100 × independence is an international student project devoted to the creation of posters and animations to interpret the meaning of the word independence. One hundred students from all continents are participating in the exhibition and in this catalog. They have designed visual and creative approaches not in reference to history but to challenge and question what we face in our personal life or in the contemporary society. We are happy that students accepted the invitation and participated! The idea to invite students of art academies from all over the world and let them express their views on independence was born from conversations with the science director of National Museum – Piotr Rypson, and the curator of Poster Museum – Mariusz Knorowski. Maciej Rembarz – the head of Design Office of Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology, prepared historical and ideological background. It was all made possible thanks to the Social Design Course program, initiated at pjait by Marjatta Itkonen in 2015. Every year, the New Media Department holds the two-week international and interdisciplinary workshops, devoted to current social issues. The support comes from ngo’s, foundations and individual voluntary lecturers, who appreciate the value of pro-social education.
This project has been a cross-generational gauge of the meaning attached to the word independence. We juxtapose the visual expressions by twenty-somethings with reflections written down by their mentors, who shape the programs of visual and multimedia communication at the academies worldwide. The attitudes of the invited teachers have been conducting the contemporary design education. The exhibition and this publication have shown if and how far they have affected the work of young designers. Barbara Krajewska designed the catalog as part of her ma thesis. The typography that has been used is connected to Polish design history and to the topic of the event – independence. In the 1920s, Półtawski Antykwa became the official typeface of Poland and was widely used in printing houses till the 1960s. Later it was digitized by Marian Nowacki. The typeface used for the body text of this publication, Grotesk Polski fa , was designed by Magdalena and Artur Frankowscy in 1998. This polyphonic record, made publicly available since March 29, 2018 as an exhibition at Poster Museum at Wilanów, has been presented in the 100 × independence publication and archived at www.independence.pja.edu.pl Marjatta Itkonen and Ewa Satalecka
100 Ă— independence
11â€”11 100 Ă— independence
list of names
introduction × Mariusz Knorowski
Visualization is not the domain of the imagination alone, which is to say that part of us with unlimited possibilities, unpredictable forms of expression and a tangle of subjective associations. Regardless of which artistic discipline we think of, visualization is also a challenge for the intellect, which needs apply some control over its spontaneity. Especially where the result of such visualization is to be a message containing specific information, intended to be as clear as possible and generally understood. In 2018, Poland celebrates the 100th anniversary of its independence. Such is the official title for the state celebrations of this national holiday (nota bene not established until several years later, in 1937). This tradition has suffered interruptions caused by the complexity of our history. Recently, it has undergone strong ideological revaluation and reinterpretation with emphasis on the patriotic aspects. Thus, it constitutes a pretext to reconsider the nature of our – now truly – regained independence and seek a visual/graphical representation free from ideological pressure, dogmatic omissions and so-called distortions. Visualization of ideas, concepts, processes, or philosophical constructs has always been a demanding challenge. Because it does not come down to any ordinary illustrative narrative or descriptive sequence of consecutive images concerning some selected episodes, recurrent allegories or arbitrary personifications. The said celebrations, due to their cyclical nature – despite the above mentioned intervals – already possess their own iconography and repertoire of pathos-marked symbols, these reflecting changes in the national consciousness, along with its emotional interpretations and appropriate decorum. These coordinates, dictating specific standards, can be generally described as directives of variable status, ones that have somewhat manipulated the concept of independence, establishing some orthodox convention that is not always fully accepted by the majority. The attributes and emblems referred to, sometimes subject to modifications and corrections, form a historical
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record showing the variability of the notion of independence. Seen more broadly, they create a kind of sacred canon that has included the formation of a nascent process for building a visual identification of a community unable to fully adjudicate about its sovereignty. This is confirmed in the repetition of many designs, the recurrence of certain visual structures, provided these raised no doubts in the mind of the censor, sometimes forcing the elimination of certain elements of discourse. The idea of having international circles of graphic designers express themselves on the subject of the essence and capacity of this concept of independence is a very valuable initiative in the context of the current celebrations. The pjait (Polish-Japanese Academy of it ) network of inter-university contacts allows for a broad showing of contemporary artworks referring to the designatum of this idea, with all the cultural diversity of its partners, unburdened by the ballast of Polish history and all its vicissitudes. We ourselves – as a society – know how certain official narrations deform the objective view of things. We are aware of how we are burdened by certain stereotypes, what a one-dimensional scale of values we use in the name of certain national imponderables, and what obsessive hierarchies we create. Their effects are conceptual clusters sometimes appearing as platitudes, or even as cant that can devaluate things exalted. If we can handle a foreign vision of what is ours, which this time is not to be seen as an enemy created for us, but on the contrary declares itself an ally, then we should confront its experience based on different beliefs and a separate understanding resulting from independent premises. This will help towards an understanding of the image of what is our own in the assessments of others and open up a new dimension of self-reflection. We may thus learn something new. I expect it will be a refreshing experience, allowing us to soberly and without prejudice verify some of our visions of ourselves and ideas concerning our experience
introduction × Mariusz Knorowski
of history. But perhaps it will also be a discovery of some overlooked or incompletely studied aspects of our national identity, leading to its more precise definition, or deeper self-discovery. Before we delve too deeply into the question of sanctified ritual, it may be worth reflecting on some less rigorous digressions about this most vital issue. And then it will be possible to diversify and broaden the boundaries of this notion of independence, which is synonymous with freedom – the common good, the limits of which are the subject of consensus in a dialogue of equals, with respect for the autonomy and freedom of expression of each participant in the debate. We treat every single voice as a weighty message. Mariusz Knorowski Curator, The Poster Museum at Wilanów
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A concept of independence Paula DiPerna
Is a circle independent, I wondered, as I began to write. A circle is certainly mathematically complete and whole in itself. Filled with air as a balloon, a circle can float free. But a circle drawn in the sand – what then? When we observe the circle we see its entirety, without further need. But do we see independence? We tend to equate independence with freedom, and yet the two are not at all the same. To be independent is to have more than freedom. But what is that essential extra ingredient? Perhaps, independence is the ability to say no, to reject questionable propositions, to walk away from opportunities that some others might be seeking, to refuse what pleases the crowd or, conversely, to choose to join the crowd. To walk away from a tempting offer for any reason, without having to explain. Surely, these are attributes of independence. Perhaps, in these cases, independence is simply the ability to put ethics first. Of course, independence also means freedom from interference or constraint. To be independent, many would say, is to have the freedom to speak and act as one chooses, without seeking or receiving permission. To wallow in mud or poetry. To indulge extremes. To make errors and shout obscenities from rooftops? To run nude in the snow? Surely independence is inseparable from the ability to decide for oneself, freely. Nations all seek to be independent, especially in declaring independence from an overseer or ruler. And the formal system of expressing political independence has come to be known as democracy, or people’s rule, from the ancient greek root demos, and meaning people are
We tend to equate independence with freedom, and yet the two are not at all the same. To be independent is to have more than freedom. But what is that essential extra ingredient?
essays × Paula DiPerna
inherently free to decide how they will be ruled and who will rule them. Finland, of course, declared its sovereignty and independence from Russia in 1917, after decades of shifting borders and authority. Today, Finland is a thriving European leader that has, it seems, made the most of its first century of independence. But, what about the United States, such a beacon of independence and freedom throughout the world, home of the Statue of Liberty? What has become of our independence? In 1776, leaders of the 13 British colonies founded in America believed it essential to state grievances against the king of England before seizing independence. They had a logic model, a formal process and an allowance of time. The signers of the declaration listed in detail what moved them to dissolve their links with their mother country, and when time ran out for the king of England, independence was declared. Wrote Thomas Jefferson so eloquently on behalf of the rebellion: …We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. The Declaration of Independence in the United States is a revered document, celebrated every year on the 4 th of July with spectacular fireworks display in almost every American village, town and city and in u . s . embassies worldwide. It is as festive as New Year’s Eve. And yet, despite this annual ritual, one can argue that America’s independence has become progressively weaker over the last two decades.
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This decline is largely due to the pull of pressures that remove the people’s freedom to decide, say no, make truly free choices. Perhaps chief among the culprits of weakening independence is growing economic disparity. When people feel economic limitations, they have less tolerance for ambiguity in the political sphere. They lose their ability to remain patient, and the more desperate they become, the more they expect political systems overnight to remedy flaws in economic systems that have been a long time coming. In this sense, economic limits trigger political limits, in turn eroding the true independence of people. So what, indeed, is going on in America, as Finland marks its first century of independence and America marks the first term of the administration of Donald Trump as president. Trump has come to be known as the president of America first, a statement of bluster and strength, but what does this slogan mean for American independence? First of all, how could America elect Donald Trump, arguably the least prepared president of the last three generations in the us , and surely the most vulgar American statesman in contemporary memory? A real estate developer born to his riches, who became even more rich by branding his name rather than quality projects, who became famous as the huckster star of a reality t v show where his most profound decision was to declare to contestants you’re fired, and who was not ashamed to promote the bold-faced lie that his then president, Barack Obama, had not been born in the United States and thus was serving illegally as president. Trump vanquished more than a dozen opponents in the republican primaries by deviating completely from the niceties of political campaigns, and then won the presidency by relentlessly attacking his far more qualified opponent Hillary Clinton who, for various reasons, was incapacitated by his boxing ring style. But the main reason Trump won was because a significant number of American voters no longer feel they
essays × Paula DiPerna
are economically safe, or, put another way, economically independent. Trump fed into growing insecurity among lower middle class white voters who, instead of seeing their lack of economic empowerment as a function of broader economic disparity, were ready to blame others – meaning immigrants, non-whites and anyone who seemed better off. Trump voters loved his refrain drain the swamp. Trump simply whipped up this mood and gave his voters the illusion that he could transfer his own swaggering independence back to them. Of course, economic data in the u.s. is indeed worrying and the trend is indeed toward greater inequality, according to Daniel Rachman, a senior manager with Deloitte Services lp, in charge of u.s. economic forecasting. In his 2017 paper “Economic inequality in the u . s .: what do we know and how do we know it?” Rachman’s data show that: The share of total income earned by the top 10 percent has risen from around 31 percent in the 1970s to about 50 percent today. Some of the loss was borne by the middle 40 percent, but much of this increase among the top 10 percent has come at the expense of workers in the lower half of the distribution. Their share of total income fell from 20 percent in the 1970s to just over 10 percent today. But it’s not just the top 10 percent that is taking a larger share of total income home. The effect is even more pronounced if we look at the top 1 percent… the share of total income earned by the top 1 percent has been slowly rising since the early 1970s, and currently stands at around 20 percent. That’s the same level associated with the period before World War I, the gilded age of the United States that saw vast inequity in income and wealth. Surely there is no more gilded age personality on the world stage today than Donald Trump, but no matter. The daily feeling of economic despair, and a sense that mainstream leaders, like Clinton, were indifferent, led to deep resentment among swaths of voters and that resentment made
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Trump president by razor thin margins in key states, if not by the national popular vote, which was won by Hillary Clinton. Trump voters simply ignored the fact that Trump himself had never for a day experienced financial hardship as they had. Instead, they felt Trump’s wealth made him a powerful champion. A rich man could perhaps make them rich too. But it is simplistic to blame economic resentment alone. Economic vulnerability now also plagues u . s . mainstream media, threatening their long-standing intellectual and political independence, and actual survival. They struggle to stay financially alive against the onslaught of free media and social media that, in turn, stay alive through their dependence on advertising revenue, in turn dependent on the eyeballs of screen users staying fixated on a given media site. Trump’s claims of fake news anytime he dislikes a story that criticizes him is only possible because the web has permitted the proliferation of so many specious media outlets that feed an inbred circle of opinion and interpretation. Trump became president because of an increasing dependence many people have on their own preferences. And, in the meantime, surely no nation can have true political independence without an independent, fair, strong, and diverse media sector, relentlessly seeking the facts. But as Trump’s first term settles in, and he learns to temper his outrageous remarks, such as that Haiti and other poor nations are shithole countries, with more stately language, such as America first, does not mean America alone, he seems to soothe the worries of pundits and captains of industry who gather annually at the Davos World Economic Forum, as happened this year. The grandiose, disturbing style of Trump leadership has been gradually normalized or dealt with. His deviations are normalized, so political deviancy is normalized. In short, the world has itself become dependent on normalcy, however normalcy comes to look. Fascism became normal for a time for many of the same reasons that
essays × Paula DiPerna
brought Donald Trump to the White House – angry voters seeking vengeance on others and who learned to live with a loss of their dignity in favor of a strongman’s words. A strongman’s anti-establishment harangues are often mistaken for independence. But in the end, there can be no true independence without a sense of common purpose and common good. An independent state is no guarantee of independent people. In the end, whether a circle is independent or not can only be decided by independent open minds, free enough to understand there is no answer to the question.
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I believe that being Polina
Understanding of such a profound idea as independence can be reached through looking at it in different contexts and scales. Makarova And here are explorations of the meaning of being independent as self-identification on five multiscale levels: independence in terms of graphic design, being independent as a person, as an institute, as a city and as a country. The word independence means the opposite of being dependent. It is also very connected to the concept of freedom. When we think about an idea of independence in terms of graphic design we can understand some of its universal duality. If the world was a poster and each country was an element of composition, would there any counry be independent? Can an element of composition be independent from the whole composition? Probably not. All elements confined to one space or territory whether it is a sheet of paper or the surface of our planet are inevitably dependent on one another. And not only those, who are in direct contact or in close distance. All elements of composition balance each other, each and every one is in some relation with others. This is true in both instances: when we talk about graphic composition or a political map of the world. So what is independence then if we establish that all participants of some whole are dependent on each other? To answer this question we can turn to concepts of freedom and responsibility: the freedom of one individual ends where freedom of another individual begins. If being independent means being free, then it means to agree and respect independence of others. And if we return to the dimension of the poster, then being independent means having clear relationships and hierarchy where each element is in its place and exists on certain terms and conditions with other elements. And it is harmony. Where each element of
independent means declaring and pledging alliance to certain values. Ukraine chose to share European values.
essays × Polina Makarova
composition takes responsibility for what their place and relationship with others is. On a personal level being independent in many respects is defined by circumstances in which the person exists. We are lucky to live in a world where all human beings are declared to have equal rights, but in reality this is far from true. Being a young white woman born in Ukraine I have never personally experienced any violence or significant discrimination. But I was just a lucky introvert who never subjected herself to potentially dangerous situations. Nonetheless I had my journey of becoming independent of social stigma of a concept that a woman can only fulfill her destiny and purpose through marriage. And every day I am fighting such stereotypes with all means at my disposal, such as graphic design and public speaking. On a personal level independence means having a right to choose who you are and overcoming obstacles to fulfill this right. In 2013, the Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Fine Arts, which is represented in this catalog by posters of its students and in which I was studying at that time, was going to be made a subdivision of the Kharkiv National Academy of Municipal Economy. And all students and teachers rebelled against this initiative. We made posters and gathered in our assembly hall where the rector gave a speech in which he declared our shared commitment to protest till the last moment. Our academy remained independent and whole due to our unity in desire to remain who we are. It’s 2018 and Poland celebrates 100 years of independence so does Ukraine. Ever since I can remember, 24th of August has always been a national holiday in my country – the Day of Independence of Ukraine. And it had never meant anything to me; as a child I questioned it, how can a country get independent just overnight, just like that? It was a part of the Soviet Union one day, and then it just left the union without a fight and without single drop of blood. Of course now I know that this is not exactly how it happened, and there was a fight for independence that cost millions of lives of Ukrainians and has lasted for many years. But
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I also understand that only witnessing and being a part of this fight makes one truly understand what independence is and why it is important. Seeing blood (however little) being shed in an actual fight for independence with your own eyes will affect you more than reading about rivers of blood of your ancestors. Learning about it in history books will never compare to the personal emotional experience of watching your friends being publicly beaten and humiliated for showing their loyalty to their own country. And that is exactly what happened with me. When Yanukovich had already left country, when in Kiev Maydan was already won – the destiny of Eastern region was being decided, and my own city Kharkiv was on the brink of joining Donetsk and Luhansk in their separation from Ukraine. It was a period when in spite of it being the official symbol of the country it was dangerous to wear or put out Ukrainian flag or colors. They were months during which we fell asleep in Ukraine and prayed to wake up in Ukraine next day. It was time when my family and I were putting up new expensive wallpaper in our living room while applying for visas to Sweden in case Russian forces invaded our city. Independence from something implies dependence on something. It is about choice: to have the freedom to choose who and what you want to be dependent on. I believe that being independent means declaring and pledging alliance to certain values. Ukraine chose to share European values. Ukraine chose to be dependent on a Western heritage of humanism and freedom and democracy. Independence is about choosing your system of values. The fight for independence starts within each and every soul, and then continues on. It is about respect and love and integrity.
essays × Guido Stemme
Between aleph and zahir and vice versa – independence Guido Stemme europa – limen vel limes sr: независност, it: indipendenza, sl: Neodvisnost, sk: nezávislosť, hu: függetlenség, is: sjálfstæði, mt: indipendenza, ro: independență, pl: niezależność, ca: independència, fr: indépendance, uk: незалежність, tr: bağımsızlık, no: uavhengighet, cs: nezávislost, et: sõltumatus, lt: nepriklausomumas, ru: независимость, es: independencia, bg: независимост, el: ανεξαρτησία, fi: riippumattomuus, ga: neamhspleáchas, de: Unabhängigkeit, sq: pavarësi, gl: independencia, nl: onafhankelijkheid, mk: независност, da: uafhængighed, cy: annibyniaeth, sv: oberoende, lv: neatkarība, be: незалежнасць, eu: independentzia, hr: nezavisnost, pt: independência, en: independence
Manway Manhole – into, down into, up into the topic Abandon all hope, ye who enter here. Stop aligning your humanness with collective Polishness. Be, each individual, human first, create your own Poland and do not let yourselves be created by it. Wake up from your giddy attachment to Poland, by which you are enthralled as if in a mass psychosis. In this 1951 quote, Witold Gombrowicz, Polish author (1904–1969), is referring to the nationalist attitudes prevalent in pre-war Poland; the same could be said of all other states and all other times, of course, to the extent that – even if only here and there – there is a pervasive dark spirit that always also perceives the idea of patriotism as a devaluation of other countries and ethnic groups. Gombrowicz criticises the virtually encrusted institutionalized forms of life that we (may) encounter in the normative, ideological
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context, but also in art. He sees freedom – and thus also independence – in the exercise of the right to individuality, to intellectual freedom. The fathers and mothers of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany may have had a similarly visionary idea of freedom and independence in mind in a certain sense when they enshrined the inviolability of the dignity of every human being as the fundamental principle in 1949. As the Preamble to the 1776 United States’ Declaration of Independence begins: We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. And yes, in addition to the separation of powers, every democratic constitutional state has the declaration of human rights, the rights that guarantee our freedom, as a central element. Thinking independence leads us into the deep layers of human existence, nature and presence, as soon as the – obvious – sociopolitical reference, which in turn can also be exposed in various depths, is set aside, or even overcome. Philosophical reflections, proto-political considerations, political positioning The tenth chapter of “Way to wisdom: an introduction to philosophy” by Karl Jaspers, German philosopher (1883– 1969), deals with the independence of philosophers. We shall follow his clear, concise presentation, broaden the topic and thus find a basis for approaching independence in its practical implementation. The independence of man is rejected by all totalitarianism, as Jaspers introduces the chapter and thereby quantifies the essence of independence as fragile, as delicate, as vulnerable. Even the habitual and the unquestioned commonplace suffice to cause independence to be silently disappearing.
