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Edited by Renzo Noventa

I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICO

Inventories of the properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna ASBo, Demaniale, San Domenico, n. 240/7574 Introduction and amalysis tables

DEM240-I (1348 - 1366) DEM240-II (1390 - 1402) DEM240-III (1404 - 1407) DEM240-IV (1426 - 1436)

A RC HIV IO DI STATO DI B OLO G NA Transcription edited by Giulio Biondi e Sara Flammini Editing and layout Nicoletta Lupia

Baskerville Bologna


Introduction

During the years 2014 - 2015 I undertook some research that led me to examine the book-keeping and medieval account books1 of St. Dominic’s monastery in Bologna (1330 - 1357). My research focused on two main areas: the type of diet followed by the community and the medical practices used to treat monks who fell ill. The two volumes have been transcribed in their entirety and it is obvious how much other interesting information about the daily life of this community, over and above that in which I was directly interested, came to light as a result of the transcription work. It was for this very reason that we decided to make the work we had done freely available by publishing the introduction as well as the transcriptions and the facsimile of the registers on the internet2 in both Italian and English. This first work of mine made me realise just how important the medieval company books are and the wealth of historical heritage and everyday life contained in them; they are awaiting someone to discover them. I spoke of my interest with Rossella Rinaldi, who works at the State Archive in Bologna, and she immediately suggested I study other sources of the same type produced by the monastery of St. Dominic in Bologna. Due to the previous experience and the stimulus and satisfaction I received from my first research I decided to embark on another journey of exploration.

Renzo Noventa (a cura di) I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICO Inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico ASBo_DEM240/7574 I-IV in quattrro volumi con Introduzione e tabelle di analisi

The original documents I examined in the course of the present work belong to a collection, consisting of four volumes, kept at the State Archive in Bologna, Fondo Corporazioni religiose soppresse (Demaniale) - Collection of Abolished Religious Guilds (State-owned). The registers have been reproduced in an accurate way and with much patience and expertise by Valentina Gabusi; they have been completely transcribed by Sara Flammini, for whose perseverance I am most grateful. Giulio Biondi and Sara Flammini proofread the transcription together. The rather difficult layout was developed by Nicoletta Lupia in collaboration with the printer and the publisher. My deepest thanks go to Massimo Montanari and Rossella Rinaldi for their advice and encouragement to continue the path I had begun. I warmly thank everyone who believed in this project and who has contributed to its successful completion.

© 2018 Baskerville, Bologna, Italia ISBN: 9 7 8 8 8 8 0 0 0 9 5 5 9 TUTTI I DIRITTI RISERVATI Questo volume non può essere riprodotto, archiviato o trasmesso, intero o in parte, in alcun modo (digitale, ottico o sonoro) senza il preventivo permesso scritto dell’autore e di Baskerville, Bologna, editrice del libro.

Renzo Noventa (Bologna, April 2018)

Il volume è composto in caratteri ITC New Baskerville Std Baskerville è un marchio registrato da Baskerville Bologna, Italia.

1 Renzo Noventa, Giornale delle entrate e delle uscite del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna, Vol. 1 e Vol. 2, 2015, Bologna 2 www.baskerville.it


I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICO Land assets of St. Dominic’s Monastery in Bologna

The so-called Dominican “Samples” we are publishing in this seat, kept at the State Archive of Bologna1, were collected in a single bundle probably at the beginning of the XIX Century when, following the Napoleonic Suppressions, the documentation of the religious institutes (ecclesiastic, monastic, conventual) was acquired by the State. Judging from the original framework and editorial structure, there are four registers that date from the period included between the mid XIV and the end of the XV Century; they are the most ancient examples of this typology to survive. The Samples are different in size, substance and editorial characteristics. All of them are of paper with a parchment cover; three of them have kept their original cover and binding. Each cover has a title which contains elements that help identify the said Sample; there are notes that date from the first decades of the XVI century when the administrative use of the patrimonial records became more systematic with more attention being paid particularly to the updates. With regard to the short description of each register, we will follow the assigned order which was usually chronological in the XVI Century, as was certainly the case in the world of the convent. First Sample – Campione Primo 1348 ( hand XVI Century ) mm. 250 x 317; 119 papers numbered with Roman numerals (hand XVI Century), original cover and original binding damaged. Several writings and notes on the cover, usually from the XV Century, among which there is the following: “Liber infrascriptus vacat pro maiori parte quia antquissimus est et est possessionum conventus”. The register has been compiled by different hands; we can count at least seven, all traceable to the time span from the mid XIV Century to the first decades of the XV Century. The main handwriting, of an educated kind, is identifiable with that of Franceschino de Albaris, auditor of the friary and author, besides, of the incipit and of the descriptive notes of patrimonial features (papers 1-13) that start in August 1348, on the decorative letterhead of paper 1. Annotations in the margin and below concern the majority of the papers and are the work of different hands (XIV – XVI Century). We can trace one particular handwriting to the first or second decade of the XVI century and it is also present in the other Samples of the collections. Second Sample – Campione Secondo 1390 (hand XVI Century) – mm. 300 x 418; 100 papers of which 10 are blank. They contain original numbering in Roman numerals; cover and binding are original. On the cover there is an ancient signature typical of an archivist; moreover: “Liber possessionum conventus predicatorum de Bononia (Century XV)”. The full-bodied handwriting was edited by different hands; we can count at least five of them dating from the late XIV to the first half of the XV Century. We can recognize the main hand in which we have the majority of the lists and the patrimonial descriptions and, very probably, the incipit (paper 1) and an initial index of places. In a different hand and almost coeval we have descriptive and informative long notes in the margin, as well as additions to the text itself. Another coeval hand, regular and of a learned kind, drew up well-known lists of books, furniture and objects belonging to both church and friary (94 – 96 papers). Third Sample – Campione terzo 1404 (hand Century XVI) – mm. 310 x 435; 295 papers. The numbering in Arabic numerals, over some centuries, is irregular and probably goes back to the new binding of the volume, prepared in the XVIII century. Generally speaking, the overall structure is in alphabetical order and is based mainly on the toponymy of the properties and on some onomastic data which was significant for the community. At paper 133 the alphabetical sequence seems to start again. Compiled by different hands, we can count at least six-seven going back to the XV Century, the manuscript is provided with an initial index book, an incipit and explicit (hand XVIII Century). Cover of the first Campione di San Domenico (Archivio di Stato, Bologna)

1

This is the right signature of archive: Corporazioni Religiose soppresse (Demaniale), 240/754


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

The main handwriting is that of Marco da Chioggia, St. Dominic’s Prior, who writes the incipit, with a date of June 1404, the index book and a lot of the most ancient records and descriptions of the friary’s properties, records that are fairly regular up till the year 1422, giving us a sense of their estate and how it was managed over the years. Notes in the margins over some decades (the entire XV Century to the beginning of the XVI Century) and traceable in all the samples of the collection, update the conditions and the managerial qualities. In papers 261 – 281 we find mention of incomes, expenses and acquisitions in wills (beginning of the XV Century ) where three different coeval hands alternate, among which there emerges the main one of Marco da Chioggia who closes the section in paper 281 by declaring that he has put the documentary acts to refer to “in depositum”. The explicit was added at the end of the restoration and rebinding of the volume in the XVIII Century. Fourth Sample – Campione Quarto 1426 (hand XVII Century) – mm. 248 x 315; 41 papers; numbering in Arabic numerals perhaps original or shortly afterwards. On the cover, we find an ancient archivist signature and short bills in different hands and from different periods; the following are noteworthy: “precedit campionum + 1426 (beginning of the XVI Century)”; “Campione de S(ancti) Domimico overo inventario de suoi beni ( from the XVI Century to the beginning of the XVII Century )”. The compilation of the register was done by a single author at the end of the XV Century. The usual writer from the beginning of the XVI Century who is present in all the samples is responsible for the notes and references in the margin as well as the initial index book. Subsequent authors (hands XVII Century) affixed short notes in order to clarify the contents and give some patrimonial updates. Rossella Rinaldi

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Properties, agreements and rents

The State Archive in Bologna contains an important and very rich collection regarding the “Abolished Religious Guilds” known as the “State-owned Archive” because it was the State-owned office that acquired it following the abolition of the Napoleonic age. Later on it was acquired by the Royal State Archive. The present work is interested in the information pack already classified as the Archive of St. Dominic of Bologna; it is composed of four volumes, the first of which was begun in the August of 1348 when Bologna was under the scourge of the “Black Plague”. It is well known that the pestilence had dramatic consequences and not only for the population; there were serious repercussions in different fields: socio-economic, political and military, religious and artistic . Everything contributed to provoking the economic depression later defined by historiography as the “Fourteenth Century Crisis”. The archive material found in the Archives enabled us, in a certain way, to measure the effects that the pestilence had on the population of Bologna. The registers of the “ fit for combat”, otherwise known as the registers of all the male citizens aged from 18 to 70, allowed us to compare the situation immediately before (January 1348) and immediately after (January 1349), what happened in Bologna when the Plague appeared in May 1348 and when it continued its devastation till October of the same year; the comparison showed that the population of the “ fit for combat” decreased by 35%. Considering that, for that period, there are no data specifically recording the female population or the religious of the many communities that were present in Bologna, we can conclude that the population of the city had been reduced by between 35% and 45%. The demographic decrease caused by the pestilence provoked important economic and social consequences: the urban and rural salaried workers saw their own pay double or triple in very few months. This was the reason why the managerial class, after an initial moment of hesitation, decided to intervene to establish a cap on the increase in wages and succeeded in imposing this limit with a wages table included in the Statutes of the city. In fact, they paid specific attention to the main farming tasks; but judging from the price list some of them were excluded, for example, no price was specified for digging the moats. It is generally thought that it was not considered because it was not usually difficult for the owners and métayers to find low-cost manpower in the off seasons 2. From the beginning we have said that the documents presented in this work are composed of four volumes; they cover a time frame of 90 years, from 1348 to 1436. Unfortunately, like similar medieval company registers, we cannot say that these four volumes have been written in an orderly way; we can frequently find supplements inserted at a later date, crossings out and annotations in the margins of the papers; not to mention the styles of the different “scriptor”, which are very often dense, erratic and sloppy, with rather pretentious, redundant phrases. Therefore, it is really difficult to interpret the early text or to give a date, in a valid chronological way, to the information that has been inserted and that changes the contents of the papers we are examining. At the beginning of the presentation we will see how Rossella Rinaldi has made short notes concerning the condition and the evolution over time of the four “Samples”. We shall thus proceed to analyse the content of the four volumes which, for the sake of simplicity, we shall identify with a code as follows: Volume 1° = Dem240-I Volume 2° = Dem 240-II Volume 3° = Dem 240-III Volume 4° = Dem 240-IV

