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h c r A M D U Urbann Desig 2014 2013–

The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

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The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL


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Introduction FrĂŠdĂŠric Migayrou, Bob Sheil B-Pro: MArch Urban Design Adrian Lahoud

Research Clusters

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

11 MArch UDI: The Project for the Mediterranean Adrian Lahoud 12 Research Cluster 11 The City, The Territory, The Planetary: Architecture after Monotheism Sam Jacoby, Adrian Lahoud 28 Research Cluster 12 Dynamic Catalysts: Tangier Peter Besley, Hannah Corlett, Jonathan Kendall 44 Research Cluster 14 Coastlines: Urbanisation of the Sea Ross Exo Adams, Beth Hughes, Davide Sacconi 60 Research Cluster 15 Monsters of the Subsoil/Ruins in Reverse Platon Issaias, Camila E. Sotomayor 77 MArch UDII: Urban Morphogenesis Claudia Pasquero 78 Research Cluster 16 Bio-Urban Design Lab Claudia Pasquero, Marco Poletto 94 Research Cluster 17 Mess-Match Ulrika Karlsson, Maj Plemenitas 110 Research Cluster 18 Relational Urbanism Enriqueta Llabres, Eduardo Rico 128 GAD Staff Biographies 132 Staff & Consultants 134 B-Pro Lectures


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

B-Pro Show 2013



Professor Frédéric Migayrou Chair, Bartlett Professor of Architecture Director of B-Pro

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

B-Pro, Bartlett Prospective, is a global postgraduate entity within the School of Architecture currently composed of two advanced courses: the MArch Graduate Architectural Design (GAD), led by Alisa Andrasek, providing access to the most sophisticated research in design and fabrication; and the MArch Urban Design (UD), directed by Adrian Lahoud, opening critical and theoretical strategies in urbanism and offering new approaches to creating cities. The one-year B-Pro programmes welcome a diverse international student cohort and offer highly structured access to the realisation and application of research, and to the production of new schemes of conception and construction in architecture and urbanism. B-Pro has developed numerous lectures, seminars and workshops to underpin these ideas and promote a broad dialogue. To this end, the 2013-2014 MArch GAD course was organised around six Research Clusters driven by their respective tutors. These Clusters featured specific research in a number of domains, and offered the opportunity to gain access to new computational tools and a new culture of scripting, directly connected to tools of fabrication. Inspired by, and directly related to, the current scene of international architecture creation, the teaching of supercomputing, and software packages such as Maya, Grasshopper, Arduino, Processing and other generative platforms, comes from the perspective of an innovative idea of conception and fabrication in association with new digital production facilities (robots, SLS printing, advanced CNC tools etc). MArch UD is organised around two sections, UDI: ‘The Project for the Mediterranean’, led by Adrian Lahoud and UDII: ‘Urban Morphogenesis’, led by Claudia Pasquero. Based on a global overview of the Mediterranean context, the 2013-2014 MArch UDI course offered new theoretical schemes to analyse this complex social, cultural, economical 4

and political territory. Alternative proposals based on new morphological concepts and protocols were developed in response to urban field studies. The MArch UDII course engaged urban design as a computational practice to prefigure alternative models of the city represented as a complex dynamic system. The ambition of the stream is to stimulate a transdisciplinary discourse that reaches wider academic research networks as well as scientific organisations involved in the study of the city as a living system, and in the development of future bio-digital technologies. The Bartlett International Lecture Series – with numerous speakers, architects, historians and theoreticians and sponsored by Fletcher Priest Architects – presented the opportunity for students to encounter the main streams of research that will be influential in the near future. The school’s production facilities were enhanced by B-Made, a global entity for fabrication which launched in 2014. Students’ work evolved through different crit sessions and the B-Pro Show at the Royal Ear Hospital, with the presentation of drawings, models and animations, all of a very high quality, which clearly demonstrate the intense activity undertaken throughout the year. Through the federative idea of creative architecture, B-Pro is an opportunity for students to find a way to participate in a new community and to affirm the singularity and originality of individual talents. These programmes are not only an open door to advanced architecture but also the base from which each student can define a singular practice and invent a strategy to find a position in the professional world. Looking ahead, 2014 will mark a very particular year in the School’s history, as we move into refitted temporary premises at 140 Hampstead Road while UCL invests over £40m in extending and refurbishing Wates House. The next two years will bring unprecedented opportunities for renewal. For the first time, B-Pro will be housed alongside the School’s professional programmes, presenting greater opportunities for collaborative working.


Professor Bob Sheil Director of The Bartlett School of Architecture Taking over as Director of The Bartlett School of Architecture in January 2014 has allowed me the privilege to witness the intense energy and excited ambition of staff and students on the B-Pro programmes. Over the last three years (a very short space of time), Professor Frédéric Migayrou has led the revitalisation and reinvention of advanced architectural research, from the digital bites of dynamic models to the tactile blocks of cities, infrastructure, and materials in the B-Pro project. Change is an immensely powerful agency in research and education. It must be, and is here, both provocative and risk-taking – two qualities that have underpinned the School’s immense success across the past three decades. I therefore applaud all staff involved in making this year, this show, and this book a success, and most of all I congratulate all graduating students on their inspiring efforts that have raised the bar once again.


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

We will have at our disposal better workshops than ever before, as well as essential social spaces. B-Pro is currently developing links with The Bartlett’s MArch Architectural History Programme, to stimulate new exchanges between History and Theory, and Design and Technology, and thereby extend the field of research between each area. Finally, in 2016, it will be 175 years since architectural education first started in the UK following the appointment of Thomas L. Donaldson as UCL’s first Professor of Architecture in 1841. We will be planning and announcing a series of celebrations soon, not least the opening of our new building on Gordon Street. The September 2014 B-Pro exhibition and the publication of this book provide an excellent overview of the depth of quality and the intensity of the teaching of The Bartlett’s tutors. What they also showcase is the passion of all the students involved.

B-Pro: MArch Urban Design Programme Leader: Dr Adrian Lahoud

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

The MArch Urban Design (UD) is a world-leading forum for radical experimentation in urban design education. Bringing together a wide range of experts with international urban design experience, it sets out to reimagine the way that cities shape human life. The 12-month programme brings together a new generation of designers and thinkers from across the world in order to provide a rich and challenging space for long-term research on urbanisation and design. It is part of B-Pro, the umbrella structure for post-professional Masters programmes at The Bartlett School of Architecture, directed by Professor Frédéric Migayrou. Studio inquiry ranges across an expansive set of scales and bodies of knowledge culminating with a design project and thesis. Environmental and ecological questions are prioritised within a critical structure that embraces the dispersed, often paradoxical nature of contemporary urbanism. The curriculum introduces students to various fields such as archaeology, anthropology, biology, ecological history, governance, law, media, philosophy, planning and political theory. Crossstudio dialogue is emphasised, as is a collective work ethic. MArch UD is a socially and environmentally engaged programme that explores the future of the city and the kinds of lives human beings will lead as we enter the new millennium. There are few factors that influence the quality of our lives more than the cities we choose to live in. Creatively influencing how these cities will work is one of the major challenges that humans face as more and more of us decide to live in urban areas.