essays × Guido Stemme
He sees the preservation of independence in several basic features: freedom from needs, ascetic life freedom from fear citizenship of the world Jaspers’ words, however, all too quickly give rise to pride, vanity, even the ugliness of hostility from the life of these ideals; independence turns into its opposite if it holds itself to be absolute. Independence is almost always ambivalent, as he illustrates with examples. Hence, independence based on non-commitment leads to a dead perception with waking eyes, because it is precisely not anchored in the unconditional. It is found, apart from in itself, in the dictatorial language of wisdom and prophecy. The irresponsible play of opposites makes it possible to take any position as needed. In order to gain true independence we must not only elucidate these various forms of independence but achieve awareness of the limits of all independence. Indeed, independence in the world implies a particular attitude toward the world: to be in it and yet not in it, to be both inside it and outside it. Battle for truth and humanity in unconditional communication. The path of independence cannot be otherwise pursued, it always leads from a procedural approach to positions that have an effect, as it were, in their political dimension; the experience of social responsibility cannot be separated from independence. [The semitones were the major obstacle in the class struggles of the 1970s.] Interlude – or, those who avoid incomprehension Light, prudence, logos – warmth, serenity, myth – sun, union in the right measure. In the right measure? What is the right measure, how is it determined, how long is the determination valid, where is the determination valid? If the question of measure is overdetermined by law, the essentials are lost; the measure
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is lost. And yet the procedure is maintained. The apparently more independent ones who seek to measure the extent of the process become unpleasant, stand out for their lack of reliability, are no guardians. The schools seek to wrap them in the usual corsets; often breaking free is successful, and the seed of opposition to all that is free is growing. Status and possessions are the reward of destruction. Instead of feeding existence with life from emotion and daring, the safety of the final destination is preferred. But there will always be some who are naturally drawn to independence from within themselves. A phenomenon that runs through all cultures, all generations, all social classes and age groups. Salon culture, long forgotten, provides an image of this. Leó Popper, Hungarian art historian (1886–1911), writes, we take from nature through art that which it takes from us through our life: eternity. We should add that we give nature through love that which it gives us through our life: eternity. In this type of atmosphere, independence can be cultivated and lived. Karol Irzykowski, Polish author (1873–1944), writes: The world can only take things seriously to a certain degree, at the decisive moment the valve opens, throws out the abundance and reduces the ideal to a bearable level. The safety valve works in man at the bottom of his soul; there is his sanctum, where he palters unobserved. The Aleph and The Zahir – does poetry teach us? I presume that both works by Jorge Luis Borges are known. Should I be mistaken, I can only advise reading both short stories. What form of independence creates a mood that such thoughts find their way into the world in writing? We know that Borges spent his time in the Biblioteca Pública Miguel Cané (he endured nine years there), mainly reading or writing in the basement. He carried out the daily library chores in the first hour, had to adapt to the behaviour of his colleagues in order not to expose them as the lazy slackers that they were. Of the daily hours of the long ride on the tram to work and back, Borges reports that he spent the time reading the “Divine Comedy.”
essays × Guido Stemme
Now if you know the stairs that lead to the basement of the library, the stairs that Borges walked up and down every day, and if you know that this staircase on a step (possible even the 19th?) in the lower part of the lower right hand side had a kind of spot, a small piece of flattened rubber used for repairing books, the size of a 2-euro coin, the trivial cause that accounts for the creation of the central feature of The Aleph suddenly becomes completely clear. [The staircase has been closed since 2014. The basement is no longer part of the library.] Fortunately, it’s impossible to miss anything. In some moment, sometimes literally in the last, it appears out of nowhere and fills my entire field of view. That way, something becomes everything. Zbigniew Bieńkowski, Polish poet, literary critic, translator and essayist (1913–1994), from “Introduction to poetics. I see and describe.” (For Vera)
The Aleph, which is also the name of the spot in the story, unites/unifies everything (and it makes sense, it’s a pleasure at this point to have read the story) in a single point. And the Zahir? In the eponymous story, the Zahir (a 20-centavo coin from 1929 in Buenos Aires, the size of a 20-eurocent coin) narrows everything down to one point, to itself. The Zahir creates an obsession in the observer; this fixation is focused on the coin itself. The afflicted person progressively narrows his or her perception until it is exclusively determined by the Zahir—…perhaps behind the coin is god, the story ends. Can one create an aleph from the Zahir? In many respects the Zahir is the opposite of the aleph and yet both thoughts can be mathematically converted into one another (using the Riemann sphere and the Möbius transformation | generic point, algebraic geometry). On the one hand, definite, on the other, indefinite… One curious characteristic of the mind is that, besides its own self, it most enjoys thinking about that which can be thought about with no end. That is why the life of educated
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and enlightened people is a constant process of forming and thinking about the beautiful mystery of their destiny. It always redefines them, because that is its entire purpose, to be defined and to define. Only in its searching does the human mind find the secret it seeks. […] The definite and the indefinite and the fullness of their definite and indefinite relationships; that is the one and all, that is the most wondrous and yet the simplest, the simplest and yet the highest. The universe itself is but a play of the definite and the indefinite, and the real determination of the determinable is an allegorical miniature on the living and weaving of eternally flowing creation. Friedrich Schlegel, German thinker (1772–1829), from Lucinde
Bees are buzzing!
The overtones give birth to the fundamental tone. (There seems to be a secret nexus to the Banach-Tarski paradox.) Only Two Can Play This Game … Two limits of independence coincidentia oppositorum Nikolaus von Kues, German thinker (1401–1464)
Unica Zürn, or if Rilke had been a girl German artist (1916–1970)
Roman Opalka, or if Rilke had been a boy French-Polish artist (1931–2011)
essays × Guido Stemme
Das Spielen der Kinder ist streng untersagt
Children Playing is Strictly Prohibited
Das Spielen der Kinder ist streng untersagt
Children playing is strictly prohibited
Satt irrt der Spassgeist in den Dunkelregen,
Full, the spirit of fun wanders into the dark rain,
satt des Kreisens in Plunder. Geigend starrt
full from circling in trinkets. Violin in hand, it
er in den Garten. Der Spaß litt den Tigerkuss.
gazes into the garden. The fun suffered the tiger’s kiss.
Kinder, rettet den Sprung! Sagt leis: Reis, Sand
Children, save the jump! Quietly speak: rice, sand
Spart die Genien des Sterns! Irrstunde klagt:
Save the star’s geniusses! Fairy-Time laments:
Das Spielen der Kinder ist streng untersagt.
Children playing is strictly prohibited.
Die Nuetzlichkeit ist aller Laster Anfang
Usefulness Is the Beginning of All Vice
Die Nuetzlichkeit ist aller Laster Anfang
Usefulness is the beginning of all vice
Zart sang ein Leichenkleid aus Flitter alt:
Softly, the corpse’s gown, of old flittery sang:
Neuland, Angst, ich friere kalt. Alle Zeit ist
Unknown territory, fear, I coldly freeze.
aller Anfang. Die Nuetzlichkeit ist Laster
All time is all’s beginning. Usefulness is vice
Unika Zürn (Anagrams)
1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Roman Opalka, “OPALKA 1965/1-∞” (excerpt)
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That circulation, which being thus conceived Appeared in thee as a reflected light, When somewhat contemplated by mine eyes, Within itself, of its own very colour Seemed to me painted with our effigy, Wherefore my sight was all absorbed therein. As the geometrician, who endeavours To square the circle, and discovers not, By taking thought, the principle he wants, Even such was i at that new apparition; I wished to see how the image to the circle Conformed itself, and how it there finds place; But my own wings were not enough for this, Had it not been that then my mind there smote A flash of lightning, wherein came its wish. Here vigour failed the lofty fantasy: But now was turning my desire and will, Even as a wheel that equally is moved, The love which moves the sun and the other stars. Dante – Paradise – End of the final canto | Longfellow translation
and you? There is no closure, no completeness. More can’t be done if thinking should stay fresh. [And beware of any kind of murti-bing pills, focus pierwiastek pałubiczny (the pałubic element) instead] Koniec i bomba A kto czytał, ten trąba! W. G.
essays × Guido Stemme
Sources: The source of my text are the impressions, the encounters, the coincidences that resulted from my participation in this wonderful project by the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology, in cooperation with the Poster Museum in Wilanów. Here it begins. The next step will be the exchange with the two professors of the University of Applied Sciences Mainz, Anja Stöffler and Julia Kühne, and the lecturers Hans-Jörg Pochmann and jens* Hartmann. Then comes the group of students who found their own individual points of entry into the topic in a variety of ways. Their unbiased perspectives were and still are very enriching. I would also like to thank all those I spoke with about the project or who – perhaps unintentionally – triggered important thoughts, and I would like to highlight the seminar group on Friedrich Schlegel in particular. Regarding literary sources, I explicitly consulted Karl Dedecius, German writer and translator (1921–2016), who, with his excellent and outstanding “Panorama of Polish literature of the 20th Century”, gave me a deep insight into the wealth and diversity of Polish intellectual history, a perfect point to start. I would like to thank Karl Jaspers, whom I (also) consulted to a great extent, for his “Introduction to Philosophy”. On a mere seven paperback pages (Piper edition), he succeeds in developing essential points of independence from a philosophical point of view.
* Author’s original spelling; at author’s request this text has not been edited (ed. note)
“Two anagrams by Unica Zürn” // from the Gesamtausgabe [complete edition], volume i // Verlag Brinkmann und Bose, Berlin 1988. I shall spare myself you a discussion of Dante and Jorge Luis Borges due to the limited space available. The introductory translations of the term independence into European languages are excerpted from the source text of James Trimble’s: www.ukdataexplorer.com/european-translator project. Video on the möbius transformation: www.youtube.com/watch?V=0z1fisUNho
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The year 1918 Maciej
The year 1918 marked the definite end of the 19th century; it came as an explosion of freedom, which spread the political fever Rembarz all over the old continent, and from there – all over the world. The borders between the 19th and the 20th centuries seem fluid, and it is equally difficult to define the time frames of this period of ferment. Its outbreak, as well as its end, are doubtlessly connected with left-wing ideology, and so we can assume the dates of November 7th 1917 (when the revolution ceased to be of liberation character) and January 15th 1919, with Luxemburg’s and Liebknecht’s executions that extinth guished all hope (delusion?!) for a radical change both in the West and the East of the continent. The war to end all wars (G. H. Wells) set in motion the destabilizing processes, unanticipated by anyone but the radicals. The downfall of multinational monarchies and empires (German, AustroHungarian, Russian, and Ottoman empires) had led to the 1918 autumn of nations. The destruction of the old world, by means of slaughter in trenches of all wwi fronts, bore unforeseen fruit. It became an outlet for freedom and brought about independence to Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Czechoslovakia – who managed to retain it, as well as to the countries that came to being for a short while, as a nucleus of modernity: Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, and other nations. What followed were the emancipation processes of minorities, laborers, peasants, women. These processes were typically the expressions of rebellion which should hinder the revolutionary movements at the same time. With one-century hindsight, we may render the (second) entrance of modern masses onto the historic scene
marked the definite end of the 19 century; it came as an explosion of freedom, which spread the political fever all over the old continent, and from there – all over the world.
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disputable. As a German philosopher, Peter Sloterdijk, wrote: the angry disinherited had two centuries to prove that they were able to improve this world. The results were partially horrifying, and partially ambiguous. The understanding of freedom, shared by people of a given time, may seem like a paradox later. A Slovenian philosopher, Slavoj Žižek, spitefully describes the freedom he found in Serbian nationalists of the 1990s: This freedom did not forbid anybody anything, it was the freedom to do wrong – the dialectical right, as a means to the end. This paradox was rooted in the year 1918, which changed the world and the perception of humanity forever, and introduced two genocidal ways for freedom to explode: fascism and bolshie communism. The 1918 idea of freedom was lost to the trauma of the great war, the situation of millions of men, who were never allowed to remove their uniforms, the infeasible peace treaty, the long forgotten hyperinflation, which took the assets from Germans, Hungarians, Poles and Austrians, the will of nations, yearning for the freedom of old rulers – the freedom that oppressed the others. At the same time, the idea was strong enough to elevate women to the historic scene and use the level of women’s rights to measure the advancement of civilization. 1918 – the year of freedom of Central European nations, the collapse of monarchies. 1918 – the year of Compiègne armistice, the end of slaughter, and the liberation of Western Europe. The common beginning, paradoxically neglected in the European awareness. Even though the Independence Day of 1918 has always been an incarnation of national myth, this date in the European history should bring us together like no other… Indeed.
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Independent and integrated Ewa Satalecka
The children now love luxury; they have bad manners, contempt for authority; they show disrespect for elders and love chatter in place of exercise. […] They contradict their parents, chatter before company, gobble up dainties at the table, cross their legs, and tyrannize their teachers. attributed to Socrates, 5th c.
I teach. It’s been 15 years. Thirteen years ago I got my and my habilitation in 2011. A year later I created the program for the English-language studies Multimedia Communication Design, implemented and executed in the New Media Department of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology. I believe that education should be interdisciplinary, politically and religiously independent and, as far as possible, international and embedded in the context of social problems and needs. Education should be useful and I do not mean just at the level of institutions of higher education. The classes of the Multimedia Communication Design program are conducted for a multinational student community by an international faculty composed of experts in various fields. We participate in interdisciplinary projects. 2 In collaboration with local and international institutions, we organize a range of scientific and creative meetings. 3 We initiate partnership activities in which our undergraduate students collaborate with real clients and, together with the users, test prototypes of their projects 4, and work with students of other academies in Poland and abroad. Some of the classes are conducted systematically, others in the workshop mode. We intend to make most of the subjects in our program elective, so that people who come here to study can shape their studies according to their individual interests. Our aim is for students to make informed decisions and share responsibility for their results. We emphasize independence and teamwork. Young people need to decide for themselves what and why they want to learn. Krzyszof dfa
1 Attributed to Socrates by Plato, according to William L. Patty and Louise S. Johnson, “Personality and Adjustment”, p. 277 (1953). This passage was very popular in the 1960s and its essence was used by the Mayor of Amsterdam, Gijsbert van Hall, following a street demonstration in 1966, as reported by “The New York Times”, April 3, 1966, p. 16. 2 alien.pja.edu.pl civic-city.org/places 3 tivc.pjwstk.edu.pl watching.pja.edu.pl laughter.pja.edu.pl atypi.org/conferences/ atypi-warsaw-2016 motyf-festival.com independence.pja.edu.pl womensrights.pja.edu.pl
4 Such projects include the identity and information system for the 41st Session of the World Heritage Committee (41whckrakow2017.pl/en) fully designed and implemented by the international team of the third year undergraduate students of snme pjait: Anastasja Builao, Agata Juszkiewicz, Daria Łukaszyńska and Wojciech Płudowski, and the project of Osobliwe exhibition (osobliwe.pja.edu.pl) for Museum of Photography in Kraków, as well as the student team work under the supervision of the undersigned. 5 Krzysztof Lenk talking to Ewa Satalecka, “Podaj dalej. Dizajn, nauczanie, życie”, Karakter, Kraków 2018, p. 350 6 Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, könemann, ‘to learn’: 1. «to gain knowledge or understanding of or skill in by study, instruction or experience»; 2. «to develop an ability to or readiness for by practice, training, or repeated experience» 7 data.unicef.org/topic/ education/overview 8 internetlivestats.com/ internet-users
essays × Ewa Satalecka
Lenk, my mentor and one of the teachers who made me who I am today, says: Only a half of what we teach is actually teachable – the other half students already possess, what we need to awaken and polish. A good professor strives to do that, sometimes without success. Out of the hundred percent of what we give them, one student is able to take thirty, another seventy, and yet another ninety. It is just like with your own children. A teacher, like a parent, unveils, inspires, encourages, presents, constructively criticizes – and they should do it wholeheartedly, honestly and with competence. Still, it is a student (or a child) who decides what they are going to take and keep in the end. That is all you can do. 5 This credo sums up over 40 years of his academic experience and indicates the key figure – the person learning. The very verb to learn 6 describes this precise activity. I try to inspire young people and open them to the multidimensional world. Education, as I see it, means preparing a field for meeting and dialogue. When it is multinational and interdisciplinary, education helps in understanding various approaches, accepting opposing points of view and alternative solutions: the same issues can be interpreted alike or differently by lecturers from various centers. In experiencing diverse opinions the young mind becomes accustomed to a dialectical perception of reality. Students who work in international and interdisciplinary teams learn how to negotiate, divide work and accept responsibility for their contributions. They learn critical thinking and respect for people involved with other disciplines. This experience gives them confidence that they will be able to deal with various problems in their future careers. They gain independence. Most of the citizens of the world have much easier access to sources of knowledge today than in the previous centuries, even than in the beginning of the 21 st century. According to unicef , in 2015 85% of the world’s population could read and write. 7 Google reports that 40% of people use the Internet. By comparison, it was 1% in 1995. 8
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9 First Polish edition published twenty years after the the English edition of the book. Bill Readings “Uniwersytet w ruinie”, Narodowe Centrum Kultury, Warsaw, 2017, p. 287 10 Talk at Regional Education Conference “Future History”, organized by aiga Chicago and MeadWestvaco at University of Illinois in Chicago; eyemagazine.com/review/ article/makingfuture-history-in-chicago
The world’s leading academies have made their online courses and lectures by renowned scholars and scientist available, often free of charge. To some extent, the prognosis of Bill Readings about the higher education of the late 20th century has come true. In “The University in Ruins”, Readings talked about the end of nation-state paradigm and the opportunity as well as responsibility it poses for university research and teaching. The opportunity lies in the changing role and function of intellectual pursuits. The responsibility for the academics comes with freedom of shaping the ongoing changes. 9 The idea of a national university has long been a fiction. In 2002, the brilliant designer and lecturer, Wolfgang Weingart, predicted an 80% reduction in the number of existing institutions of higher education. There are not enough ambitious teachers. This fact keeps the classroom a monotonous, empty place. Only good institutions are capable of educating conscientious and responsible designers that will solve our international societal ills. 10 The biggest schools have become open to the world and are doing their best to meet these goals. Does it mean, then, that the Internet and new technologies have been making humanity more educated and, therefore, wiser? It is perhaps impossible to measure this by means of any statistical tool, as knowledge does not automatically cause us to be wiser or better citizens. Time after time we are astonished by media reports and saddened by gloomy predictions put forward by authority figures they quote. We are shocked by isolationism and strong nationalistic movements. Already in 2008, Umberto Eco, in his column for “L’Esspresso”, quoted an “Internazionalle” article about a survey conducted in Great Britain, which showed that […] one quarter of the British people think that Churchill as well as Gandhi and Dickens, are fictitious characters. Many respondents (though no exact number is given), on the other hand, believe that Sherlock Holmes, Robin Hood and Eleanor Rigby actually existed.
