recall that the crests and troughs in sound waves are the areas where the matter pushes together and spreads out. The amplitude of sound waves is how much the matter pushes together at the crests and how much it spreads out at the troughs. If the matter pushes together a lot, the waves have a large amplitude. If the matter does not push together much, the waves have a small amplitude. Sound waves move through air. They are hard to see since you cannot see air. But you can hear sound waves! So, you measure the properties of sound waves by how they sound. Sound waves with large amplitudes are loud. The sound waves you make when you yell have large amplitudes. The matter pushes together a lot, so the sound is loud. Sound waves with small amplitudes are quiet. The sound waves you make when you whisper have small amplitudes. The matter does not push together much, so the sound is quiet. 44

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

This student is playing a trumpet loudly. Do you think that the amplitude of the sound waves from the trumpet is large or small?

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NOTES

Wavelength of Sound Waves

Frequency of a Sound Wave

Sound waves also have wavelength. Like the other examples of waves, the wavelength of sound waves is the distance between two crests that are next to each other. You listen to find the wavelength of a sound wave. A high-pitched sound has a short wavelength. A low-pitched sound has a long wavelength. Wavelength and amplitude are independent. A police siren is high pitched and loud. A bird chirping is also high pitched but soft. Thunder is low pitched and loud. A frog croaking is also low pitched but soft.

The frequency of a sound wave is how many crests pass a specific point in a certain amount of time. If you had the right tools, you could measure the frequency of a sound wave by counting how many waves entered your ear in a certain amount of time.

Frequency of Sound Waves

Sound waves also have a frequency, which is how many crests pass a specific point in a certain amount of time. Many people measure the frequency of sound waves as how many crests enter your ear in a second. In all waves, frequency and wavelength are dependent on each other. Two things are dependent when they affect each other. The wavelength of a wave affects its frequency. More waves will pass a given point in a certain amount of time if a wave has a short wavelength. So, a wave with a shorter wavelength will have a greater frequency. A wave with a longer wavelength will have a smaller frequency. High-pitched sounds have a high frequency. Low-pitched sounds have a low frequency. Š Teachers’ Curriculum Institute

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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NOTES

Think about each of the sounds described below. Then, match the amplitude and wavelength to each sound.

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1. Loud, high-pitched police siren

a) Small amplitude, short wavelength

2. Quiet, high-pitched bird chirping

b) Small amplitude, long wavelength

3. Loud, low-pitched thunder

c) Large amplitude, short wavelength

4. Quiet, low-pitched frog croak

d) Large amplitude, long wavelength

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

Š Teachers’ Curriculum Institute


CHECK

FOR

UNDERSTANDING

Show What You Know Look carefully at these diagrams modeling three examples of waves. Then answer the questions below. Water Wave Crest

Sound Wave Rest Position

Crest

Wavelength Wavelength Trough

Trough Wave on a String Rest Position Wavelength

Crest

Wavelength Trough

Based on these diagrams, how can you describe wavelength in all waves?

What pattern would you see if the wavelength of all of these waves was increased?

What other properties can be used to describe waves? Explain.

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Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

47


CHECK

FOR

UNDERSTANDING

Making Sense of the Phenomenon Let’s revisit the phenomenon: Water waves can be big and fast enough to surf on. Think about: • Describe the amplitude of the wave the surfer surfs on. • Describe the wavelength of the wave.

Use your findings from the investigation to answer this question: What properties can be used to describe an ocean wave? Claim

Evidence

Reasoning

Go back to page 4 and fill out the unit checkpoint for this lesson. 48

Lesson 2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

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Performance Assessment:

Developing a Communication Method Using Waves Help Billy understand sound waves by modeling how they work. Then, create a new method of communication that uses other types of waves to send a message. You will: • use analogies or examples to model the properties of sound waves. • design a communication method using patterns to send messages without the use of sound waves. • test and compare your communication method to improve your design.

