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Early Humans and the Rise of Civilization 1
Investigating the Past How do social scientists interpret the past?
Early Hominins What capabilities helped hominins survive?
From Hunter Gatherers to Farmers How did the development of agriculture change daily life in the Neolithic Age?
The Rise of Sumerian City-States How did geographic challenges lead to the rise of city-states in Mesopotamia?
Ancient Sumer Why do historians classify ancient Sumer as a civilization?
Exploring Four Empires of Mesopotamia What were the most important achievements of the Mesopotamian empires?
Ancient Egypt and the Middle East 7
Geography and the Early Settlement of Egypt, Kush, and Canaan How did geography affect early settlement in Egypt, Kush, and Canaan?
The Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs What did the pharaohs of ancient Egypt accomplish, and how did they do it?
Daily Life in Ancient Egypt How did social class affect daily life in ancient Egypt?
10 The Kingdom of Kush In what ways did location influence the history of Kush?
11 The Origins of Judaism How did Judaism originate and develop?
12 Learning About World Religions: Judaism What are the central teachings of Judaism, and why did they survive to modern day?
Ancient India 13 Geography and the Early Settlement of India How did geography affect early settlement in India?
14 Unlocking the Secrets of Mohenjodaro What can artifacts tell us about daily life in Mohenjodaro?
15 Learning About World Religions: Hinduism What are the origins and beliefs of Hinduism?
16 Learning About World Religions: Buddhism What are the main beliefs and teachings of Buddhism?
17 The Unification of India How did Ashoka unify the Mauryan Empire and spread Buddhist values?
18 The Achievements of the Gupta Empire Why is the period during the Gupta Empire known as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;golden ageâ&#x20AC;??
Ancient China 19 Geography and the Early Settlement of China How did geography affect life in ancient China?
20 The Shang Dynasty What do Shang artifacts reveal about this civilization?
21 Three Chinese Philosophies How did Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism influence political rule in ancient China?
22 The First Emperor of China Was the Emperor of Qin an effective leader?
23 The Han Dynasty In what ways did the Han dynasty improve government and daily life in China?
24 The Silk Road How did the Silk Road promote an exchange of goods and ideas?
Ancient Greece 25 Geography and the Early Settlement of Greece How did geography influence settlement and way of life in ancient Greece?
26 The Rise of Democracy How did democracy develop in ancient Greece?
27 Life in Two City-States: Athens and Sparta What were the major differences between Athens and Sparta?
28 Fighting the Persian Wars What factors influenced the outcome of the Greco-Persian Wars?
29 The Golden Age of Athens What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?
30 Alexander the Great and His Empire How did Alexander build his empire?
31 The Legacy of Ancient Greece How did ancient Greece contribute to the modern world?
Ancient Rome 32 Geography and the Early Development of Rome How did the Etruscans and Greeks influence the development of Rome?
33 The Rise of the Roman Republic What were the characteristics of the Roman Republic and how did they change over time?
34 From Republic to Empire Did the benefits of Roman expansion outweigh the costs?
35 Daily Life in the Roman Empire How did wealth affect daily life in the Roman Empire?
36 The Origins and Spread of Christianity How did Christianity originate and spread?
37 Learning About World Religions: Christianity How are Christiansâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lives shaped by the beliefs and practices of Christianity?
38 The Legacy of Rome in the Modern World To what extent does ancient Rome influence us today?
What makes us different? History Alive! The Ancient World
Introduction presents six historical themes
Lessons include over 40 engaging activities
Setting the Stage provides historical and geographical background for the unit
Timeline Challenges conclude each unit
Primary Source Investigations + Reading Further in every unit
Program Components I N T E R A C T I V E
S T U D E N T
N O T E B O O K
The Golden Age of Athens Bring Learning Alive!
What were the major cultural achievements of Athens?
TCI offers programs for elementary, middle, and high school classrooms.
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P R E V I E W
In Athens, public funerals were held for soldiers who had died in battle. In 430 B.C.E., after a difficult year of war, an Athenian leader named Pericles spoke at such a funeral. In his speech, he described the greatness of Athens and why it was important to keep on fighting. Below is an excerpt from that speech.
Social Studies Alive!
Carefully read the excerpt and then answer the questions that follow.
. . . we have not forgotten to provide for our weary [tired] spirits many relaxations from toil [hard work]; we have regular games and sacrifices throughout the year; our homes are beautiful and elegant; and the delight which we daily feel in all these things helps to banish [send away] sorrow. Because of the greatness of our city, the fruits of the whole earth flow in upon us; so that we enjoy the goods of other countries as freely as our own. . . . To sum up: I say that Athens is the school of Hellas [Greece]. . . . Such is the city for whose sake these men nobly fought and died. . . .