11 Since 1985, Umberto Eco had written for “L’Esspresso” the column “La Bustina di Minerva”, the articles were published in 2016 by La nave di Teseo Editore, and then by rebis: Umberto Eco “Papa Satàn aleppe”, Poznań 2017, “Był sobie kiedys Churchill” (org. “C’era una volta Churchill”), pp. 61–64 12 Daniel C. Dennett, “Intuition Pumps and Other Tools for Thinking”, W. W. Norton Company 2014, p. 11 13 “Economist”, “Do-it-yourself science is taking off. A growing movement seeks to make the tools of science available to everyone (including you)”, 23–Dec–2017
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Eco pointed out, albeit sarcastically, that: It would seem there is some difference between a British half-wit, who thinks that Churchill is fictitious, and Bush, who thought he would win the war in Iraq in just fifteen days, but there isn’t. In both cases we see the same ignorance of historical dimension. 11 Ten years later, we can still compare the intellectual shortcomings of a prominent politician and a thoughtless consumer of the mass information: both lack the ability for critical thinking. We could repeat after Daniel Dennet: Thinking is hard. Thinking about some problems is so hard it can make your head ache just thinking about thinking about them. […] whenever we find thinking hard, it is because the stony path to truth is competing with seductive, easier paths that turn out to be dead ends. […] What can we do? We can use thinking tools, by the dozens. 12 These tools should come from education. Philosophy and cognitive science will be useful along with the tools of logic as applied by natural sciences, a metaphor as applied by the humanities, and, common to all sciences, an experiment. Daniel Dennett recommends intuition pumps. Imagination comes in useful as well. It is good to nurture and develop it to ignite creative thinking. This may be why in the second decade of the 21st century 10 excellent business schools launched student design clubs, and in 2015 the two largest business magazines “Business Week” and “Harvard Business Review” each devoted an entire issue to the notions of design. Also, the academic and public spheres increasingly interfuse. In December 2017, “The Economist” published the article “Punk Science” 13 about scientists, who invite any volunteer to participate in their projects. This broadens the scope and decreases the cost of research. Communities such as Public Lab and Civic Laboratory for Environmental Action Research actively support scientific activities with simple diy tools. In Poland, a similar action: Pożycz nauce smartfona – może dostaniesz Nobla [Lend your smartphone to science – you might get a Nobel Prize] – is led by the initiator of the credo project – Piotr Homola of the Institute of
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14 rmf24.pl/nauka/ news-projekt-credopozycz-nauce-smartfonamoze-dostaniesznobla,nId,2262168 15 Bill Readings, “Uniwersytet w ruinie”, op. cit., p. 287 16 kpcb.com/blog/designin-tech-report-2016
Nuclear Physics of Polish Academy of Science in Kraków. 14 Further, it is getting increasingly easier to access scientific articles and publications, frequently free of charge. The Verge portal gives an example of Kazakh so-called science’s pirate queen – Alexandra Elbakyan, a hacker, who has made available for free 64.5 million academic articles at the SciHub repository. In the formerly discussed “The University in Ruins”, Readings proposed shifting the structures and boundaries of academic subjects to allow question – if and how the ideas fit together – to remain open. 15 If universities do not open up to the interdisciplinary needs of their students, sooner or later students themselves are going to force a change in the educational formula to what, from their perspective, will be useful. Linda Holliday of the School of Visual Arts in New York writes: Engineers are efficient problem solvers. Business people think short term. Designers want things to be elegant and beautiful. All three need to create collaboration and harmony, and honor the value each other brings. There needs to be a new kind of “multi-dimensional” approach to design that is yet to be invented. 16 Is this new approach needed only in reference to design? Or maybe it is worth replacing the word design with education? The important things are: ability of associative thinking, respect for diverse values, habit of negotiation and pursuit of agreement. Learning together and solving problems together, students of various disciplines will collaborate more efficiently during their professional careers. Following our natural need for understanding the observed phenomena, we adopt modes of operation that aim at bringing order to the reality that overwhelms us. This reality manifests itself in the form of complicated multi-layer processes – in the tamed real and known space, in the virtual one we create, as well as in the space now called hybrid, which will soon be created by artificial intelligence and new chemical compounds, thus integrating the organic and non-organic worlds. It is important to choose wisely. In July 2016, “Nature” published an on-line article about David
essays × Ewa Satalecka
Baker, a young scientist-designer at Washington University. He tried studying philosophy and sociology at Harvard University. Baker told “Nature” that it was a total waste of time. So he took up biology, obtained his PhD and then a postdoc in biochemistry. He designed, made and printed 3D models of new, non-existent, proteins. The design accounted for their function. “Nature” notes: Baker’s team has designed proteins to carry information, and repeats after Baker, We can now build a whole new world of functional proteins. 17 Can we, really? We will smile, recalling the quote attributed to Socrates. My Greek friend, Alecos Papadatos, a co-author of comic books “Logicomix” and “Democracy”, says that we are going to understand the changes in principles and practices of education, as well as in the means of conveying knowledge, only in hindsight; one day cognitive scientists will tell us what had really happened in the 21st century. And for the time being, before artificial intelligence attempts to teach ethics, our Mr Google-and-Ms Wikipediabound students still need support learning independent critical thinking.
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Independence as a value has a great historical importance and has played a major role in shaping emancipatory Monika Rogowska-Stangret struggles not only of nations, but also of social groups fighting their way to autonomy and recognition. The world today however seems to need a different set of values due to globalization, development of technologies, social, natural, political and economic events and emergencies that reveal the extent to which various aspects of the present situation are interconnected. Interdependent rather than independent. The idea of being independent means – according to the dictionary – different things with relation to country/ organization or person. Country/organization is independent if it is not governed or controlled by another country or organization 1. Person is independent when he or she is confident and able to do things by [himself/herself] in [his/ her] own way, without wanting help or advice from other people or when having enough money to live so that [he/ she] do[es] not have to depend on other people 2. In the dictionary definition the word separate is singled out as synonymous to independent presenting yet another trace of what would being independent mean: existing separately and not connected with or influenced by any others 3. The questions that arise from those definitions are many. Is it possible and desirable to exist separately from human and non-human agents (outside friends and family 1 “Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English”, relations, companion species relations, human dependenThird Edition, cy – as species – on other species like microbes, plants, Longman Dictionaries, bees, on technology, weather, gravitation etc.)? Is it possiEssex 1995, p. 723. ble not to be controlled when our every step is recorded 2 Ibidem. or saved via cct v or in the Internet? What could be inde 3 Ibidem. pendent mean in professional life, where under the guise
The idea of being independent means – according to the dictionary – different things with relation to country/organization or person.
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of freelancer or independent scholar the complex network of economic dependencies hides, revealing the precarious working conditions of today? How can human even think of separateness, when it was proven that the influence human has on the Earth is changing the planet itself and its geology so that scientists agreed on naming a new geological epoch – Anthropocene – the epoch of human? Debates around Anthropocene concentrate on how human impacts the Earth and simultaneously on how this will affect human being in return. It seems that on many levels sketchily presented with above-mentioned questions we can only dream of independency or treat it as a sort of illusion. But would the illusion of independency be something new? From the Ancient times philosophers stressed human dependency on nature, god(s)/God, other people, social life, etc. The ability to distinguish between things we can control and things we have no control over was a corner stone of stoic ethics. Also, modernity opened a new chapter in thinking about human subjectivity in relational (thus interdependent) terms of the category of an encounter. The encounter appears to be indeed one of the key terms in reflection on what does it mean to be a human. While it is impossible to exhaustively enlist all the instances of such an approach, it might still be important to name a few examples. The human being as a subject emerges in an encounter with the otherness of God (this is how Emmanuel Levinas interprets Rene Descartes’ “Meditations” or in Søren Kierkegaard), with non-human life/world (in Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Maurice Merleau-Ponty), with other people and human culture (like in various versions of social contract from Thomas Hobbes, in master-slave dialectics in Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, in the encounter between I and Thou in Martin Buber, between different social classes in Karl Marx, between ego, superego, and id in Sigmund Freud, between reason and non-reason (madness) in Michel Foucault and so on). Thus, human being as such is an effect of interdependencies, interrelations, and
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4 S. Freud, “Fixation to Traumas – The Unconscious”, in: “The Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud”, Vol. 16, pp. 284–285.
encounters. It has no identity, no essence, no sense before the relation. With the current fascination for biology and environmental humanities (motivated by, among other things, the growing awareness of how humans have been exploiting the environment and what are the consequences of this activity), theorists are more and more invested in how the concept of human is interwoven into the fabric of the world, deprived of its central position, dependent on other agents and agential factors, just one of the aspects of the world – neither the most important, nor the most superb. As a result, independency seems – yet again – impossible dream or illusion. Interdependency seems more accurate. We may say that there is nothing new in this recognition. The concept of the human evolved and changed with relation to the development of science revealing the fact that human positioning himself in the center of the world is nothing more than narcissistic illusion. Sigmund Freud depicted it as follows: In the course of centuries the naïve self-love of men has had to submit to two major blows at the hands of science. The first was when they learnt that our earth was not the centre of the universe but only a tiny fragment of a cosmic system of scarcely imaginable vastness. This is associated in our minds with the name of Copernicus, though something similar had already been asserted by Alexandrian science. The second blow fell when biological research destroyed man’s supposedly privileged place in creation and proved his descent from the animal kingdom and his ineradicable animal nature. This revaluation has been accomplished in our own days by Darwin, Wallace and their predecessors, though not without the most violent contemporary opposition. But human megalomania will have suffered its third and most wounding blow from the psychological research of the present time which seeks to prove to the ego that it is not even master in its own house, but must content itself with scanty information of what is going on unconsciously in its mind. 4
5 N. Davis, “Material Culture: Epigenetics and the Molecularisation of the Social”, in: “What if Culture was Nature all Along?”, ed. V. Kirby, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 2017, pp. 121–122.
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Human narcissism was thus first challenged by the recognition that the Earth (understood as human world) is not placed in the center of the Universe. Secondly, it was upset by discovering how humans emerged from animal ancestors attesting to the fact that there is no qualitative difference among humans and animals (only quantitative). Thirdly, human consciousness was deprived of its central and dominating position in an individual revealing the extent to which our actions, behaviors, emotions, attitudes are influenced by unconsciousness. Current research only develops those recognitions further. In what follows I will provide two examples of how humans are always interdependent. First, let us focus on how psychoanalysis influenced the concept of the subject. Generally, Freud, the father of psychoanalysis, showed his readers at least three important things: 1. Knowing oneself is a tricky endeavor: we do not simply know ourselves, we are not transparent to ourselves, our motives may not always be clear to ourselves and in result the ancient guide know thyself demands from us careful and thorough studies with scrupulous attention to uncover psychic tricks we use not to know and face our (true) selves; 2. Oftentimes the problem that we see outside of us (when we throw accusations on somebody, are in fear of somebody, approach the other with disgust) is inside us (we tend to exteriorize and project on others our own psychological controversies and difficulties); 3. We as humans are shaped by what is not our own in the first place (culture, biology, history, even so seemingly trivial aspects like hopes, fears, dreams, and expectations of our parents, grandparents, caretakers). Epigenetics – a relatively new discipline of science – provides us with even more insight into how dependent we are on the complexities of psychic life of our ancestors. Epigenetics investigates into how genomes are translated into phenotypes and what influences genes. It takes into consideration environmental, social, and psychological tra-
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6 Ibidem, pp. 126–127.
ces impacting the ways in which humans are materialized as individuals. Epigenetics proves: that there is not first a biological body that is then worked on by a physical or social environment. Rather, we are always already environmental, and the relations of difference, between body and environment, biology and the social, are relations of externality within us […]. 5 Human genome is never a closed entity, it is susceptible to environmental, contextual, and psychological influences. Even more: it consists of them. Thus, what materializes along the generations is not only certain bodily appearances and characteristics, but also and importantly psychological experiences, among them stigma, traumas, stresses: Stigmatisation, or any form of discrimination or verbal abuse, is at one and the same time a discursive experience, an affective lived sensation, an embodied hostility, and a molecular biochemical process – as bodies discourse, ideate and perpetrate this violence on other bodies. […] Biology is not quarantined from injury by words; insults cannot necessarily be brushed aside but can physically wound, again and again, across generations. 6 This perspective feels mind-blowing. We materialize – in our seemingly independent and separated bodies – the whole bodily and psychic histories of our ancestors: this particular way of smiling comes from my father, the shape of my mouth… Yes… from my mother’s mother, the expression on my face when I am nervous resembles my mother, the structure of my hair, my ticks, my feelings, my laughs – apparently not mine. Even more so. The abuses and insults suffered in the past (but also joys and excitements) are here with me, in my body, even if I do not know about them, they are unconsciously and unnoticeably shaping me, my body, my individuality. Therefore, my body is a collage. And moreover, I am not able to trace down the sources of parts that form myself. The concept of a human individual as tabula rasa – blank slate that only with birth starts to gather experiences and data – seems utterly impossible. The past is always present. Rather than tabula rasa, we are indeed
7 D. Haraway, “When Species Meet”, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, London 2008, pp. 3–4. 8 M.J. Hird, “Meeting with the Microcosmos”, “Environment and Planning D: Society and Space” 28, 2010, p. 37.
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whole libraries full of manuscripts, journals, books. Read and unread. Most of them never even open. Second, with relation to evolutionary blow the naïve self-love of men suffered from science, we might ask about the independent and separate status of our bodies. What constitutes this body of mine? What is mine in my body? Evolution is an example of a concept that stresses our connections with other life forms. Moreover, it stresses the fact that our bodily forms (all bodily forms) result not from changes of an individual being independent of relations with others. Evolution – as Jakob von Uexküll proves – is not about units, but about at least pairs. Wing is incomprehensible without wind, fin does not make any sense when thought of as a separated entity, without water. One will never understand a spider without a fly (did you know that the gaps between strands of spider webs are precisely a bit less than the length of the fly, so that the fly would be caught in the web and not fly away?). Evolution then, shows us a world of interconnections and interdependence of which human bodies are parts formed by its interrelations with other species, environmental factors, things, technology, and so on. What is more, research on the human genome and bodies reveal the collective nature of what we oftentimes consider to be autonomous, separated, independent: the individual body. I love the fact – Donna Haraway states – that human genomes can be found in only about 10 percent of all the cells that occupy the mundane space I call my body; the other 90 percent of the cells are filled with genomes of bacteria, fungi, protists, and such […] I am vastly outnumbered by my tiny companions […] I become an adult human being in company with these tiny messmates. To be one is always to become with many. 7 And also, as Myra Hird reminds us: The number of microbes in our bodies exceeds the number of cells in our bodies by 100-fold. 8
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We are thus never really human, human to the core. We are more-than-human worlds, assamblages, collectives, networks becoming together, collaborating, always in relation, in company, always interdependent. The I is never mine, it emerges out of complex networks of interrelations. The same happens to the human – it is never purely or entirely human, it comes from what is inhuman, more-than-human, beyond human. The psychic life and the body – just two examples of how interdependent we are – seem so intimate, so exclusively ours, that imagining it as utterly relational, swarm-like may be a mind-blowing vision: our selves and our bodies are results of more than our selves and our bodies. Seeing how relational we really are may also be an inspiration to think more about interdependent networks we are part of than about independency, separateness, not being controlled, distance, self-sufficiency. The fact that we are ourselves the multiplicity of factors, agents, species, things has both ethical and political consequences. It is also a challenge. Instead of with a set of conclusions, I would like to end with thought-provoking and opening questions. This is more of an invitation than ending. Invitation to think further. Taking our relational and collaborative nature, how to establish more just, more appropriate, more caring relations with other human beings, other animals, plants, objects, technologies, microbes? How to imagine politics and (re)turn to solidarity that emerges from interdependence? What values grow out of humble position of a human as not central but rather one of many? How to grow appreciation for the multitudes that are us? How to face ethical, environmental, political challenges of today recognizing the impossibility of clear-cut cause-andeffect models and paying attention to globalized many-sided and multifaceted networks of interconnections? How to take care of what is common and not promote nonsensical concepts of purity, supremacy, closure?
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How to stress collaboration rather than rivalry and competition? How to be with others instead of vis-à-vis others? How to think with others and not against them? How to include without exclusions? How to build bridges and not walls?
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This is me said Andrei Tarkovsky when he was interviewed while directing his last film, “The Sacrifice” (1986). Dagens Nyheter, the biggest morning paper in Sweden, asked him how to be a good Vapaasalo film director and he said that when standing in front of your film you should be able to say This is Me. I’m This. There should not be any distance between the artefact you created and what you are. Even all the flaws of the film are you. And you should be ready to bear that pain too. The failures are you too. Tarkovsky was in exile and soon after completing this film he died in Paris of cancer. He was a very moralistic person in his works and demands. Sometimes the purity he expressed exceedingly in his films made them difficult to enjoy. They were highly intellectual and without easy amusing tricks for large-scale audiences. The message he sent was that an artist, a person in the field of creativity, should be truthful and free from compromises. Do not go every morning to the markets selling your skills to the best price that is offered. Be proud, respect your talent, your vision, and do whatever is possible. We know that it is not that easy. Though we have good intentions, our freedom of choice gets compromised for various reasons. In the customer-driven assignments there are many controversial demands and interests that threaten our autonomy. Even design work increasingly resembles the Hollywood film industry where the first thing that marks everything is Money, the second question is also about Money and, when we come to the third, it deals only with Money. If there is any space for anything else, it will be added later on. The production is saturated with money.