MArch UD operates in two streams, UDI: The Project for the Mediterranean, and UDII: Urban Morphogenesis. Drawing on expertise in the city of London and world-leading teachers and practitioners, we set out to educate the next generation of urban designers, leaders, and decisionmakers. A diverse and international student body from across Europe, Asia and the Americas, graduates from The Bartlett School of Architecture go on to work with major architecture and urban design practices across the world. B-Pro Director Professor Frédéric Migayrou B-Pro Deputy Director Andrew Porter MArch UD Programme Leader, UDI Stream Leader Dr Adrian Lahoud UDII Stream Leader Claudia Pasquero Research Clusters MArch UDI: The Project for the Mediterranean RC11: Sam Jacoby, Adrian Lahoud with Samaneh Moafi RC12: Peter Besley, Hannah Corlett, Jonathan Kendall RC14: Ross Exo Adams, Beth Hughes, Davide Sacconi RC15: Platon Issaias, Camila E. Sotomayor MArch UDII: Urban Morphogenesis RC16: Claudia Pasquero, Marco Poletto RC17: Ulrika Karlsson, Maj Plemenitas RC18: Enriqueta Llabres, Eduardo Rico with Zachary Fluker History Theory Module Coordinator Godofredo Pereira We are grateful to our sponsors UD Bursary 2013-14: Foster + Partners Lighting: iGuzzini International Lecture Series: Fletcher Priest Trust


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

RC12 field trip to Tangier, Morocco


RC14 crit at The Bartlett

RC15 field trip to Athens, Greece

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


Stream Leader: Dr Adrian Lahoud

The programme makes a commitment to a multi-scalar pedagogical structure in which urbanisation is understood as a planetary design problem. It uses the idea of a design project to re-organise discourse on the social and political future of the Mediterranean, challenging existing narratives about social and political transformation, proposing new possibilities for action and change in the wake of multiple crises. The design projects draw on cutting edge technologies including geospatial information systems, remote sensing applications and climate simulation. The programme engages with local stakeholders and researchers in other disciplines, and hosts symposia with leaders of major scientific research institutes on the future of renewable and non-renewable resources, migration and internal displacement, refugees, climate change and financial precarity. The Project for the Mediterranean will culminate in 2015 with a major publication and international exhibition, drawing together the results of an ambitious urban and architectural design programme of research, comprising public lectures, conferences, workshops, roundtables and symposia.

1. How do the unprecedented transformations taking place in Northern Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East force us to rethink the meaning of design and the idea of the city? 2. How do we envision design practices that are able to participate in emancipatory social and political processes? The project brings together students, world leading practitioners, teachers and researchers in a public programme of design research. Working with institutional partners and collaborators in host countries, the project marks a serious and sustained engagement with this complex geopolitical context through the specific capacities and disciplinary knowledge of architecture and urban design. 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

It is a fact that more building mass will be produced in the coming decades than has ever been produced in the history of humanity. Like little factories, every project in every city will propose a certain idea of the human condition. This avalanche of architecture without architects – of urbanisation without urban designers – will radically transform the way human beings live together. And yet, at the very moment of this enormous possibility, very few design programmes seem willing to face this reality with all of its complication head on. Engaging with this seriously means moving design education beyond empty formalism in order to revitalise the very idea of an ongoing project – something that is able to mobilise and sustain a collectivity beyond the lifespan of a degree or a single intervention. UDI is a platform for design research and dialogue that is collectively organised around a common region in the world according to a three-year cycle – presently exploring the Mediterranean. It proposes new and experimental visions of the city in the context of radical social, economic and political upheavals in Northern Africa, Southern Europe and the Middle East. The project sets out to answer two fundamental questions:

MArch UDI: The Project for the Mediterranean

MArch UDI: The Project for the Mediterranean


The City, The Territory, The Planetary: Architecture after Monotheism Sam Jacoby, Adrian Lahoud with Samaneh Moafi

Students Ran Bi, Xin Bi, Shen-Chun Chi, Isabel Gutierrez Castillo, Jun Han, Xi Hu, Anna Jarkiewicz, Kwanghyun Ku, Alexandra Meyer, Phed Niyomsilp, Briallen Roberts, Chen Shao, Seokjae Song, Sunnam Won, Chunyan Wu, Xuan Zhao

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Project teams Liquid Earth, Solid Sea Alexandra Meyer, Briallen Roberts, Sunnam Won, Xi Hu Camp to City/City to Camp Xin Bi, Seokjae Song, Chunyan Wu, Xuan Zhao Our Invisible Shore Isabel Gutierrez Castillo, Jun Han, Kwanghyun Ku, Chen Shao An Island for an Empire Ran Bi, Shen-Chun Chi, Anna Jarkiewicz, Phed Niyomsilp Thanks to our consultants and critics: Andrea Bagnato, Franco Cassano, Phillip Clemens, Mark Drury, Sherief Gaber, Mehran Gharleghi, Octavian Gheorghiu, Richard Goodwin, Manuel Herz, Adam Jasper, John Macarthur, Samar Maqusi, Bruno Moser, Daniel Fernández Pascual, Charles Rice, Amin Sadeghy, Alon Schwabe, Corrine Silva, Vicente Soler, Paulo Tavares, Richard Taylor, Elia Zenghelis

We need breaks that render impossible the reductionism of one regime of beings to another (life reduced to matter, mind to life etc.) Not a mono-pluralism, but a poly-dualism … The whole of the real … one suspects, is on the contrary fissured magnificently by differences in nature.1 One culture, multiple natures – one epistemology, multiple ontologies. Perspectivism implies multinaturalism, for a perspective is not a representation.2 Research Cluster 11 begins with a theoretical text on the idea of ‘difference’. For political reasons, this text never takes the form of a brief; instead it is a theoretical and philosophical provocation to think new thoughts together. This year, we explored the productive potential of conflict and contradiction following a rigorous design methodology that asked students to formulate their own research and a thesis project at four different scales. Large-scale projects of spatial and social reform in Libya, Algeria, Turkey and Lebanon mobilise urban design and architecture as critical tools of a new spatial and political imaginary. The ethos of Cluster 11 is non-reductive and polytheistic, meaning students must reconstruct a problematic social, environmental and economic conflict through their project. Urban design always involves a multiplicity of forces – we ask students to explore and formalise these tensions through their design projects, not in order to neutralise them, but rather to liberate their violent potential. This is ‘architecture after monotheism’. While the cities of the past could still turn conflict in space to conflict in time – each regime leaving its own mark alongside others in a dialectic of succession – the cities to come can do nothing more than hold an uneasy claim on the present. Furthermore, the old idea of a city as a space in which all ties dissolve in an anonymous and cosmopolitan sea of civic belonging, can no longer withstand the evidence that everywhere perforates the attempts to insulate inside from outside, that links the near and far, the weak and the strong. The question then is this: how to start? How to start without these despotic ideals: the public, the common, the city, the state, and the planet? Moreover, how to accomplish this without relying on concepts like participation, pluralism and multiculturalism that only serve to pacify difference? It is a formidable task. It is not for nothing that difference cannot be thought easily; difference is not diversity, difference is violence.

1. Quentin Meillassoux, Iteration, Reiteration, Repetition: A Speculative Analysis of the Meaningless Sign (Berlin: Freie Universitiit, 20 April 2012) 2. Eduardo Batalha Viveiros de Castro, Exchanging Perspectives: The Transformation of Objects into Subjects in Amerindian Ontologies (2004) 12

Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

11.3 Fig. 11.1 An Island for an Empire ‘Domestic Type Detail’. Figs. 11.2 – 11.6 Camp to City/City to Camp ‘Thresholds of Normalisation in the Bekaa Valley’. The space of the camp and the refugee and the space of the city and its citizens are not the same – but this does not mean they have no relation to each other. In older refugee camps in Jordan or Lebanon, constructed 60 to 90 years ago, often we cannot immediately distinguish between the space of the camp and the city. This relation has provoked us to think about the concepts of camp and city and what makes one transform into the other. The refugee and the citizen are key to defining this transformation. Therefore the comparison of the camp and city must include a comparison of the concepts refugee and citizen. The process of normalisation erodes the status of the enclave in spatial

terms, but this is not always reciprocal to the rights that refugees gain in comparison to the citizens of the city. The idea of normalisation is controversial. Refugee rights, especially the right to return to their home country, are subject to significant political disagreements and conflicts between refugees but also the host and international community, as it upholds the temporality and precarity of the refugee status. Fig. 11.2 Map of Lebanon, created from GIS data sets. Fig. 11.3 Perspective of camp in the process of transformation.


Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 11.4 We acknowledge the importance of this political claim and respect the desire for normalisation. We propose a potential space in which both positions can coexist. Since the question of normalisation has an important material aspect, our project explores the use of material, especially its status as temporary or permanent, to reimagine the idea of the camp. In doing so we reimagine the idea of the city. The question of time is very important to the project. This project is designed with future phases of development envisioned from the beginning. For the first few years, the priority is speed of construction to shelter refugees. Therefore we propose a very simple modular system that takes advantage of local construction techniques. In the second phase, after several years, there is a shift in priority toward a coexistence between different communities, and the 16

transformation of the camp toward something more structurally permanent, a possible transformation of temporary refugee accommodation into permanent housing. In the third phase, we imagine the camp as a city, a transformation driven by the changing functions of shared infrastructures such as housing and especially education. Thus, from camp to city. From city to camp. Fig. 11.4 Perspective view of communal education facility and refugee accommodation. Fig. 11.5 Axonometric of communal education facility and refugee accommodation. Fig. 11.6 Perspective view of camp in the process of transformation.

Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


Research Cluster 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

11.8 Figs. 11.7 – 11.8 Our Invisible Shore ‘Agrarian and Industrial Reform in North Africa’. If one draws a plan of Africa at 100 metres below ground, the continent appears as an archipelago of landmasses floating in the sea. These underground aquifers have the potential to radically reshape the future of the continent. This project deals with agrarian and industrial reform in the North of Africa. We identify four areas with potential in Libya: water infrastructure, agriculture, textile manufacturing and food production industry. We recognise that each of them represent a specific social organisation, typical form and economic or technical protocols. If this is true, by proposing new urban spaces, we also propose a reform of social relations. Our proposed urban settlement takes Gaddafi’s Great Man-made River Project as the driver of this envisioned reform.

It starts with the creation of agricultural fields and opens up possibilities for other industrial activities such as the food processing and textile manufacturing. Natural resources, infrastructure, production and living are rethought in their relations in this prototypical African city. Fig. 11.7 Map of Libya, created from GIS data sets. Fig. 11.8 Libya Masterplan showing production clusters.


Research Cluster 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

11.10 Figs. 11.9 – 11.11 An Island for an Empire ‘Infrastructural Delirium and the Birth of the New Ottoman Project’. Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s ambitious 40 billion dollar Istanbul Kanal Project is 45km long and promises to create 2.5 million jobs. The project invokes a familiar metropolitan condition. The socioeconomic gap between the urban poor and the new global elites has converted the city scape into an archipelago of enclaves. Cities tend to be divided into ‘voluntary and involuntary seclusions’ without any interpenetration or any in-between spaces for coexistence. The canal itself is already a manifestation of violent conflicts between the environment, equity, social organisation, labour mobility and political will. The project explores this difficult potential and conflict that infrastructural lines bring to urban design. The complexity of

an infrastructure project at this scale is an expression of political will, environmental issues and social engineering, a mixture created as a kind of delirium – an infrastructural delirium that gives birth to a new Ottoman project. Fig. 11.9 Map of Istanbul, created from GIS data sets. Fig. 11.10 Interior perspective of production type. Fig. 11.11 Axonometric and section through production type.


Research Cluster 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


Research Cluster 11

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

11.13 Figs. 11.12 – 11.13 Liquid Earth, Solid Sea ‘The Sahara as an Autonomous Productive Network.’ The project, based in Southern Algeria, presents a new city model within a proposed network of Saharan trade centres that will reorient Africa away from the Mediterranean and back toward the Sahara. If security makes the Mediterranean solid, insecurity makes the Sahara liquid. If the Sahara is a sea, we imagine that the cities on its shore become ports and the cities in its centre archipelagos. Our network sits directly above one of the largest groundwater aquifers on the continent. Our city plan is based on a socio-political diagram in which conflict between different constituencies is spatialised. We propose a city with no hegemony, that exists in a permanent state of asymmetry driven by the tension between each group. The edge of the

port city is organised by a re-invention of the pier, which becomes a membrane able to regulate trade and also to discipline the unregulated sprawl typical of urbanisation in this area. The centre of the city will remain empty except for a water body drawn from the aquifer, whose purpose is to regulate the ambient temperature in the desert climate. Fig. 11.12 Map of Algeria, created from GIS data sets. Fig. 11.13 Plan model of proposed city type.



Dynamic Catalysts: Tangier Peter Besley, Hannah Corlett, Jonathan Kendall

Students Zhi Chen, Ni Nyoman Dewi, Amanda Ellis, Ester Fernandez-Aragones, Zhi Gao, Chris Haines, Loukia Iliopoulou, Byung Gyoon Jung, Hyeyoung Kim, Yangxiaxi Liu, Muammar Adam Mohd Taufik, Wanyu Su, Chrysanthi Tsiasioti, Panyang Xie, Suhee Youm, Yi Zhang

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Thanks to our consultants and critics: Peter Bishop, Joon Chung, Iulia Fratila, Dan Hill, Adrian Lahoud, John MacArthur, Godofredo Pereira, Andrew Porter


This year Research Cluster 12 focused on the theme of dynamic urban catalysts in the context of the city of Tangier. Tangier provides a unique setting for such an exploration. The city sits in a strategically prominent position between Africa and Europe, and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. It has been a colonial outpost, an International Zone, and is today the northernmost region of the monarchical Moroccan state. Tangier is currently undergoing rapid development, with investments including the construction of a European-funded Free Zone, a new container port, new towns, and related high-speed rail and road networks. With the rapid pace of internal migration, the population has trebled in the last 30 years. The city is shaped by multiple boundary conditions, nested within one another, overlapping and adjacent. These have historically defined its strategic value and continue to shape its contemporary condition. In this context, Tangier can be seen as a territory exemplifying contestation and collaboration in its distribution of spatial, economic and social resources. It operates within and beyond multiple boundaries. Disputed territories define its relationship to sovereign neighbours. Economic internal boundaries create taxation advantages in relation to global trading markets. Rapid urbanisation has resulted in the formation of large non-regulated housing settlements that blur the boundaries between city and landscape. Whilst the Tangier-Tetouan region is a distinctive condition shaped by its geographical position and historic processes of colonisation and migratory flows, it can also be seen as a microcosm of phenomena operating at multiple scales across the Mediterranean. Cluster 12 looks specifically at the city as a dynamic phenomenon. Implicit in this is an interest in understanding cities as a field of stakes and protagonists, rather than a collection of disinterested objects. We are interested in interventions in the city using forces of contestation and collaboration. As any urban dweller knows, the city is a constantly mutating entity, the result of the activities of a constellation of agents. How can the designer make an opportunity of the mutability of the city and its disaggregated authorship? Exploring this, students worked in groups as well as individually on design projects testing the possibility of designed dynamic catalysts. Vehicles adopted by the students included those familiar to urban design such as form, density, infrastructure and typology. These were inextricably combined and usually led by cross-disciplinary ambitions for proposed economic, social and political conditions.

Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 12 12.2 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 12.3 Fig. 12.1 Loukia Iliopoulou ‘Platform’. This project’s intervention focuses around the Tangier Morora station and the adjacent industrial zone in the east of Tangier which sits between several Non-Regulated Housing (NRH) settlements. The area includes a flood-afflicted valley with steep surrounding topography. Proposed large scale ‘platforms’ address the need to create occupiable flat terrain to support new programmes at scales larger than the domestic. Parallel platforms that respond to the variant hillsides pivot around a large new proposed general market vertically connected to the rail tracks and floodplain below. The edges of each platform create a framework for progressive inhabitation. A capillary system of trading places stretches out from the primary market linking both sides of the valley to this major new ‘terrestrial port’. 30

Fig. 12.2 Amanda Ellis, Loukia Iliopoulou, Wanyu Su, Suhee Youm ‘Smithfield Market’. In the proposed catalytic scenario, the market is significantly enlarged and diversified. Large punched holes in the ground-plane and new horizontal and vertical circulation re-engage the extensive network of underground chambers and large above-ground cold-stores. The complex spatial arrangement of the new market(s) and surrounding area, both in plan and section, is exploited for maximum effect. Small former livestock courtyards littering the area are reactivated. Careful densification and alterations of uses and movement in the entire surrounding area are envisaged. Figs. 12.3 – 12.6 Loukia Iliopoulou ‘Platform’.

Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 12


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


Research Cluster 12 12.7

12.8 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


12.10 Figs. 12.7 – 12.10 Amanda Ellis ‘Platform’. The large NonRegulated Housing (NRH) settlements on the outskirts of Tangier are comprised of a multitude of concrete and brick residential buildings. The lack of the spatial or economic means for communities to come together and form Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is a significant brake on their prospects and living standards. Similarly, the granular and incremental approach to the provision of infrastructure and services lacks a critical mass in its execution to be properly effective. This project reverses the trend and posits a strategic entry point to both the questions of economic relationships and service provision. Large superstructural bases are proposed at key locations in the NRH fabric providing platforms in which locally formed SME’s can rapidly form 34

and flourish. The size of the bases and their impact as a network allows government coordination of services infrastructure across the outer Tangier metropolitan area. The platform bases act as fully equipped nodes, radiating supply of services to the surrounding community over time. Spatially the platforms are shaped as large ‘peninsula’ forms, rising dramatically from the characteristically vigorous Tangier topography. Roof planes are run into the hillsides, directly engaging the topography, and provide critical public space, landscape, and civic uses at this level in addition to the economically productive levels below. Provided with a robust superstructure, the platforms are designed to accommodate great churn and adaption in their user occupation over time. Fig. 12.11 Christopher Haines ‘Platform’.

Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 12 12.12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


12.16 Figs. 12.12 – 12.14 Christopher Haines ‘Platform’. NonRegulated Housing (NRH) settlements provide much of the workforce for Tangier’s industrial area and continues to undergo explosive growth. This project’s intervention focuses around the eastern region of Tangier where the existing industrial zone sits between several rapidly expanding NRH settlements. The site contains steep topography and a flood afflicted valley. The proposed platforms address the need to create occupiable flat terrain to support new programmes at a large scale. Spatially the platforms exploit the characteristically vigorous Tangier topography: floor and roof plates collide with hillsides, directly engaging the topography, and provide critical public space, landscape, and civic uses. Provided with a robust superstructure, the platforms are designed to accommodate 36

extensive change and variability in their user occupation over time. Figs. 12.15 – 12.16 Zhi Chen, Yangxiaxi Liu ‘Compact’. This project connects and explores two specific urban conditions in the central district of Tangier: the legacy of European boulevard street patterns, and the intense pressure of rising population density in the city. Large scale insertions are placed into reclaimed road voids, transforming their cross-sections and densifying urban blocks. Existing street-facing buildings are radically altered by the new insertions. The microclimate and experience of the public realm at ground plane is also transformed. At city scale, the insertions are made linearly and have a catalytic effect over time, creating linked routes and triggering dendritic offshoots.

Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




Research Cluster 12 12.17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 12.18 Figs. 12.17 – 12.18 Ni Nyoman Dewi, Ester Fernandez Aragones ‘Point’. Tangier has for most of the last century operated as a border, a place of transition between Africa and Europe. In recent decades it has been the site of mass migration for those wishing to flee Africa for the economic possibilities of Europe. Since the global financial crisis of 2007, and initiatives from the Moroccan Monarchy, Tangier has seen a shift in these migratory patterns where the city has now become a destination both for Africans and Europeans alike. The proposal seeks to integrate the new influx of European migrants into the heart of Tangier, both economically and spatially, by creating a network of support facilities and housing. The networks form routes that are located around key public gathering spaces strategically located such that 38

Tangier’s position with the Strait of Gibraltar can be read and understood.

Research Cluster 12

12.20 12.19

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 12 12.22 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 12.23 Figs. 12.22 – 12.24 Chrysanthi Tsiasioti ‘Platform’. The new road and rail route to market and completion of the container port will spark large expansion of Tangier’s existing industrial area via its trunk road connection, provoking explosive growth in the Moghoga and adjacent Non-Regulated Housing (NRH) settlements. Historically the growth of the NRH settlements has been rapid and without the integration of landscape or urban elements beyond the base housing unit, including utilities or movement infrastructure. The proposal looks to rethink the framework in which these self-build settlements occupy the elevated terrains within Tangier. Inserted high streets circle existing hilltops like urban ‘balconies’, differentiating the summit from the inclined terrain and injecting services, employment and multi-residential units 40

into the existing homogeneity of single houses. Steep new pedestrian spines link the new high streets with the valleybased transport infrastructure below. Located in the voids between settlements, these spines occupy different faces of the vigorous slopes. As well as seeding new housing platforms they knit together adjacent communities and connect services up to the proposed ‘ring streets’ which serve as utilities mains. On the pinnacle of each hill, landscape corridors that thread through the region become ecological parkland for residents farming pigeons and migratory birds crossing from Europe to Africa.

Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


12.26 Figs. 12.25 – 12.26 Byung Gyoon Jung ‘Co-opt’. The new road/ rail route to market and completion of the container port will spark large expansion of Tangier’s existing industrial area via its main road connection, provoking explosive growth in the Moghoga and adjacent Non-Regulated Housing (NRH) settlements. Historically the growth of the non-regulated settlements has been rapid and without the integration of urban elements other than the base housing unit. Muchneeded social and physical infrastructure is difficult to inject retrospectively in the rapidly saturated settlements, and those that exist are often at low level and peripheral. Where the topography is too challenging for domestic construction, none occurs, and gaps or ‘tears’ are created in the otherwise continuous urban fabric. These tears are the sites chosen for 42

intervention, seeding a network of educational and environmentally generative interventions in both existing and future settlements. The proposals utilise the physical benefits of the topography through strategic intervention and manipulation of the physical terrain.

Research Cluster 12


12.28 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


12.30 Figs. 12.27 – 12.30 Amanda Ellis, Loukia Iliopoulou, Wanyu Su, Suhee Youm, ‘Smithfield Market’.



Coastlines: Urbanisation of the Sea Ross Exo Adams, Beth Hughes, Davide Sacconi

Students Wen Fang Deng, Li Hu, Hsin-Yu Huang, Anuja Joshi, Xue Ke, Linxi Li, Theodora Lympoura, Maryam Masoudi, Richa Narvekar, Jidi Pan, Jie Qin, Mary-Jane Wood, Tong Xiao, Weiyi Yang, Yuhan Yang, Jie Zhang

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Thanks to our consultants and critics: Aristides Antonas, Kivank Basak, Gianfranco Bombaci, Phil Clemens, Matteo Costanzo, Nazli Ece Ünsal, Stavros Martinos, Gabriele Mastrigli, Luca Montuori, Daniel Fernández Pascual, Lorenzo Pezzani, Godofredo Pereira, Douglas Spencer, Georgio Talocci, Elia Zenghelis