The publishing procedures

Some papers of the early documents are numbered whilst others are not. To understand which side of the paper we need to refer to, a code system has been adopted which, first of all, indicates the volume it belongs to; the name of the volume is followed by the separator “-“, there then follows the number of the paper and then the “r” letter if it refers to the “recto” (front) of the paper or the “v” letter if it refers to the “verso” ( back). Each page of the original document consists of a variable number of lines; in the graphic copy each line has been numbered and the same progressive numbering has been assigned to each line of the matched transcription just to make it easier to identify the correspondence between the line of the original document and that of the transcription. Particular consideration must be given to the notes we find in the margins of the original papers. Precisely because the note has been inserted into a narrow space in the margin it often spills over into multiple lines. We also attribute a numbering to the note but, instead of numbering each of the lines that compose it, we have chosen 2 6

Antonio Ivan Pini, Campagne bolognesi, Firenze, Le lettere, 1993, pp. 137-171 7


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

to attribute a unique number to the note when its content is logically a “unit”; on the contrary we have assigned more numbers when the note contains more than one piece of information. None of the blank pages of the papers in the original documents were considered and therefore, in this publication, there will not be continuity between the numbering given to the original documents and their physical layout. At the end of the presentation some tables have been attached which summarize the estate of the Dominicans as found in the four volumes that have been analyzed. These tables collect both the building plots and the houses that belong to the friars and all the landed properties that are distributed throughout the territory. There follow two analytical indexes of names; the first refers to the names of the religious with their likely religious state; the second records the names of the persons who, for some reason, the scriptor believed it necessary to mention. In this second index, in addition to the name, we sometimes find the related profession and thereby note how many of our present day surnames are derived from the evolution of the medieval custom of associating the name of the person with their profession in order to give them a precise identity. With this in mind, we shall cite some examples: Anthonius Sartoris, sarto = Antonio Sartori Antonio de Varignana, notarius = Antonio Notari Bartholomeus, faber = Bartolomeo Fabbri Bartolomeus de Regio, strazarolus = Bartolomeo Strazzari Dominicus, calzolarius = Domenico Calzolari Following all of the above - mentioned tables, we have attached four maps that represent the territory of the Emilia Romagna Region. Each of these maps refers to the volume from which the various landed properties of the friars have been taken and whose location has been highlighted with a small flag. When there is a number inside the flag it indicates the number of landed properties belonging to the friars on that site.

Vol. Dem240-I

First Sample (Campione Primo)

The original cover of this volume consists of a parchment which is rather thick and very ruined. It is like a small folder with the bottom edge that partially overlaps the top edge; it is held together by means of a small ribbon.The centre of the cover is written on in large characters with the title “ First Sample - Campione Primo” while the year 1348 is given in Arabic numerals. At the top and almost in the centre of the page, there are six lines written in very small characters similar to explanatory notes and with the period under consideration, namely “1348 – 1364”, underlined. Moreover, it is said that the subject is a list of assets from St. Dominic’s Monastery in Bologna; the “scriptor” also adds that these assets have been listed earlier in a volume called “small sample – campioncello”. Volume Dem240-I is made up of 56 papers, some of which have been written on on only one of the two sides while the other has been left blank. The composition of this volume begins one day in August 1348 when Friar Franceschino degli Albari is elected “sindicus” of the Monastery by the Chapter of the Dominican Friars of the monastery in Bologna. The volume begins with an initial section which defines some rented or sharecropping agreements, there then follow the inventories of the rural assets, and then, a whole string of urban assets; near the end of the volume we find cards that regard the renewal of the leases and various other leases both rural and urban. The rural assets are found in different places in the territory, a significant number being in the Bologna area and in the direction Bologna – Ferrara, while still others can be found in the area of Modena, Parma and Ravenna. It is worth noting the description of the modalities with which the different properties are leased, those which must be managed under the system of sharecropping and those which are let in exchange for a rent. There are often some annotations in the margins that underline the place in which the described property is located in the lines alongside; at other times the annotation completes the content of the lines beside it or summarizes their content in a single word like, for example, “dubio” or “debito”3. One must remember that in those days there were no cadastral planimetres with which to pinpoint the boundaries of the property as happens today; in order to identify a property in this volume, we need to refer to a supposed quadrilateral whose boundaries refer to topographical features (public road, crossroads, river, etc.) when they are present, or, when missing, to the name of the neighbouring owners. To define the boundary, it is also common to say of the side with the morning sun - “a mane”, to say “East - Levante” and night - “a sera”, to say “West - Occidente”4. 3 4

Dem240-I-005r, line 9 Dem240-I-021v 8

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

The leases frequently began on the Feast of St. Michael (September 29th) and it may be that it is this tradition that explains why, in Bologna, the popular way of saying that someone is moving is to say that “he is doing the St. Michael”. The lease is usually paid in two installments and the days normally established for the payment were: St. Lawrence (August 12th), the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (August 15th), St. Michael, All Saints’ Day (November 1st), Christmas (December 25th), Easter – Resurrection. The friars used a lot of different modalities when renting their property and pay great attention to the agreements with the tenant farmers; indeed, often, we can see how they underline the different activities that these lessees have to carry out. An important activity that frequently appears in the agreements is the maintenance of the moats to facilitate the drainage of the rain-water; sometimes the cost of this activity must be completely borne by the tenant, while at other times the cost is halved between the friars and the lessee5. We can see that the friars sometimes agree upon a rent which has to be paid in kind whereas at other times it has to be paid in cash. When the rent must be paid in kind and it refers to a very large property the rent is fixed in cartloads of wheat, cartloads of broad beans and cartloads of wood; when the property is relatively small, the rent is fixed in wheat “corbe”, broad bean “corbe” and so forth. It is well- known from other sources that our friars continually need to have ready cash and so it often happens that the friars sell the products they received to get money. When reading the papers we observe how these friars respond to their daily needs with much good sense. For example, we find the case of the farmer Domenico Massi from Verona, to whom the friars grant a loan in the form of a share of the last harvest (wheat, broad beans, millet) for his sustenance and that of his family; the loan will be paid back from next year’s harvest. Once again we can read that a house is rented but is in poor condition; this house is repaired and the costs borne for the gypsum, wood and manpower are indicated; the costs that are really high are deducted from the rent 6. Sometimes the friars inform us that they are the owners of an ox and if someone needs to use it to work in the fields they establish that the so-called annual “zoatica” must be paid which, almost always, consists of some big baskets of wheat7. There are a lot of benefactors who leave plots of land or houses to the friars in their wills; but sometimes these benefactors, in addition to leaving the friars some assets, give detailed instructions, and so there is Mrs. Bartolomea, daughter of Filippo degli Asinelli, who leaves the friars a plot of land of 12 “tornature” which gives them an income of 12 lire per year but she also specifies that, on the anniversary of her death, all the friars sing a mass for her soul and eat a special dish called “pictancia”8. While continuing to peruse our papers we discover that there is an area in the suburb of the city, the “Fossolo”, that is allocated for vegetable crops9 and this may be because the terrain there is particularly fertile and well supplied by water for irrigation. Moving on, we meet a long list of professions which are usually associated with the name of the benefactor or of the lessor and so we meet Ceccolino Gerardi, carpenter10; Nanni, breeder of chickens11; Brizzi, dyer12; Nanni Bernardini, junk shop owner13; Nannino Damiani, carter14; Porcaroli, butcher15; Giovanni Giorgi, smith16; Simone, painter17; Maso, shoemaker18; Giovanni Giacomo, baker19; Pietro, apothecary20. Normally, the rental agreements are not lengthy but we sometimes come across agreements with a duration of 29 years; there is also a record of an agreement of an exceptional duration of 50 years with a rent of 505 lire and an expiry date of 139721. Probably these modalities, like the agreements

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Dem240-I-003r, line 4 Dem240-I-011v Dem240-I-008v Dem240-I-003v Dem240-I-007v Dem240-I-008r Dem240-I-008v Dem240-I-015v Dem240-I-018v Dem240-I-021v Dem240-I-023r Dem240-I-047r Dem240-I-049r Dem240-I- 049r Dem240-I-053v Dem240-I-009r Dem240-I-015r 9


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

known as “sale for life – vendita a vita”22 were a way of getting a significant amount of ready cash from the tenant whilst maintaining ownership of the asset that had been leased; we have already said that the necessity for ready “cash” was almost a daily problem. It also happens that the amount to pay for a rent is defined in foreign currency as is the case in a note written in the margin of the paper and almost certainly at a later date than the early writing; this foreign currency is the “ducato” and could be one of the many signs of the rule of the Visconti, a family from Milan, over the city of Bologna. To define the extent of a plot of land units of measurement of an area such as the “tornatura”23 are used, but, in some rare cases, the “biolca”24 appears as well. In the volume we also find “news-items” such as the illegal crossing of a property of the friars by a neighbour25 or the news about a long fight between the friars and the tenant of a very large property located at St. Giovanni in Triario. We can also note how the name of certain places can derive from the dialectal distortion of Latin words like, for example, the name “Trebbo”, a distortion of the dialect from Romagna for the word “trivium” that is “trivio” from which “Trebbo”. Whilst browsing through the papers we see that, in a will, two doctors leave 3 plots of land, respectively of 30 tornature, of 28 tornature and of 9 tornature. The second plot of land is left to the St. Agnese nuns and it is cultivated with wheat; the will stipulates that the nuns receive a fifth of all the crop every year. This is not the sole case in which someone leaves a religious institution the assignment of managing a property that has been bequeathed to another institution and this frequently happens when the St. Agnese nuns26, together with other religious institutions, are included in the bequests. As we continue to read, we discover that, at that time, the type of grape “Albana” was already prized enough as to feel the necessity to cite it27. We also find that more than one century after the early writing (16th Century) there is an annotation which corrects the extent of a property (from 10 tornature to 14) and the new value is written in Arabic numerals. Still continuing with the daily news, we understand from the papers that during the Great Plague of 1348 the Dominican friars retreated to find refuge with the Friars Minor of San Michele in Bosco whose monastery is located on the hill of Osservanza in a place that is rather secluded from the heart of the city of Bologna. We can also read that a property has been left to the Dominicans as a means of maintaining the altar where the body of the benefactor is buried; the costs of maintaining this altar are covered by the income deriving from the property left as an inheritance28. In the papers of this volume we can find how some testamentary instructions forbid the sale of a property left as an inheritance29 but, then, continuing to read the paper or the notes written subsequently to the early writing, we realise that these instructions were ignored. In this volume we also learn of a silk market30; Bologna was an important centre for silk in those days; the friars’ properties contained mulberry trees whose leaves were necessary to the rearing of silkworms and were thus sold, thereby contributing to the income of the monastery. We find a benefactress, Bettizza, daughter of Dino Dinadoni Sinopisoli, who takes care of the foreign students who live in the monastery and so leaves them the profits of a plot of land cultivated as grass and covering an area of 10 tornature 31. Another peculiarity is the quote of an unusual unit of measurement used to calculate wood; it is the “sorga”, a volume unit of measurement 32. We have already said that this volume does not merely examine the different kinds of assets; in it we also find daily news about the city which is sometimes rather dramatic. In one paper33 we are informed that, at the time of the “Great Plague ” of 1348 (tempore magne epidemie pestis), 110 friars of St. Dominic’s monastery in Bologna died; at that time the Prior, 22 The life sale was a method by which the friars succeeded in cashing important amounts of money , which they always needed,by leaving a property to a given person for their use during their lifetime and regaining full possession of it after the death of this person. 23 It is an agricultural unit of measure of the Emilia Romagna Region; its values are variable and swing between 20,80 ares of Bologna and 34.18 of Ravenna (1 are = 100 square meters). 24 It is the land that a ploughman can plough in a day. It is an ancient agricultural unit of measure for an area and it is again used in the Emilia and Veneto Regions. 25 Dem240-I-017v 26 Dem240-I-010r 27 Dem240-I-015r 28 Dem240-I-020r 29 Dem240-I-029r 30 Dem240-I-030r 31 Dem240-I-032v 32 Dem240-I-033r 33 Dem240-I-037r 10