A quest for troubles Tapio
Do you have problems? Real problems? Without problems you are in trouble. Acquire problems and get some good ones.
essays × Tapio Vapaasalo
However, there are few, very few directors who navigate in this jungle and produce wonders. It is possible. What is the freedom that is needed? How independent can an artist/designer be? And does it differ from the life we all have to live? Some things I have learned I will try to define some learning outcomes that I – and many of us – have experienced. During a long career in design and education I have rarely seen any reflections that try to describe the most permanent elements of my toil. One of the curious findings I made was that we are surrounded by lots of difficulties; roadblocks that sometimes make our work taste bitter. This is generally seen as common knowledge, so no mystery in it. Mostly it is about obstacles that should not have a place in the praised creative work at all. They are annoying visitors belonging to a totally strange world from which I am trying to escape. But, could I live without them? What are these jabs I curse on a daily basis – sorry – even on an hourly basis? When I tried to name them I was astonished that there is a legion and in every corner of my universe. But the big revelation was, that without them my work and life would be much more meager, even barren. They all are stigmatized with great negativity. And what a paradox! These are the best friends without whom my work would fall to mediocrity. Here are some of them so Let Us Now Praise the Famous Factors of Creative Work. This sentence is inspired by James Agee’s famous book about the hard times in 1930s. There is an allegory. Agee wrote about the Salt of the Earth, the poor people from the Appalachian mining towns in the years of great desperation. Those people who made America possible. They were overlooked and handled like dirt, or slaves, although the diamonds and wealth were made out of their drudgery in the coal that was their life. I am a visual communicator. I used to be a graphic designer, as William Addison Dwiggins started to call the profession in 1922. In our trade the best work is possible
100 × independence
only with an understanding of the small and anonymous elements we work with. Those simple letters, single typefaces, dots, scratches, sounds, whispers, the spaces between them, empty margins, the many shades of greys (sic!) and all those papers on which more significant ideas lie, the textures that are sensed both by the eye and the fingertip. Plus all the backgrounds that give meaning to the content. Those who see their values will win the game. So, be humble to this silence of voids. Give respect to these silent and silenced actors you work with every day. Without them nothing will happen. They clarify your voice and make the message distinguished. Pay attention to them. Think how to make them visible, how to arouse interest among the recipients who don’t even know that messages are intended for them. This is what makes communication and impact possible. How to distinguish your wise stories from those thousands or million of others? Every field of design has its own small and mute slaves that give the endeavor its pulse. So has life, too. We start with Problems Do you have problems? Real problems? Without problems you are in trouble. Acquire problems and get some good ones. The problems give the first clue about the solution. The best answers come out of the best questions. Remember what the playwright Bertold Brecht said: After the difficulties in the mountains come the difficulties on the plains. Only those who can manage both will find the goal. When working on assignments, your customer gives you his/her problem. Your work is to improve it, to create a better problem. You should have the insight how. That depends on your skills, experience, vision and responsibility. That is where the work really begins. With an assignment you get a Deadline The name says everything. From the very first moment you know that it is about life and death. A very serious
essays × Tapio Vapaasalo
commitment where it is easy to loose your face, fame and self-respect. But, in turn, without a deadline thoughts will not crystallize. Without force and compulsion there will not be excellence. Endless idleness will produce soft, round-edged corners that have nothing to say. Under the pressure that a deadline creates flourish unbelievable and refined solutions. Dissatisfaction is also a needed prompter. It is like a pacesetter who helps a race runner in breaking records. We cannot forget the Price. When deciding on the price essential parts of the work are defined. Can you live in a state of uncertainty? It will consume your mind and is stressful to bear, but the best solutions come out of possibilities that are new and untested. You have to trust your instincts. In “On War” Carl von Clausewitz said something astonishing that applies to design as well: In war all major decisions are made in fog. We talk about an inner vision without any proof. The instinct called intuition is generated out of experience and insight. If you collapse under the pressure, there will not be any outcome. A good designer or artist has the ability to hear the silent messages and see what they can deliver. Many briefs start with a scarcity of knowledge, materials and means. Seldom, if ever, you will have the necessary resources at hand. To overcome this gap, a design is needed. It is good to understand that this lack forces the designer to go deeper into the essence of the task. Only then it is possible to extort more out of less. Here we have that multifaceted slogan that has been delivered without care in a million of versions. Are designers the descendants of the alchemists who made gold out of trash? Seriously, they are! We also know that the best studios have the biggest trashcans. New ideas are generated when you are ready to give away what you already have. They flourish only when the gardeners are brave to cut and proud to give their products away. A catastrophe clears the way for new starts. The bankruptcies force one to begin again with fresh thoughts. You have to leave the old baggage behind you.
100 × independence
More odd elements Emptiness or void is what good meditation needs. It made the Big Bang possible. Where else could a new Universe start its expansion? Not a single brief is without restrictions and limitations. A common feeling is that these kill all joy and the possibilities for a successful result. On the contrary, they are among the best agents for creating a significant payoff. From where do designers or artists get their ideas? From where does the inspiration come? We depend on trends, fashion and styles. Genres dominate what is done. Is it possible to avoid influences in the age of Pinterest? When does inspiration turn into stealing? Can anybody live and flourish on a desert island? What are the ethics we have to follow? The answer is that you have to give back the borrowed ideas in a better shape than you got them. The best thieves have been Shakespeare and Brecht. The former had probably never written any original drama himself but rewrote them with excellence. Brecht signed his name to all of his female companions’ writings. Also, do not forget routines, clichés, simplicity, chance, accident, mistakes, wrong ideas, invisibility, repetition or tension. And there is even more you have to be friends with. On my list there are also undo and non-design. There are many more to find. In the end we comes to masters Josef Albers had to flee Germany and the Bauhaus when the Nazis came to power. As a refugee he started teaching at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, usa. One of the students of his renowned color courses was Robert Rauschenberg, who came from Fort Worth, Texas, and later on rose to fame as one of the masters of the Pop Art movement in the late 1950s. The brilliance of color is what makes him outstanding. However, Albers hated his student’s works, which were as American as possible at the time. After his studies Rauschenberg painted for two years only in black and then for one year only with white. He had to distinguish himself from his master, his authority. So, do not stay in the shadow of your master.
essays × Tapio Vapaasalo
The authority helps you in the beginning but will later choke you from finding your own voice. So it is with Tarkovsky, who believed that women should not do men’s work like directing films. Do not live other people’s visions. Respect your dreams.
See more Animations of selected picturesÂ (+) can be accessed on aÂ mobile device using the Aurasma app. step 1 Download Aurasma step 2 Find the user independenceproject and click on follow step 3 Press the camera button and point the device at the picture marked with + sign. They are also available on www.independence.pja.edu.pl
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
El Fantasma de Heredia Anabella Salem Gabriel Mateu
100 Ă— independence
Buenos Aires, Argentina email@example.com
Anabella Salem & Gabriel Mateu × tutor’s text × posters
At El Fantasma de Heredia a teaching role is always more focused on process than results. Processes are the moments to learn, to search inside, to think about a problem for the first time, to read and re-read, to discuss ideas with others. It was incredibly enriching to debate weekly for several months about independence in a third world country, with young people from diverse not equal backgrounds, male and female students – graphic designers. We talked about culture, clichés, influences, personality, revolution, colonialism, women’s rights, one hundred years of Poland, the current separatist fight in Spain, with moments like Björk’s song, “Declare Independence,” or a wine after class because everybody wanted to go on exchanging their views. We discovered that in Spanish the word birth – our first independent step – means I leave. We discussed taking the subject with joy or anger. We talked about the gap between independence and freedom. Everybody agreed on independence as a desire that has to be built, personally and as community. We talked about posters. In complete freedom, ethically and aesthetically, students from different public universities worked together during the four-month workshop on their Independence posters and found diverse sides of the concept and its scope. The independence of women is an important subject for many of them, with posters ranging from universal
images of empowering of women to the very intimate with a familiar photo of the student’s mother – a smiling Latin woman – and a desperate poem of the great Argentinian poetess, Alfonsina Storni, that exhales an aching soul. Others, according to their age, worked on finding their own identity separate from mass behaviour. Some, fortunately, understood the slight but significant difference between independence and individualism. Creating a poster is a whole intellectual affair that we all love to face, and working collectively provided tremendous support for all participants. The idea of exhibiting in Warsaw, the so long-studied mecca of poster design, added extra beautiful shared energy. As tutors, we thank the great work done by Natalia Acosta, Javier Reboursin, Flor Nicolini, Cristian Maidana, Paula Salvatierra, Germán Suárez, Estefanía Rincón, Daniela Grajzewski, Diego Gamardo, Mica Noziglia, Agathe Truchon Bartes and Germán López. Finally, it was hard for us to choose only five… because of the ideas, sensitivity, deepness, risk, and let’s say – the quality of posters. A poster can change the world, because it can change one person.
Germรกn Suรกrez printed poster
Germán López printed poster
EstefanĂa RincĂłn printed poster
Diego Gamardo printed poster
Javier Reboursin printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
Ann Bessemans Johan Vandebosch
100 Ă— independence
pxl- mad (Media, Arts & Design)
Hasselt, Belgium www.pxl-mad.be
Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology Warsaw, Poland www.pja.edu.pl
Ann Bessemans & Johan Vandebosch × tutor’s text × posters
In this workshop we focus on the meaning of the word independence in the contemporary sociopolitical and cultural context. Looking at the Catalan independence movement (their visual symbol is the Estelada flag) with their recently voted referendum – which is confirmed by the European Commission as illegal – should make us aware about the meaning, strengths and weaknesses of the independent status. Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory. The opposite of independence is a dependent territory. Whether the attainment of independence is different from revolution has long been contested, and has often been debated over the question of violence as a legitimate means to achieving sovereignty. While some revolutions seek and achieve national independence, others aim only to redistribute power – with or without an element of emancipation, such as in democratization – within a state, which as such may remain unaltered. (Wikipedia) 2018 is a special year as Poland will celebrate the 100th anniversary of regaining independence. Therefore, we want you to think about strong messages/quotes with new ways of thinking referring to independence. Communicate political messages that are important and relevant. Use typography (letters) and symbols. Think about these
elements/symbols that might strengthen your message the most. For designing (new) symbols and letters we want you to start from the Polish tradition Wycinanki [papercutting]. You are obliged to make it contemporary and thus create an innovative visual language rooted in a typical Polish tradition! Think about strong (paper cut) shapes and maybe even collages where image and word/letter(s) are integrated. Think about a color palette! You will design a poster within a group of 3–4 students, portrait, size A0.
Joanna Świderska × Weronika Ławska × Paulina Kowalska printed poster
Nadiia Romanenko × Yustsina Sakalenka × Hanna Pxarokhorova × Daria Chernysheva printed poster
Aleksandra Przebirowska × Filip Wyrzykowski × Minh Trang × Le Diana Ahudza printed poster
Anastasiia Pozhydaieva × Nastassia Tolstsik × Vladyslav Kerpich × Katsiaryna Harelik printed poster
Aleksandra Solińska × Oliwia Przeździecka × Magda Kłos × Zofia Włoczewska printed poster
essays Ã— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ã— independence
Central Academy of Fine Arts Beijing, China www.cafa.edu.cn
Xiao Yong × tutor’s text × posters
The Hundred Years of Poland’s one hundred years and will continIndependence – a Tribute from China ue to move forward. The white balloon is coming from the red sky inWe are the teachers and students from viting people to join the anniversary the China Central Academy of Fine Arts celebration. in the Beijing province. We are honored to have the opportunity to participate 3. Poster “Independence and Fusion” in the poster presentation celebrating designed by Di Yao. the 100th anniversary of Poland’s indePoland, a developed country, bependence in 2018. Five designers took came strong and vital after many part in the poster design activity with hardships and constant changes. The the guidance of Professor Xiao Yong. designer used the lines to depict evoFive posters show how the designers lution of romantic ideas and unique understood independence in the conhistorical culture of Polish indepentext of contemporary social and politidence. The designer used the colors cal culture of Poland. An interpretation of Polish flag – red and white – as of the 100 th anniversary of indepena metaphor for Polish economy, culdence is presented with respect for the ture, society and everyday life in the Polish people and their culture by the hundred-year perspective fusing the Chinese designers. inheritance and the innovation. 1. Poster “Peace and Independence” 4. Poster “Culture Memory” designed designed by Zhiyong Zhang. by Hongyan Liu. The poster adopts the form of “Yin Poland has a strong religious traand Yang” in the image of two doves dition and a splendid national culture. to convey a close link between Nicolas Copernicus, Frederic Chopin, peace and independence. The poster Maria Curie, Pope John Paul II are shows the designer’s interpretation famous Poles. Polish people with an of the concept of independence and invincible integrity and a profound celebrates the 100th anniversary of cultural heritage managed reconPoland’s independence. struction and revitalized the econ2. Poster “Independence and Freedom” omy that suffered cruel and brutal designed by Kang Shen. war. They remained calm and kept The designer’s understanding of their heads high. The design is based independence refers to people who on the history and culture of Poland. look forward to independence. An air The graphics represent religion, asballoon flying above the city depicts tronomy, music and folk art, which the aspiration for freedom. The balcompose a smiling face. It conveys loon took off from the ground at the the idea that independence is based moment of Poland’s independence on the memory of national culture. in 1918, flew freely in the sky for The culture, the blood of the nation,
influences generations of people and gives the people of Poland rich spiritual food and knowledge. The Polish culture enriches the world. 5. Poster “Fearless and Forward” designed by Yang Wang. The Polish people have gone through a lot of hardships on the road to independence. The 100th anniversary of independence is a big day for the whole country to celebrate and to look forward to the future without forgetting the past. The independence of Poland means a national self-confidence. The Polish people should walk firmly and without fear, constantly innovating and developing their national culture to showcase Poland to the world. The picture with the footsteps walking around implies the unity of the Polish people who went through hardships and now move forward onto a new journey.
Kang Shen printed poster
Di Yao printed poster
Hongyan Liu printed poster
Yang Wang printed poster
Zhiyong Zhang printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
Armando Busquets Carballo MarĂa Mercedes Salgado Paulo Vignola
100 Ã— independence
Guayaquil, Ecuador www.msghdesign.blogspot.com
Armando Busquets Carballo & María Mercedes Salgado × tutor’s text × posters
The production of posters offers the designer one of the most developed platforms for creative liberty, both for the intellectual complexity that their conceptualization processes demand, and the generalized condition of being a cultural product, freed from its original functions in the market and commercial publicity. However, except for some isolated experiences, the conceptualization and production of posters is not present in the set of processes and learning in the subjects that articulate the curricular design of the careers that the country offers to form professional graphic designers. The current state of publicity in contemporary capitalism makes the poster – as a tool for persuasive publicity – something displaced by the efficacy of more direct and encompassing media, like radio, television, the Internet or more recent information and communication technologies. There are reasons to believe that the vigorous demand in the design market of products for new platforms, just like the design which contributes with marketing and general embellishment of products of mass consumption, determine the orientation and the curricular profile of today’s design and visual communications careers, directed towards forming professionals capable of satisfying those demands, and not others. Unfortunately, the teaching and learning processes regarding poster production have disappeared from the classrooms and workshops of Ecuador’s universities.
Even though the poster had its origins in the advertising demand generated by the most developed economies during the second half of the 19th century, the commercial imprint that marks its birth – always at the service of the urgent consumption of merchandise and goods for use – today derives its channel towards the field of cultural production. In the set of typologies that constitute the fields of graphic design’s professional development these days, the poster becomes a fundamental anchor by supporting derived products of cultural and social activism; these satisfy the diffusion demands of certain elites’ cultural agendas, often related with the production of theater festivals, jazz music or artistic exhibitions. However, this only occurs in developed countries where the financing of culture is possible. Some may think that, given the new production and circulation conditions for the poster – now as a tool that serves the mobilization and circulation of cultural messages – the construction of its value is settled less on the sphere of its informative or advertising functions, and more on the aesthetic and artistic dimensions of its visual and conceptual proposal. For a poster, the condition of the artistic is today one of the most important attributes for legitimation as a product of visual communication, so much that if we had to profile some sort of genealogy of the contemporary poster, this would be aesthetic; maybe that is why, and not on very few occasions, the art museum walls
are established as the final destination for posters produced today. In this context, we can affirm that the group of teachers and students pleasantly received the invitation to participate in the 100 × independence project. Beyond the appeal of the theme, we want to point to the potential of this project, to bring back the possibility to generate instances inside classrooms – conferences, debates, workshops – capable of developing creative processes around the conceptualization and production of posters.