The history of the Mediterranean is a history of the relation between land and sea. The ‘Middle Sea’ has been the theatre of ‘corruption’, driving a social and economic ecology of exchange, conflict and rivalry while propping up political entities from constellations of city states to vast empires. Classically, if the land has been characterised by order, law, sovereignty, calculation and territoriality, the sea has remained the space of lawlessness – a space open to the freedom of adventure, conquest, seduction and danger. Today, spatial and imaginary barriers between the two have eroded rapidly, and each has begun to inhabit the other. Faced with the problem of what has been called ‘planetary urbanisation’, it is as if the land is most like the sea and the sea, most like the land. The Mediterranean is a space criss-crossed by countless legal, political and commercial lines and securitised and patrolled more than any other body of water on the earth – it is a space defined completely by control, limits and borders, circumscribed by permanent conflict. In contrast, the lands abutting this space have been given over to a ravenous process of urbanisation, transforming the landscape into a horizon whose valleys and flatlands are continuously filled in with a rampant, disoriented scape of urbanisation. In cities such as Athens, Beirut and Algiers a formless mud of urbanisation creeps ever outward into the open space of indifferent, undifferentiated land. The space of the sea has become the space of regulated circulation. It is the realm in which the materials of the urban, packed in pixelated shipping containers, pumped through trans-oceanic pipelines and processed in great floating machines – it is the calculated machine that enables the infinity of the urban to persist. Together, the two spaces are inseparable; it is impossible to conceive of one without bearing the other in mind. Research Cluster 14 seeks to engage strategically and critically into the process of the urbanisation of the world, cultivating a radical form of urban design through multiple scales of instrumentality. The Cluster charted a course from east to west of the Mediterranean through Istanbul, Athens and Rome. Our point of departure and conceptual ‘site’ of intervention was the coastline where the two spatialities of land and sea collide. We have designed a series of urban ‘devices’ in the form of architectural interventions, legal and policy frameworks and development systems. These ‘devices’ reveal and act upon both the differences of these spaces, while also revealing the singular logic that determines urbanisation and the rapid unfurling of a spatial order, which in turn seeks to encompass the entire globe.

Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 14

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014







Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Fig. 14.1 Mediterranean Coastlines Figs. 14.2 – 14.8 Jidi Pan ‘Super Beach’. Moving from the idea of urbanisation as an interior condition and of the beach as a widely infrastructural territory for weak and diffused urbanisation, the project is an attempt to radicalise such a condition displacing the elements that characterise it and reconfiguring them within a specific spatial frame. The site is a slice of the territory of Ostia, the seaside neighborhood of Rome. Perpendicular to the coast it intersects all the different and dispersed conditions that constitute this strip of urbanisation: the sea, the beach, the parking spaces, the fascist villas, the residential buildings, the park, and the railway. Archeologically reconstructing the anatomy of the urban, the project uncovers and resignifies the elements hidden below the visible generic layer of the city.

The project clashes in one spatial configuration, two radically opposite systems of urbanisation. On the top level, a series of functionally over-determined and rigid strips that interrupt and give rhythm. Below, an open field of activities happening under an enormous light roof, suspended between the rigid bars. These two completely different spaces are radical interpretations of the existing components of the coastline occupation where the endless character of urbanisation is thus captured, exposed and embodied in the materiality and disappearance of architectural space.


Research Cluster 14 14.9

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 14.10 Figs. 14.9 – 14.10 Richa Narvekar ‘Territorial Campus’. Departing from an investigation into the apparatuses that constitute circulation as a mechanism of territorialisation and control, the project uses Ostia, the seaside area of the municipality of Rome, as a case study and testing ground for a system of punctual interventions. The territory of Ostia is read as the result of the intersection (or absence of intersection) of different components: a seaside resort, a neighbourhood of Rome, an agrarian landscape and a world level archaeological site. The project aims to expose possible intersections of these territorial components through the idea of a Territorial Campus. A series of strategic and site-specific interventions, all characterised by an archaeological and geological relationship with the ground, identify and exploit points of 48

tensions in the circulatory system of Ostia. Situating a diffuse campus at these precise locations generates a radically new territorial system where the archaeological heritage and the other neglected local characters of Ostia could offer a form of resistance to the global Mediterranean tourism economy and an opportunity to reappropriate the productive potential of the area.

Research Cluster 14


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


14.13 Figs. 14.11 – 14.13 Li Hu ‘Hybrid-Market Piraeus’. Looking at how the transformation of logistics and the process of ‘containerisation’ affects not only the harbour, but also the production of urbanisation itself, the project proposes to short-circuit the logistics system in order to reappropriate the mechanisms of production and circulation of goods. Merging the container harbour with the market and superimposing a reinterpretation of Athens’ housing typology, the project collapses the entire system of production and reproduction into one space. This operation introduces a completely different scale to the fragmented fabric of Athens, redefining the edge between the land and the sea as a crucial moment to rethink the form of production of the city. The project exploits the highway connection and the existing piers of an under-

used area of Piraeus strategically located in between the passenger terminal and the commercial harbour. The ground floor is the container market, a fully automated space where the movement of containers directly from cargo ships to the shop floor is controlled remotely by computer allowing customers to buy products from vending machines. Vertical circulation connects the market via escalators to the a large functional car park on the mezzanine floor and to a new ground floor that sits at the level of the city. At this level a generic checkered fabric hosts two alternating types: the solid block as the evolution of the polykatoikia and the perimeter block as a reinterpretation of the Chara building. The project in an island completely autonomous and connected by a thin pedestrian bridge and through the highway. 49

Research Cluster 14 14.14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 14.15 Figs. 14.14 – 14.18 Linxi Li, Jie Qin, Tong Xiao ‘Grabbing Pireaus’. Using Piraeus as a case study, the project explores the mechanisms and implications of land grabbing as an economic/political phenomenon with spatial and social consequences. The legal boundaries and physical accessibility of the coastline are manipulated through a series of architectural interventions. Three different strategic prototypes offer a specific architectural form that corresponds to a different political and economic relationship and operate on the boundaries between private capital and public realm: ‘The Generator’, financed by domestic or foreign capital, produces value through the controlled privatisation of land. Commercial buildings are organised in dense linear clusters releasing the coastline and exploiting the productive dialogue between the 50

public and private realm. ‘The Accumulator’ concentrates and reorganises logistic and infrastructural functions along the coastline. Through the demolition of abandoned buildings and land reclamation the passenger terminal is reorganised, allowing the release of prime urban coastline to be appropriated by commercial and public functions. ‘The Connector’ is a system of light structures that provide links between nodal points of Piraeus, enhancing a new network within the city and fostering the reappropriation of neglected open spaces and abandoned buildings along the coastline, producing a mechanism for value redistribution.

Research Cluster 14

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The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




Figs. 14.19 – 14.24 Hsin-Yu Huang, Wen Fang Deng ‘Istanbul Housing Mechanisms’. The complex mechanisms of housing development in Istanbul are driven by the self-built gechekondu and by the state-imposed and evenly repeated TOKI buildings. Looking at these two systems of development the project attempts to rethink the idea of social housing both as a spatial and economic framework, twisting the current system of urbanisation to accommodate the high urban pressure in a radically different way. Working on the empty areas along the ancient Byzantine walls, the project aims to densify the central area of Istanbul, countering the tendency to sprawl and using the landscape and the historical artefact as an active part of the city. The project proposes to revitalise the area along both sides of the ancient Byzantine walls, burying

the highway that currently runs parallel to them, and defining a rhythm of urbanised strips and public parks. In order to fortify the connection between both sides of the wall, public spaces are designed as linear parks perpendicular to the wall, enhancing the exchange between different urban fabrics and communities: the gecekondu on the west and old city on the east. The green strips vary in dimension and programme in order to provide different types of open spaces and therefore create interactions in the city at different scales. The new housing typologies are organised along linear communities. The urbanised area is restricted to a series of urban platforms; defined strips of urban infrastructure that clearly demarcate the territory occupied by the city within the open space. The ground floor of the platforms enters in dialectic


Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




relationship with the topographic condition of the site, creating a sequence of different levels and spaces. The platform thus acquires a dynamic character that reflects and enhances the interactions of the communities and provides spaces for diverse small-scale neighbourhood activities.


Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 14.25 Fig. 14.25 Hsin-Yu Huang, Wen Fang Deng ‘Istanbul Housing Mechanisms’. The wall constitutes the central spine of the project and is considered not just a historical artefact to be preserved, but rather as a vital urban element to be used and lived as part of the city. The project exploits the physical character of the wall using both its internal space and its presence as a strong landmark of the city. The wall becomes a social space where local communities meet the metropolitan scale, a backbone that connects and hosts different episodes, from museum to market, to library and square.


Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


Research Cluster 14 14.27

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



14.29 Figs. 14.26 – 14.28 Mary-Jane Wood, Theodora Lympoura ‘Enclave Urbanism’. The project considers the military areas of Istanbul, large voids that still resist the huge pressure of urbanisation, as an opportunity to test a different form of urbanisation. Using the relationship between infrastructure as an architectural artefact and the landscape as a productive ground, the project defines a possible strategy to retain the ‘urban emptiness’ whilst at the same time accommodating ‘urban growth’ within a specific spatial frame. The inactive military voids are transformed into infrastructural platforms as a response to the surrounding condition of urban fragmentation and lack of spatial and functional integration between fabric types. Figs. 14.27 & 14.29 The infrastructural elements applied in space become artefacts with their own 56

character and function. The green surrounding landscape amplifies their singularity while at the same time reinforces the whole as a complete network. Using the metaphor of the archipelago, these landmarks become islands of porous boundaries that even if they are self-sufficient coexist within a larger whole. Fig. 14.28 The bridge is the gesture to generate an absolute horizontal linear motion in the larger terrain. It encounters moments of verticality when it provides access to the public down into the valley and up to the water towers. Using the form of an aqueduct, it obtains the character of a clear axis that, even traversing the landscape over a long distance, still maintains the uninterrupted circulation of the water and people beneath it.

Research Cluster 14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014





Figs. 14.30 – 14.34 Anuja Joshi ‘Spatial Frames and Legal Forms’. Departing from a series of case studies on the relationship between legal boundaries and the formation of urban space along the Mediterranean coastline, the project focuses on the shoreline of central Istanbul. This territory is characterised by the weak definition of its legal condition that leads to inappropriate occupation and misuse of the space and ultimately to a paradoxical absence of a relationship of the city to the sea. The project looks at how this condition can be exploited to foster a radical transformation of this vital relationship. It proposes a series of micro-infrastructures re-appropriating a currently inaccessible stretch of the coastline and transversely connecting the sea with Taksim Square, using the physical space as an instrument for legal

definition. The detailed project addresses two strategic sites on the Bosphorous coast of Istanbul, which is the entry point to Istanbul and holds strong historic and heritage value. The two design interventions, one stretching along the coast and the other one connecting transversely the coast to Taksim Square, create a loop together with the existing major road. The design interventions not only transform the local site but act as triggers of further transformations within a larger area affected by the presence of the connecting loop. These interventions are prototypes for other similar strategic sites nearby. The ordering principles of: axis, hierarchy, rhythm, datum and circulation are used in these prototype interventions. 57

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Figs. 14.34 – 14.37 Yuhan Yang ‘From Resort to City’. The project focuses on the resort town of Cesme in Turkey, an endless strip of second homes and tourist villages established between the historical settlements of Alaçatı and Cesme. The project aims to redefine the structure of the now completely urbanised territory, inserting strategic corridors that could bring a truly urban environment. At the same time, connected with this new territorial infrastructure, a new type of housing block is proposed in order to increase the density and preserve the agricultural landscape. The suburban dimension of the holiday house is maintained inside the block through a complex system of accessibility and private gardens. The housing typology breaks the monotonous repetition of both

the traditional tower blocks and the single family houses, introducing a more sophisticated relationship between the units and the open space. The dynamic articulation of the volume and the internal circulation of the block allows modulation of the threshold between inside and outside, where each house uses the roof of the floor below as a private terrace or common circulation. This design strategy aims to reproduce a relationship with the open space that is similar to the one of the detached house but in a much denser environment.


Research Cluster 14

14.38 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Figs. 14.38 – 14.40 Ke Xue, Jie Zhang ‘Free Trade Building’. The Free Trade Zone (FTZ) is one of the contemporary strategies for economic exploitation through urbanisation. The project attempts to expose, and at the same time take advantage of, this phenomenon compressing the FTZ into a single building, challenging its tendency of never-ending expansion while retaining its character as an economic trigger. Architecture is used as a strategy to deal with the pervasive and alienating nature of urbanisation, addressing the specific FTZ tendency of both limitless expansion and isolation from the local city context. The elements of the FTZ are reduced to the most generic type and then combined in a stratified box that will impose its spatial and economic presence over the waterfront of Kadıköy in Istanbul. Logistics, processing,

manufacturing and research spaces are hosted across the large generic floor plans and distributed along a vertical assembly line. Car ramps, industrial cranes and mechanical elevators connect the working spaces directly to the vehicular and pedestrian traffic of the city, while the ground floor is left open and empty in order to let the public activities penetrate the building, undoing the typical boundary condition of the FTZ. Instead, residential, office and service spaces are organised in four vertical towers that contain the circulation network and have a more closed and distinctive character. The top floor is occupied by hotels and luxury facilities such as a spa, gym, restaurant and open roof garden from which the dominant class can enjoy the whole Istanbul view. 59


Monsters of the Subsoil/ Ruins in Reverse Platon Issaias, Camila E. Sotomayor

Students Silvia Asuni, Vania Athinodorou, Promchan Chanratanapreeda, Maria Charalambous, Aikaterini Giokari, Panoraia Granitsioti, Dimitris Gyftopoulos Thom Hoang Minh, Maria Koutsoukou, Marta Kruger, Liu Liu, Iñigo López Sola, Samuel Lozeau-Laprise, Chou-Ta Tsai, Han Zhou

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Thanks to our consultants and critics: Ross Exo Adams, Orsalia Dimitriou Penelope Haralambidou, Beth Hughes, Sam Jacoby, Sami Jalili, Adrian Lahoud, Marina Lathouri, Shaun Murray, Christos Pallas, Daniel Fernández Pascual Godofredo Pereira, Lorenzo Pezzani, Peg Rawes, Arturo Revilla, Davide Sacconi Douglas Spencer, Viktor Timofeev, Thanos Zartaloudis


Research Cluster 15 investigates exemplary urban spaces in relation to traces of human activity and forms of production. The scales of intervention expand from the territorial space of logistics, such as military/police operations and resource management, to the smallest scale of the dwelling and the individual room. Issues such as the commodification of culture, monopoly rents, regional antagonism, locality, cultural forms, geopolitical domination, military conflicts and ultimately ideology and competition on a global scale acquire a paradigmatic value in the context of the Mediterranean territory. The cultural and political history of the Mediterranean necessitates a discussion that expands into a complex urban matter, a spatial material to be studied, mapped and drawn in a forensic operational section. We understand this type of section as a device that unveils the deep structure of the city and the given spatial and architectural environment. The purpose of this understanding is not to proceed to a mere managerial treatment of quantities, commodities and values, but on the contrary, to move beyond it in an operative way. We aim to rethink the elements that govern space in the first place and to intervene within their very organisational patterns. Moreover, if the city is recently understood in a series of horizontal layers or fields, and not as a political organisation with multiple, three-dimensional apparatuses of control, it is precisely the vertical cut that interrupts spatially and temporally the passivity of these seemingly smooth, homogeneous spaces. The section allows us to grasp the complexity of these parallel operations and to unveil how these are ultimately interconnected. Forms of occupation, modes of production, organisation of everyday life, habitual patterns, things we produce individually or in collaboration, our entire bios and zoe are not only traceable, but always managed and controlled in this vertical, almost invisible plane. We are proposing to operate precisely within this complex stratum. In the case of the Mediterranean context, the phenomenon of global and regional tourism, the distortion of historic narratives and the construction of national/regional identities collapse within vestigial spaces, ruins, archaeological trenches, highly secured ports and waters, militarised zones, refugee camps, ‘hospitality’ centres and regenerated historic districts. Art and knowledge industries, the restructuring of historic forms of production under the pressure of global economies of scale, the precarity of contemporary forms of life and, ultimately, the very representation of the city and its matter become the foundation of our approach and our quest within the Mediterranean. What we aim for is an understanding of this territory through a sectional complexity, within which space – architectural and urban – mediates an existential conflict.

Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 15 15.2 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 15.3 Figs. 15.1 – 15.4 Maria Charalambous ‘Territorial Devices: Land Reform in Cyprus’. The project addresses the landscape of the Buffer Zone in Cyprus as an operative ground. It proposes a series of structures in selected locations across it, which has the potential to reorganise the whole island. Land ownership and the bi-communal dispute have been elemental in the development of the project. It focuses on the case of agricultural land and proposes the establishment of a new system of land ownership on the island, with land redistribution and the design of a new grid consisting of parcels, in sizes and shapes that allow cooperation between owners, as well as a new system of agricultural production, available machinery, logistic spaces, production units and settlements. The Buffer Zone is used as an experimental site to rethink the relationship 62

between the two communities of the island through a land reform project, as well as the role of infrastructure in relation to the land ownership system. The project does not attempt to solve the bi-communal conflict, but uses the tools and instruments that were historically used to determine and control space and its population. It is an attempt to reconceptualise the conflict as what it is: a dispute over the land, resources and production, and to reposition the conflict on a new base by proposing a new territorial condition.

Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 15 15.5 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 15.6 Figs. 15.5 – 15.7 Silvia Asuni ‘Centuriatio: Expropriating the Territory of Sardinia’. This thesis focuses on Sardinia, which is perfectly suited for an historical analysis of the military conflicts and geopolitical manifestations of power and control that have influenced the present condition of an island in the Mediterranean. It proposes a long-term scenario that profoundly restructures the physical and political organisation of Sardinia. It introduces a new territorial device that functions both as a system of measurement, as a new infrastructure, that reshapes the entire territory. It constructs a family of architectural objects that let a territorial machine operate seamlessly together with the small scale of the architecture. The critical nature of the project provides points of reflection about a possible line for the development of a methodology to 64

approach and discuss the role of management of the territory through different scales. Four paradigmatic cases are selected. Capo Teulada, for the presence of a military base and the material and the invisible traces left on the soil. Arborea, being the location of a new form of productive agricultural settlement that was introduced during fascism after an environmental reclamation of the area. Coastlines, for a proposal that goes beyond the classic touristic village. Finally, the city of Villaputzu, which was strongly affected by diseases due to its proximity to the military polygon of ‘Salto di Quirra’.

Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 15 15.8 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


15.10 Figs. 15.8 – 15.10 Marta Kruger ‘Where you end, we begin: A project for 13280 Marseillais’. A project that aims to give shelter to almost 14000 people, by proposing 3500 social housing units for the city of Marseille. Adopting two residential archetypes, a mat of courtyard houses and a series of slabs oriented in two different directions, the aim is to give the intervention a definite and recognisable form. It starts as an act of re-appropriation of the formerly industrial areas of the port. Subtracting a portion of that space from its original whole and transforming it into a new residential quartier, the project creates a new defined space with recognisable boundaries. Fig. 15.11 Samuel Lozeau-Laprise ‘Shifting Landscapes: The port of Marseille-Fos’. The project attempts to bring a new vision to urban design by looking at the port from a sea 66

perspective. It proposes a shift in the port landscape of Marseille by moving all industrial activities to Fos-sur-Mer from the centre of the city. This whole process creates a constant conflictual exchange and control between the land and the sea from a legal reconfiguration of space to the movement of micro particles of soil. These are planned operations that gravitate within the complex stratum of mechanism and protocols, where the port is proposed not as a simple drop-off point for cargo, but as a fully integrated territorial entity.

Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 15 15.12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




Figs. 15.12 – 15.13 Chou-Ta Tsai ‘Liquid Courtyard’, circulation diagram and perspective view. The project, in collaboration with ‘Shifting Landscapes’ (Fig 15.11), claims the port of Marseille and its shoreline as an interactive space of complexity, scalar tensions and conflicting political implications. The spatial conditions of the border area, especially the existing ferry terminal, become the project’s space of intervention. This space of extreme securitisation, seen as a violent and traumatic encounter of the limit between land and sea, is completely redesigned with a new structure formulating a paradoxical void: a courtyard made of seawater. The new terminal is not just a mere infrastructural element of the port, but an architectural space reclaimed by the city and its citizens. Fig. 15.14 Thom Hoang Minh ‘Beyond the Creative

City’, interior view. The project intervenes upon an existing axis that connects a series of educational institutions and student facilities in Marseille. It proposes the redesign of this spine, introducing new student housing units, a learning centre, a new library and other spaces of collective learning and living. Fig. 15.15 Dimitris Gyftopoulos, Iñigo López Sola ‘Marseille Superblock’, axonometric of the typical, two-storey apartment unit. Marseille Superblock consists of a design tactic; it is less a solution to a problem and more a problematisation of the process of urban regeneration and the chimera of gentrification. The superblock is an open-ended questioning of the established conception of revitalisation of the urban realm under market forces. It attempts a radical reorientation of gentrification, towards a network of social welfare that


Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

supports collective needs and contemporary subjects. The project envisions a new space of living and working in the northern part of Marseille’s city centre, an area already under extreme pressure from the real estate market. It constructs a settlement unit based on an orthogonal grid that unites existing blocks in the city. At the same time, it introduces a specific structural and functional clarity of the domestic realm, introducing a system of fixed elements in plan – a wall of infrastructure and facilities – that allows for the organisation of different dwelling units. The façade is constructed as a three-dimensional grid of movable panels, shutters, lightweight structures, balconies and terraces, which adjust according to the internal organisation of the different apartments. 69

Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 15.16 Figs. 15.16 – 15.19 Vania Athinodorou ‘The Soil, the Labour, the Urban: Reclaiming the mining site of Lavrion, Attica’. This project focuses on the ruins of the post-industrial era that have surfaced in the urban fabric due to an infrastructural transition. These spaces have the potential to transform the narrative of the city, resisting and restructuring economic and political forces. The Lavrio case in Attica is a paradigm of a territory acting as a three-dimensional political instrument for urbanisation. The landscape acts as the political technology of the territory, seeking to capture the conflicting nature of political techniques, while the urbanisation of the territory acts as an apparatus for colonisation, on a spatio-technical and governmental base, in order to exercise political power over space and resources within the territorial sphere. 70

This mechanism is part of a heterogeneous site of multiple temporalities constantly producing the urban upon human labour. The mining process becomes an analogy for the material acquisition of the urban context, a means of exploring the notion of the urban, from the vast scale of the territory to the microscopic scale of the mineral. The extensive anthropogenic interventions in Attica have resulted in a traumatic site bearing the traces of successive territorial conflicts. The temporal evolution of industrial and mineral contamination in sediments caused by trace metals leads this project to negotiate the notion of waste and the materials’ decaying process, implying a constant process of life within the stages of decomposition. The project seeks to expand the existing archaeology of materiality, toxicity and transformation

Research Cluster 15


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15.19 of chemical composition. It discusses the territorialisation of natural resources and the development of an infrastructure as a consequent outcome. It aims to explore the interrelationship between political processes and spatial structures, the impact of geography and geopolitics and therefore to constitute an entry point for a discussion about territory that is inherently connected to Urban Design. By addressing different manifestations of territorial conflict, a territorial waste treatment platform is proposed that seeks to represent the spatial mechanism of an alternative strategy, aiming to radically transform the socio-political geography of the territory that adapts in an ever-changing territorial context. Executed within the poles of decay and revival, the reconfiguration of the relation between the ruin and the landscape is essential to

the extraction of a territorial management strategy. The thesis is an attempt to read the landscape not just as the site of conflict, but also as the medium by which conflict is exposed. On one hand, this platform synthesises simultaneous procedures into a spatiotemporal narrative of events, as a new form of industrial activity and on the other hand as a constant cycle of mediating procedures.