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Francesco Albari, was managing a lot of assets of important personages who had died of the plague and these assets were left as an inheritance to the monastery in legal wills of which, however, there is now no trace. Very probably, the great plague that had swept the city of Bologna for about a year had given rise to many problems, if we refer to the bequests, to the notaries or to those who had to execute the various wills as well as to the legal procedures that had to be respected. This may be one of the reasons why it is the farmers themselves that visit Friar Franceschino to inform him that the assets they have to manage were left to the friars by the owner who, before dying, signed his will in favour of the friars and they also take the opportunity of informing the friar about the kind of agreement that is in force; we can read that Franceschino confirms or modifies the previous conditions of the rent. The “scriptor” continues with the local news and informs us that a lot of land remained uncultivated because of the lack of farmers to work it; the plague was sweeping the countryside as well, which explains the dire straits of the farmers. To the consequences of the plague must be added those of the war that broke out in 1350 between Giovanni Pepoli and the Count of Romandiola, Astorgio di Dufort. The friar tells us of when, on July 5th 1350, Giovanni Pepoli, at that time Lord of Bologna, together with his nephew, the son of his brother Giacomo, go to Solarolo to attempt to find an agreement with Astorgio. Giovanni is arrested with all of his entourage and the friar describing this, tells us that in those years the monastery received little or nothing because of the war. The chronicle continues and we are informed that on October 25th 1350 Giovanni Pepoli sells the Vicariate of Bologna to Giovanni Visconti. Immediately afterwards we learn that in 1351 Giovanni da Oleggio is appointed pro-Chancellor of the city while the war continues because Giacomo Pepoli takes a stand against the Oleggio. Many families leave the district and the city of Bologna due to the difficulties arising from the long period of wars and because of the devastation. It is then mentioned that a war is waged against Bologna by Modena and a League of Lords from other cities under the leadership of Francesco Carrara; we are informed that this war gave rise to additional sacking and pillaging. The summary of the above is in a second note written again in the margin of the last page ; this note sums up in just three words all the drama of the events: “pestilentia, bellum, fame” In the following paper34 the “scriptor” continues with his chronicle and informs us that the friars finally begin to receive from the tenants a little of the money that was entitled to them and which related to the rentals of the previous years. The rentals had not been paid because of the tragic events previously described and so the friar produces a list of the persons that pay him and the amounts of money that these persons give him. Finally, in the centre of the paper (line 11), appears the writing “1364 pax facta”. Continuing the reading we find papers with dates that go beyond the period specified on the cover; we can imagine this is due to errors on the part of those who reorganized these documents. One example is paper Dem240-I038v or paper Dem240-I-039v; in the first we have the dates regarding the period 1367 – 1387 while in the second we have a period 1392 – 1399. The story continues and we are informed that the assets of Giovanni Rustigani have been rented to Nicola Zilini with a special agreement which exempts him from paying the rent for a certain period precisely because of the costs that he would incur when cultivating the fields which had lain fallow and full of brambles for so long due to the plague and the wars; the rent is thus fixed at 20 lire for the year 1365, at 30 lire for the period 1366 – 1369, at 35 lire starting from 1370 and for the following years but in 1376 the war breaks out again and the friars receive nothing that year from Mr. Nicola. The local news continues as we study the papers of this volume and so we find news of men who form an association to cultivate the lands that have been neglected; we learn of the death of the above - mentioned Mr. Nicola Zilini and of the automatic takeover by his sons of the management of the plots that had been entrusted to him because of a clause in the rent agreement; we learn of a long fight between the friars and the sons of Mr. Zilini over something that remains unclear; we learn of exemptions from the rent in the event of natural disasters or wars35; we learn of exchanges of ownership between the various religious Communities of the city such as, for example, between the Preaching Friars and the Friars Minor, between the Preaching Friars and the Hermit Friars as is proved by the acts of the notary Azzo Baravelli. When browsing through the papers we often come across a very generous benefactor, Mr. Brizzi, dyer; he, indeed, leaves some of his assets to the religious Communities of Bologna as undivided ownership stipulating that it must be one of the community to manage them and to take care of the redistribution of the profit in accordance with his testamentary instructions36. We can also see that our Mr. Brizzi leaves instructions for a property located at Quaderna and 34 35 36

Dem240-I-038r Dem240-I-041r Dem240-I-041r 11


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left to the Sisters of St. Agnes who rented it out as sharecropping. He stipulates that these Sisters should distribute a precise amount of money to some institutions in what we would define today as “Acts of Charity”; these are the Battuti della Vita (a hospital), St. Blasey’s Hospital, the prisoners and the poor of St. Lazarus37. Continuing to read we find out that an important amount of money has been left for the marriage of five “maidens - donzelle” as they were defined by the “scriptor”; it is interesting to note this solicitude toward these poor young women who were thus enabled to start to build a family with fewer worries38. We were struck by the modality of an agreement that appears to have been written in 1399, therefore in a significantly later period than that specified on the cover of this volume, but which actually seems to be referring to 1348; this agreement states that it is necessary to till three times per year, hoe, sow, reap, thresh the wheat and bring half of the harvest to the monastery and it is strange that, referring to the same plot of land, the clauses are about “tornature” and “biolche”, two different units of measurement that are very different one from another39. After a long list of plots of land that, as already noted, were distributed in the territory of Bologna and the nearby cities, the “scriptor” returns to listing the real estate belonging to the friars and which is distributed in the different districts of the city or immediately outside the walls in that zone of the territory, the suburbs, which was then called “Guard of the city - Guardia della Città”. Reading the volume that we are examining, we find that the “Grada” is frequently cited, the same as in other medieval documents of Bologna. The “Grada” identified one of the many districts that made up the urban fabric of that age and whose name derives from a particular building completed in 1208 40. Continuing to read the papers of this volume we discover that there were some “public baths” in the city which enabled people to wash themselves well because the majority of the houses belonging to ordinary people did not contain bathrooms; the paper41, indeed, describes a street in the district of the “Cappella di San Procolo”, that leads to the “stupa”. The list of the houses continues and a long list of properties is cited that are located near the Town Hall, the main square - “Platea” and the “Court of the Captains – Corte dei Capitani”. They are real residences, animal shelters and spaces for professional activities such as, for example, “spice shops – spezierie”. Sometimes, when reading the papers, we can understand that the friars pay the professionals by assigning to them some houses whose incomes provide these professionals (lawyers, notaries42) with payment for the work undertaken for the said friars. Reading these papers we meet persons with a very nice nickname such as, for example, a certain Lorenzo who is called “Starling – Stornello43”maybe because he has a very nice voice and sings very well. We can also observe that our friars do not receive bequests exclusively from noble or bourgeois families ; indeed we see that the organization of the Arts and Professions leaves them some assets and we find that in 1367 the “Barbers’ Guild – Società dei Barbieri” leaves the friars a plot of land of two and a half tornature which is rented to Mrs. Lucia, the wife of Mr. Gianniniano44. Towards the end of the volume the list of the houses stops and there begins a list of expenses that has nothing to do with an inventory of assets. It may be that these papers are really unrelated and have been inserted in this volume by the friar who carried out their reorganization; the evidence for this hypothesis could be the date indicated in the paper which, explicitly, from the very first line, indicates the year 1392 and then continues with some details of expenses sometimes explaining that these are purchases on credit45. At the end we go back to 1348 and return to the inventory of the assets with a list of rented houses; this proceeds till nearly the end of the volume when, in the two last papers46, there again 37 Dem240-I-041r 38 Dem240-I-041v 39 Dem240-I-042r 40 We know the importance of the Reno canal, which goes on to become the Navile canal, in generating the power necessary to drive the industries of the city at that time. The Reno canal originates at the Casalecchio Lock and then enters the municipal territory of Bologna running parallel to the Reno river. It flows into the city at the level of the so-called the “Grada”, just in front of Pratello street. The “Grada” was made in 1208 and the name refers to two big, strong iron “grates”, which are still visible and which were activated by a mechanism that permitted their vertical motion. It was a way of preventing or, in a certain way, of obstructing the access to the city because the course of that canal had to cross the city walls which explains the need to create an opening to enable the passage of its waters. 41 Dem240-I-045r 42 Dem240-I-047r 43 Dem240-I-047v 44 Dem240-I-054r 45 Dem240-I-050r 46 Dem240-I-056r and Dem240-I-056v 12

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appear some records of expenses for timber, oil, salted meat and cheese; we find a mistake by the friar who records a total amount of expenses equal to 320 lire while, if we add up the figures of the single items, the total comes to 380 lire. Finally we are at the end of this volume; we would like to point out that at the end of the presentation of the four volumes there are some attachments with tables which recap both the plots of land and the houses belonging to the friars as observed in the records that have been briefly cited in the papers above. In these tables we have tried to identify the different locations of these assets with regard to the territory, indicating the names of the districts of the territory or the different areas of the city. There will sometimes be found a “zero” value in relation to the size of a certain plot of land; we chose this modality in order to underline that no size is given for the cited plot although the type of crop is recorded.