Kenia Carbo printed poster
Valentina Bolivar printed poster
Marco Saenz printed poster
Pia Vela printed poster
Manuel Cordova printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
Aalto University Helsinki, Finland www.aalto.fi
Tarja Nieminen × tutor’s text × posters
When a poster is still a poster? If Madame Tussauds wanted to innovate, would they put a robot in their collection and call it an interactive moving doll? Janna Beck, The Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Antwerp, Belgium
The School of Ar ts, Design and Architecture of the Aalto University is the largest in its field in the Nordic countries. The school, which was founded in 1871, became a part of Aalto University in 2010. The Department of Graphic Design (now the degree program of Visual Communication Design in the Media Department) was founded in 1927. The five posters presented in a book and on display in the exhibition are a result of an open project offered to the visual communication design students. ba , ma and exchange students studying in the fall semester 2017 could submit proposals to the competition. During their creative work, the participants could sign up for personal tutoring time to discuss their concepts and work-in-progress. Some of the submitted animated poster designs were executed in the Digital Media ii course instructed by Antti Hietaniemi. He supervised in an inspiring way and gave technical support. The one on one tutoring sessions were an interesting and insightful opportunity for the tutors as well to discuss the current status and role of the poster, its recent developments and
future transformations medium-wise. Many students agreed on the fact that a poster still is a visual (text and/or image) message on display in a public space. The term is defined by its medium, whether printed or in digital form in a communication space, we post a poster up and a poster is posted out. Currently, the relevance or use of the classical poster in communication is reducing, be it commercial, cultural or social communication. Now, if one wants to reach one’s target group for any purpose, one can find the group easily in virtual public space. It is more comfortable, cheaper and easier to communicate in social media, to make for instance a Facebook event or an Instagram post. In this regard, one would say that a poster has become a post. Below, there is a summary of the topics and outcomes discussed in the tutorial events. I also thank Adam Cooke (uk ), Lode Coen (Belgium) and Janna Beck (Belgium) for insightful discussions on the subject. Nowadays, the current mix of media available to communicate is quite extensive and rapidly evolving. It provides many opportunities to a designer, be they moving images, interactivity: from classic posters to banners, to animated gif s to mapping projections, augmented reality, virtual reality, interactive led-displays, holograms etc. Metaphorically, a poster should be as clear and unambiguous as a traffic sign: it has to trigger your attention/
interest in a second, ie. it has to be noticed, to stand out in a communication environment. The essence, as earlier, is to convey a message in a very direct and eye-catching way. The designer has to consider the visual language of the poster, to make an announcement by using that language: storytelling, metaphors etc. One has to consider eg. a scale, readability, attention span, ie. one has to tell a comprehensive story in a few seconds. This applies to a moving poster and an interactive poster as well: however, in a case of the interactive poster, maybe the outcome won’t be a poster anymore, perhaps an app or a game instead? However, the basic criteria are still valid, the designs have to been easily remembered. As for the new poster (digital) formats, the motion itself has to be functional to the message, it should convey the message, not disrupt. In general, design restrictions for posters have enormously reduced due to the evolution in technology and visual language and communication vocabulary are evolving influenced by social media and globalization of ideas and opinions. Posters are contextualized by their time. Regarding the term moving poster: one would consider a term only to justify the digitization in the media mix and holding on to the nostalgia of the poster, ie. a fear of disappearance. For instance, as for clothing, there were concepts of implementing a phone into a jacket, but they realized quite fast that the output was an unhandy jacket (difficult to
wash) and a bad phone. With the arrival of the new digital media the challenge for the designer has become to implement the hybrid nature of communication in this forever evolving field. Now, posters are open for response. Viewers’ relationship to them is changing. We have open mechanisms to response to them, poster is being networked, it can be put onto the social media, people are questioning, there is more media literacy and media awareness than ever. Further, posters do not communicate in a same context with the physical space as previously. Communication content of the posters is mediated. In this regard, posters lose their primary function when they mediate, ie. when they go onto a screen they have been co-opted. Another interesting point is the concept of public space: eg. a privatisation of the communication space, including official communication language and formats, which may result in an exclusion of certain voices. In the future, it will be more challenging to design a good poster due to an information overload to be noticed, the communication environment will be bombarded with images, people will be oversaturated.
Mario Huyet ++ animated poster
Joosung Kang printed poster
Taina Tirkkonen printed poster
Joonas VĂ¤hakallio printed poster
Elze Grigonyte ++ animated poster
essays × Tapio Vapaasalo
Anja Stöffler Julia Kühne Jens Hartmann Hans-Jörg Pochmann Guido Stemme Klaus Giegerich
100 Ă— independence
University of Applied Arts Mainz, Germany www.hs-mainz.de
Anja Stöffler & Julia Kühne × tutor’s text × posters
Designing Independence… A triplicate challenge: What is the visual approach of a young generation of German designers towards independence? What themes frame their designs when they immerse into the realities of Polish independence within the European political landscape? And how do phenomena such as global fake news and the omnipresent appearance of the Internet influence their view of the responsibility of design in a political context? In the end, all three approaches led to the question of the responsibility that we, as designers, should take. The seminar began mid-December 2017. Our initial focus was to deepen our understanding of historical influences in today’s context, existing philosophical and artistic approaches to the topic and our personal experiences within the field of independence. To define the personal role as a designer in a political subject turned out to be a real challenge. But it encouraged us to rethink and to recreate ideas that seemed to be certain already. Within the complexity of the topic students first came up with fundamental ideas that derived from personal experiences they had had rather than ideas with a general collective validity. So the political discourse was transferred to a personal level. The experience of independence is at the same time an experience of dependence. From the personal experiences of independence and dependence, the discussion then came back to questions of nationalism
versus globalism and to the Internet and social media which have a heavy impact on our definition of independence. Besides classic graphic design posters, the students also worked on multimedia projects that expand the printed poster with aspects of animation, interaction, and sound. The seminar was led by Professor Anja Stöffler and Professor Julia Kühne from the University of Applied Sciences of Mainz and was supported intensively by Jens Hartmann (designer from Wiesbaden), Hans-Jörg Pochmann (typographer from Berlin), Guido Stemme (designer and programmer from Mainz) and Klaus Giegerich (historical input).
Donald Keeya printed poster
TILL WE DECIDE US APART Marie Gall printed poster
Marie-Luise Haertel printed poster
Pia Hoberg printed poster
Selin Koca Ă— Johanna Malz ++ animated poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
Ioanna Delfino Katerina Antonaki Eleni Martini Sofia Mytilinaiou Aspasia Voudouri
100 Ă— independence
Athens, Greece www.teiath.gr
Katerina Antonaki & Ioanna Delfino & Eleni Martini
This is a collective text, co-written by all members of the workshop, both students and teachers, and sums up the various dynamics and understandings of the concept of independence within the team. – Are you dependent on independence? – N o, I am not! – But you do want to be independent. – Maybe I already am. No, I am not. I will try again…
My name is K., the rest I think is unnecessary, even my name is unnecessary. When I was asked to describe the word independence, I came to the conclusion, that no matter how hard we try, we will never be truly independent. We, humans, have biological needs. I tried to think of a state that someone could be independent. This state could only exist in a different space and time, a place which we cannot imagine. For me, independence is out of human reach. Katerina Topis
Independence is the virtue by which somebody is self-reliant. The most important place where this virtue should be practised is the independence of one’s mind. Independence is a state of mind which requires constant awareness of one’s self and effort to stay balanced.
Individuals, as if they are human-pencils, are able to draw their own lives, write their own history. People are trying to pursue their dreams and they will only achieve this if they release themselves from anything that holds them back. Eirini Daskalaki
Independence is important, powerful and worth acquiring. An uprised hand, Independence is dead. You and I are holding a pomegranate symbolizes the also to blame for the fact that indepen- victory of a battle or the struggle for it. dence is dead. The pomegranate, the symbol of fertilOnly when the motives of our actions ity, of new life, of renaissance and of and our desires become genuine and knowledge, underlines the existence of authentic; only when our vulnerabilities the new condition to come. turn into power; only then, will it be Karolina Knapik possible for independence to resurrect. Maria Bizimi
Sophia Mytilinaiou & Aspasia Voudouri × tutor’s text × posters
The Body, in fact, is always elsewhere. The Body, is not free, natural nor innocent. The Body, is gendered. The body, in the 18th century became the foundation of sexual differences. The Body, emerges from culture, history, language, society. The Body, is something that we all need to discover. The Body, is the medium through which we dream, talk, imagine. The Body, is ours. Melina SofiaTsiledaki
The question is clear: Are you independent? It’s up to the viewer, to stand in front of a mirror, and consider his/her personal needs and bonds which keep him/her dependent. Fani Kokkinou
Independence. A bond needs to crack. What kind of bond could that be? The bond with the mother, the family, the friends, the country, the world, the God, the life itself, the self? Independence is a broken chain; the result of an explosion, an agitation or a conflict. The sound of independence, could either be a noise, or a tune, a melody. Katerina Antonaki Ioanna Delfino Eleni Martini Sophia Mytilinaiou Aspasia Voudouri
Maria Bizimi printed poster
Karolina Knapik printed poster
Thanasis Katsougiannis ++ interactive poster
Katerina Topi printed poster
Sofia Kyrimi printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
Athens, Greece www.teiath.gr Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology Warsaw, Poland www.pja.edu.pl
Katerina Antonaki × tutor’s text × posters
and makes that something actionA Manifesto for Independence Towards manifesting independence. The able. A manifesto recognizes a demanifesto as a creative tool. * sire for the way something can be Manifestoes show that you actually can and outlines a course of action, a set speak up loudly — if you have someof steps, to reach that desire. thing to say… Every word of these man- 4. It is about making suggestions and ifestoes is beautiful and full of meaning, encouraging dialogue instead of often utopian, sometimes prophetic. debates. A manifesto is not about filmmaker Julian Rosefeldt 1 rules that dictate (polemics of design) but rather introduce. It is more Talking about independence I couldn’t about introducing that nothing is ever think of a more suitable frame for fixed than describing the one and students. only truth. Polemics do have valTrying to contextualize independence ue for graphic design. They can be is hard, analysis of the topic often conpersuasive at formatting a canvas for fronts us with deadlocks. But if we think thinking the crafts of design and their of creating a manifesto for indepenpublic role. However, what is quesdence, then the equation is more easily tioned is the presumed authority of solved, simply because we can think of polemics which is rooted in absolute utopian situations and we let ourselves standards. Communication design is dream freely. And no doubt, I wish the more interesting when it operates students to dream and express themthrough argumentation, logic or poselves outloud. etic invention, when proposing an The idea of manifesto works as creagenda for discourse, when uncovative tool for the following reasons: ering its disruptive values. 1. It establishes context for the design 5. The manifesto could be considered practice. Consider the manifesto as as a game where constraints are apa conceptual tool to structure, orgaplied and used as such. Games are nize and express designer’s ideas. a valuable tool as they help to in2. A manifesto creates a context integrate knowledge in a playful way side which, the constraints of the (learning by doing). Games help to manifesto, facilitate ideation progenerate methodologies and stratcess, they provide the canvas on egies to work through complicatwhich the designer can synthesize ed ideas and comprehend abstract and create. meanings. 3. T he act of hypothesis produces something, an idea or an object,
6. A manifesto works as a distiller of in the present they are addressed to knowledge and outlines intentions, the future. It is about creating specudesires, thoughts. lative and future scenarios. By doing 7. It creates conceptual distance. This so, it promotes critical thinking. distance allows critical reflection and The announcement of the manifesthinking out of the box, at the same to could be considered as a rhettime you do not distance yourself oric act. Saying so, I conceive the from the initial rules (context). crafts and acts of communication 8. A manifesto can work as an eval- 12. design are the contemporary art of uation tool both for the final outrhetoric since they communicate to come and the rules that were instruthe audience, through a rational semental in producing it. As Benjamin quence of meaningful arguments, viJ. Smith underlines in “Evaluating the sual material. manifesto”: Last but not least, Manifestos allow rules to become A manifesto provides the ground for actionable and the aesthetic prodself expression to designers, and unuct can be evaluated against those derlines their role as authors. rules. In a creative work, this evaluation process is critical and sees 1 R. Pogrebin, “Cate Blanchett the work from an objective point of Morphs a Dozen Times view, which can validate or invaliin Manifesto”, The New York Times, date either the object created or the 25 October 2016, rules that were instrumental in pronytimes.com/2016/10/30/arts/ ducing it. 2 design/cate-blanchett-morphs-a9. Manifestos play the role of the nar-dozen-times-in-manifesto.html (accessed 22 February 2018). rator and accompany the design practice. In that sense the narrative 2 Benjamin J. Smith, is included in the design work. It is Think Space Pamphlets, Zagreb, instantly there and by doing so it is February 2013, p. 32. more clear to students that text and 10. image always coexist. Meaning that * Students were asked to create their own manifesto graphic design is able to define the on independence. territories and the values of its pracEnd result: a co-edited tice on its own terms and can cremanifesto that includes: ate a system of interpretation of the a. Names of authors b. Purpose of the manifesto work itself. c. The manifesto rules (each A manifesto reflects the here and student/group created one rule) 11. now of the contemporary social d. The posters (one poster for scene. And even if its rules are rooted each rule)
Heba Tallah Abouhamd printed poster
Emilia Karolina MiÄ™kisz ++ animated poster
Patrycja Ostrowska Ă— Aleksandra Przebirowska printed poster
Nastassia Tolstsik printed poster
Kinga Ostapkowicz × Filip Wyrzykowski printed poster
100 Ă— independence
essays Ã— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
National Institute of Design Ahmedabad, India www.nid.edu
134—135 This workshop was a mixture of mix of B.Des. and M.Des. students. This also brought variety in thought and expression. After initial discussion about the workshop, I gave them freedom to express their ideas and views about freedom. Reflections of 5 selected students about their poster are as follows: Aditi Khandelwal: Independence to me is a strong sense of self, with the freedom to make choices and decisions. As a feminist living in a patriarchal society, to be an independent woman means to do things on my own terms, which often means swimming against the tide, with a resolute conviction. For this, self belief is necessary. An inquiry into my identity reveals that to feel truly independent – like a bird – I must be free of bondages such as the obligations to conform to the rules and boundaries society has set. Further, I must form opinions based on my own experiences and have the courage to stand for them. I must strive to be autonomous which is rooted in being self-sufficient. Another form of independence that could make me feel liberated would be to stop worrying about what other people think. All of these point to the chief source of independence that is – me. An intrinsic, empowered sense of who I am. Tathagat Biswas Thought and Concept: I feel we can never be truly independent because we are social animals. The so called independence does not give us the right to do anything. We feel
Tradiha Gajjar × tutor’s text × posters
we all are different in one way or the other, but in the end we all are connected; whatever we do, has consequences on others. Social structure and moral obligation are like visible and invisible connections. I don’t know why we are born in this world. But the least we can do is to make a purpose out of it and live to the fullest. And that can happen when we are independent, not living a life created by someone else. Representation: To represent individuality, I created the hand drawn letters and broke them into parts. But still we read the word independence because of the prior connection with the existence of the word. The flow going through all the letters is somehow keeping them together, but the letters is not stuck at one place. They are free enough to move. A huge displacement of any letter, however, would affect the whole structure, which might be good or bad. There is a triangle pointing towards “Right to do anything?” and “END” because I feel if we lose our morality and ethics, it would lead us to total dystopia. Shreya Arora: The relationship between freedom and equality has been debated in society for aeon now. While the world has made tremendous progress in defining and implementing freedom, we must question – are we truly free if we are not equally free? In a day and age where the world regularly witnesses issues like the wage gap, gender inequality, and racism, it
is more necessary than ever to highlight the important role that equal rights and equality of opportunity play in having a truly free society. Even though we have come a long way in this journey, we have an equally long way to go if we are to live in the kind of world that the visionaries before us fought for. In order to do this, it is necessary that we not only support, but also contribute to movements for equal rights over the world. As a design student, I have always thought that my greatest contribution to these movements could be creating work that makes people think, and question the status quo. I wanted my design for this poster to simply and clearly highlight the strong link between freedom and equality. This poster is a result of my passion for social justice combined with my passion for clean, impactful graphic design. Bijal Parekh: Every woman, no matter how difficult the situation, can overcome the darkness and fear to be independent. The background red and black color depicts the difficulties, fear, and darkness. The white free flowing single line depicts freedom and independence she achieves.
Shreya Arora printed poster
Bijal Parekh printed poster
Tathagat Biswas printed poster
Shreya Arora printed poster
Aditi Khandelwal printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
Holon Institute of Technology Jerusalem, Israel www.hit.ac.il
144—139 The Independence Project fell into the hands of hit ’s students by a wonderful turn of events, as earlier they had to deal with the subject of Israel’s seventieth independence anniversary. We discussed the issue of independence, as well as human rights, intensively, in its heroic, iconic and ironic aspects. In the case of the 100th anniversary of Polish independence, the students approached the subject in more general terms, relating to independence as a concept and their personal perceptions of the term rather than Polish independence specifically. Nofar Hatuka looks at the subject of independence from a feminist point of view (relating to the #metoo phenomenon), using the imagery of a pair of lips, stitched shut, being cut loose. Arie Kupfersmidt created an image of threads being unravelled, revealing that the fabric they were made of was the signatures of exceptional people, such as Albert Einstein. Itay Bern chose to criticize the political situation between Isreal and Palestine, dividing the word independence with a wall, separating them into the concepts of ‘in’ (Israel) and ‘dependence’ (Palestine), expressing the suppression of freedom of movement caused by these borders. Shahar Keren describes independence as a pair of hands, bound by string, cutting themselves loose with a pair of scissors, showing that independence is something to be taken rather than granted.
Yossi Lemel × tutor’s text × posters
Noy Cohen Gal tackles the issue by creating a vivid, colorful image, with the word independence written in the center of the image in Braille, emphasizing the freedom the invention has brought to millions of people around the world, as well as how difficult it can be to understand the struggles of those who are not independent. We thank you for this wonderful opportunity to expose young talent to the international arena.
Itay Bern printed poster
Kuper Arye printed poster
Nofar Hatuka printed poster
Noy Cohen Gal printed poster
Shahar Keren printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
Osaka University of Arts Junior College Osaka, Japan www.osaka-geitan.jp
152—153 Unfortunately, on Japan t v , there is no information on Poland at all. You will learn a little about the history of Poland in middle and high school. The information which enters Japan a lot of regards such countries as France, Britain, Germany, and Italy. Scandinavian and Eastern European information is very scarce. Therefore, the students did not have much of a discussion. So I left my students to their personal creativity.
Keizo Matsui × tutor’s text × posters
Sakino Moriki printed poster
Miku Imamura printed poster
Moeka Yoshimura printed poster
Yuan Huichun printed poster
Sakino Moriki printed poster
essays Ã— Tapio Vapaasalo
Matt Clapham Fey McAlpine
100 Ă— independence
Massey University Wellington, New Zealand www.massey.ac.nz
Matt Clapham & Fey McAlpine× tutor’s text × posters
Under Education legislation, New Zealand’s universities are charged with the responsibility to act as the critic and conscience of society. We have an obligation towards society, and are expected to work for what we view as the good of that society, even at the cost of passing judgement on it. Within Massey University’s School of Design, helping students find their critical voice is one way in which we assert our independence as designers, researchers and educators. We encourage creativity, radical ideas and criticism of the status quo across all levels of curriculum. These selected posters grow from second and third year visual communication design projects led by faculty who challenge students to assert their independence by applying visual rhetoric and persuasion to the subject of inequality.
Bronte Messam printed poster
Hannah Osborne printed poster
George Pengelly printed poster
ic f tr osof fktlerickle o eears 0 yyyears r a trickle 33030 ddo oweconomics* nwn econec omon ics*omics* down Harry Pickernell printed poster
Gen-Y forced to suck parents dry. Over the last decade the number of young adults forced to live at home has increased by 31%. While the proportion of income spent on housing has doubled in the last two decades. You do the math!