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— Pericles, Funeral Oration, in History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides.
1. According to Pericles, what made Athens great?
2. What else have you learned about Athens that might make people think of it as a great city?
3. Why do you think Pericles would call Athens the “school of Greece”?
The Golden Age of Athens 1
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Interactive Student Notebook
Students engage with their learning by expressing their ideas, completing graphically organized notes, and developing personalized responses in their Interactive Student Notebooks.
The Student Text provides a rich knowledge base of concepts and guides students through their learning.
The Ancient World
Print Lesson Guide Print Lesson Guides allow for teachers to prepare and prep for their lesson with ease from anywhere.
Teacher and Student Licenses Lesson Guides, customizable assessments, video quizzes, learning games, and more are at your fingertips.
Journey Through a TCI Inquiry-Based Unit Immerse your students in history with TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s inquiry-based lessons. Each lesson comes with a readyto-teach slideshow to engage your students with guiding questions that facilitate class discussion and debate, stunning images for students to investigate, built-in audio tracks, and rich written and visual primary sources. Each unit gives several opportunities to further student inquiry through research projects and developing arguments centered around primary sources.
Geography Challenge Kick-off each unit with a Geography Challenge to introduce students to a region and inspire questions about the unit.
TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lesson Cycle Inquiry is built into each lesson within a unit, beginning with a Preview for students to ask questions and ending with assessments for students to apply what they learned.
3 Reading Furthers Reading Furthers are included in each lesson to enhance literacy and engage students with related topics.
Summative Assessments Each lesson comes with a TCI-created summative assessment, which is comprised of four question sets to fully assess student mastery of content and skills. The test is ready to take, but you can edit and customize the test to meet the needs of your classroom.
Each unit ends with a Timeline Challenge, an activity in which students practice their timeline and cause-and-effect skills to order major events from the unit.
4 Investigating Primary Sources In each unit, students have an opportunity to examine primary sources, connect it to their learning, and conduct an inquiry about them.
1. Geography Challenge
Asking Questions Students review guiding questions and ask their own questions about the region.
Practicing Geography Skills Students examine a map of the region and do a series of geography tasks based on the map.
Interacting with Maps Students use digital resources to interact with regional maps.
2. TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Lesson Cycle
The lesson concludes with a Processing activity where students apply what they have learned in an authentic assessment.
TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lesson cycle begins with a Preview to spark interest, connect to prior learning, and inspire historical questions.
When they are ready, students take a carefully designed summative assessment to gauge their learning.
Students have an opportunity to read expository text and test their knowledge with interactive games and checks for understanding.
The lesson progresses to a handson Activity, which incorporates one of TCIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s six unique teaching strategies that engages students with rich historical materials and connects them to their reading. Through it all, students respond in their Interactive Student Notebooks as a formative assessment.
3. Reading Furthers
Reading Further Painting the Gods The Greeks left behind many stone images of their gods and goddesses. These artifacts help historians better understand the relationship between the ancient Greeks and their deities. Most people today assume that when they see these realistic white sculptures in museums, they are viewing ancient pieces that have been preserved in their original form. But experts in the fields of art and archaeology are proving that wrong. Let’s explore how a German archaeologist is showing what these statues actually looked like when they were created.
This is the original marble statue Peplos Kore as she looks today in the Acropolis Museum in Athens. The statue was created around 530 b.c.e.
The young woman is wearing a dazzling long yellow-gold dress with a detailed design of animals in shades of red, green, and blue. Her hair is in auburn braids, and her red lips are curved in a smile. The sculpture is called the Peplos Kore and was carved in marble by an unknown artist, around 530 b.c.e. A kore is a type of ancient Greek statue depicting a female figure. Peplos Kore once stood on the acropolis, the hill above Athens, among the temples the Athenians built to honor their gods. She is still in Athens today, in the Acropolis Museum. But if you look at this statue today, you won’t find her richly colored dress, because the colors have now faded away, leaving only the white marble. Luckily, the colors that ancient Greeks once viewed can still be seen in a modern copy created by two German archaeologists, Vinzenz Brinkmann and his wife, Ulrike Koch-Brinkmann. People have believed bare, white marble sculptures to be the traditional Greek style for more than 500 years, but Vinzenz Brinkmann believes his brightly colored copies are closer to what the ancient Greeks created. What’s more, art historians think he’s right! Why White Marble?