Vol. Dem 240-II

Second Sample (Campione Secondo)

The cover of this second volume is rather well preserved; in the middle and at the top of the cover the title of the volume is written in very fine Gothic characters : “Book of the assets of the monastery of the Preachers of Bologna – Libro delle proprietà del convento dei Predicatori di Bologna”. Below the title is written “O. O” and further down the year 1390 is written in Arabic numerals. Still further down we find “Second Sample – Campione secondo”. At the top left there is a note, probably written at a later date than the original, which reiterates that it is a “Sample – Campione”. The first page of this volume is a kind of exhortation inviting the reader to number the papers that follow as far as paper 92; the friar also tells us that only when we arrive at the end of the volume will it be possible to know the full extent of the monastery’s property in the district of Bologna. The paper which follows, judging from the note on the first line, has all the characteristics of an “index” of the assets of the monastery as they are distributed in the city and surrounding territory of Bologna. In this “index” there is a record of the names of the quarters of the city or of the villages of the area in which there are houses or plots of land belonging to the monastery; the number of the paper in which these assets are registered is also indicated. There follows a kind of preamble with prayers to Christ, the Virgin Mary, St. Dominic and All the Saints and it is reiterated that the volume contains the registers of all the urban and rural assets left to the Prior or to the Superior as the last wishes of certain dead persons while they were still living. By reading these papers we can discover so many small details that give us an insight into some aspects of life inside the monastery and a glimpse of the city as it was in those days. For example, we can understand that the city at that time boasted some Public Sanitary Services such as the “stupa”; anybody could pay to go there and wash themselves in this place which was well furnished with a constant supply of unlimited, warm water: we need to remember that normal houses were not equipped with sanitary services as in the houses of our times; and it is whilst reading this paper47 that we learn that one of these “stupa” was located in the St. Procolo district, on the street that “starts with a big house with a balcony that is a property of the Dominicans; this presence of the “stupa” has already been pointed out in the first volume, Dem240-I. In order to define the exact location of one of these properties, the “scriptor” refers to specific parts of the same monastery and so, for example, the position of the house belonging to the friars is described in relationship to the main door of the monastery, the enclosure wall or the infirmary. When browsing through the papers we come across strange methods of record-keeping which mean they must have been done subsequently to the original writing. One paper48 is striking because it uses a kind of “post-it” to make some notes and one of them is written upside down compared to all the lines of the same paper. Further on in this paper we find public documents that certify the ownership of the friars; these public documents are safeguarded inside the Sacristy of the monastery and we can deduce this since the “precious” objects of the monastery and, among these, the last wills and testaments, are also found here. Another paper49, also with a kind of “post-it”, has a list of 13 names that are followed by a note that appears to record the ups and downs of the property described in the original lines. This note tells us that a certain Mrs. Giovanna di Lamari died on October 12th 1388 and expert advice was sought concerning the inventory of the assets inherited by the monastery from a certain Lippo di Monghidoro because it seems the inheritance line related to the above-mentioned assets was not clear. On the right of the list of the names there is a list of amounts of money, written upside down, compared with the rest of the paper, as if to say that these amounts were given or were received by the persons listed on the side; we think that this is a reliable hypothesis because there are 13 listed persons and 13 amounts written upside down. Another peculiarity is that, at the end, the total value 47 48 49

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indicated by the “scriptor” is 67 lire, 12 soldi and 9 denari while the sum we obtain by adding the single details turns out equal to 66 lire, 4 soldi and 7 denari. The friars also tell us that a certain Mr. Ugolino Scappi misappropriated a plot of land located in the St. Marino50 territory, a small village located between Bologna and Bentivoglio, along the road that leads to Ferrara. Again this Mr. Ugolino Scappi appears in another paper51 in which the friars report that he fraudulently sold one of their plots of land, rather wide (18 tornature), which had been left untilled. Proceeding with the analysis of the contents of our papers we can observe how frequently, the sisters of St. Agnese of Bologna appear and how the Dominican friars took care of them especially as regards the management of their property, for which work they received some sort of payment in kind52. This relationship between the two Communities dates back to the time when the General Master Giordano received from St. Dominic himself the task of being spiritual director to Diana d’Andalò, the young woman of Bologna who put her vows in the hands of St. Dominic after he supported her vocation which had been so contested by her relatives. Diana wished to build a convent of sisters belonging to the Order of Preachers and, as soon as her parents left her free to do what she desired, it was Giordano who initiated the project that had already been approved by St. Dominic. After obtaining the permission of the Bishop and with the help of Diana’s relatives , a small house was built and in this way the first Dominican convent for sisters was founded; the convent is dedicated to St. Agnese. The convent of the sisters and the monastery of the Dominicans sometimes received assets in one and the same will and this could prove difficult to manage. For this reason, and perhaps for the necessities of the monastery, a transaction was effected by mutual agreement: the sisters would leave the friars all the assets received from the legacies of Taddeo Pepoli and from others from which the sisters already enjoyed the benefits; in turn the friars undertook to celebrate a mass in the church of St. Agnese every day and in perpetuity and to hold other religious services for the convent53. Continuing to browse through our volume we can notice how, when more than one property is cited in the same paper, the “scriptor” tends to tot them up indicating the value obtained at the bottom left – hand side of the paper; but a random check reveals that these totals do not correspond to the sum of the single items; these totals have been done subsequently to the original writing and are not very different if compared with the right value that we obtain by adding up the single items; probably the additions were done in a hurry , in order to highlight a scale of importance54. As we proceed in this volume, we can ascertain the great diversity of its content compared with that of the first, Dem240-I; in the former, indeed, the plots of land are always well described, the boundaries always well defined, the name of the farmer granted the management of the property is always cited, the typology of the rent agreement is always indicated: as sharecropping, partly as sharecropping and partly with payment of money or in kind or only money. Instead, in this volume the name of the farmer or the agreed rent is rarely cited55. It is also interesting to read the comments that the friar sometimes puts on the side of the description of the property he is giving; there is a case, for example, in which there is a certain plot of land for construction assigned “for life – a vita” to a certain Ugolino; this man gave his word that he would build a house but the “scriptor” concluded that, after the sale “for life” this Ugolino did not maintain his promise (Quod promissum ipse fregit salva fide sua. Quia ad huc nichil fecit et numquam faciet56). It is on this occasion that we find a unit of measure, the “modum”, that we meet for the first time: it is a sample measure used for building plots. In order to note some comments that our “scriptor” makes in the various papers of this volume we cite the case in which the monastery gave a fine house “for life – a vita” with a vineyard, olive trees, a yard and a well to a lady, the wife of a certain Stornello, on condition that, on the death of this lady, everything should revert to the monastery. The friar comments on this saying that this will really happen after the death of this lady but, at the same time, he paints an unflattering picture of her because he defines her as“muliercula” that is “whore” or “tart”57. I think that it is possible to speculate as to what the government of the city of Bologna was like because, in this volume, we can see that “land for building” is often mentioned as though there already existed some sort of land management regulating the places on which it would be possible 50 51 52 53 263 54 55 56 57

Dem240-II-026r Dem240-II-037r Dem240-II-038r A. D’Amato O.P., I Domenicani a Bologna, Vol. I, Bologna, Edizioni Studio Domenicano, 1988, p. Dem240-II-043r Dem240-II-045r Dem240-II-045r Dem240-II-046r 14

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to build: it is the word “casamentum” which prompts these considerations because we find it almost always combined with the word “domus” as for example “unum casamentum super quo esse una domus”58 or “una petia terre casamentata cum domo”59. Another peculiarity to note is that of the friar who registers a property with some reservations perhaps because he found the information in a rather dated register like the one which is “preserved bound between two small wooden tables – conservato legato tra due tavolette di legno”; his way of recording underlines his doubt by putting the word “dubium”60 beside the lines that describe the property, a modality also observed in volume Dem240-I. Continuing to browse through this volume we reach the paper with the number “LXXXXII” at the top and in the middle of the page; one opinion is that this must be the paper to which the friar refers at the beginning when, in paper Dem240-II-002r, he suggests beginning to number the following papers to reach paper 92 which is the one which closes the long list of the friars’ properties61. Indeed, the papers that follow have a completely different content because they no longer describe houses or plots of land but rather money transactions and an institution that sounds like a bank62. The “scriptor” tells us that the Order of Preachers of Bologna has received a certain amount of money and lists a sequence of “transactions” telling us that they came from the “Heap of the Mount – Cumulo del Monte” of the city. These transactions indicate the value of the amount, the name of the donor and the date; the last one has the date September 27th 1400. The “scriptor” shares some thoughts with us which strengthen our conviction that the city had a bank at that time because he tells us that the total amount of the money entrusted is equal to 1400 lire as is confirmed by a report underwritten by the patricians, the military and the civil legal experts; the report was prepared by a certain Romeo dei Foscherari, an official who appears in the register of the “Officials of the city – Ufficiali della città”. It is from this information that we can deduce that there are some “Officials – Ufficiali” inside the city who are designated to safeguard the money deposited in this Heap of the Mount and that these officials are lodged in the building that functions as “a money deposit – ricovero del denaro”; this building is located in the seat of the earliest treasury of the city of Bologna and, from what is indicated by the “scriptor”, we can deduce that there is a soldier who has to safeguard this money and who lives in the apartment on the upper floor of the aforementioned building. Proceeding with the reading of the volume we find another paper63 with “unrelated” contents and which has nothing to do with a list of properties. It is indeed a list of persons who, on a certain date, the last one registered is August 15th 1401, make the “Profession of Faith”. We know that the “Profession of Faith” is an act by which a person reveals himself outwardly and publicly to believe and to accept the revealed truths. At the same time, he declares his wish to keep this decision unchanged in the future. This “Profession of Faith” is of a public and official nature, and is done with a repetition of a formula approved by the Ecclesiastical Authority. The “Profession of Faith” is pronounced by all the baptized: if infants, by means of their godfathers, if adults, by their own act. All the persons who take part in a Council or Synod, the Deans and the Professors of the seminaries and of the Theological Departments, those who receive the Diaconate and the priests. Now we can say that the list of the properties of the Dominicans is at an end because, as we continue reading the volume, we encounter a long list of precious objects safeguarded in the Sacristy. We have already seen that when citing a certain will the “scriptor” sometimes tells us that it is safeguarded in the Sacristy and now he proposes this long list of precious objects safeguarded in this place as if it were a “Hall of Treasures”. Here we find precious cloth embroidered with golden thread, we find silver chalices, silver censers and their incense-boats, polished, silver candelabras, statues, reliquaries, missals and precious ornaments. We can also notice the special relationship with the sovereigns of Hungary; we know from other sources of a chalice donated by the queen of Hungary and given as a pledge to the Pepoli family in exchange for cash; now we hear of a silver lamp offered to the friars by the king of Hungary, destined for St. Dominic’s altar and also of a book which contains the Office of St. Stephen, king of Hungary 64. The list of precious objects and furnishings continues, naming cloth which is of varying worth, carpets, stoles embroidered with gold thread, chasubles, holy water basins and so forth65. At this point we are approaching the end of this volume when we come across four papers (from Dem240-II-056r to Dem240-II-057v) that contain a very long list of texts that are present 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65

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in the monastery. There are texts of Philosophy, Greek and Latin authors, of St. Thomas or of other Saints and Doctors of the Church, texts on the Fermented Bread, essays on the Devil or the Heretics. For all these volumes the “scriptor” indicates the “shelf – banco” on which they are placed. There are a lot of volumes whose content is composed of a collection of Notes (Footnotes – Postilla)66, of Decrees67 or Decretals68 promulgated by Popes, of the fundamental rudiments of a certain Science (Summas69), of the concise dissertations of a text (Compendium – Compendio70), of small books (Pamphlets71) and of Biographies72. There are a lot of collections of sermons which treat various themes and which cover all the seasons of the liturgical year: Lent, Advent, Christmas, Easter, the various celebrations of the Saints (Ordinary Time), the various themes treated by the Gospels. To complete this list there is also a volume written by Marco Polo in which he describes the conditions of life in the Eastern regions (liber domini Marchi Pauli de Venetiis de conditionibus orientalium regionum73). Continuing with the reading of this volume we can see that in the penultimate paper74 there is a fine list of objects and furnishings belonging to the infirmary including blankets, bed sheets and pillows, some of which are in good condition whilst others are worn from much use. There are descriptions of cannulas for enemas, of equipment for the distillation and preparation of spirit (probably considered a tonic), of brass or copper receptacles for the washing of feet, of washstands for face washing, of glass water jugs and of iron tongs for the fire. And here the last paper gives a detailed description of a sharecropping agreement which the monastery entered into with a certain Mulleto, the son of Giovanni Azzolini, to manage a property located in the area of Sabbiuno, in the Bologna hills. The agreement is really detailed and we can say that the “scriptor” has reverted to the main theme of this volume. It also seems that these lines were added some time after the original writing because they occupy a space that had been left empty; these additional lines are distributed in two columns. The original writing begins on the top and occupies only the left – hand side of the paper, and not all of it; it is a list of Arts and Crafts Societies current in Bologna in 1392: Notaries, Salt Merchants, Tamers, Merchants, Tailors, Butchers, Apothecaries, Fishmongers, Haberdashers, Barbers, Stationers, Rag-and-bone-men, Shoemakers, Carpenters, Jewellers and Masons. And with this paper the second volume of this collection comes to an end.

Vol. Dem 240-III

Third Sample (Campione Terzo)

This third volume has a fairly well – kept cover while certain papers inside seem rather worn especially on the external edge. Roughly in the centre of the cover and slightly to the top left we find the year 1404 in Arabic numerals while a little below and right in the centre, is the title “Third Sample – Campione Terzo”. The volume is held together by four “rope rings” that are distributed at regular intervals along the spine of the same. In the first paper (Dem240-III-002r ) it is clear that we are in June 1404 and immediately afterwards there follows a declaration by the monastery’s Prior, Friar Marco from Chioggia, in which he tells us that it was he who, in his own hand, had begun to write the first papers that make up this volume (“Quaterno”). The Prior underlines the difficulties he found in collecting the information we find recorded and he speaks of having adopted a procedure that he hopes will be diligently observed because he is convinced it will be very useful to the friars for the management of their great property. The procedure of the Prior consists of heading each paper with the name of a place in which there are one or more properties belonging to the monastery; pratically each paper is the equivalent of a file-card as used today in modern archives. The Prior says that he has prearranged quite three-hundred papers (cards), each of which bears the name of the place to which it refers as a heading, just as he indicated in his introduction and as appears in the “index” paper that follows soon afterwards. We were not able to copy out this “index” in its entirety because the paper, on the lower right of the front side, appears badly torn and therefore incomplete. As we continue 66 The “Footnote” is a short annotation , in general commonly arranged on the external border of the page of a book, of an act or of a written document. 67 The “Decree” is a jurisdictional measure that in general does not include the motivation. It is an administrative act typical of the executive power. It is a position or a deliberation of the divine will. 68 The Decretal is said of the Papal Constitution written as a letter. It is a Papal Bull concerning the government of the Church. If it is a plural they are the Papal Constitutions compiled as letters that often contained important legal regulations , part of which were later transmitted into the Body of Canon Law. 69 The Summation, in the Medieval world, is a book containing all the fundamental principles of a science. It is a systematic collection, a Compendium. 70 The Compendium is a reduction or the Synthetic dissertation of the content of a text, of a subject, of a matter and similar. 71 The Pamphlet is a small book or it is the section of a treatise. 72 The Memorial is the story of an important or memorable event described by a person who was present or took part in it. It is a written and explanatory text which especially justifies or defends its own actions. 73 Dem240-II-057r 74 Dem240-II-058r 16

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reading the papers we notice that the system the Prior set up was generally respected because in the centre of each paper, at the top, there is always the name of the place and the property referred to, on the same paper. There follows the information that certifies the rights concerning the property like , for example, the name of the donor, the date of the will and the name of the notary that wrote it. Then we have the description of the farm manager, that is, his name, the kind and the amount of rent and the expiry dates for the payments of the rents; there is also a record of the information that certifies the deed of the rent and indicates the start date and the name of the notary who validated the contract. They are generally métayage rents but at other times they are contracts of leaseholds for life or of fixed rents for a payment of a certain sum. Moreover, we often find evidence of the agreements included in the contract such as those indicating the methods to use for certain types of crops, those to maintain the ditches free of brushwood, those for the harvesting of the wheat and so forth. This initial information is followed by the accounts of the different incomes related to the payments in money or in kind. We also find notes that regard the delivery to the sharecropper (farmer) of a certain quantity of seeds for sowing the future crops; these quantities of seeds can be those that the friars have to give the sharecropper to sow their share of the crop, in the case of a métayage contract, or they can be quantities given as a loan to the same cropper because he does not have the means to buy them; in this last case the record diligently notes down that the quantities must be given back at the next harvest and we can see that this normally happens. Continuing to read we can note how there is some “infiltration” of the vernacular language: Dante had already written the “Divina Commedia” and, evidently, the Italian language comes out from time to time even in documents like ours that are written in Medieval Latin. We instance a kind of a “post-it” stuck on the bottom right-hand side of paper De240-III019r: “E tuti questi dinari sono per dare a Lunardo deli Desideri. Li dicti dinari li pagai ala tavola del dicto Lunardo delli Desideri ad VIII Luglio 1439”. We can also note that on the other side of this ‘’post-it’ ’there is a list of amounts received but it is not possible to understand what the connection is with the contents of the paper cited. We can verify that sometimes the friars inform the tenant of one of their properties to pay the rent, or a part of it , directly to the creditors of the friary and we find an example of this in paper Dem240-III-024r: the farmer, Dino Pilipari, gives 6 lire to a certain Ogino because he is a creditor of the friary as payment for his job which is to wash the friars’clothes. We also read that a vineyard, located in the suburbs of the town, on the site “Le Fornaci”, had been leased; its rent had been fixed as 10 lire and 10 soldi and it had to be paid at Michaelmas – giorno di San Michele (September 29th). Scrolling down the records of the rent payments of the various years, it seems the rent is regularly paid three months after it falls due. When considering the period from 1406 to 1413 we note that the record relating to 1406 is missing but I think we can deduce that the payment had been postponed because we find a record for a payment that was made in December 1407, which is likely to be that related to 1406; another one made immediately after January 1408 (Dem240-III-028r) which I think is that related to 1407; and a second payment, still in 1408, which explicitly refers to this last year. Continuing to read the pages we can see (Dem240-III-030v) that on February 2nd 1408 the friars buy a sow with her piglets for 8 lire, and at the same time they also buy a female piglet. The friars grant one of their sharecroppers, Ugolino Bertoli from San Giorgio di Piano, the breeding of these animals with the instructions that on All Saints’ Day – Il giorno di Tutti i Santi he has to consign the piglets which are now fully grown along with the female piglet to the friary. There is an additional instruction that in the future the sharecropper will have to consign the other piglets that will be born from future litters. The second series of piglets will have to be consigned to the friars two months after their birth and the friar, meanwhile, will consign a corba of bran for feeding the sow. And here we encounter the report of an important quarrel related to a property located in the territory of San Giovanni in Triario (Dem240-III-031r); we have already found some traces of this quarrel in the first volume and it is a quarrel that has now been continuing for thirty years. The friars claim that the tenant, Pietro Zilini, has not paid them their due while the latter maintains it is the friars who have not respected the agreements and failed to give the promised contributions. It becomes necessary to appear in court and the judge passes sentence in favour of the friars, but then the Bishop of Bologna intervenes and acquits Zilini; in the meantime, the tenant, dissatisfied with this result , resorts to Pope Boniface IX who pronounces a “leaden bull – bolla plumbea”, with two privileges, still in favour of the friars. Bologna’s Podesta’ does not intervene to execute the sentence and the Cardinal of Bologna intervenes in writing and orders the friars not to torment this Pietro Zilini any longer. The scriptor underlines that all the documents pertinent to this quarrel, including the sentence and the papal privileges, are kept in the monastery. In the end the friars do not give up and the sharecropper is submitted to “God’s Sentence – Giudizio di Dio”: Pietro Zilini is decapitated and so, finally, this very long quarrel comes to an end. I find that a note written in the right-hand margin is really malicious as it says: “God’s Sentence, anyone who prosecutes the friars 17


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is forgiven”. A detail which somehow underlines the lack of diligence occasionally found in these accounts is evident in paper Dem240-III-036r; in this paper it is said that a property of 18 tornature, located in San Lorenzo in Collina, is rented out to the noblewoman Giustina Galluzzi but then the surname Galluzzi is cancelled and replaced with that of Bedulli. At this point we could suppose that all the accounting records that follow will refer to the Bedulli family while, in fact, the scriptor continues to cite Giustina Galluzzi. In this volume we also find some agreements which are quite complex as can be seen in paper Dem240-III-037r. In this paper there is an agreement with a certain Ludovico Aserpe to whom is entrusted a very important property because it consists of eight plots of land with a total surface area of 320 tornature. The lease is made official by an act of the notary Azzo Buvalelli on January 14th 1397 and it carries on into this volume because of its long duration: 25 years. The paper reveals the multiple payments that have been made in the following years and it is possible to note how this Ludovico cannot pay the friary in 1405 due to the loss of his crop caused by the war. We also note that an “auditing of accounts” is carried out at regular intervals during which it is verified if all the agreements have been respected and any adjustments are made that are necessary to balance the books; we have an example on May 11th 1406 when it is written that Ludovico settles his account with the friars by giving them 10 corbe of wheat. Another detail of daily life that reminds us how certain events are the same today as they were then is found in paper Dem240-III-047r. We read that Mrs Bovesina, the daughter of Albertino, egg dealer, makes a bequest of a leasehold for life to Sister Zesia of St. Peter the Martyr’s monastery. The property in question is formed of three plots of land for sowing and use as a vineyard. But then the scriptor concludes that the nun abandoned the friary and decided to go to live with a man. Yet another special agreement can be found in paper Dem240-III-058r; in this paper we read that in Russi’s territory, in the area known as “Codelunga” there is a property of 60 tornature with a plot of land for sowing and use as a vineyard which is cultivated as métayage by a certain Simone. The agreement is special because while the plot of land for sowing is given as métayage, the friars tell us that they tend the vineyard themselves; in fact it is always Simone who takes care of the vineyard with the detail that the fruits of the four tornature are his alone while the same Simone manages the remaining tornature as a sharecropper. The friars paid attention to their income and we can verify this ,for example, in paper Dem240III-059r. In this paper the scriptor tells us that a debt has finally been paid off that a certain Filippo Canellato had incurred with the friars; in 1393 this Filippo received the leasehold of an undivided property which the Dominicans owned with the Carmelite friars. However, for the first five years he was unable to pay all the rent that was due because of the war. When there is an auditing of accounts in 1415 it appears that Filippo is still in debt to the tune of 16 lire. The record that follows shows us how Filippo settled his debt by payng 6 lire in 1416, 5 lire in 1417 and 5 lire in 1418. It also happens that the friars help a certain Caterina, Sister Orsolina of the Third Order, to recover a credit of 25 lire that she hadn’t been able to get back from her debtor. This nun wanted to buy a property belonging to the friars with a surface area of 11 tornature and located in the area known as “Serramazzoni”. It was established that the value of this property was 225 lire; the outstanding debt was 25 lire so the friars devised a subterfuge to make the debtor pay his dues. The friars tell the man in debt to the nun that the sale price of the property that the nun wants to buy is 25 lire; the debtor does not dare to oppose the friars and pays it off . Later on, the friars cash the remaining 200 lire declaring that they have lost nothing while managing to help the nun as well. They express their satisfaction by saying: “Et sic dedit nobis precium nostro et nos ille domine servivimus sine aliquo dispendio nostro”. As we continue to peruse the papers of this volume we come across the case of a disputed inheritance; the object is a house left for the duration of her life to a certain Cola, wife of Geminiani, who died on March 1405. The scriptor tells us that following Cola’s death the house was given back to the friary because the same Cola, while still alive, had written that she had donated this house to the friars and this happened while Friar Marco from Chioggia was Prior of the friary. But the scriptor remarks that after the death of this Cola some documents had come to light proving that before the donation to the friars the lady Cola had left the same house to a certain Olina. A quarrel breaks out and court proceedings commence; the judge rules in Olina’s favour but also decides that she has to give the friars 100 lire for the soul of Cola, paying this amount in instalments of 10 lire per year for ten years. Continuing with the reading of this paper (Dem240-III-075r) it is possible to deduce that the house, at the end, came to the friars because we can read that on May 10th 1406 it was rented for life to a certain Ugolino Nicolai, shoemaker, on condition that he repaired it at his own expense and that within three years he had dug a well. We again read that another house located in the Chapel of San Giacomo has been given to the lady Giacoma Guidone Ruini from Budrio and to her daughter Agnese Franceschini for life for the sum of 90 lira. In this paper (Dem240-III-075r) the scriptor feels it his duty to tell us how the friars 18

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

spent the above 90 lire and he specifies that 5 lire has been given to Jacopo as settlement for work he has done in Dozza; 30 lire has been given to Gerardo Guidoni and to Pietro Mattei from Dozza for the work they had been doing on the properties of the friars; 56 lire has been given to Jacopo, the sharecropper, to buy an ox while the remaining 9 lire has been given to Jacopo again as the completion of the amount necessary for the purchase of a second ox. And in the following paper (Dem240-III-076r) we hear about Indizione, a method of dating much used in the Middle Ages from the V Century and widespread in the Western Chancellor’s offices outside the Byzantine rule; in the IX Century it was adopted by the Franks. This method still exists for some sections of the ecclesiastical year including the part regarding the determination of the date for Easter75. Among such a wealth of material gleaned from reading these papers, I want to mention the case of a house left for life to a certain Andrea, bookseller (Dem240-III-090r). The condition of the agreement is that it is valid for as long as Mr. Paolo Boeteri remains alive; I think it is possible to deduce from this that Mr. Paolo must be the owner of the house and he gave this house to the friars. But Prior Marco from Chioggia decides to investigate the fate of this Mr. Paolo because it is rumoured that he is dead. The result of the investigation is that the Prior discovers that Mr. Paolo is living, has become a priest and resides in Conegliano in the Treviso area. We also find that the friars lose their rights to certain donations due to the lack of order in the preservation of the documentation (Dem240-III-092r and Dem240-III-093r); in fact, here the friars lose their rights to two houses left to the lady Bartolomea for her lifetime because they can no longer find the documentation of the donation. The houses had been given to the friary by lady Lucia, the mother of Bartolomea, with an act effected by the notary Azzo Buvalelli; as we said the act had been lost and so the friars can no longer claim any rights to these two houses. We also find that the friars sell a small house which is in a bad state of repair for 45 lire (Dem240-III-099r). The house is sold to a certain Bartolomea Zaccaria and the friars do not hide a certain satisfaction they feel at having successfully rid themselves of this property; they say, in fact, that the small house was in such a bad state that they should have had to incur great costs to do it up. The scriptor tell us that with the money obtained from the sale in 1410, the friars managed to pay for the transport to the friary of the wheat and wine produced during the same year. And it is here that we first meet the profession of “abachista” (Dem240-III-102r) which is the profession of the person who knows the art of making calculations, namely an early “accountant”. This Mr. Antonio, abachista, does an audit for a legacy of 22 florins per year in favour of the nuns of Sant Ágnese in accordance with the instructions of Matteo Ursini who, concomitantly, left a legacy of 50 florins per year in favour of the Dominicans. The scriptor underlines the difficulties deriving from the fluctuating exchange rate because of the wars in progress: it is 1405. As we continue to scrutinise our papers, we find that the Dominicans should receive a third of the fruits of a property managed by the friars of Saint Bernard and located in the Corticella area (Dem240-III-108r). For the years 1404, 1405, 1406 the Dominicans regularly receive the share due to them; in 1407 our friars remain debtors to the friars of Saint Bernard because the Prior of the latter, Friar Sabatino, supplied the Dominicans with 8 mattresses and 8 pillows so making them debtors of 2 lire and 19 soldi since the cost of the supply exceeds the annual quota of the income due to them. I had to smile reading the news reported in the papers relating to the legacy of a certain Moneseri Valore from Mantova which had been given to the friars of San Michele in Bosco to manage; according to the will these friars had to give the Dominicans a corba of wine and another one of wheat every year. In paper Dem240-III-114r the “payments” for the year 1404, 1405, 1406 are diligently recorded but for the year 1407 the scriptor lets himself go with quite a severe comment on the quality of the wine given to the Dominicans: terrible! There is yet another noteworthy feature, namely the method introduced to facilitate the “exchange” process when a will stipulates that the legacy is to be shared between different religious communities as we find in paper Dem240-III115r. The paper says that, on the basis of the testamentary dispositions of the lady Maddalena, the Carmelite friars have to give the Dominicans 20 soldi each year, while the latter, on the basis of the testamentary dispositions of Brizzi, dyer, have to give the Carmelites a corba of wine every year. In 1400 the two communities agree to a perpetual cancellation of this “exchange”, that is the Carmelites keep the money and the Dominicans keep the wine. And continuing our reading we come across an important report on what the Dominicans had to do to organize their General Chapter which was held in Bologna on June 30th 1407 (Dem240-III122r and Dem240-III-122v). It is really interesting to peruse all the accounts of the sums collected so 75 The calculation of the Indizione relating to a certain year is done by adding 3 to the year in question and dividing the obtained value by 15, the remainder of the value is the Indizione and when the remainder is zero then the Indizione is 15. In our case it concerns a lease that was drawn up in 1414 to the 7th Indizione and here, in fact, that 1414 + 3 = 1417; 1417 : 15 = 94 with the remainder of 7 and 7 is the Indizione indicated by the scriptor. 19


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

as to be able to meet the expenses they must have incurred in order to provide meals for so many people and organize the related hospitality. It is also fascinating to see the list of foods; to note the great quantities of meat that were served on this occasion, all in defiance of the Dominicans’ Constitution which forbade them this food. However, we know that meat was allowed for the sick and on the occasion of great events, as this important General Chapter certainly was76. It is also worth noting the accounting records for the woodwork costs, for the work of the blacksmith as well as for the fitting of locks or for the window gratings and for masonry work in the cells. Important personages take part in this General Chapter: a Cardinal, Masters and Provincials of the Order from all over Europe as well as the most important citizens of Bologna. And now we have reached the end of this volume.

Vol. Dem240-IV

Fourth sample– Campione Quarto

This volume follows the pattern of the previous volume (Dem240-III); it begins with a paper which lists all the areas containing the properties of the Dominicans in alphabetical order and, to the right of their name, we find the number of the paper, in Arabic numerals, with the information regarding such and such a property ; to all intents and purposes, what we are looking at here is an index. This first paper is followed by other different papers with the name of the place at the top of the page and in the centre and, then, the description of the property/ies, the definition of the relative borders, the surface areas even if they are not always given , the kind of crops grown and possible contractual details. The volume starts with the place known as Sant Ágata and finishes with the locality of Ventiana in the district of Budrio. Perusing our papers we often meet with pages with only the heading of the place while the remainder of the page is empty or, sometimes, it has only one or two lines without any precise indications. We have just said that this volume follows the same structure as the third volume as defined in the first paper of the same by the Prior at that time, Marco from Chioggia. Looking through these papers we encounter the first instance of having to pay a tithe to the Bishop of Bologna 77. Continuing our reading we also see that the testamentary dispositions of the donors do not limit themselves to defining the terms of the property left as an inheritance; it happens, for example, that Friar Domisdei, of the Third Order of Saint Bernard, not only leaves a property which is located in the territory of Corticella, in the suburbs of the town, with the related enjoyment of the fruits; the donor also establishes the criteria for the division of these fruits among the various communities cited in his will. Frequently we find that the testamentary dispositions go so far as to define the part of the funds with which the deceased must be commemorated; they even insist on the preparation of special meals (pictancie) to be eaten on the occasion of special feast days and how much should be spent on these meals and on which days they should be consumed78. We have already said that the donor often leaves an undivided inheritance among several religious communities and they also often stipulate how their inheritance ought to be managed. Thus we find that a certain Margherita Balducci leaves instructions in her will that the Carmelite friars should manage her monetary legacy in the person of the Prior of this community but she also wants him to be helped by the Prior of the Friars of San Michele in Bosco, by the Prior of San Martino, by the Prior of the Hermit Friars and by the Prior, or rather, by the Guardian of the Friars Minor. Margherita, moreover, establishes that these “Commissioners” should each receive 4 lire every year in perpetuity. However, she also states that the first year after her death “five parts of six” of her fund must be spent on the clothing and the necessities of the novices of San Martino, that on the second year after her death the same sum must be given to the novices of the Hermit Friars, that on the third year the same be done for the novices of the Preaching Friars, that on the fourth year the same should be done for the novices of the Friars Minor while on the fifth year the same should be done for the poor and for the prisoners who leave jail79. By now we are in the mid XV Century and the vernacular Italian language appears more and more frequently; we have already met it, even if in a very limited way, in the preceding volume, but here we find that in a paper80 the scriptor lets himself go: “Memoria: chome li diti frati del terzo ordine di San Francesco asignarono in chambio de libre 29 che erano tanti a pagare in perpetuo a li diti frati de San Domenico per un pezo de tere zoe in doi pezi contigui de tornature XXV 02 ….. poste in ……eto di sopra a presso anche di decressente da pozia a lordonia seu moia che soe de Zane de….. 76 P. Lippini, La vita quotidiana di un convento Medievale, Bologna Edizioni Studio Domenicano, 2003, pp. 240-245 77 Dem240-IV-008r 78 Dem240-IV-009r 79 Dem240-IV-012v 80 Dem240-IV-019v 20

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

one strazarolo e fo de li 1446 a dì … per ser Petro del Bonum nodario81 As we continue to read we sometimes find that the scriptor highlights a note by drawing a small hand with a long index finger pointing to the line containing the same note82; it is a detail we have already met now and then in the preceding volumes. Another original feature of this volume is the way in which the position of a building belonging to the friars is defined in relation to a well – known point of the town such as for example, the seat of the Municipality of Bologna. The related position is defined with “latitude - latitudine” and “longitude – longitudine” and the distance is expressed in “piedi bolognesi83” Bolognese feet; continuing with the reading of the lines that follow we also find a mention of the house near the seat of the Municipality in which they “produce the coins of Bologna”, namely the mint of the Municipality of Bologna. And it is here while mentioning certain shops, used as pharmacies, that they tell us that these same shops were set on fire on August 1st 1428 when Battista Canetoli and his followers expelled the Church from the territory of Bologna (“fuerunt combuste a furore populi de anno Domini 1428 die primo augusti quando ecclesia fuit expulsa de civitate per Baptista de Canetolo84”). We know that in 1417 the election of Pope Martin V marks the beginning of a period of very great conflict with Bologna because the town was one of the main opponents to the restoration of papal power when this Pope returned from Costanza to Italy in 1418. From Mantova, the Pope resumed negotiations in order to restore the town to the Church but, while the citizens of Bolgna asked to be granted the twenty-year Apostolic Vicariate in exchange for a moderate sum of money, the Pope wanted to maintain the town under the direct control of the Holy See so as to use it as a base to attack Braccio da Montone, called Fortebraccio. Due to a grave financial crisis in 1419, Bologna agrees to be back under the government of the Church; it does not obtain the Vicariate, but is confirmed as a Democratic State thanks to Nicolo’Albergati. In 1424 Anton Galeazzo Bentivoglio breaks his alliance with the Canetoli, throws them out and occupies the town hall. In this way the conflict with the Pope breaks out anew and the latter requests help from Fortebraccio; he occupies the castles in the territory and enters the town whose government is assumed by the Papal Legate. In 1422 Maria Visconti occupies Bologna in order to give help to the Pope. In August 1428 Battista Canetoli seizes the town hall and forces his former ally, the Legate Nicolo’ Albergati, to leave the town. In October of the same year Martin V issues a Papal Interdict against the town85. Continuing our reading we again find another piece of interesting news; here we read of an important foreign Univerity Institution, the “Residence Hall of Spain – Collegio di Spagna” founded in 1364 by Cardinal Gil de Albornoz, which already has a series of properties spread throughout the territory only fifty years after its foundation. We can understand the reference from the mention that the scriptor makes when defining the boundaries of some land, located in the area of Sala and belonging to the Dominicans (“et iusta bono scolarium ispanorum86”). We can conclude by observing that this fourth volume is a little lacking in special news regarding the daily life of the town of Bologna; all the same it is a volume that performs its duty with the content of the few papers that compose it; we have already said that there are a lot of papers that compose it which only give the heading of the places; probably, after having set up the papers they did not follow the established procedures for reasons that we do not know.

81 We can say that this note in vulgar Italian language is next the original writing as it cites the year 1446 82 Dem240-IV-033r 83 Ibidem – A piede bolognese is equivalent to 38 cm. 84 Ibidem 85 A, De Benedictis, “Lo stato popolare di libertà”, pratica di governo e cultura di governo (1376 – 1506) in Storia di Bologna, Biologna nel Medioevo, Bologna, Bononia University Press,2007, pp. 909 - 910 86 Dem240-IV-038r 21


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-I Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

22

23


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic's Friary in Bologna Location

Paper

Building lands

054v

Agreement

Act: April 25th 1363 Wood storage Tenant: Marcheto, Master of Wood Rent: 16 lire/year Payment: 1/2 at Christmas, 1/2 at Easter, starting on St. Michael's Day, to pay 4 lire till Christmas for life

Tenant: Maso Calzolari

1

Tenant: Cola dall'Olio Nothing to pay; at his death his heirs will have to pay 30 lire

for life

Tenant: Jacopo Priunti, lawyer of the friary

1

Androna Zustoli

for life

Tenant: Antonio Dotto

1

for life

Tenant: Maddalena

for life

Tenant: Gerardo from Crespellano and his brother Rent: 3 lire /year + costs of maintenance at the tenant's expense

for life

Tenant: Gerardo from Crespellano and his brother Rent: 3 lire /year + costs of maintenance and improvements at the tenant's expense Act: Notary Muzolino

1

1

House with a balcony Tenant: Bitino Zardi Caselli Rent: 4 lire and 10 soldi /year Then sold freehold

1

Legacy: Albari's Family Tenant: Jacopo Fiori Rent: 3 lire and 5 soldi /year Then sold freehold

1

A small house

2

Rent: 3 lire /year Payment: 1/2 on the Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 1/2 at Christmas

046r

008r

Cappella San Procolo San Andrea degli Ansaldi

1

1

054r

026r

1

Tenant: Cola dall'Olio

1 049r

Androna Santa

Notes

Years

1

049r

Table 1/6

Houses

1 Androna dei Toschi

Dem240-I

1 1

One of the two houses is small Rent: 12 soldi /year

1

A very fine house near that of the Bishop of Ferrara

1

It is a house, with a balcony, almost new and located near the horse-pond/guazzatoio of St. Andrea degli Ansaldi Tenant: Ricci from Modena

043r

25


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic's Friary in Bologna Location

Paper

043r

043v

044r

Cappella San Procolo San Andrea degli Ansaldi

Building lands

Dem240-I

Table 2/6

Agreement Houses

for life

House with a balcony Tenant: Leonardo Rent: 30 lire Then to Bartolomeo's mother from Strada Maggiore

1

House with a balcony, located near the cemetery Tenant: Caterina Catalani Rent: 3 lire and 5 soldi /year

1

Tenant: Iacopo Rent: 20 lire /year

1

House with a balcony Tenant: Nannino, cook Rent: 3 lire /year

1

House with a balcony used as an inn and & guest house Tenant: Berteo Rent: 6 lire /year

1

House with a balcony Tenant: Gerardo of San Petronio Then the sister of Gerardo Then Mrs. Bartolomea from Sassuolo Rent: 8 lire /year

1

for life

for life

Tenant: Lady Valeria Rent: 7 lire /year

1

Big house located at the beginning of the street which leads to the "Bagno Caldo - stupam " Tenant: Antonio Sabatini

for life

1

Big house Legacy: The Frassinago Family

1

House located on the opposite side of the monastery's boundary wall Tenant: Coleo dall'Olio, then Ambrosio Merzari Rent: 7 lire /year

for life

Paper

048r

049r

Cappella San Procolo San Andrea degli Ansaldi

049r

049v

054v

Cappella San Damiano

046r Cappella Santa Maria dei Carrari 048r

House with a balcony Tenant: Giovanni Minnei

1

045v for life

26

Big house with a balcony Tenant: Bigino Tetalasini and his wife Then, for 7 years, Giovanni Minori at a rent of 15 lire /year to begin on St. Michael's Day Then, in 1351, Gerardo, Master of wood, and his wife

Building lands

Notes

Years

1

1

3

Table 3/6

Agreement

Houses

for life

Act of 1369 Tenant: Jacopo from Imola Rent: 9 lire Two houses, of three, are adjacent and located on the opposite side of the infirmary Tenant: Gerardo Cozzo

1

House located in Via Frassinago

1

House located near the "horse-pond, guazzatoio"

1

Tenant: Gerardo Strada

2

for life

Two houses located on the opposite side of the monastery's infirmary Tenant: Antonio Sabatini

1

House held by the monastery

1

House located near the "horse-pond, guazzatoio"

1

Legacy from Bartolomeo Barbieri

1

Big house

1

Small house located on the opposite side of the friary's infirmary and located between two other houses owned by the friary Act: Notary Muzolino Tenant: Cico, domestic of Margherita Pepoli Rent: 3,5 lire /year starting on St. Michael's Day

5

1

Tenant: Jacopo Priunti

2

Two adjacent small houses Tenant: Jacopo Priunti, lawyer Rent: no payment because receives a salary for his activities as the friary's lawyer

1

for life

House with a balcony Legacy: Mrs. Zanna Storliti Tenant: Simone, painter Rent: 30 lire

1

for life

Small house Tenant: Maso, shoemaker Then Guglielmo Cassiti Rent: 3 lire and 40 soldi/year

1

for life

Tenant: Cola dall'Olio Big house located near the boundary wall of the Ravenna Gate Legacy: Tarlato Pepoli Tenant: Pietro Belli di Pianoro, apothecary Rent: 30 lire /year

1

1 Cappella Santa Tecla dei Lambertazzi

Dem240-I

047r

Big house located near the cemetery Tenant: Castorio Galluzzi

1

1

Location

Two houses both with a balcony and adjacent courtyard, located near the horse-pond/guazzatoio of St. Andrea degli Ansaldi. The bigger one is given to Jacopo Arardi at a rent of 6 lire /year; The second is rented to Jacopo from Conselve for a year for 7 lire and 10 soldi

2

1

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic's Friary in Bologna

Notes

Years

044v

045r

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

for life

047v

Small house Tenant: Gerardo Cozzi, Master of wood House with a balcony Tenant: Lorenzo, called Stornello Rent: 30 soldi /year

1

27


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic's Friary in Bologna Location

Cappella San Vito

Paper

047v

Building lands

Dem240-I

1

1

City Centre

for life

for life

for life

for life

049r

It is a shelter for animals near the Municipal Square Tenant: Jacopo Scutelli Blondi Sub-Tenant: Jacopo Bertoni Monsori, Notary Rent: 13 lire /year

It is a shelter for animals near the Municipal Square Tenant: Jacopo Scutelli Blondi Rent: 24 lire /year

Paper

052r

Contrada della Grada di Mezzo

Agreement Houses

Contrada San Giovanni e Paolo

Tenant: Pietro Castellani Rent: 6 lire

1

1

1

for life

Act: Notary Muzolino Tenant: Lucia, sister of Friar Sulimani Rent: 3 lire /year

5

Act: Notary Muzolino Tenant: Andrea, son of Lucia Rent: 6 lire /year Payment: it starts on St. Michael's Day

054v

045v

1

048r

1

011v

Notes

Years

1

Contrada della Santa

Table 5/6

for life

1

3

A small house with a balcony Tenant: Maddalena and one of her girlfriends Tenant: Domenico Biglino Lanzi and his wife Rent: 20 lire

Legacy: Lasi Baldovino with an act of 1352 Tenant: Pietro Tuzoli Rent: 16 lire /year Payment: 1/2 on St. Michael's Day, 1/2 at Christmas

1

Legacy: Tommaso Radisi It is a house near the bell storage

Tenant: Bartolomeo Barbieri Rent: 3 lire /year Then Tenant: Guido Barbieri Rent: 13 lire /year

2

Legacy: Bazolari's family Two adjacent houses Tenant: Bartolomeo from Saliceto

1

It is a chemist's near the Municipal Square Tenant: Jacopo Scutelli Blondi Rent: 18 lire /year Payment: 1/2 at Christmas and 1/2 at Easter

Convento di San Domenico (vicinanze)

Two adjacent houses Tenant: Margherita Pepoli Then Tenant: The sister of Master Giovanni Sulimani Rent: 3 lire /year

1

049v

for life

Tenant: Friar Lambertino, lay brother

2

These houses are held by the monastery for life

1

for life

5

8

002v

8

Tenant: Cola dall'Olio Act: August 26th 1348 Tenant: Jacopo Landi Rent: 10 lire /year He is behind with the rent by two years, he has paid only a part of the rent and he still has 5 lire to pay Payment: on St. Lawrence's Day Tenant: Giovanni Amadori and his brother Alberto

1 Fossa Cavallina ( outside Porta San Vitale)

Tenant: Mastro Chilino from Volterra Rent: 3 lire /year Tenant: Giulistano Beccadelli

1 053v

Tenant: Mrs. Castoria

1

1

Legacy: Mrs. Jacopa Neri Dalfini It is a chemist's near the Municipal Square Tenant: Jacopo Scutelli Blondi Rent: 20 lire /year Payment: on Easter Day A note tells us that he has not yet paid

2

Building lands

Dem240-I

Small house with a wood storage Legacy: Prunco's family

1

1

Contrada della Grada di Mezzo

It is a shelter for animals near the Municipal Square Tenant: Jacopo Scutelli Blondi Rent: 24 lire /year

House near the Municipal Square Tenant: Ferrarino from Ferrara Rent: 12 lire /year

052r

043v

Location

It is a shelter for animals near the Municipal Hall. Rent:24 lire/ year

1

1

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic's Friary in Bologna

Tenant: Vandotto, Master of wood Rent: 12 lire /year Then Tenant for life: Alberto Monti Rent: 18 lire /year + maintenance costs at his expense

1

049v

Notes

Years

1

Table 4/6

Agreement

Houses

1

046v

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

1

3

Tenant: Cecchino Gherardi, Master of wood Rent: 10,5 lire /year

1

Legacy: Bartolomeo Guidone Bonafede and the wife of Gerardo Peri

1

Small house

1

Legacy: Giuliano

1

1

Tenant: Bartolomeo Betti Rent: 23 soldi and 3 denari /year

1

Legacy: Recorseto

2

2

Between the Customs' Office and San Vitale Sreet.

1

Tenant: The mother of Bartolomeo Strada

1

1

Tenant: Pietro and his brother Paolo Rent: 6 lire /year

1

House near the cemetery Tenant: the wife of one of the carriers

28

29


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic's Friary in Bologna Location

Fossa Cavallina (outside Porta San Vitale)

Guasto degli Andalci

Paper

Building lands

Dem240-I

Ospedale della Morte

008r

8

Legacy: Taddeo Rent: 10 lire and 10 soldi /year Payment: 1/2 on St. Lawrence's Day, 1/2 at Christmas

011v

1

Rent: 10 soldi and 6 denari /year

1

Act: Notary Muzolino Tenant: Bartolomeo Barbaro Guidoni Rent: 3 lire /year Payment: 1/2 at Christmas, 1/2 at Easter

054r

5

Tenant: Pietro Rent: 20 soldi /year

1

for life

Legacy: Nanni Polli Tenant: Berti, Master of wood Rent: 12 lire /year

052r

049v

2

Two small houses Legacy: Tesse from Milaneto Tenant: Master Giuliani Preventi Rent: 4 lire/year

1

Legacy: Lorenzo Zarloti, then sold

1

Tenant: Neri, blacksmith, till 1353 Rent: 18 soldi /year Payment: on St. Lawrence's Day

1

Tenant: Pietro Tuzoli Rent: 10,5 soldi /year

1

Rent: 20 lire /year Payment: 1/2 on the Feast of the Assumption , 1/2 at Christmas

1

Rent: 18 soldi /year

1

Rent: 6 lire /year

1

Act: of 1348 Rent: 80 soldi/year to be paid in advance: 5 corbe of wheat with a value of 23 soldi each, plus 5 soldi in cash

1

Tenant: Andriolo Pace Rent: 8 soldi /year

011v

012r

012v

013r

General Total

Notes

Years

002v

011r

Porta San Vitale

Table 6/6

Agreement

Houses

1 Ospedale dei Battuti

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

18

Dem240-II Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

118

30

31


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

33


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-III Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic’s Friary in Bolognaa

34

35


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

37


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

38

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

39


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

40

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

41


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

42

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

43


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-IV

Building land and houses owned by St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

44

45


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

48

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

49


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-I Plots of land that are properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

51


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

53


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

54

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

55


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

56

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

57


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

58

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

59


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

60

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

61


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

62

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

63


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

64

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

65


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-II Plots of land that are properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

67


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

69


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

70

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

71


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

72

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

73


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-III Plots of land that are properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

74

75


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

77


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

78

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

79


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

80

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

81


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

82

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

83


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

84

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

85


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

86

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

87


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

88

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

89


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

90

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

91


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

92

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

93


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

94

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

95


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Dem240-IV Plots of land that are properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna

96

97


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

99


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

100

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

101


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

102

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

103


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

104

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

105


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

106

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

107


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Summary and Analytical Index

108

109


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

111


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in BolognaFoglio1 Dem240/7574

112

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574 Foglio1

113


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574 Foglio1

114

inventari Foglio1 delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

115


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574 Foglio1

116

Foglio1

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

117


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

118

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

119


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

120

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

121


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

122

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

123


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

124

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

125


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

126

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

127


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

128

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

129


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

130

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

131


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

132

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

133


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

134

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

135


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

136

Foglio1

137


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

138

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

139


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

140

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

141


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

142

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

143


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

144

Foglio1

145


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

146

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

147


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

148

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

149


inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Foglio1

inventari delle proprietà del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

Mappe delle proprietà

Realizzate da Michele Melloni su cartografia EDIMAP

150

151


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

DEM 240 - I

152

153


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

DEM 240 - II

154

155


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

DEM 240 - III

156

157


inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

inventari delle proprietĂ del Convento di San Domenico in Bologna Dem240/7574

DEM 240 - IV

158

159


B aske r v i l l e

Centro studi e casa editrice Fondata a Bologna nel 1986

I libri in formato digitale sono leggibili gratuitamente dal sito Baskerville. I libri Baskerville su carta possono essere acquistati nelle migliori librerie o nei bookshop on line. Librerie, biblioteche o istituzioni possono effettuare ordini a FASTBOOK spa: www.fastbookspa.it Il Centro Studi Baskerville è un centro studi ed una casa editrice fondato a Bologna nel 1986. Il Centro, completamente autofinanziato, svolge le sua attività per statuto senza fini di lucro. Il Centro Studi Baskerville è dedicato a John Baskerville (1705-1775), tipografo ed editore inglese. Baskerville ha disegnato il carattere che porta il suo nome e ha inventato significative innovazioni nell’arte della stampa, nella carta e degli inchiostri. John Baskerville è uno dei fondatori dell’editoria moderna.

Baskerville Bologna info@baskerville.it www.baskerville.it Facebook.com/Baskervile.it Twitter.com/Baskerville_it


Pubblicato in digitale e stampato su carta per conto di Baskerville, Bologna, nel mese di maggio 2018 presso la tipografia Grafiche dell’Artiere Bentivoglio, Bologna Tutti i diritti riservati All right reserved Š Baskerville, 2018 www.Baskerville.it

I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICO Introduction and analisys tables ENGLISH  

A cura di Renzo Noventa I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICOInventories of the properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna ASBo, Demaniale, San Dom...

I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICO Introduction and analisys tables ENGLISH  

A cura di Renzo Noventa I CAMPIONI DI SAN DOMENICOInventories of the properties of St. Dominic’s Friary in Bologna ASBo, Demaniale, San Dom...