Kelly van der Hurk printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
Polish Japanese Academy of Information Technology Warsaw, Poland www.pja.edu.pl
168—169 100 × independence international project consisted of design workshops devoted to making and presenting posters and digital pieces that communicate the question of how design students interpret the meaning of the word Independence. Our workshop week in Warsaw started by inviting several speakers to give diverse views of the topic. Students had also an opportunity Russian master piece “Leviathan” by Andrey Zvyagintsev and “The Salt of the Earth” by Wim Wenders. The word independent may refer to the media, music, art, politics, society, economy and other topics. Our process was to seek answers to whether independence exists and how one can define it. The conclusion is that we are dependent on each other, on our body, nature and history – all is connected. Our goal was to give many-sided visuals to answer the design challenge. We discussed where technology may lead humanity and what new dependencies it brings. One of the students did an interesting study of how economy is connected on all levels of human existence and society. We talked a lot about the political situation in Europe, equal rights among sexes, independent courts, propaganda and the media. One of the posters shows the student’s reaction to current politics in Poland. We also talked about dependencies and their effects – different kind of addictions – alcohol, drugs, pornography or gambling. Two projects
Marjatta Itkonen × tutor’s text × posters
are focused on addictions and dependencies. One student made personal and existential proposal, the other one interviewed Warsaw inhabitants about what independency means to them and in her animation people are transformed to animals but the voices remain authentic. We concentrated on today’s phenomena, not historical events. My colleague Ewa Satalecka proposed this topic to me as Poland celebrates the centennial anniversary of its independence this year and so did Finland last year. The Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in cooperation with the Poster Museum in Wilanów in Warsaw is organizing the 100 x independence exhibition. We all have learned a lot during the process thanks to our guest speakers and discussions with inspiring young people. I want to thank all students who participated: you have done a very good job!
Julia BĹ‚aszczak ++ interactive poster
Aleksandra Krysiak ++ animated poster
Barbara Kielak ++ animated poster
Wojciech Płudowski ++ interactive poster
Weronika Racz ++ animated poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
Sergei Serov Yuri Gulitov
100 Ă— independence
Higher Academic School of Design Moscow, Russia www.school.imadesign.ru
Sergei Serov & Yuri Gulitov × tutor’s text × posters
Initially, the Russian participant included into the guest list of the 100 × independence project was the hasgd – the Higher Academic School of Graphic Design, which was founded by me in 1997 and soon earned a good reputation in Russia and on the international scene. The students of this school took part in many international events and won many awards. In fact, it was not a school in its ordinary meaning, but a pilot educational project, a secret society of designers under the sign of the Moscow Art School of Applied Arts. From the outside, the hasgd looked like a normal educational institution, a college issuing state diplomas to its graduates. However, inside it was a space of absolute freedom and total experiment. This place attracted all the creative Moscow elite, all the best designers. They came here to try their hands at teaching or to make their projects with the help of students. Miraculously it was possible to organize the process in such a way that everyone received a carte blanche without requiring any plans, programs, and reports. As it turned out, all this stuff could be unnecessary. Another unique educational resource of this project was the Golden Bee Moscow Global Biennale of Graphic Design founded by me in 1992, which was later carried out mostly by the hasgd students. Thanks to Golden Bee, the students had the opportunity to immerse themselves in the latest creative research of designers around the
world and personally meet the world design stars acting as international jury members. Absolute freedom turned out to bear fruit. An entire generation of young stars has emerged from hasgd and became a phenomenon in graphic design, and many of them became educators and teach today at different places. It was a very important experience. Experience of a real independence. Independence from the dominance of the monstrous educational bureaucracy. Independence from state pressure and standards. And above all, independence from our own professional standards and bad habits. Design and design education was formed in the last century, during the industrial era. In postindustrial, information era, we need a total reassessment and reformatting of the entire system of design education. The main problem is to catch the future without losing the past. How is this possible? I think nobody in the world knows. This problem can be solved by such experiments as we did in hasgd only. I believe the international projects such as 100 × independence promote this. Unfortunately, three years ago, hasgd died out. Finally, the state and bureaucracy have won. However, today creative life suddenly starts to revive elsewhere. On the one hand, these are international intensive courses of Golden Bee Academy outside Russia, which are based on the resources of Golden Bee and hasgd .
Over the past year, the former teachers of hasgd and me have held five courses in Montenegro which lasted from a week to a month. On the other hand, it is a new institution in the very center of Moscow, a small design school within a giant Russian academy – ranepa . Last year I became the head of the main department at ranepa Design School and started to gather my old teachers and young graduates of hasgd .
Kristina Kurilo ++ animated poster
Olga Yurkova printed poster
Elena Chekanova ++ animated poster
Marina Kuzina printed poster
Elizaveta Zykova printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
Karolien Perold-Bull Neil le Roux
100 Ă— independence
Stellenbosch University Stellenbosch, South Africaâ€‹ www.sun.ac.za
186—187 The third-year undergraduate students of Stellenbosch University’s ba Visual Arts (Visual Communication Design) program were tasked to submit entries for pjait ’s 100 × independence poster design exhibition. We challenged the students to create animated posters that depicted their interpretations of the concept independence. This class of students are for the most part comprised of what has colloquially come to be known as the “Born Free” generation; i.e. individuals who were born after 1994, the year South Africa became a fully-fledged representative democracy. Like so many other nation states, South Africa has gone through many iterations of independence, each fluctuating in its degrees of freedom. Firstly, breaking away from its status as a British colony, South Africa became a Union in 1910 and then broke free from the British Commonwealth by becoming a Republic in 1968. Of course, the freedom of most South Africans was still shackled by the race-based ideology of Apartheid. It was only in 1994 that all citizens were granted the right to vote and Nelson Mandela famously became the first democratically elected president of South Africa. Our democracy is therefore as young as the students who made these posters, and is still going through growing pains as many injustices of the past have yet to be equalised with idealised visions of a Rainbow Nation that these students grew up with. It should perhaps come as no surprise, then, that
Karolien Perold-Bull × tutor’s text × posters
many of the students reflected on the notion of independence with more than just a hint of skepticism. While some offered optimistic and hopeful visions of the future, quite a few of the participants also had cautious, ambiguous or even frustrated interpretations of the political dimension of independence in South Africa. Caro Botha’s poster offers a quietly confident take on our political independence, illustrating birds flying in formation with vapor trails reminiscent of military jet aircrafts. With no clear goal in sight, the birds defiantly keep moving forward, indicating that our struggle for independence is always ongoing and not to be taken for granted. As perhaps a further embodiment of this skepticism, we also encountered quite a few submissions that pondered whether the wider philosophical concept of independence actually exists. Quite a number of submissions alluded to the relative nature of independence (interdependence), how it cannot exist in isolation, and indeed how absolute independence is a propagandistic illusion. This is evident in Miré de Swardt’s poster that shows the illusion of independence being projected onto the impressionable young minds of social media consumers. Many of our young designers also chose to make their posters more personal by reflecting on their heritage. Saarah Fletcher’s research, for example, took her into her own genealogical past resulting in a poster beautifully portraying the story of her maternal lineage.
The composition depicts the Cape Malay minstrels celebrating Tweede nuwejaar (2nd new year) – the only day of freedom granted to these slaves to express themselves independently. The irony of dressing in uniform, albeit very colorful, and marching in regiment is not lost on the viewer. However, the joy and exuberance is brilliantly portrayed in true Kaapse Klopse tradition that continues as a contemporary celebration. Fletcher completes the work with subtle hints to our new historical independence in the title, date and numbering of her screenprint inspired design. Wider reaching contemporary socio-political themes were also explored by quite a few students, with two of the strongest examples presented by Larissa Bekker and Ashley Solomons. Bekker addresses the pertinent topic of hiv /aids and the struggle for independence of the people afflicted by the disease. There is an interesting conceptual interplay of the aids virus being dependent on the cells of the patients and the patients in turn being dependent on antiretroviral medication to grant them some personal independence from their sickness. There is increasing hope for a permanent cure that can make sufferers hiv negative and therefore truly independent. Ashley Solomon’s poster explores ideas pertaining to food security and sustainability in a South African context. She writes that, (a)lthough South Africa might be “ours” (zethu: ours; yethu: our), it is important to realise that we are not
entitled to anything. Her design appropriates an affordable brand of milled sorghum, an indigenous African grain. It is a traditional food source of our country yet it has never been developed into a commercial crop. There is a joyous and optimistic undercurrent in this poster, hinting at a never-ending abundance resultant from self-reliance. Solomon proposes that it is not only a celebration of South African independence from western culture, but also an almost utopian celebration of the idea of sustainability. […] It highlights that what is taken should always be returned.
Caro Botha ++ animated poster
Saarah Anne Fletcher ++ animated poster
Mire de Swardt ++ animated poster
Ashley Solomons ++ animated poster
Larissa Bekker ++ animated poster
essays Ã— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ã— independence
Namseoul University Seoul, Korea www.useoul.edu
196—197 I was invited to this special project and thought deeply about how to proceed effectively. In fact, my class has a fixed poster category that runs every semester. For this reason, I only developed the poster with 20 students who wanted to participate in my class. Those who decided to take part in expressed a lot of interest and some concerns about this theme. The interest was unique, yet the concern was to be able to design a good poster. As the class started in September, I hoped that the students would come up with various ideas. In order to do so, I made sure that students did not forget themselves that learning about Poland was fundamental. We soon proceeded to explore various aspects of Polish history, its people, politics, environment, and life. These diverse viewpoints became an opportunity for students to draw a new and fresh poster. But I wanted them to worry about meaning and content rather than newness of expression form. The work of the students revealed their thoughts in some contextual interpretations. Even though the 100 th anniversary of his death has passed a while ago, the poster on the composer Andrzej Panufnik and the story of his musical career may be considered the beginning of the centenary celebration. 1. Upon an abandoned stone, it delivers a message stating that the flower called independence blooms among terror of war. But it was
Byoung-il Sun × tutor’s text × posters
accomplished for there was an anonymous sacrifice. 2. A poster about the theme of flowers that celebrates that the 100th anniversary of independence always leads to a peaceful and free country. 3. It vindicates coexistence between peace and liberty upon the image of salt that began in a Polish salt mine. 4. The work that tried to shine a conviction in the antagonism by the light of the flashlight and the light considering the will to hope for the bright future. The posters of the students who passed the screening have some flawed elements. But they will continue to evolve, like they always have. In addition, this poster project provided new inspiration and opportunities for students. I give generous compliments to all the posters of this project. I am very pleased to participate in this exhibition and take my hat off to Marjatta Itkonen.
Lee YouJung printed poster
Oh KwangYun printed poster
Choi SeongHyeon printed poster
Lee SeongJae printed poster
Han YuJeong printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 × independence
head – University of Art and Design Geneva, Switzerland www.hesge.ch/head/
204—205 100 × independence. A hundred student projects from twenty countries and twenty Schools. Invited by the famous Poster Museum at Wlianow, Warsaw, and the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology, to lead a class of students from head (University of Art and Design, Geneva) on the contemporary meaning of independence. How could one resist ? The impor tance of its location in Warsaw was lost on none of us. Warsaw, whose history and fight for independence played such an important part in European history. Warsaw, the site of the world’s first Poster Museum, Wilanów, founded in 1968, with its famous international Poster Biennale (also a first), whose importance in poster design has played a determinate role in the history of graphic design. The class was composed of fifteen students, a six day course in the semester. Students from undergraduate bachelor studies participated in this class. I invited a jury of Etienne Hervy, former art director of the Graphic Design Festival in Chaumont, France, and Erich Brechbühl, co-founder of the poster festival Weltformat in Luzerne, Suisse, to help select the five most interesting works to be shown in the Poster Museum exhibition at the end. The objective of the class was to think conceptually, to combine experimental and applied visual research on the theme of Independence; to explore, analyze, examine and question
Anette Lenz × tutor’s text × posters
the codes and language of everyday signs from different angles. The students were free to choose their own content and approach. We discussed and addressed so many subjects: media manipulation, techno-independence, addictions, gender, women’s freedom, social networks, monetary freedom, freedom of speech, the freedom to demonstrate against state authority, even the freedom of robots! The students also had free choice of their media. The international invitation connected us with different schools from various continents, and we were able to use the opportunity to check in with distant colleagues. Half-way through the class, our students from head were happy to skype-meet with Tom Wedell’s students from risd (Providence, Rhode Island, usa ), and exchange thoughts on their various works-in-progress. The five projects exhibited are about the freedom to vote, the independence against political oppression, the fight of liberation movements, cyber-censorship, and the freedom of internet information. It is telling that the works chosen to be exhibited in this historical museum of printed posters are all animated posters. This reflects the cross-media approach of head students as well as the openness (and independence) of the invitation. The class was an excellent opportunity for students to question their approach to the vital theme of
independence, as well as to understand the fundamental importance graphic designers living in aÂ free society have to develop independent voices and points of view. And under what better auspices can the theme of independence be examined than an exhibition at the Poster Museum in Warsaw?
Princess De La Cruz ++ animated poster
Alex Howling ++ animated poster
Fanny Blanchet ++ animated poster
Sarah Fauriel ++ animated poster
Emilie Excoffier ++ animated poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
Oleg Veklenko Alina Lysachkova Anna Makarova
100 Ă— independence
Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Art Kharkiv, Ukraine www.ksada.org
Oleg Veklenko & Alina Lysachkova & Anna Makarova × tutor’s text × posters
The invitation to participate in the project 100 × independence was a good occasion to reflect on the concept of independence and particularly the independence of our country – Ukraine. For the younger generation of students, who were born after the collapse of the ussr , the topic of the assignment and its result is not a formal search for new graphic techniques in a poster design, but rather a reflection of their personal feelings of real, brutal and ambiguous independence which Ukraine finally gained 4 years ago. We did not correct the views of our students according to our vision of the political situation. As a result, the awhole spectrum of understanding of the problem is presented in this poster series. Sometimes it is not so deep, sometimes too sharp, but always sincere and frank. We’ve been looking at Poland but could not look away from Ukraine.
Oksana Kiorpe printed poster
Anna Bragina printed poster
Kateryna Halahan printed poster
Anna Berestok printed poster
Zlata Biezdielna ++ animated poster
essays Ã— Tapio Vapaasalo
Elizabeth Resnick Jan Kubasiewicz
100 Ă— independence
Massachusetts College of Art and Design Boston, usa www.massart.edu
222—223 Independence project In my class titled “Language of Motion” students explore visual narratives in reference to time-based media. Students are given an opportunity to study cinematic vocabulary and general concepts of sequential composition by creating meaning through exploration of motion, time, sound, image, and typography. One of the classic projects in this course is titled “Animated Poster,” which I first introduced in the early 2000s. The main challenge is to explore the traditional genre of poster design in attempt to bring it up to the age of dynamic media. Students are asked to choose a single static visual composition such as poster or book cover and create a short movie by animating the existing visual language of the chosen original. The project inspires students to investigate important questions, such as: How can animated visual elements and typography complement the linguistic meaning of words? How is meaning created through motion and time? How can motion contribute to the process of visual communication? In the Fall 2017 semester, I gave students a choice between the classic “Animated Poster” project and a new animated poster topic – a creative interpretation of the notion of Independence. Students accepted the “Independence” project challenge and the class became
Jan Kubasiewicz × tutor’s text × posters
a weekly forum of vigorous discussions on the definition of independence as the quality or state of being independent (Merriam-Webster Dictionary), and how to convey the abstract notion in the form of 20-second animated narrative. At the conclusion of the project, students ranked all the work themselves, and selected the following top three animated posters (with short captions written by the designers). Hessam Daraei Bafi: “30 years in 20 seconds.” In 1979 people of Iran joined a bloody revolution, which goal was independence. They celebrated their victory but eventually, they realized independence was nothing but an illusion. In 2009 they broke their silence and conquered the streets in green colors to gain freedom. Although it was not a successful movement, it is still a living fire under the ashes. Conner McCormick: “Don’t mistake what you are told for what you should do.” Colin Kaepernick, San Francisco football team quarterback, refused to stand for the playing of the American national anthem. His gesture was to protest the treatment of African Americans and minorities in the United States. Benjamin Walker: “Independence” is a visual study into the modern meaning of being independent. It explores this concept through different planes, ranging from spatial to botanical.
Elizabeth Resnick × tutor’s text × posters
Six-word memoir poster/ independence theme Once asked to write a full story in six words, legend has it that novelist Ernest Hemingway responded: For Sale: baby shoes, never worn. Can you describe your life in six words? SixWord Memoirs, is a project founded in November 2006 by the u.s.-based online storytelling “Smith Magazine”. “Smith Magazine” challenged readers to write their memoirs in six words – no more, no less. In order to have my Typography 1 course students participate in the “Independence” Project, I needed to find an existing assignment that could respond to the topic of “Independence.” As this class taught beginning Typo graphy, the Six-Word Memoir assignment, seemed ideal. I could challenge my students to write their six-word memoir reflecting on their own personal interpretation of the concept of Independence – what it means to them from their personal point-of-view. Once the students determined their sixword memoir, they were challenged to develop and create a visual response using typographic form plus supporting visuals if needed. The results from the 15 participants were quite comprehensive as most students used this platform to articulate their personal politics and what was most important to them. From
the 15 visual responses, my MassArt faculty colleague, Jan Kubasiewicz and I choose the following 2 memoir posters: Linden Grenier: “My Body is My Own Battleground.” My creative work explores identity and personal metamorphosis. Integrating these topics into my work creates a deeper level of focus as well as personal and creative exploration. My practices, both physically and emotionally meditative, allow me to expand on and express growth and change. Beneath all of this, I find myself focusing on personal independence as well. “My Body Is My Own Battleground” explores my own journey away from internal critique enabling me to find strength and resilience, and to challenge this on-going journey into an act of independence in and of itself. Jake Lutter: “Called special for the Wrong Reasons.” This poster was created as a self-reflection of personal independence. As a student with learning disabilities attending an American public school, I never felt completely functional. I struggled to find my self-worth and to become self-reliant. During my high school years I first experienced a realization of who I am, a person with worthwhile abilities, in large measure because of a teacher who believed in me, and taught me how to embrace who I am.
Hessam Daraei ++ animated poster
Conner McCormick ++ animated poster
Ben Walker ++ animated poster
Linden Grenier printed poster
Jake Lutter printed poster
essays Ă— Tapio Vapaasalo
100 Ă— independence
Rhode Island School of Design Providence, usa www.risd.edu
226—227 Symbols and their representation: Example: Meaning and interpretation of history (the fragility of point of view). The font, called Solidaryca, that was created for the solidarity movement in Poland. Used originally as a symbol for workers’ rights, the font has been co-opted by a number of political groups from all sides on the political spectrum. Independence in relation to: Trends: the influence of trending subjects and one’s ability to think beyond their influence; the consumerist culture; the social network. Financial: What is enough? The gravitational pull of capitalism. Expression: visual/linguistic: Examples: The individual artist (painter, poet, dancer, or critic) and their relationship to the conventions of the social context. Speech (public): The effect of unconventional speech and expression on the public context. The Individual’s personal Identity in relation to their historical background. Example: How native language guides one’s ability to accept other cultures and individuals. Community: The relationship between individual wants and needs and the larger requirements demanded by the community. Example: The slogan (a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, political, commercial, religious, and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea) Live Free or Die influencing the actions of the individual upon others.
Tom Wedell × tutor’s text × posters
Nature: The historical conflict between humans and control of the natural environment. Does too much separation from the natural environment diminish one’s sensitivity to its protection?
Ishaan Bose Verma printed poster
Izzi Mordin printed poster
Pornpiya Ttejapaibul printed poster
Shawn Guo printed poster
Wei Hao Wang printed poster
Katerina Antonaki tei-Athens, Greece
Katerina Antonaki is an independent graphic designer and researcher. She has been a visiting lecturer at Graphic Design Department, tei of Athens since 2013. Her work ranges from brand identity and editorial design, to spatial design. Along with her design practice, she is involved in education and urban research projects. Her research interests include, the activist role of graphic design on political level, disruptive actions in public space, design methodologies. She has studied in London, Helsinki and Athens and she holds an ma in Design Critical Theory and Practice from Goldsmiths University of London. She is an iky scholar. Her practice and research has been presented in international conferences and exhibitions. She lives and works in Athens.
Ann Bessemans pxl-mad School of Arts, Belgium
An award-winning graphic designer, workiang as a legibility specialist within her own founded research group readsearch at pxl - mad School of Arts and Hasselt University. At the same institute, she also teaches typography and international type design. Ann is also an award winning independent designer (since 2013). In 2014 she designed a postage stamp for the Belgian postal company that contained 606 words, a Guinness World Record. Her research/design interests: typography, font design, legibility, reading, graphic design, book design, letter press and modular systems.
Matt Clapham Massey University, New Zealand
Matt Clapham is a designer and educator who combines an ongoing role as a practicing graphic designer with his teaching practice. Matt primarily teaches in the B.Des. and is particularly passionate about posters, poster design and the role they have played as a voice for social change.
Armando Busquets Carballo Ecuador
Visual artist and university professor. With a Master’s in Arts, a minor in drawing, painting and sculpture. His professional development has gone hand in hand with the pedagogical work in the teaching of art, since 2003 till today he has been an arts professor in various learning institutions in Cuba and Ecuador, where he has taught diverse level courses and subjects like art history, history of visual communication, modern art, drawing, painting and sculpture. In his trajectory, there have been highlighted curatorial projects of the young contemporary Ecuadorian art.
Ioanna Delfino tei-Athens, Greece
Ioanna Delfino was born in Athens in 1968. She studied graphic design at tei of Athens and continued with postgraduate studies in illustration and printmaking at the City & Guilds of London Art School and the University of Westminster. In 2003 she was selected to participate in the Greek group at the 4th Interbalkanic Symposium of Fine Arts in Samothraki, Greece. She was praised at the competition “The Olive Tree in Modern Greek Engraving” which was organized by the Engraving Museum Takis Katsoulidis at Messini, Greece in 2004. Since 1998 she works in the book design field and teaches graphic design at tei of Athens. She has participated in many group exhibitions in Greece, in Cyprus, in the United Kingdom and in Turkey.
Paula DiPerna usa
Paula DiPerna is the author of the forthcoming book, “Travels in the Time of Trump” (Endeavour Press, uk ). She has written numerous non-fiction books, a novel, and many articles for publications worldwide. DiPerna has held numerous executive positions and worked closely as a filmmaker and writer with oceans pioneer Jacques-Yves Cousteau. DiPerna is a strategic environmental policy consultant and was a Democratic candidate for the u . s . Congress in 1992.
El Fantasma de Heredia Anabella Salem & Gabriel Mateu
Founded in Buenos Aires, El Fantasma de Heredia has already 25 years of work exclusively on social and cultural topics, in the hands of Anabella Salem (1968) and Gabriel Mateu (1962). Quality on images and texts for relevant issues that deserve the effort. Some awards can be highlightened, like First Prize for identity of Museum of Holocaust in Argentina, the Icograda Excellence Award and Juror’s Prize, both at Chaumont Festival, and a Gold Medal for “Eclipse” poster at Toyama. They also held the Presidency of the International Jury at the 19° International Poster Biennial in Warsaw. Their last big exhibition took place at Salon Akademii, also in Warsaw in 2015.
Tridha Gajjar National Institute of Design,
Tridha Gajjar has always been inclined towards and passionate about academics and design teaching. She did her mfa in Applied Arts, with as specialization in Visualization in 1995 and a PhD in Applied Arts on the topic “Origin and Development of Printing in Context of Advertising” in 2001 from Banaras Hindu University (bhu ), Varanasi. A recipient of both junior (jrf ) and senior (srf ) research fellowships from the University Grants Commission (ugc ).Tridha joined nid in 2004 as a Faculty Trainee and later, in 2006, as Associate Faculty in the Graphic Design discipline. At present she is Associate Senior Faculty in Graphic Design discipline. Tridha is programme coordinator of graphic design discipline. Tridha teaches Fundamentals of Colour and Composition, Visual Thinking and Perception, Packaging Design and Print Production.
Yuri Gulitov Higher Academic School of Design, Russia
Yuri Gulitov was born on 1964 in Sevastopol. He graduated from Kharkov’s Art and Industrial Academy. The founder and chief of Gulitovdesign studio in Moscow. The senior lecturer at the ranepa . Member of the Russian Union of Artists and Russian Union of Designers. His works has been awarded at many international events, among which are Golden Bee Biennale (Grand Prix in Logotypes, 1996, Golden Bee Award in Type-Design, 1996, in Posters, 2000/04/14); Colorado Poster Exhibition (Encouraging Diploma, 2009); zgraph 11 (Icograda Excellence Award, 2012); Brno Biennale (Visitor´s Award, 2016); International Exhibition of Modern Designs on Ink Painting, Works are kept: Graphic Art center, Museum of Posters, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Sevastopol Museum of Fine Arts, State Tretyakov Gallery and in private collections.
Jens Hartmann University of Applied Arts, Germany
Dipl. Designer and lecturer at the department Timebased Media, uas Mainz. Studied Visual Communication Design at hs Rhein Main (Wiesbaden) and the Ohio State University (Columbus, oh ), 2001–2011 founder and managing partner of the agency Vier für Texas, since late 2011 freelance designer and lecturer.
Steven Heller usa
For 33 years he was an art director at the New York Times, originally on the OpEd Page and for almost 30 of those years with the New York Times Book Review. Currently, he is co-chair of the mfa Designer as Author Department, Special Consultant to the President of sva for New Programs, and writes the Visuals colums for the New York Times Book Review. He is the co-founder and co-chair (with Lita Talarico) of the mfa Designer as Author program at the School of Visual Arts, New York, where he lectures on the history of graphic design. www.hellervoooks.com/docs/about.html
+ Marjatta Itkonen Polish-Japanese Academy of it, Finland
Graphic designer, professor emerita. Graduated from Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw and did her degree at Henryk Tomaszewski’s poster studio. Founder and a designer at Studio Viiva design office for more than two decades. Working at Aalto University, School of Art, Design and Architecture, involved in many social design projects with ma students. Common Responsibility Campaign which is the biggest fund-raising campaign in Finland was their partner for many years. During these projects they travelled with students to do research and documentation in Angola and Peru. She has participated in many national and international poster events; being a jury member in Mexico and Warsaw, also participated in social design poster workshops in France, Germany, Mexico, Slovenia, Poland and Belgium.
Byoung-il Sun Namseoul University, South Korea
Byoung-il Sun was born in Korea in 1958. Graphic designer based in Seoul. Professor of Visual Information design at Namseoul university since 1995. Received a doctoral degree in Visual communication design at Hongik university in Korea. In 2005, he served as a chairman of Korea Institute of Cultural Product & Design. In 2011, he also served as a chairman of Hongik Communication Design Forum. He has been awarded Taiwan, Graphis, Red dot, Gdie China, Ekoplakt Slovakia, China-Italy, Information war Progue, France Poster4, Jamaica Reggae, mpp Mandela and others. His solo exhibitions have been held at Seoul, London, Canberra, Beijing, Osaka, Akita. Jury at Lublin Poland, France Poster4, China Flexibility, Iran Red ribbon, Ukraine cow Turkey Samsun, China Adack, Asia Next China. etc.
Jan Kubasiewicz MassArt, usa
Founder and Coordinator (2000–2015) of Dynamic Media Institute, he teaches information architecture, data visualization, motion design and user experience design in the undergraduate and graduate design programs at Massachusetts College of Art and Design in Boston. He has served as visiting lecturer and critic at numerous universities in the usa , Australia, China, Italy, Japan, Mexico, South Korea and Poland. He has curated exhibitions and organized workshops, seminars, conferences and publications on the topic of communication, design and media. His personal work has been exhibited internationally in the usa , Europe, and Asia. He is curator of the Gierdojc Gallery at the Center for European Studies at Harvard University.
Julia Kühne University of Applied Arts, Germany
Born 1976, studied Visual Communication at Merz Akademie in Stuttgart. After working in Paris for design studio Integral Ruedi Baur and in Berlin for Walter Schönauer, she worked individually for different agencies and publishing houses. In 2007 she founded her own design studio, Gold & Wirtschaftswunder, where she has been creative director since then. Their highly awarded projects are based in the fields of branding, corporate design and spatial communication, like exhibition design and wayfinding systems. Since 2007 she has been teaching at different design schools in Europe, such as the Haute École des Beaux Arts in Strasbourg or the University of Applied Sciences in Pforzheim. She became a professor at the University of Applied Sciences in Mainz in 2012.
Yossi Lemel Holon Institute of Technology hit, Israel
Yossi Lemel was born in 1957 in Jerusalem, Israel. He is a political poster artist, creative director and a lecturer, a curator and a teacher, graduated and taught at the “Bezalel” Academy of Arts and Design in Jerusalem. Currently teaches at Holon Institute of Technology hit , Israel. A jury member at Biennials and poster competitions in Moscow, Paris, Venice, Milan, Chicago, Mexico City, BiceBe, La Paz, Trnava, Equador and invited guest lecturer in Universities and colleges in the usa : Raleigh, Boston, Minneapolis, El Paso, Seattle, San Jose, California, Morgantown, Corvallis, Milan, Istanbul, Athens, Stockholm, Vienna, Prague, Sao Paulo, Lima, La Paz and more. Had numerous of social and political workshops in universities around the usa , Mexico, Turkey, Greece, Sweden, Austria, Czech Republic, Bolivia, Italy and Israel.
Anette Lenz head, Switzerland
Born in Germany, Anette Lenz founded her atelier in Paris in 1993. Originally worked with the design group ‘Grapus’, her work is concerned with the re-enchantment and the poetics of public space. The recipient of numerous international prizes, Lenz’s work is included in important collections. Among her recent projects is the architectural light installation for the ‘Centre Chorégraphique National du Havre’, France. A member of the Alliance Graphique Internationale, in 2015 she was made Chevalier des Arts et Lettres by the French government. Anette Lenz is a professor at head (‘Haute école d’art et de design Genève’ – Geneva University of Art and Design).
Neil le Roux Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Neil le Roux was born in Pretoria, South Africa in 1985. He graduated from Stellenbosch University with a ba Visual Arts degree in 2008 and obtained his ma Visual Arts in 2014 with distinction from the same University. After being nominated for the Spier Contemporary Art Competition in 2010, his drawings were included in the seminal Draw Links group exhibition at Gallery aop , Johannesburg in October 2010. In case of emergence (follow the bifurcation) (2014) followed on Self-organized systems, his first solo exhibition at Gallery aop in 2012. His artworks are included in various private and public collections, such as the South African Reserve Bank collection and Wits Art Museum.
Alina Lysachkova Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, Ukraine
Alina Lysachkova is a Kharkiv-based graphic designer. Assistant. Born in 1993. Studied graphic design at Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts. Took part at major international professional exhibitions such as International Eco-poster Triennial the 4th Block, Moscow Global Biennale of Graphic Design Golden Bee, Plaster. Currently works as a graphic designer at Grafprom studio.
Anna Makarova Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, Ukraine
Born October 12, 1965, Krolevets, Ukraine. Graduated from Kharkiv Art-Industrial Institute in1988 – now Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts. From 1990 has been a corresponding member of the Union of Designers of Ukraine. From 2005 has been a member of the Union of Designers and Graphic Artists of Ukraine “The 4th Block”. Is participant and awardee of regional, all-Ukrainian and international exhibitions and contests in the field of graphic design. In 2005 was awarded with the Kharkiv municipal prize named after V. Yermilov in the field of graphic design. Has publications in specialized editions. Has been teaching at Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts since 2001. In 2014 defended PhD dissertation and obtained the degree of PhD in Art Criticism on the specialty Design.
Polina Makarova Ukraine
Polina Makarova is a graphic designer, citizen journalist and a feminist from Kharkiv. Graduated from Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts and from V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. During master’s program in University conducted research on responsibility of graphic designers and on how values are encoded in visual communication, wrote master’s thesis on “Codes of representation of environmental values in contemporary graphic design”. Author of official certification logo of organic product of Ukraine (2016). Winner of Ukrainian illustration contest on theme of gender equality (2017). Participant of two international poster biennale Golden Bee with posters on themes of “10 commandments” and war conflicts (2012, 2014). Founder of creative studio “Organic graphic design”.
Fay McAlpine Massey University, New Zealand
Fay McAlpine is a graphic designer with a passion for typography. She has over fifteen years experience designing corporate identity systems and publications for DesignWorks, working in their Wellington, Auckland and Sydney offices. Fay specialises in teaching typographic fundamentals, type history, editorial design, typographic practice in spatial environments and interpretive, navigational or informational typography.
Eleni Martini tei-Athens, Greece
Born, studies and work in Athens. Bachelor’s degree at the Department of Graphic Design, tei Athens. Master’s Degee at the Electronic Graphics, Coventry University uk , (iky scholar). Work experience at magazine and advertising companies. Free-lance for branding and book design. Design for printing and interactive media. Teaching since 1994 at the Graphic Design Department of tei Athens: ×× Branding ×× Graphic Depiction of Messages and Information. Research interests in visual communication, methodologies, social design and typography. Also interested in calligraphy as expression.
Keizo Matsui Osaka University of Arts Junior College, Japan
Born in Hiroshima, Japan. 1984~ Established Keizo Matsui inc. 2003~2014 Professor for Osaka University of Arts Graduate School. 2014~ chief, Department of Design and Arts at the Osaka University of Arts Junior College. Awards: “4th Block” (Kharkiv, Ukraine; 1st Prize) , Brno International Biennale (The icograda Excellence Award), Golden Bee International Biennale of Graphic Design Moscow (Golden Bee Award) etc. International Jury for Poster & Graphic Design: Helsinki, Brno, Kharkiv, Taipei, Shenzhen, Moscow etc. One-man show : ggg Gallery (Tokyo), ddd Gallery (Osaka), Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg (Germany) etc.
Sofia Mytilinaiou tei-Athens, Greece
Sofia Mytilinaiou is an experienced graphic and ui designer, passionate on innovative ideas and valuable design experiences. She holds a PhD in Cultural Technology and Communication as Scholar of the Greek Scholarship Foundation, as well as a msc degree in Cultural Informatics (University of the Aegean, Greece). Her research work has been published in international conferences and books related to cultural studies, experience design and performance. She is currently working as freelance print / advertising + Web / ui designer, and is also teaching young designers to create memorable digital experiences and printed results at Technological Educational Institute of Athens (School of Graphic Design) and Vocational Training Institutes.
Tarja Nieminen Aalto University, Finland
Tarja Nieminen is an artist and designer. After graduating from the University of Art and Design in Helsinki, she pursued further studies in photography and motion media at the Academy of Performing Arts, famu in Prague and, on Fulbright grant, at the School of Visual Arts, sva , in New York. She has been a lecturer of visual communication at the School of Arts, Design and Architecture of the Aalto University since 2007. Before that, she served ten years as the Head of the Graphic Design Department at the Institute of Design of the Lahti University of Applied Sciences. In her educational work, she has focused on developing curricula related to dynamic media, social design and international cooperation. She has been lecturing worldwide in art and design colleges in about 20 countries.
Karolien Perold-Bull Stellenbosch University, South Africa
Karolien Perold-Bull is a lecturer and coordinator of the ba Visual Arts (Visual Communication Design) program at the Visual Arts Department of Stellenbosch University, South Africa. She is currently completing her PhD focusing particularly on transformation in/through design education from posthuman perspectives.
Hans-Jörg Pochmann University of Applied Arts, Germany
Book designer, artist and lecturer. He studied typography at the Academy of Fine Arts Leipzig (Hochschule für Grafik und Buchkunst) and holds an MPhil in printmaking from the Royal College of Art, London. In his practice he investigates what Derrida described as the secret without mystery of the computer: the literally ungraspable, but far from immaterial, reality of the virtual objects with which digital devices confront us. He lives and works in Berlin.
Maciej Rembarz Polish-Japanese Academy of it, Poland
Director of the university’s development projects office. A graduate of the Faculty of History at the University of Warsaw, cesl a uw . In the years 1995–2005, the activist of the left-wing organization deriving from the PPS tradition. In 2004–2005 he was a political adviser to the vice-president of the Council of Ministers. From 2004 dealing with the issues of eu structural funds.
+ Elizabeth Resnick MassArt, usa
Elizabeth Resnick is a Professor Emerita, former chair, and current part-time faculty in Graphic Design at Massachusetts College of Art and Design, Boston. She is a passionate design curator who has organized seven comprehensive exhibitions, including the traveling exhibition “Women’s Rights Are Human Rights: International Posters on Genderbased Inequality, Violence and Discrimination” (2016). Her book publications include catalogs for exhibitions plus “Developing Citizen Designers”, Bloomsbury Academic (2016), “Design for Communication: Conceptual Graphic Design Basics”, John Wiley & Sons Publishers (2003) and “Graphic Design: A Problem-Solving Approach to Visual Communication”, Prentice-Hall Publications (1984).