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Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves

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PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

Developing a Model for Sound Waves Sound waves move through the air around us. While we can not see these waves, we can hear them or even feel them. What patterns are common in sound waves? Create an analogy to model how sound waves work. Think of something that you can compare a sound wave to. Then, fill in the table below to help you create an analogy for a sound wave. Your analogy should explain how your choice for comparison also demonstrates wave properties and their ability to make objects move.

Sound waves

are like

They have wavelengths

which are like

and amplitudes

which are similar to

and frequencies

which can be compared to

Sound waves can also make objects move

like

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Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves

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PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

How does your analogy show that sound waves have patterns?

Think about the other two types of waves that we learned about. Create an analogy that models how water waves and waves on a string move. How water waves move:

How waves on a string move:

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Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves

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PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

Developing a Communication Method Most people communicate with others by talking. Sometimes, people can’t use sound waves to communicate. They might not be able to speak. The person they are communicating with may also be unable to hear. What other ways can we use waves, or their properties, to help us communicate? With a partner, design a communication method using waves. Your design should meet the following criteria and constraints: • Be able to send simple messages • Use waves or wave properties • Not be too difficult to learn or follow • Not require too many materials to use Write about your method below.

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Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves

133


PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT

Testing your Communication Method Test your communication method! If your communication method requires materials, you may use them now. When you are ready, try sending the message: Hello friend After you test your communication method with your partner, discuss how your test went. Make changes to your model as needed. Then, fill in the chart below to determine how well you met the criteria and constraints.

Criteria 1: Method must be able to send simple messages.

Criteria 2: Method uses waves or wave properties to send message.

Constraint 1: Constraint 2: Method Method must must not not require be difficult too many to learn or materials to follow. use.

Your group’s method

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Performance Assessment: Developing a Communication Method Using Waves

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Grade 4 TCI’s Grade 4 program includes four units. Each unit has a Science Journal, complete with hands-on investigations, text with notes, and checks for understanding.

Unit 4

Unit 1 Plant and Animal Structures 1 What Plant Structures Are Used for Support and Growth?

6 What Animal Structures Are Used for Support, Movement, and Protection?

2 What Plant Structures Are Used for Protection?

7 What Animal Structures Are Used for Reproduction?

3 What Plant Structures Are Used for Reproduction?

8 What Animal Structures Are Used for Sensing the

4 How Do Plants Respond to Their Environment? 5 What Animal Structures Are Used for Digestion and Circulation?

Grade 4

Waves and Information Science Journal Sample

Environment? 9 How Do Animals Respond to Their Environment? Performance Assessment: Designing a Legendary Creature

Unit 2 Energy 1 How Are Energy and Motion Related? 2 How Is Energy Transferred by Colliding Objects?

Performance Assessment: Creating a Safety Pamphlet

3 How Is Energy Transferred by Sound, Light, and Heat?

5 How Is Energy Stored and Used?

4 How Is Energy Transferred by Electric Currents?

6 How Do People Choose Energy Resources?

Performance Assessment: Designing a Safety Device

Unit 3 Earth’s Changing Surface 1 What Are Some Clues That Earth’s Surface Changes? 2 How Does Water Change Earth’s Surface? 3 How Does Wind Change Earth’s Surface?

Performance Assessment: Investigating Changes to the Appalachian Mountains 6 Where on Earth Are Earthquakes, Volcanoes, and Mountains Found?

4 How Do Living Things Change Earth’s Surface?

7 What Can People Do About Natural Hazards?

5 How Do Fossils Form and What Do They Show?

Performance Assessment: Developing Hazard Plans

Unit 4 Waves and Information 1 What Are Some Examples of Waves?

5 How Can Sound Waves Be Used to Send Messages?

2 What Are Some Properties of Waves?

6 How Can Patterns Be Used to Send Messages?

3 How Do Waves Affect Objects?

Performance Assessment: Developing a

4 Which Waves Travel Through Earth?

Communication Method Using Waves

Engineering

Name: