POLLiNATOR PATCH + gARDEN MANUAL BASe LAnDSCAPe ArCHITeCTUre
WITH HOneY In THe HeArT
2019 nOTe: This manual is a DrAFT
MANUAL CÃ©sar Moran-Cahusac Patricia Algara natalie Martell Julia Prince Benjamin Haim Sophia Li DESigN BASe Landscape Architecture BEE SURVEy Jaime Pawelek
PREFACE This Pollinator Patch and Garden Manual responds to an urgent need to address the disappearance of pollinators by creating environmental and social resilience in the urban and suburban settings. Climate change is eroding biodiversity, while urban sprawl and farming are polluting and fragmenting the landscape. Pollinator species traverse both to forage and fertilize plants. These anthropogenic forces are rapidly destroying the opportunities for mobility and create food deserts that put more pressure on their survival. We have used landscape architecture design principles to enhance ecological connectivity that will allow the creation of urban pollination corridors. These networks will behave as safe havens for pollinators to feed, continue their environmental services and moreover facilitate migration journeys. The idea is to mitigate the now increased distances between habitats that isolate pollinator populations and prevent them from moving through the landscape. Pollinator patches and gardens are important in the preservation of native plant and animal species. Planting schemes should consider using a mix of local and well-adapted species to create a continuous floral production year round, securing food and nectar for these travelers. By transforming vacant and underutilized spaces in the city we not only beautify the city but also provide food and nesting ground for pollinators. Gardens have demonstrated since the beginning of civilization a unique capacity to make urban
environments more livable. Today, expanding cities face an onslaught of environmental and social challenges and diminished natural habitat coupled with immense pressure to provide resources. Urban gardens can mediate some of these challenges by filtering CO2 emissions from automobile traffic, reducing urban heat, providing open space amidst congestion of the built environment, and boosting patronage for local businesses. More specifically, bright, drought tolerant, pollinator friendly plants accustomed to survival in our local climate can improve the aesthetics of our streets, reduce water use, and create necessary habitat for wildlife. Green street revitalization functions in reciprocity with neighborhood needs, weaving together calls for resiliency from both natural and human communities. Looking beyond urban areas, pollinators are essential to the production of 1/3rd of our food crops. These friends of humanity play a big role in sustaining life on the planet. As monocultures and indiscriminate use of systemic pesticides and herbicides make agricultural lands less hospitable to pollinators, cities have the unique potential to play a crucial role in species conservation. This manual details the processes and challenges of implementing a pollinator garden. The goal is to help the reader move ahead to create one. In the big picture the size of a patch does not matter; what is important is that a myriad of pollinator pitstops appear in the lay of the land.
Why are we here?
OUR STORy BASE Landscape Architecture is a design firm based in San Francisco with a not-for-profit branch, With Honey in the Heart, which focuses on the collaboration with government to create habitat for pollinators. Across their work, both look to create pollinator habitats, educate the public about the importance of pollinators, encourage healthy and diverse urban ecosystems, foster stewardship and build community, and increase the environmental and social resilience of the urban setting.
Why do we need them?
POLLiNATOR PROTECTiON Pollinators are keystone species for the planet’s survival. They are essential to the ecosystems and the abundance and diversity of invertebrates as well as the building blocks of wildlife. They serve as a food source for other animals and the environmental services they provide maintain ecosystem health. Pollinator populations are declining in many regions of the world, threatening human food supplies and ecosystem functions. A myriad of anthropogenic pressures – including land-use intensification, climate change, and the spread of invasive species and diseases – are responsible for insect-pollinator declines that are having an impact on pollinator health, abundance, and diversity. (Vanbergen, et al. 2013). It is estimated that 80% of the world´s species of flowering plants depend on pollinators for their pollination (Kremen et al 2007). While eighty-seven of the world’s food crops depend on animals for their pollination. So, pollinators are essential for habitat and human health. Threats to pollinators affect the entire natural ecosystems and agricultural production of the planet. Over the past 58 years domesticated bees have declined by 58% in the United States, plus the lack of diversity propitiates the failure of natural and agricultural ecosystems. Farmland covers 35% of the earth´s ice-free terrestrial territory, while agriculture is expanding and intensifying to meet the demands of a growing human population (FAO 2003). This is threatening biodiversity and the ecosystem services on which agriculture depends, including pollination (Garibaldi et al 2011). It is estimated that pollinators provide around $217 million to the global economy (Losey and Vaughan 2006) and honeybees are responsible for between $1.2 and $5.4 billion in agricultural productivity in the United States (Southwick and Southwick 1999). Finally, 35% of the bee species have become extinct.
Bees are crucial in achieving Zero Hunger, one of the United nation’s Sustainable Development Goals. Pollinators play an essential role in feeding the world population in a sustainable way and help maintain biodiversity and a vibrant ecosystem. They contribute in supporting resilient livelihoods, creating new jobs for smallholder farmers, and satisfying the growing demand for healthy, nutritious food as well as nonfood products. Pollinators are the highest agricultural contributor to yields worldwide. Pollination, with improved management, can increase yield by a quarter (FAO, 2018). The importance of bees as providers of cross- and self-pollination to nutritional quality of sunflower achenes provide a useful baseline figure to further evaluation of the effects of pollinators on human diets and health (Silva, et al. 2018). Unfortunately, bee populations that live in proximity to agricultural production are exposed to pesticides, one of the major environmental stressors affecting pollinator population health. In addition to food crops, pollinators support the health of ecosystems that clean the air, stabilize soils, and support wildlife (Costanza et al 1997). Without clean and safe connected habitats, pollinators cannot function adequately to support terrestrial productivity. That is why Pollinator gardens and patches are an important tool to promote healthy and resilient ecosystems.
of honey bees have disappeared since 2006
of Monarch butterflies have disappeared since 1993
of pollinators globally are declining and at risk of extinction in the next couple of decades
of native north American bees are at risk of extinction
POLLInATOr MIGrATIOn THrOUGH MOnOCULTUreS
Monoculture regions Monarch Migration route Hummingbird Migration route Bat Migration route California Major Cities City of San Francisco
What do they need?
POLLINATOR HABITAT To create or enhance a pollinator garden we need to understand their habitat requirements. Pollinating insects have two basic habitat requirements: a source of food where they can forage and a place where they can lay their eggs. It is keen then to understand the landscape where the pollinator garden will be installed and look for these features as a way to enhance the habitat.
Sites for Nesting and Egg-Laying
Pollinator habitat should include a variety of nesting areas and materials to support pollinators nesting requirements. For example, butterflies and moths generally lay their eggs on or near their host plant where their caterpillars will forage. Bees will build nests in order to raise their brood. 70 percent of bee species nest underground excavating brood cells for their eggs. Some bees choose wood tunnels, creating NECTAR AND POLLEN SOURCE linear series of portioned cells, while other bees use resin, mud, and petals to form these partitions. A successful pollinator habitat requires a diversity Bumblebees typically build an annual colony in of blooms to sustain year-round pollen sourcing. small cavities. Hummingbirds build their nests 10 This diverse palette should include a variety of to 90 feet high in trees or shrubs. These are velvety bloom colors and floral shapes in order to benefit compact cups, with elastic sides and spongy floors. more pollinators. Different pollinator species have Using spider silk to weave and anchor them to the different preferences according to their visual abilities, foundation. Planting leafy trees and large shrubs will adaptations of body sizes, and tongue length. Bees provide shelter at varying heights. typically forage on blue, white, yellow and purple flowers and cannot see red objects. Butterflies tend to visit orange, red, yellow, and purple blooms, while hover flies visit white and yellow. Hummingbirds are drawn mostly to red flowers. Plant-pollinator interactions are very general, so what is important is to offer a more biologically diverse site that will provide resources for all the seasons and support the needs and life cycles of most pollinators.
What can we do?
POLLINATOR PATCHES + GARDENS Our approach looks at how to integrate pollinator habitat into the urban built environment. The strategy is to enhance urban and rural connectivity by increasing suitable habitat for pollinators in vacant and underutilized spaces. It is known that fewer species can live and reproduce on smaller habitat islands (MacArthur and Wilson, 1967). By identifying potential habitat that could provide the necessary plant composition and ratio for nesting and foraging we can start reconnecting the landscape. A pollinator can be of any size, the concentration of any habitat type that has specific ecosystem characteristics. Patches can be as small as an under developed corner of a lot, or as big as a park. The idea is to build a network of patches, in conjunction they become a conglomerate that creates a corridor of connectivity in the urban landscape making cities safe havens for pollinator to thrive and provide feeding stations for the migrating species
POLLINATOR GARDENS Any space can be a pollinator garden: street medians, parklets, sidewalk planting, parking lot medians, along highways, vacant lots, community gardens, schools, churches, green roofs, green walls, front and backyards, window boxes, potted plants on balconies, overhead structures (vines), bus stops roofs, rain gardens, bioretention areas, etc. Once you identify your â€œpatchâ€? look into the history of the site as a means of understanding its social and historic values. Do outreach to understand stakeholdersâ€™ point of view. This offers inspiration for the future design and neighborhood approval PATCH VIABILITY ASSESSMENT Conduct a pre-pollinator habitat vegetation assessment and make a checklist of existing plants and pollinators. Conduct a soil test to measure its suitability and then undertake possible remediation. Understand the site limitations and risks: water accessibility, adjacent land use, presence of invasive species, environmental challenges (lack of sunlight, wind speed, traffic volume, pedestrians, etc.). Does the site provide opportunity for connectivity to another pollinator habitat?
Roadways Can function as natural corridors facilitating long distance dispersal and establishment for animals and plants (Von Der Lippe and Kowark 2007). This creates an interconnected tract that pollinators can inhabit. Weedy invasive species support pollinators and prove to be good food providers. They also create new areas of open ground and may allow the nesting of native ground-nesting bees. Moreover, roads do not obstruct the movement of butterflies (Munguira and Thomas 1992). Plant Selection Plants should bloom coinciding with the pollinator emergence and activity. Prepare a blooming chart to ensure continuous bloom all year long. Cluster plants of same species together in your planting layout. This facilitates efficient foraging. Look for seed and plants that have not been sprayed with systemic pesticides (neonicotinoids). Consider locally adapted and native plants species. Include larval host plants into seeding and planting mixes.
THE DOLORES STREET POLLINATOR BOULEVARD san Francisco, california, USA
THE LARgER ViSiON Almost a century after the establishment of the medians, in October of 2014 amidst rampant, state-wide drought, the team at BASe Landscape Architecture noticed withered, brown, patches spreading through the once lush medians on Dolores Street. The unmaintained, grass islands that divide Dolores Street were one of the most striking casualties of San Franciscoâ€™s drought and the result of the city choking their sprinklers in an effort to conserve water. The solution to the deterioration seemed obvious; tear out the thirsty turf and populate the medians with plants that have evolved to thrive under dry conditions.
Our vision is for all of Dolores Street to become an unbroken ribbon of pollinator habitat and a hive for socializing, learning, observing nature, and stewardship. It is our hope that our readers will be inspired to grow similar gardens in their own cities. By creating healthy pollinator habitat, one fosters healthy human habitat. The Dolores Street Pollinator Boulevard is setting a precedent for forward-thinking green infrastructure, which does not rely on high technology, significant funding, or broad extension of resources, but localized, simple, low-cost, and community driven change. We see our project as a link in a much larger network of urban wildlife corridors, waiting to be revived. We are here to help We began with the first two medians of Dolores Street and hope our story can be an inspiration and a model between Market and 14th Streets in the heart of the for those looking to sow seeds of change in their Mission, an iconic San Francisco neighborhood. The cities and towns. team explored adding a variety of amenities, but due to traffic concerns, the city discouraged pedestrian use in the medians making the spaces opportune for habitat and beautification to coalesce in plain view. Parched turf was replaced with drought tolerant, low water use, pesticide-free, pollinator friendly plants that bloom in an unbroken relay all year long. This urban resiliency project brings healthy and diverse ecosystem, cultivates community, and revives the civic values of one of San Franciscoâ€™s landmark streets. The medians have mobilized the voices and actions of local residents, city officials, businesses, educators, scientists, and volunteers seeking to find enduring solutions to contemporary urban design challenges.
History of the site
A LEGACY OF RESILIENCE Beginning in 1905, neighborhood associations petitioned the City to fund the establishment of a central median on Dolores Street. In 1906, following a massively destructive earthquake and fire, residents constructed the first medians on Dolores Street between 15th and 17th Streets. Many residents were displaced by the recent disaster and, for a couple years, forced to call public space along Dolores Street and in Mission Park--now known as Dolores Park-“home.” This period of the City’s history established Dolores Street’s legacy as one of grassroots community building and refuge for neighbors in need. In 1910, the Board of Public Works allocated funding to create, “a series of landscaped islands along the entire length of Dolores Street in efforts to transform the street into a landscaped boulevard.”
This marked the beginning of a period of continuous transformation on Dolores Street where the central median was constructed, island by island. In 1924, following the completion of the medians and palm plantings, the 54th Annual Report of the Board of Park Commissioners proclaimed “this splendid boulevard or parkway....which has already reached the dignified appearance of arboreal and horticultural beauty, is designed to become one of the most famous future show places of San Francisco...Dolores Street...has finally been chosen as the future great outdoor art exhibit of San Francisco.”
Many Mission neighborhood natives see the way they have lived for generations at odds with current development patterns in the city. A community driven project in service of all the neighborhood’s inhabitants is an opportunity for diverse populations to unite, discover common values, and make spaces suited for all local inhabitants. A safe haven designed for pollinators can bolster the prosperity of nearby gardens as well, because pollinators will start visiting it thus creating a functional network of continuous habitat.
OUTREACH, DESIGN, FUNDING, + APPROVAL Our team generated a proposal by sketching a conceptual plan and iterations of site elements. The new idea for the medians really took flight when we approached businesses adjacent to the site to pitch our transforming vision. With their commitment of support toward funding and maintenance contributions, most importantly providing an ongoing source of water, we set up tabling events on their premises to share our concept with the public and invite anyone interested in growing our dream to attend a community meeting. After the first meeting, overwhelming local support in the form of signatures and letters leveraged the Department of Public Works to approve the projectâ€™s initial phase: the first median.
Given the green light from the city, our team considered input collected at community meetings and collaborated with the Mission Dolores Neighborhood Association to cohere a design that was in line with Dolores Streetâ€™s status as a historic landmark. We held four additional community meetings to receive feedback on our design and continue to iterate. Amendments to the original design included ways to protect the medianâ€™s historic palms, eliminating gathering spaces and arranging plantings so the gardens serve pollinators instead of transients, and including a path around the perimeter of the plantings so maintenance could be performed a safe distance from traffic.
City of San Francisco Planted Medians
Urban Ag - Public
Future Planted Medians
Urban Ag - SFUSD Schools
Completed Green Infrastructure
Urban Ag - Private
Future Green Infrastructure
Urban Ag - Limited Urban Ag - Unknown
SHEET MULCH The phased implementation began with the removal of existing turf, followed by sheet mulching. This is a permaculture technique used to suppress weeds and build soil health, which involves laying down thick layers of recycled cardboard topped with one foot of organic mulch, followed by a minimum of 6 months of decomposition. What results is a rich deposit of humus on the surface of the soil. Humus is accumulated organic matter that results from the decomposition of plant and carbon-containing materials by soil microorganisms. Organic matter provides nutrients and habitat for organisms fundamental to maintaining soil quality and increases soil moisture holding capacity.
MULCH 2â€? to 3â€? CARDBOARD EXISTING TURF EXISTING SOIL
Sheet Mulch Profile
This phase was completed through a volunteer workday. Our team attained recycled cardboard from our local business partners as well as a mulch donation from Bayview Green Waste. First, our volunteers laid down the cardboard, being sure to leave some space for air around the root collar of the palms, then spread the heap of mulch evenly over the site.
PLANT SELECTION Planting designs took into account an expectation of limited maintenance. Thus, native plants and those with minimal water needs were used as much as possible. Selections were made based on optimal bloom periods to ensure a continuous flow of nectar, as well as hardiness to roadside conditions and overall aesthetic merit. Plants were purchased using funds received from a Community Challenge Grant from the City of San Francisco. Care was taken to source from nurseries that do not treat their plants with systemic pesticides, chemicals that are lethal to pollinators.
After working with an entomology specialist to evaluate the effectiveness of our plantings at servicing pollinator communities, we learned that large swaths of the same species are most attractive to nectar seeking wildlife.
NECTAR SOURCE AND bLOOm CHART bOTANICAL NAmE Salvia greggii A. Gray Scabiosa atropurpurea L. Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Aloe x spinoissima Eschscholzia californica Gaillardia x grandiflora Van Houtte Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet Encelia californica Nutt Phacelia ciculata Greene Salvia mellifera Greene Phacelia tenacifolia benth Rosmarinus officinallis ‘Prostratus’ Gilia capitata Sim Erigeron glaucus Ker Gawl Perovskia artiplicifolia benth Salvia brandeggi munz monardella villosa Penstemon heterophyllus Lind. Phacelia campanularia A. Gray Salvia chamaedryoides Cav. Echium candicans L.F. Salvia ‘Indigo Spires’ Ceanothus ‘Centennial’ Eryngium varifolium ‘big blue’
RO EV mV mV mV SG SG CG CG PT PT S AS SI PT CG CG RO SG SG EV mV mV PT PT RO CG CG SG AS SI EV RO EV mV mV PT SG SG CG CG CG G AS RO EV EV mV mV PT SG SG CG CG SI AS RO RO EV EV mV mV PT GG SG SG CG SI
EV EV mV mV PT GG GG SG SG CG SI AS RO RO PT GG CG SG SG CG RO RO EV EV mV G SI AS RO RO EV EV mV PT GG CG SG SG CG GG G GG AS AS RO EV mV mV PT GG GG CG SG SG CG SI RO EV mV PT GG CG SG SG CG GG GG SI SI AS AS RO EV mV GG GG SG SG CG CG G GG GG
Planting planned for 2019
Planted in 2017 14TH ST.
BOTAnICAL nAMe Aloe x spinoissima Ceanothus ‘Centennial’ Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet erigeron glaucus Ker Gawl eryngium varifolium ‘Big Blue’ echium candicans L.F. Gaillardia x grandiflora Van Houtte Gilia capitata Sim Monardella villosa Penstemon heterophyllus Lind. Perovskia artiplicifolia Benth Phacelia tenacifolia Benth Phacelia campanularia A. Gray Rosmarinus officinallis ‘Prostratus’ Salvia ‘Indigo Spires’ Salvia brandeggi Munz Salvia chamaedryoides Cav. Salvia greggii A. Gray Salvia mellifera Greene Scabiosa atropurpurea L.
COMMOn nAMe Spider Aloe California Lilac Largeflower Tickseed Beach Aster Sea Holly Pride of Madeira Blanket Flower Blue Gilia Coyote Mint Foothill Penstemon russian Sage Tansy Phacelia California Desert Blue Bells Creeping rosemary Indigo Spires Sage Santa rosa Island Sage Germander Sage Autumn Sage Honey Sage Pincushion Flower
BLOOM COLOr orange/red dark blue yellow lavender blue blue violet yellow/orange/red blue lavender violet/lavender blue violet blue dark blue white blue blue blue dark blue red white/light blue red
Seeds eschscholzia californica encelia californica nutt Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Phacelia cicutaria Greene
California Poppy Coast Sunflower Cosmos Caterpillar Phacelia
orange yellow pink lavender
M AR KE T . ST
Planted in 2016
30 30 30
60 60 60
120 feet feet 120 120 feet
1" = 30' 1" = 30'
MEDiAN ii 0
BOTAnICAL nAMe Agave x Blue Glow 1" = 30' Agave angustifolia ‘Marginata’ Agave desmettiana ‘Variegata’ Agave parryi Aloe x spinoissima Aloe spinosissima Ceanothus ‘Centennial’ Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet erigeron glaucus Ker Gawl eryngium varifolium ‘Big Blue’ echium candicans L.F. Gaillardia x grandiflora Van Houtte Monardella villosa Penstemon heterophyllus Lind. Perovskia artiplicifolia Benth Phacelia tenacifolia Benth Phacelia campanularia A. Gray Rosmarinus officinallis ‘Prostratus’ Salvia ‘Indigo Spires’ Salvia brandeggi Munz Salvia chamaedryoides Cav. Salvia greggii A. Gray Salvia mellifera Greene Scabiosa atropurpurea L. Yucca pallida
COMMOn nAMe Blue Glow Agave Carribean Agave Dwarf Agave Parry’s Agave Spider Aloe California Lilac Largeflower Tickseed Beach Aster Sea Holly Pride of Madeira Blanket Flower Coyote Mint Foothill Penstemon russian Sage Tansy Phacelia California Desert Blue Bells Creeping rosemary Indigo Spires Sage Santa rosa Island Sage Germander Sage Autumn Sage Honey Sage Pincushion Flower Pale leaf yucca
BLOOM COLOr none yellow/green yellow yellow orange/red dark blue yellow lavender blue blue violet yellow/orange/red lavender violet/lavender blue violet blue dark blue white blue blue blue dark blue red white/light blue red white
Seeds eschscholzia californica encelia californica nutt Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Phacelia cicutaria Greene
California Poppy Coast Sunflower Cosmos Caterpillar Phacelia
orange yellow pink lavender 27
botanical name Aloe x spinoissima Ceanothus ‘Centennial’ Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet Erigeron glaucus Ker Gawl Eryngium varifolium ‘Big Blue’ Echium candicans L.F. Gaillardia x grandiflora Van Houtte Monardella villosa Penstemon heterophyllus Lind. Perovskia artiplicifolia Benth Phacelia tenacifolia Benth Phacelia campanularia A. Gray Rosmarinus officinallis ‘Prostratus’ Salvia ‘Indigo Spires’ Salvia brandeggi Munz Salvia chamaedryoides Cav. Salvia greggii A. Gray Salvia mellifera Greene Scabiosa atropurpurea L. Verbena lilacina ‘De La Mina’
common name Spider Aloe California Lilac Largeflower Tickseed Beach Aster Sea Holly Pride of Madeira Blanket Flower Coyote Mint Foothill Penstemon Russian Sage Tansy Phacelia California Desert Blue Bells Creeping Rosemary Indigo Spires Sage Santa Rosa Island Sage Germander Sage Autumn Sage Honey Sage Pincushion Flower Cedros Island Verbena
bloom color orange/red dark blue yellow lavender blue blue violet yellow/orange/red lavender violet/lavender blue violet blue dark blue white blue blue blue dark blue red white/light blue red lavender
Seeds Eschscholzia californica Encelia californica Nutt Cosmos bipinnatus Cav. Phacelia cicutaria Greene
California Poppy Coast Sunflower Cosmos Caterpillar Phacelia
orange yellow pink lavender
INSTALLATION After a minimal 6 month decomposition period following sheet mulching, the planting design can be installed directly into the newly amended soil with ease by a crew of volunteers on an organized workday. The Department of Public Works kindly dropped off shovels and other tools to help with the task. Our designers were onsite to arrange plants according to the approved plan, answer questions, and share knowledge about the project.
STEWARDSHIP + GROWTH Stewardship of the two completed medians includes periodic watering, which is done by our team by hand using water donated by a local business, and volunteer workdays to pull out and discard weeds and garbage. Using the first two medians as precedent, their framework and simple phasing process can be replicated as we continue to extend the gardens down the street. Every step is fueled by the helping hands of enthusiastic volunteers during organized workdays, thus communication with our community through flyers, tabling, a mailing list, and social media are key to galvanizing the people-power required.
The planting of more medians is contingent upon the city of San Francisco agreeing to turn on its sprinklers. We cannot rely on donated water as the project expands nor does our team have the capacity to take on responsibility for more hand watering. In order to leverage the city, particularly the Department of Public Works, we must continue to showcase the economic, social and ecologic value of the Pollinator Boulevard. This task requires the diligent maintenance of existing plantings, enduring support from the
local community, broad recognition such as through publicity and awards, and scientifically tested metrics proving the fulfillment of project goals. While maintenance of existing plantings is achievable through volunteer days and without additional finances, there is a lot of work to be done in support of project expansion. To support that goal, we applied for and received the Community Challenge Grant. With that, our team is hard at work, producing media, submitting articles, applying for awards, organizing routine maintenance workdays on our two planted medians, and orchestrating studies and reports that shine light on our successes and inform us of how to improve.
Saturday OCTober 1 10am-2pm st
To Learn More:
www.pollinatorblvd.com Contact: email@example.com 41
RESULTS + SCIENTIFIC METRICS Pollinator surveys focusing on native bees but also accounting for butterflies, flies, and wasps, were conducted by a UC Berkeley entomology specialist in the Spring, Summer, and Fall of 2017. Using pan trapping and net collection methods, we found 11 native bee species and other pollinators visiting the gardens throughout the year compared with one bee on an adjacent turf median. Hummingbirds and other bird species have been observed on every site visit.
The results of this study bolstered the work we have done while also enlightening us on ways to improve our gardens and make them more effective at bringing pollinators to the area. Two of the main conclusions are that pollinators are more attracted to large swaths of the same species as opposed to scattered plantings of many species. Additionally, the study confirmed that the Pollinator Boulevard is still a somewhat isolated patch of habitat and could be much more effective as a wildlife corridor if extended beyond the first two medians and down the full length of Dolores Street.
In April 2017, we collected soil samples from Median I, which was sheet mulched in August 2015 and planted in March 2016, from Median II, which was sheet mulched in October 2016 and planted the day we collected the sample, and from Median III, which we have yet to begin working on at all. We dug down about 6 inches and collected soil from two points per median, then sent the samples to the Michigan State University lab for testing.
47 plant types observed flowering during the surveys 18 plant families including pollinator favorites Asteracea and Lamiacea 9 Native species Soil Testing
The testing recorded an organic matter content of 32.4% in Median I, 13% in Median II, and 9.3% in Median III. The soil type in Median I was indicated to be “organic”, Median II was “mineral, loam”, and Median III was “mineral, sandy loam”.
49% Flies 26 individuals collected from 10 species Sheet mulching and deep-rooted, perennial, plantings 45% Bees 24 individuals collected from 11 species increased the organic matter content on Median I, 4% Butterflies 2 individuals collected from 2 species while sheet mulching alone increased the organic Number of Insects Collected at Each Median 2% Wasps 1 individual collected from 1 species matter content of Median II. This drastic increase in Number of Insects Collected at Each Median
MEDIAN 1 MEDIAN 1
INSECT COUNTS MEDIAN 2 MEDIAN 2 Number of Insects Collected at Each Median
Insects were collected using pan traps or collected directly from flowers. Key: 1 icon = 1 insect. Insects were collected using pan traps or collected directly from flowers. Key: 1 icon = 1 insect.
organic matter among the surface soil layers indicates positively correlated shifts in soil nutrient retention, composition, water-holding capacity, microbial activity, structure, and plant health.
September 2018 ASLA Student Community Service Award American Society of Landscape Architects, Community Service Honor Award
Soil is the planets thin layer that sustains all life on Earth. It’s a web of myriad species that create a dynamic and complex ecosystem and is one of the most precious resources to humans. The transition from natural vegetation to agriculture and urban settlement cause soil erosion, disturbing its ability to restructure itself. Half of the topsoil on the planet has been lost in the last 150 years. Soil erosion is also caused by natural causes like wind, rain, river, steams floods and mass movement. But it is deforestation, denudation, agricultural practices urbanization that increase runoff leading to changes in water patterns and discharges. By installing pollinator gardens, we can promote soil improvements that promote stepping stone biodiversity springs in the city.
Spring 2018 Participatory Budgeting Submitted by Mission neighborhood residents for District 8 participatory budget funding under the Open Space category to expand the gardens
Bee City USA Network Significant contribution to a nomination by a coalition of city agencies and the Department of Environment to add San Francisco to the national Bee City USA network, which reduces pesticide use and restores natural habitats on city properties October 2016 Golden Gate Award San Francisco Beautiful, Golden Gate Award recipient, recognized for advancing the union of nature and the build environment
The Dolores Pollinator Boulevard has been honored and prized by several institutions over the years since it has been installed.
Soil Organic Matter Content (%) at time of planting Median II
June, 2019 City Lab Special Report for pollinator week: “What Cities Can Do to Help Birds and Bees Survive” Mentioned as one of the country’s most important pollinator garden efforts.
Median I Sheed Mulched 2015 Planted 2016
Median II Sheet Mulched 2016
Median III Existing Turf Grass
26 individuals collected from 10 species 24 individuals collected from 11 species
2 individuals collected from 2 species 1 individuals collected from 1 species
LEAF CUTTER BEE
HONEY BEES Apis mellifera
observed to be flowering during the surveys including pollinator favories Asteracea and Lamiaceae
CLEVELAND SEDGE Salvia clevelandii
Bombus vosnesenskii / yellow-faced bublebee / June 16, 2016
46 Apis mellifera / Honey BEE
Bombus vosnesenskii / yellow-faced bublebee / June 16, 2016
47 Apis mellifera / Honey BEE
COLLECTED POLLINATOR SPECIMENS
EXISTING SURVEYED PLANT BLOOMS MEDIAN I ESTABLISHED
Ob s 8/ erve 2 6/ 8/1 d 18 8 4/ /1 30 8 /1 8
Achillea ‘Moonshine’ – FF Achillea millefolium – PP Achillea millefolium cvs. – PF Alstroemeria sp. – FF Anagalis arvensis – FF Aquilegia sp. – FF Asclepias sp. – FF Asteraceae – FF Asteraceae (blue flrs.) – FF Calandrinia spectabilis – FF, FF, FF Cistus sp. – FF Coreopsis grandiflora – FF, FF Coreopsis sp.- FF Cosmos bipinnatus – PF, PF Erigeron glaucus – PF Eschscholzia californica – PP, FF, FF Fabaceae – FF Gaillardia grandiflora – PF Lavandula ‘Provence’ – FF Lavandula stoechas – PF, FF Penstemon sp. – PP, FF Penstemon sp. (dark purple flrs.) – PF Phacelia tanacetifolia – FF Plumbago sp. – FF Polygala fruticosa – FF, FF Raphanus raphanistrum – FF Rosmarinus officinalis – PF Salvia ‘Hot Lips’ – FF, PP, FF Salvia clevelandii – FF, PF Salvia leucantha – PP, FF Salvia microphylla – FF Salvia spp. (pink flrs., white flrs., and purple flrs.) – FF Scabiosa atropurpurea – PF Tagetes lemmonii – PP, PF
Bloom Type Full Flower (FF) Partial Flower (PF) Partial Past (PF)
NEWLY PLANTED Asclepias curassavica – PF Asteraceae – FF Calandrinia spectabilis - FF, FF, PF Centaurea cyanus – FF, PF Clarkia sp. – PF Coreopsis grandiflora ‘Early Sunrise’ – FF, PP Cosmos bipinnatus – FF Echinacea purpurea ‘Magnus’ – PF Erigeron glaucus ‘Cape Sebastian’ – PF, FF Eryngium ‘Big Blue’ – FF Eschscholzia californica – PP, FF Gaillardia ‘Arizona Sun’ - PP, FF, FF Lupinus sp. – FF Monardella villosa x purpurea – FF Penstemon ‘Margarita BOP’ – FF Penstemon heterophyllus ‘Margarita BOP’– FF Perovskia atriplicifolia ‘Little Spires’ – FF Phacelia tanacetifolia – FF Salvia ‘Mystic Spires’ – PF, FF, PF Salvia brandegeei – PF Salvia chamaedryoides – FF, FF, PF Salvia melissodora – PF Salvia sp. (pink flrs.) – PF Scabiosa columbaria ‘Pink Mist’ – PF, FF
ORIGINAL CONDITION (TURF GRASS) Asteraceae (white flrs.) – PF Asteraceae (weedy dandelion types) – FF Brassica sp. – FF (one plant) Taraxacum officinalis – PF
SOiL COMPOSiTiON: EXiSTiNg DEgRADED SOiL 1E
PLAnTInGS Drought-tolerant, pollinator attracting, perennial cultivars. Deep root penetration.
O-HOrIZOn Loose and partly decaying organic matter/ decomposing sheet mulch (sheet mulching is the organic gardening practice of layering nitrogen and carbon rich materials on the surface of the soil before planting to encourage the creation of humus.)
5E HOrIZOn B/SUBSOIL
HOrIZOn A/TOPSOIL Combination of organic and inorganic matter. A high concentration of roots and soil microorganisms lead to the development of humus and soil aggregates, plus facility of air/water exchange within this horizon and on to lower ones. Abundant microbial activity mineralizes organic nutrients to support root growth and plant/tree health.
HOrIZOn e/eLUVIAL ZOne Base portion of topsoil containing less organic matter and where clay and soluble minerals such as iron, aluminum, and carbonates have leached to lower horizons through water permeation.
PALM rOOT InITATIOn ZOne
Accumulation of fine organic material and minerals such as clay and iron oxides. Plant and tree roots easily penetrate this layer to mine resources. Prime soil conditions, prolific root growth, and minimal human activity on the groundâ€™s surface prevent subsoil compaction.
6E HOrIZOn C
Heavily decomposed parent material toward upper portion of the horizon due to root development, grading down into less weathered parent material toward the base. Little presence here of organic matter and microbial activity. Palm roots are able to reach high accumulations of calcium and magnesium carbonates at the base of the layer.
7E PALM rOOTS
Palm roots are able to reach underground water sources, which is crucial during drought conditions.
PHOenIX CAnArIenSIS // CAnArY ISLAnD DATe PALM Slow growing, impressively large palm cultivar populating Dolores Streetâ€™s medians. Considered a historic resource for the city. Unlike most palms, Date Palm roots can grow down to the water table in search of resources, thus they survive well in drought conditions if the soil is able to be penetrated. They also tend to suffer from magnesium deficiency unless able to reach mg deposits deep in the soil.
Estimated bed rock depth
SOiL COMPOSiTiON: PROPOSED SOiL REgENERATiON 1P PLAnTInGS
5P HOrIZOn B/SUBSOIL
Conventional grass cultivar with shallow roots.
Minimal leaching of minerals from Horizon A. restricted root penetration, low microbial activity, and the absence of aggregate formation in addition to human activity on the groundâ€™s surface lead to multiple compaction layers. Palm roots experience constricted growth and difficulty moving through the compaction pans.
non-existant due to erosion and lack of organic matter. Instead, there is the formation of a surface crust which water and air molecules are slow to permeate.
3P HOrIZOn A/TOPSOIL
extremely shallow roots lead to low amounts of organic matter and microbial activity, causing minimal formation of soil aggregates. In the absence of macropores, air and water permeation are restricted, further exacerbating the decline of microbial activity. Without low instances of organic nutrient mineralization, plants and trees suffer.
4P HOrIZOn e/eLUVIAL ZOne
6P HOrIZOn C
Minimally decomposed parent material toward upper portion of the horizon due to limited tree root growth. Palm roots are unable to maximize uptake of calcium and magnesium carbonates due to restrictions on root growth. Magnesium deficiencies typical of the palm are not alleviated..
7P PALM rOOTS
Palm roots are unable to reach underground water sources and therefore cannot defend themselves against drought conditions.
Almost non-existent due to lack of macropores through which water can carry minerals to lower layers.
Estimated water table level
Soil Structure: Existing 1E
Blocky soil structure (Compacted) Large, compact clods of soil, ~5-10 cm in diameter, with few fine aggregates. Clods are angular or platelike with smooth sides and no pores allowing for little gas or water exchange. Usually found in upper parts of soil with low organic matter.
Platy soil structure Thin, flat, plates of soil layered horizontally. Usually found in compaction zones.
Massive soil structure Single grains of soil forming a monolith. Usually found in compacted soils at lower horizons.
Organic matter compound
Rates of permeability and porosity
Soil Structure: Proposed 1P
Granular soil structure Porous, loose, soil with irregularly shaped aggregates less than 5 cm in diameter. Usually found in surface horizons amoung proliferate root growth and organic matter accumulation.
Blocky soil structure (Aggregated) Irregular, porous, blocks of soil, ~1.5-5 cm in diameter. Usually found in subsoil.
Prismatic soil structure Vertical columns of soil usually several centimeters in length and found in lower soil horizons.
SOiL FERTiLiTy: EXiSTiNg VS. PROPOSED
EXiSTiNg SOiL FERTiLiTy
1 4 5 2
PROPOSED SOiL FERTiLiTy 56
eXisting soil food WeB (degraded) proposed soil food WeB (regenerated) 1
sHoots and roots EXISTING - shallow PROPOSED - deep
dead material EXISTING - low density PROPOSED - high density
organic matter - composed of metaBoliZed sHoots, roots and dead material EXISTING - low density PROPOSED - high density
metaBoliZers of sHoots and roots tHat Build organic matter EXISTING - low density PROPOSED - high density
first tropHic level consumers EXISTING - organic matter feeders dominated by bacteria and some disease fungi, Mycorrhizal fungi non existant due to low concentration of roots, Insect pests dominate consumption of unprotected shoots and roots, few earthworms PROPOSED - organic matter feeders dominated by saprophytic fungi, accompanied by bacteria and acetinomytes. High levels of micorrhizal fungi support abundance of roots and keep insect pests in check, High levels of earthworms
second tropHic level consumers EXISTING - dominated by bacterial feeders (nematodes, protazoa, rotifera), absense of fungal feeders, Sparse whiteworms feed on insect pests PROPOSED - dominated by fungal feeders (springtails, mold mites, beetle mites, feather winged beetles), BeneďŹ cial levels of bacterial feeders (nematodes, protazoa, rotifera), whiteworms keep insect pests in check
tHird tropHic level consumers EXISTING - low density PROPOSED - beneďŹ cial density
The Pollinator Boulevard has garnered incredible appeal and response in the neighborhood. Whole Foods supports maintenance (watering and weeding) and cleaning events organized by With Honey in the Heart. An adjacent residential building has provided a storage room for our tools and hose as well as water access for watering both medians. Neighbors have enrolled in a emailing list to help when needed. As successful as the project has been, it also has its challenges. Its proximity to two large grocery stores supply in a myriad of garbage. Paper and plastic bags, wrappers, containers of all sorts, and receipts are caught by gusts of wind, blown around and deposited among the median plantings. Homeless use it to hide their belongings or sleep in it. So, it needs constant attention. Even as the city has accepted our work and awarded it with a beautification prize, it still does not provide maintenance nor an irrigation system for watering. There is still a need to build a broader sense of community around the Pollinator Boulevard so people take initiative to help in cleaning, maintenance, and watering as part of the projectâ€™s social ownership.
BASE Landscape Architecture and With Honey in the Heart still dream of transforming all of Dolores Street into a continuous pollinator garden that will promote environmental and social connectivity in the city. A neighboring school has asked With Honey in the Heart to collaborate with them on the installation and maintenance of a third median. Little by little the pollinator patch is growing, gaining traction, and the concept is moving forward. We hope that others will be inspired to create similar pollinator projects in their cities and we can expand the network of pollinator gardens across the world.
POLLINATOR GROUND COVER
Drought tolerant pollinator ground covers such as Thymus serpyllum, Ceanothus â€˜Centennialâ€™, Dymondia margaretae, and Calandrinia spectabilis would mimic the low profile and character of the existing historic turf grass while providing greater opportunities for pollinator species.
A variety of colorful, drought tolerant pollinator shrubs and perennials would be selected for year round bloom time and provide a constant nectar source for pollinators.
Narrow mulch footpaths would allow neighborhood residents a chance to walk among a patch of nature and to continue walking their dogs in the median space.
Natural log seating would be placed along strategic points in the path for neighborhood residents to connect with each other, enjoy a coffee, take a break, or read a book.
Intervention Typologies Several intervention possibilities were imagined and explored through our initial design work. Through feedback from a series of community meetings, it was determined that the first two medians were best suited for use as pollinator habitat.
DOG WASTE STATION
DOG WASTE STATION
By placing dog waste stations along the pathway, neighborhood residents will be encouraged to pick up after their dogs to keep the space tidy and enjoyable for everyone.
Educational value can be provided though informative signage. Here neighborhood residents would be able to find information about the project, the history of the space, the importance of pollinators, and perhaps post information of their own about events happening in their community.
Public art pieces would serve as points of interest along the meandering path.
BiBLiOgRAPHy Bilot, Danielle. 2014. Saving natives Bees to save Diversity. Associate ASLA. https://thefield.asla. org/2014/12/12/pollinators-the-city/#more-3325 Fettes Anthony, ASLA, PLA, SITeS AP, 2018. Promoting Pollinator Habitat as Landscape Architects Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations, (FAO) 2018. Why do Bees matter. Galea, Mary et al. 2016. Technical Manual for Maintaining roadsides for Pollinators, establishment, restoration, Management and Maintenance. A guide for DOT Managers and Staff. Pollinator Partnership Garibaldi, L.A. et al. From research to action: enhancing crop yield through wild pollinators. ecol environ 2014; 12 (8): 439-447 Garibaldi, L.A. et al. Trait matching of flower visitors and crops predicts fruit set better than trait diversity. Journal of Applied ecology 2015, 52, 1436â€“1444 Hopwood, Jennifer. 2010. Pollinators and roadsides. Managing Roadsides for Bees and ButterfliesInvertebrate Conservation Guidelines. The Xerces Society of Invertebrate Conservation. Humming bird nest facts. http://www. birdsandblooms.com/birding/attractinghummingbirds/hummingbird-nest-facts/ russ, Thomas. (2009). Site Planning and Design Handbook. Second edition. Mc Graw Hill p.507 Silva, CAS. et al. (2018). Bee Pollination Highly Improves Oil Quality in Sunflower. Sociobiology 65(4): 583-590 (October, 2018) Special Issue Vanbergen, et al. (2013). Threats to an ecosystem Service: pressures on pollinators. ecol environ 2013; 11(5): 251â€“259,