Monika Rogowska–Stangert Polish-Japanese Academy of it, Poland
Monika Rogowska-Stangret is a theorist and researcher in the fields of contemporary philosophy and gender studies. She is a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw, and she currently teaches at the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Warsaw. She is the author of “The Body— Beyond Otherness and Sameness: Three Figures of the Body in Contemporary Philosophy” (2016, in Polish). She is a member of the Management Committee of the European network “New Materialism: Networking European Scholarship on ‘How Matter Comes to Matter’,” European Cooperation in Science and Technology. For more information, see: www.ndependent.academia.edu/MonikaRogowskaStangret.
María Mercedes Salgado Ecuador
Graphic designer specialized in editorial design. In Ecuador, she has participated in many editorial projects worth mentioning like the redesign of “El Telégrafo”, first public newspaper of the country. In Europe, she collaborated with the quotidian “Le Monde”, directing the infographic department, she was the art director of “Le Monde Interactif”, illustrator in the opinion pages. She also worked in the photographic edition and layout of “Le Mag Magazine of Le Monde”. She dictates Contemporary Design and Fundamentals of Design courses and is the founder of La Factoría (msghdesign.blogspot.com). Currently, she is the visual communication adviser for Universidad de las Artes del Ecuador (uartes.edu.ec).
Ewa Satalecka Polish-Japanese Academy of it, Poland
Designer and educator living in Bukowno, Poland. She received an mfa (Master of Fine Arts) from the Academy of Fine Arts in Krakow (1984), a Doctorate from the Academy of Fine Arts in Katowice (2005) and habilitation (post-doc) from the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw (2011). She has organized numerous exhibitions on typography and information design, international design workshops and she curated many of the international design conferences in Poland. Her own work includes kinetic typography installations, which were presented in 2008 at the “Liquid Page” Symposium in Tate Britain in 2008 and at the Moving Type Exhibition in the Gutenberg Museum, Mainz in 2011. She also writes on the topic of communication design.
Serge Serov ranepa Design School, Russia
Born January 23, 1952. Graduated from Moscow Institute of Telecommunications and St. Petersburg State Academic Institute of Fine Arts, Sculpture and Architecture after Ilya Repin. Author of 15 design books and 600 articles. Organizer, art director and a curator of 300 design events. Founder and President of Golden Bee Moscow Global Biennale of Graphic Design. Founder & Head of Higher Academic School of Graphic Design and Golden Bee Academy. Professor and head of design department of ranepa Design School. Founder and vicepresident of Academy of Graphic Design. Member of agi, itc, image, ais, Brno Biennale Assosiation (honorary member), Union of Designers of Ukraine (honorary member). Awards include Golden Badge of Honour for Public Recognition, Rodchenko Award, Honorary Diploma of the u.n. Council for Public Awards.
Guido Stemme Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany
Born in 1965 and lives in Mainz, Germany. He considers design from a hermeneutic perspective. Besides his studies of pedagogy, philosophy and social anthropology at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz he was employed as a Broadcast Technician (radio/television), followed by several years as a freelance editor for the cultural programmes of broadcast companies (zdf , 3sat and arte). In 1997 he became partner at bureau23, a cross-media design agency. Since then the focus of his work lays in the overlapping fields of philosophy, art and design, and technology. He regards teaching to be a fundamentally trans-sectoral process with the idea of education as an constant exercise in developing and questioning one’s position at its core.
Anja Stöffler University of Applied Arts, Germany
Born 1964, studied Communication Design at the University of Wuppertal. Anja worked as Art Director for television stations Arte, rtl and zdf in departments of corporate design, motion and branding. She switched to Razorfish Frankfurt as Head of the Department Experience Network. Since 2001 she has been teaching as a Professor of Digital Media at the University of Applied Sciences Mainz. Her teaching focuses on applied and experimental projects in the fields of motion graphics, animation and dynamic type. Her main areas of research are in digital media and their presentation within time based design, ar/vr and space.
Thomas Wedell & Nancy Skolos Rhode Island School of Design, usa
Thomas Wedell and Nancy Skolos work to diminish the boundaries between graphic design and photography – creating complex graphic design that is influenced by modern painting, technology, and architecture. Skolos-Wedell’s work came into its own in the 1980s when emerging high technology companies presented challenging communication problems. The team’s surreal photographic concepts and expressive typography gave voice to abstract concepts such as software and interface. A 1993 “Eye Magazine” feature on the studio labeled their attitude techno-cubist. With a home/ studio in Providence, Rhode Island, they balance their commitments to professional practice and teaching at the Rhode Island School of Design. Skolos and Wedell have both received the American Institute of Graphic Design Medal.
Johan Vandebosch pxl-mad School of Arts, Belgium
Johan Vandebosch studied Graphic Design at pxl - mad , School of Arts in Hasselt. After an internship at the advertising agency Conquest Europe/Fast in Brussels, he joined the graphic studio of the faculty of Architecture at the University of Hasselt. In 1994 he started his own graphic studio Ziezo. Since 2000 he teaches Graphic Design at pxl - mad , School of Arts in Hasselt and in 2001 Johan was selected to be part of “Design Flanders”, an organization of the Flemish Governement which promotes contemporary, highquality and innovative design. Johan regularly participates in solo and group exhibitions in Belgium and abroad. He also curated several art and design exhibitions, such as recently “ReCraft – Old and new, an exciting dialogue”.
Tapio Vapaasalo Aalto University, Finland
He is an award-wining graphic designer with a special interest in editorial and book design. His teaching focus has been in the sciences of design, graphic design, visual communication, typography and information design from 1971 to 2011. He has been professor and head of visual communication department at Aalto University from 1998–2011. During resent years his research interests are in visual language, communication and information design and he has been teaching at most universities in Finland and internationaly in China.
Oleg Veklenko Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts, Ukraine
Born on August 17, 1950. Graduated from Kharkiv ArtIndustrial Institute in1972 – now Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Arts. In 1972 he was invited to teach at the Academy. Professor (since 1993) and Head of Graphic Design Department (2000–2004) of ksada . Honorary Artist of the Ukraine (since 1986), Academician of the National Academy of Arts of Ukraine (since 2009). He lectured for the general public and professionals in Russia, Switzerland, Germany, France, Poland, China. Oleg Veklenko for three decades works and teaches on the topic of environment, in particular on radiation accidents, Chernobyl and Fukushima. Co-founder and President of “The 4th Block” International Eco Poster Triennial (Kharkiv, Ukraine).
Paolo Vignola, University of Genoa, Italy
PhD in philosophy, is currently a professor of the School of Literature of the University of the Arts of Guayaquil, Ecuador. His research focuses on the framework of aesthetics, philosophy of technology and political ecology, with more than eighty publications, including books, articles in indexed journals and book chapters, in English, French, Italian and Spanish.
Aspasia Voudouri tei-Athens, Greece
Born, studies and work in Athens. She studied graphic design in tei Athens and continued with postgraduate studies in Graphic Arts and Multimedia in the Greek Open University. She has qualified as teacher from pates - selete Institute and she is PhD candidate in the Dept of Fine and Applied Arts of the University of Western Macedonia. Her educator experience in School of Graphic Arts & Design, Technological Educational Institute of Athens – tei Athens – covers more than 18 Academic Years Her professional experience covers the Graphic Design sector, as Creative Manager and Design Laboratory Manager, either as freelancer or employed in the advertising industry. Her publications include packaging concept and articles in local newspapers.
Xiao Yong Central Academy of Fine Arts (cafa)
Xiao Yong is aÂ professor of visual communication design at the Central Academy of Fine Arts (cafa ) in Beijing. He is also aÂ board member of the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media (cumulus ). He has designed the medals for the Beijing 2008 Olympics, and his other works have been featured in international design media and collected by art museums. Xiao Yong has studied in Finland, Germany and Denmark. As an art professor, he has taught and lectured worldwide.
a Abouhamd, Heba Tallah 120 Ahudza, Le Diana 65 Antonaki, Katerina 106, 108, 116, 118, 233 Arora, Shreya 128, 130, 133 Arye, Kuper 140 b Bekker, Larissa 181, 186 Berestok, Anna 212 Bern, Itay 138, 139 Bessemans, Ann 60, 62, 233 Biezdielna, Zlata 213 Biswas, Tathagat 128, 132 Bizimi, Maria 108, 110 Blanchet, Fanny 202 Bolivar, Valentina 83 Botha, Caro 180,182 Bragina, Anna 210 Błaszczak, Julia 163 c Carballo, Armando Busquets 80, 234 Carbo, Kenia 82 Chekanova, Elena 174 Chernysheva, Daria 64 Clapham, Matt 233, 152 Cordova, Manuel 86 d Daraei, Hessam 216, 218, 108—109 De La Cruz, Princess 200 de Swardt, Mire 180, 184 Delfino, Ioanna 106, 234, DiPerna, Paula 4, 9, 234 e Excoffier, Emilie
f Fauriel, Sarah 203 Fletcher, Saarah Anne
g Gajjar, Tridha 126, 128, 235 Gal, Noy Cohen 138, 142 Gall, Marie 102 Gamardo, Diego 54, 58 Grigonyte, Elze 96 Gulitov, Yuri 168, 170, 235 Guo, Shawn 230 h Haertel, Marie-Luise 103 Halahan, Kateryna 211 Harelik, Katsiaryna 66 Hartmann, Jens 27, 98, 100, Hatuka, Nofar 138, 142 Heller, Steven 236 Hoberg, Pia 104 Howling, Alex 201 Huichun, Yuan 150 Huyet, Mario 92 i Imamura, Miku 148 Itkonen, Marjatta 160,162,
k Kang, Joosung 93 Kang, Shen 70,72 Katsougiannis, Thanasis 108, Keeya, Donald 101 Keren, Shahar 138, 143 Kerpich, Vladyslav 66 Khandelwal, Aditi 128, 134 Kielak, Barbara 165 Kiorpe, Oksana 209
Knapik, Karolina 108, 110 Knorowski, Mariusz 4, 6, 8 Koca, Selin 105 Kowalska, Paulina 63 Krajewska, Barbara 252 Krysiak, Aleksandra 164 Kubasiewicz, Jan 214, 216—217, Kurilo, Kristina 172 Kuzina, Marina 175 KwangYun, Oh 192 Kyrimi, Sofia 108, 114 Kühne, Julia 26, 99, 100, 237 Kłos, Magda 67 l Lemel, Yossi 136, 138, 238 Lenz, Anette 196, 198, 238 le Roux, Neil 178, 238 Liu, Hongyan 70, 74 Lutter, Jake 217, 222 Lysachkova, Alina 206, 208, López, Germán 56 Ławska, Weronika 63
m Makarova, Anna 206, 208, 239 Makarova, Polina 15, 238 Malz, Johanna 105 Martini, Eleni 107, 109, 240 Mateu, Gabriel 52, 235 Matsui, Keizo 144, 146, 240 McAlpine, Fay 152, 154, 240 McCormick, Conner 216, 219 Messam, Bronte 155 Miękisz, Emilia Karolina 121 Mordin, Izzi 228 Moriki, Sakino 147, 151 Mytilinaiou, Sofia 106, 109, 241
n Nieminen, Tarja 88, 90, 241 o Osborne, Hannah 156 Ostapkowicz, Kinga 124 Ostrowska, Patrycja 122
p Parekh, Bijal 129, 131 Pengelly, George 157 Perold-Bull, Karolien 178, 180, 241 Pickernell, Harry 250, 158 Pochmann, Hans-Jörg 26, 98, 100, 242
Pozhydaieva, Anastasiia 66 Prokhorova, Hanna 64 Przebirowska, Aleksandra 65 Przeździecka, Oliwia 67 Płudowski, Wojciech 30, 166 r Racz, Weronika 167 Reboursin, Javier 55, 59 Rembarz, Maciej 4, 26, 242, 253 Resnick, Elizabeth 214, 217, 242 Rincón, Estefanía 55, 57 Rogowska–Stangert, Monika 4, 35, 253, 243 Romanenko, Nadiia 64 s Saenz, Marco 84 Sakalenka, Yustsina 64 Salem, Anabella 52, 54, 235 Salgado, María Mercedes 78, 80, 243, 253 Satalecka, Ewa 4, 29, 30, 162, 243, 252, 253 SeongHyeon, Choi 193 SeongJae, Lee 194 Serov, Sergei 168, 170, 244
Skolos, Nancy 245 Solińska, Aleksandra 67 Solomons, Ashley 181, 185 Stemme, Guido 4,18, 98, 100,
Stöffler, Anja 26, 98,100, 244 Sun, Byoung-il 188, 190, 237 Suárez, Germán 54, 55 Świderska, Joanna 63 t Tirkkonen, Taina 94 Tolstsik, Nastassia 66, 123 Topi, Katerina 66, 123 Trang, Minh 65 Ttejapaibul, Pornpiya 229 v Vandebosch, Johan 60, 62, 245 van der Hurk, Kelly 159 Vapaasalo, Tapio 43, 253, 245 Veklenko, Oleg 206, 208, 246 Vela, Pia 85 Verma, Ishaan Bose 227 Vignola, Paolo 78,246 Voudouri, Aspasia 106, 109, 246 Vähakallio, Joonas 95 w Walker, Ben 216, 220 Wang, Wei Hao 231 Wang, Yang 71, 75 Wedell, Thomas 198, 226, 245 Wyrzykowski, Filip 65, 124 Włoczewska, Zofia 67 y Yao, Di 70 Yong, Xiao 70, 247 Yoshimura, Moeka
YouJung, Lee 191 YuJeong, Han 195 Yurkova, Olga 173 z Zhang, Zhiyong 70, 76 Zhukova, Elizaveta 176
© Copyrights Wydawnictwo Polsko-Japońskiej Akademii Technik Komputerowych ul. Koszykowa 86 02-008 Warszawa
graphic design and cover
Barbara Krajewska / editors Marjatta Itkonen Ewa Satalecka curators
Alicja Gorgoń execution
Marta Kamieńska first edition, Warsaw, 2018 issue: 500 isbn : 978-83-948531-3-6 e - isbn : 978-83-948531-4-3 t ypefaces
Munken Print Cream 1.8 115 g Kreda Magno Volume 1.08 150 g Alto 300 g print
Drukarnia Akapit sp. z o.o. www.drukarniaakapit.pl The project created thanks to the support of the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung Representation in Poland
This publication has been designed as a part of the 100 × independence project in collaboration with: National Museum Department of Poster Museum at Wilanów, Aalto Univeristy (Finland), El Fantasma del Heredia (Argentina), Maria-Mercedes Salgado (Ecuador), Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts (China), Haute Ecole d’art et de design Geneve (Switzerland), Higher Academic School of Design (Russia), Holon Institute of Technology (Israel), Kharkiv State Academy of Design and Art (Ukraine), MassArt and Design (usa ), Massey University (New Zealand), Namseoul University (South Korea), Osaka University of Arts Junior College (Japan), pxl- mad (Belgium), Rhode Island School of Design (usa ), Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece), United World Institute of Design (India), University of Applied Arts (Germany), Supported by founds of eunic – European Union National Institutes for Culture – Warsaw and Friedrich Ebert Foundation Thank you Mariusz Knorowski, Paula DiPerna, Polina Makarova, Guido Stemme, Maciej Rembarz, Ewa Satalecka, Monika Rogowska-Stangret and Tapio Vapaasalo for the essays. This project could be executed thanks to the financial support of the pjait, support of National Museum Department of Poster Museum at Wilanów, and matter-of-fact support of znaczy się Foundation. We would like to thank all the institutions involved with the project, the lecturers, who have once more volunteered their work: Maciej Rembarz, Józef Mrozek, Monika Zawadzki, Milada Ślizińska, Filip Pągowski, Mateusz Hohol, Agata Czarnecka, Filip Wejman, Barbara Nowacka, Matt Subieta and Marta Pachocka. Thank you Beata Czajkowska and David Skully for corrections & proof reading.
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Germán Suárez Diego Gamardo Estefanía Rincón Germán López Javier Reboursin
Joanna Świderska Weronika Ławska Paulina Kowalska Nadiia Romanenko Yustsina Sakalenka Hanna Prokhorova Daria Chernysheva Aleksandra Przebirowska Filip Wyrzykowski Minh Trang Le Diana Ahudza Anastasiia Pozhydaieva Nastassia To l s t s i k Vladyslav Ker pich Katsiaryna Harelik Aleksandra Solińska Oliwia Przeździecka Magda Kłos Zofia Włoczewska
Shen China-Kang Yao Di Liu Hongyan Wang Yang Zhang Zhiyong
Kenia Carbo Manuel Cordova Marcoposters Saenz × Pia Vela Valentina Bolivar
Wellington, New Zeland
Stellenbosch, South Africa
Miku Imamura Moeka Yoshimura Yuan Huichun Moriki Sakino
Hannah Osborne Bronte Messam George Pengelly Harry Pickernell Kelly van der Hurk
Julia Błaszczak Wojciech Pludowski Barbara Kielak Aleksandra Krysiak Weronika Racz
Caro Botha Saarah Anne Fletcher Mire de Swardt Ashley Solomons Larissa Bekker
Kristina Kurilo Olga Yurkova Elena Chekanova Marina Kuzina Elizaveta Zykova
Helsinki, Finland Elze Grigonyte Mario Huyet Kang textJoosung × Taina Tirkkonen Joonas Vähakallio
Donald Keeya Marie Gall Marie-Luise Haertel Pia Hoberg Selin Koca Johanna Malz
Maria Bizimi Karolina Knapik Sofia Kyrimi Katerina Topi Thanasis Katsougiannis
Kinga Ostapkowicz Filip Wyrzykowski Heba Tallah Abouhamd Emilia Karolina MiÄ™kisz Nastassia Tolstsik Patrycja Ostrowska Aleksandra Przebirowska
Khandelwal Aditi Arora Shreya Biswas Tathagat Parekh Bijal
Bern Itay Arye Kuper Hatuka Nofar Keren Shahar Cohen Gal Noy
Seoul, South Korea
Lee YouJung Oh KwangYun Choi SeongHyeon Lee SeongJae Han YuJeong
Princess De La Cruz Alex Howling Emilie Excoffier Fanny Blanchet Sarah Fauriel
Oksana Kiorpe Anna Bragina Kateryna Halahan Anna Berestok Zlata Biezdielna
Hessam Daraei Conner McCormick Ben Walker Ben Walker Jake Lutter
Ishaan Bose Verma Izzi Mordin Pornpiya Ttejapaibul Shawn Guo Wei Hao Wang
posters × tutor’s text ×