Few Greek sculptures have survived from ancient times. Wind, rain, and the passage of time have worn away the colors that once brightened them. These same factors have also damaged the buildings in which the sculptures stood. For a thousand years after the fall of the Roman Empire, people didn’t care much about ancient art. Temples were torn down to reuse the building stone. Marble statues were burned to produce lime, which could then be used to make mortar, glass, and other useful products.
The reading comes with a critical thinking activity, such as evaluating cost and benefits, developing arguments, or exploring cause-and-effect of historical events.
In the 1400s, interest in ancient Greek art revived. People found ancient statues buried under the ground and pulled them from the sea. When artists such as Michaelangelo saw these statues, they assumed that bare white marble had been the style of the ancient artists, so leaving stone in its natural color became the standard practice. As more ancient art pieces were uncovered, experts sometimes noted traces of color on their surfaces. But this color faded or disappeared when the sculptures were exposed to light and air. Sometimes art restorers scrubbed the color off because people of this time considered bare stone more beautiful. But evidence still remained, suggesting that the ancient Greeks had used color. One example of the ancient Greek preference for color is found in a play by the Athenian dramatist Euripides, who lived in the fifth century b.c.e. In the play, the beautiful Helen of Troy wishes that the gods had made her ugly, “as a statue from which the color has been wiped off.” Many art experts understood that ancient Greek sculpture and buildings had been brightly painted. Now and then, scholars tried to picture how these statues must have looked. A few 19th-century artists made copies of Greek statues and colored them in the current style of the artists’ time. These efforts were either laughed at or ignored. White marble was how most people preferred to picture ancient Greek art. Besides, how could anyone know what the original colors had been?
In the Reading Further, students dive into a highinterest topic and investigate the intricacies of social studies.
Enter Vinzenz Brinkmann
Vinzenz Brinkmann believed he could figure out what colors had previously appeared on pieces of ancient Greek art. Beginning in the 1980s, he and his team of archaeologists researched the pigments that ancient Greek artists had used to color their statues. He used special lamps, high-tech cameras, and computers to bring out traces of the original colors. In some cases, the color had completely faded. But even then, Brinkmann’s cameras often revealed changes in the chemistry on the surface of the stone. These changes were like clues in a detective story. They showed what minerals artists had worked with in making the original pigments. The ancient Greeks used a mineral called malachite to make green and another called cinnabar to make red. Arsenic traces on the stone showed where the color had been gold or yellow.
This re-creation of Peplos Kore shows how Vinzenz Brinkmann believes she looked in ancient Greece. He figured out the missing colors through scientific research.
The Legacy of Ancient Greece
4. Investigating Primary Sources
Investigating Primary Sources What Do Dramas of Ancient Greece Reveal About Its Society? Just as people in today’s society are entertained by movies and television shows, ancient Greeks flocked to open-air theaters to enjoy actors performing in plays. How were these dramas put together? And what were these plays about? You will examine four primary sources related to Greek drama. Then you will create a claim about what Greek dramas reveal about that society.
The Investigating Primary Sources comes with a reading that provides a mix of visual and text-based primary sources.
This bas relief was found in Pompeii, Italy, and now resides in a museum in Naples. It shows a scene from the ancient comedy Andria, which is about a father who arranges a marriage for his son who has already chosen his own bride. Ancient Greek drama tells us about the society at the time.
Unlike today’s entertainment, in ancient Greek drama there were no lights, cameras, or microphones. There was a stage at the bottom of a bowl-shaped theater and thousands of seats around it. Scenery was painted on canvases, while actors—men only—wore masks that depicted their emotions. The scenes made audiences laugh, cry, and examine their own lives. There were three main categories of Greek plays. Comedy made fun of people’s foolishness. Tragedy, on the other hand, portrayed serious themes such as love or disappointment, making the audience think about emotional and moral situations. Satyr plays were short comic scenes inserted between acts of a tragedy and made fun of the play’s characters, the playwright, and other people. When playwrights finished writing, they selected actors and designed scenery. The artifact pictured is a carved bas relief tablet from the 2nd century b.c.e. showing a scene from an ancient comedy called Andria. The author, Publius Terentius, was a Roman comic writer who adapted Andria from a Greek drama. His play was first performed in 166 b.c.e. Identify the musician, the actors’ masks, and the scenery on the tablet. Based on this artifact and the caption, what can you learn about ancient Greek drama and ancient Greek society?
A Greek Tragedy: Prometheus Bound
Playwrights often wrote plays about the Greek gods. For example, Prometheus Bound is a famous Greek tragedy about one of the original Greek gods, Prometheus. Some scholars believe it was written by the poet Aeschylus after 458 b.c.e. It was first created as a poem and later revised into full sentences. Picture the scene: Prometheus is chained to a steep cliff. He is being punished by Zeus, the ruler of all gods. Zeus wanted to destroy mankind, but Prometheus saved them by giving them the gift of fire. In this scene, another god, Oceanus, has come to visit Prometheus during his punishment. Prometheus is recounting all he has done for mankind. What situations is Prometheus describing in this excerpt? What does the text tell you about the kinds of activities in Greek society at that time? Based on this excerpt, how would you describe the relationship between ancient Greeks and their religion and gods? How were drama and religion connected in ancient Greece?
Prometheus Bound “[Mankind] neither knew how to construct houses of brick with their fronts to the sun, nor yet the art of working in wood . . . but pursued all their occupations without discernment, until I explained to them the risings of the stars and their mysterious settings. Besides, I first discovered for them numbers, the highest of inventions; and the structure of a written language; and Memory, the mother of the Muse, effective in every art. And I was the first who bound in harness animals made obedient to the yoke; and, in order that they might prove, by their strength, the substitutes for mortals in the greatest toils, I taught the steeds to be guided by the rein in chariots, the ornaments of wealth and luxury. And no one before me invented the bark of the mariner, that traverses the sea with its canvas wings. . . . if any one was assailed by disease, there was no specific against it . . . but the sick fell away through want of medicine, until I taught them to compound soothing restoratives, by which they might be able to repel all maladies . . . But, in a few words, you shall learn at once the extent of my benefits: there is no art among men that is not derived from Prometheus.” —Aeschylus, after 458 b.c.e.
The Golden Age of Athens
Students conduct an inquiry about the primary sources. They collect evidence from the primary sources to develop an argument about a compelling question.
5. Timeline Challenge
Analyzing Timelines Students analyze the timeline in the Students Text and answer questions about it.
Researching Events Students select more events to add to the timeline and conduct research on one of them.
Conducting an Inquiry Using their knowledge from the unit, students conduct an inquiry about world history themes. They write an argument answering a compelling question and publish their work.
6. Summative Assessments Mastering the Content This section’s selectedresponse questions are designed to evaluate understanding of the lesson’s content.
Applying Social Studies Skills This section’s constructedresponse questions allow students to demonstrate knowledge of skill through close examination of a rich stimulus or primary source.
Exploring the Essential Content This section’s open-ended questions challenge students to use their critical thinking skills to create a final product.
Universal Access TCI is designed to reach all of your learners. Here are some resources you can use in your classroom.
Reading Tools (Text to Speech) Digital text-to-audio, main ideas, and note taking tools support reading.
Enrichment Opportunities Students engage with primary sources, review literature, and study biographies of historical figures.
Differentiating Instructions Each lesson comes with modifications for English learners, learners reading and writing below grade level, learners with special education needs, and advanced learners.
Vocabulary Cards Students review important social studies terms with vocabulary flip cards.
English Language Arts (ELA) Opportunities to hone language skills are integrated into each lesson.
Notebook Students engage with the Student Text to record key ideas and make meaning out of what they read in their notebooks.
Writing for Understanding This strategy takes the class through a rich experience, such as debating complex issues, allowing students to develop ideas and form opinions to use as a springboard for writing.
H A N D O U T
Writing a Persuasive Speech About Athens During your walking tour of Athens, you learned about six aspects of Greek culture that thrived during the Golden Age. On a separate sheet of paper, write a speech for the Athenian leader Pericles, using information that you learned on your tour. Your speech should clearly convince Athenians and Greeks from other city-states that Athens is a great city. Your speech must be at least four paragraphs and include these elements: • • • • •
a brief introduction to Athens and the Golden Age a statement explaining why Athens is a great city a description of two or more relevant examples from your walking tour of Athens an appeal to any listeners who might say that Athens is not a great city a brief conclusion that restates your position and reminds listeners of your main points
Reading Further Students write arguments supported with evidence and reasoning, engage and respond to high-interest Reading Furthers, and create historical news articles and journal entries.
Vocabulary Development Chapter ______
Follow these steps to create an Illustrated Dictionary for your Key Content Terms. Step 1: Choose a Key Content Term. Step 2: Draw a diagram, word map, or other graphic organizer that shows how the term relates to something you already know or to another key term in this chapter or in a previous chapter. Write the term in bigger or darker letters than you use for any other words. Step 3: Find the definition of each term and summarize its meaning in your own words. Step 4: Write a sentence that uses the term. Step 5: Repeat for all the other Key Content Terms. Sketch/Diagram
In Your Own Words
In a Sentence
These resources provide tools for students who need additional guidance and structure, such as strategies to develop vocabulary or guidelines for supporting arguments from evidence.