Research Cluster 15 15.20


15.22 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 15.23 Fig. 15.20 Liu Liu ‘In Between: Reclaiming the Void of the Urban Block in Athens’, concept sketch. The project constructs a series of interventions inside courtyards and empty plots of downtown Athens. Fig. 15.21 Aikaterini Giokari ‘A Knowledge Plant, Elaionas: Constructing an Open Archive for Athens’, detail. The project aims to create a space of information exchange and circulation, articulated through a network of spatial devices. The project adopts strategies of archaeological excavations, and employs alternative scenarios regarding the function of industrial ruins and large, abandoned buildings. Educational institutions and exhibition spaces will construct an archive for Elaionas, a former agricultural and industrial area of Attica, and the city as a whole. Workspaces, manufacturing and agricultural activities will constantly update and curate the 72

city’s open archive. Figs. 15.22 – 15.23 Promchan Chanratanapreeda ‘A Monument for Contemporary Athens: Athinas Street’, axonometric diagram and detail. The project attempts to reform and to reorganise the existing abandoned rooftops along the blocks of Athinas Street, not only to give a new physical presence to these spaces, but also to illustrate the potential for a new political identity. The pergola introduces a new shared space, a common room that could accommodate various activities. The intervention forms a new layer of occupation that revisits the history of planning in the city and the relation between city design, history and monumentality.

Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

15.24 Figs. 15.24 – 15.25 Maritina Koutsoukou, ‘Emergency Commons’, masterplan/cross-section. Emergency Commons is a series of temporary occupations of existing structures in Athens that challenges the existing property divisions and the administration of space in the city. It consists of a combination of legal, administrative and architectural interventions that attempt to construct an alternative property regime. The mechanism proposes a system of ownership which is not based on individual property but on a shared understanding of owning, administrating and occupying space. The project starts from the ground level, where the different typologies of property meet and where the conflicts produced by the current spatial and economic crisis are most intensively manifested. The proposed mechanism expands horizontally through the

network of stoas and courtyards, and vertically, to include other types of property, like domestic spaces or the empty state properties related to this network. The project follows a technical approach, in order to illustrate how even the smallest construction detail challenges a series of legal and legislative norms. The understanding of this trans-scalar effect leads to the design of a prototype in 1:50. This allows for an understanding of the complications related to property and building regulations, and to show how these are reflected in various spatial elements, the existing infrastructure, materials, etc. Ultimately, ‘Emergency Commons’ is an urban design project presented as a law and a construction document, specifically to challenge the boundaries of different forms of design, city management and control. 73

Research Cluster 15

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Research Cluster 15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


RC16 field trip to the Copper Corridor, Arizona, USA

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MArch UDII: Urban Morphogenesis

MArch UDII: Urban Morphogenesis Stream Leader: Claudia Pasquero

remediation landscapes and on the material articulation of adaptive water management territories. While each Research Cluster is encouraged to develop its own specific research topics and techniques, students benefit from crosscollaboration and are further supported by dedicated teaching modules that are transversal to the programme. Computation courses provide students with the necessary computing, programming and manufacturing skills to support their advanced design research. History and Theory courses stimulate students in defining a critical narrative for their projects as well as contextualising their research within wider discourses. An international lecture series, BioCities, gives students the opportunity to hear from leading figures in advanced digital design and urbanism, computational culture, bio-art and biotechnologies, the theory and practice of landscape urbanism and theoretical biology.


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

The MArch UDII, Urban Morphogenesis, investigates the urban form as morphogenic process and engages urban design as a computational practice to prefigure alternative models of the city as a complex dynamic system. MArch UDII promotes a transdisciplinary discourse that reaches wider academic research networks as well as scientific organisations involved in the study of living systems and in the development of future bio-digital technologies, thus promoting a radical unfolding of their urban significance. The programme adopts analogue, biological and digital computational design methods as core generative techniques. Algorithmic coding enables the study of biological models and the testing of iterative, adaptive and resilient design solutions applicable to a broader eco-social domain, triggering a multiplicity of responses and effects in a range of scales and regimes, from the molecular to the territorial, from the quasi-instantaneous to the geological. Collaborations with scientists, sociologists, agronomists and engineers are a priority as the students’ work encompasses indexing territorial data fields, coding morphogenetic protocols, breeding material performance and articulating emergent networks. Research within UDII engages specific regions of the world often marginal to the urban debate that are nevertheless gaining a new centrality as producers of human, material and energy resources, fuelling global urbanisation. The manufactured landscapes that were investigated this year include the copper mining corridor in Arizona, USA, the Tar Sands region in Alberta, Canada and the water basin of Manaus, Brazil. The programme is strictly studio-based and students are encouraged to work in teams and to engage design as a form of research. Current Research Clusters focus on the urban application of models of collective intelligence inspired by biological systems such as ants’ colonies, on the development of resilient and distributed bio-energy infrastructures, on the engineering of bio-digital soil


Bio-Urban Design Lab Claudia Pasquero, Marco Poletto

Students Zesong Cui, Mingjie Fan, Gina Fellendorf-Perkins, Xiao Ran Huang, Ning Jia, Ran Li, Jin Ying Liu, Jiayuan Liu, Yige Liu, Guoqian Ren, Shihong Sun, Hongya Tang, Yalei Wei, Tengfei Xue, Nan Yang, Kai Kai Zhou

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Project teams Attini Gina Fellendorf-Perkins, Ning Jia, Guoqian Ren, Hongya Tang Nidus Zesong Cui, Xiao Ran Huang, Jin Ying Liu, Tengfei Xue Zoox Ran Li, Yige Liu, Jiayuan Liu, Yalei Wei Physa Mingjie Fan, Shihong Sun, Nan Yang, Kai Kai Zhou Thanks to our critics and consultants: Carole Collet, Marjan Coletti, Ricardo De Ostos, Enrico Dini, Ilaria Di Carlo, Marco Dorigo, Sara Franceschelli, Manuele Gaioni, Ruairi Glynn, Marcelyn Gow, George Jeronimidis, Immanuel Koh, Katya Larina, Theo Lorenz, Philippe Morel, FrĂŠdĂŠric Migayrou, Iker Mugarra, Andrew Porter, Arturo Revilla, Patrik Schumacher, Tanjia Simens, Melissa Sterry, Manos Zakouras

Research Cluster 16 is a research lab in bio-urban design. Cities and their morphologies are determined by the flows of matter, information and energy that fuel their metabolisms. In the contemporary global world such flows span continents and connect across the entire biosphere as part of a resource driven industry that is both necessary to the survival of our urbanising society and detrimental to the wealth and well being of urban ecologies. We are devoted to the re-conceptualisation and redesign of global industrial and post-industrial territories to envision the bio-city of the future. Our research deploys bio-mimetic and bio-technological models of collective intelligence to develop resilient and adaptive urban protocols and morphologies. These protocols of self-organisation generate emergent global solutions from a set of local rules of interaction; we operate across scales and disciplines in the understanding that a large quantity of small local changes can produce drastic global effects. Simulated morphologies This year we developed three codes mimicking the collective behaviour of leafcutter ants, coral polyps and slime moulds. The codes are designed to simulate emergent urban networks and run large-scale morphogenetic studies starting from local rules of interaction. The emergent morphologies are then tested and evaluated to establish a feedback mechanism of evolution and adaptation. Analogue wet models Analogue modelling is used extensively in the lab. We develop wet models and living test-beds where digital morphologies are inoculated with living organisms. These biotechnological hybrids allow us to test the local metabolic manipulation of flows of renewable energy, information and matter, as well as the emergence of urban networks of collective exchange. This year we developed a microalgae bio-cells skin, we tested a city with biodegradable 3D printed substrata digested by mycelia and we created a renewable energy apparatus with slime mould. All these experiments made use of physical computing technologies to create a live communication stream between wet models, the living organism and the digital urban simulation codes. Urban protocols Feedback is captured as a new urban protocol. We communicate these protocols via a set of visual outputs, such as video, time-lapse photography and parametric drawing. Our research is published in a CODE book where a design report describes the key findings. The design report comprises of a flow chart diagram of the urban algorithm, a pseudo-code description of each protocol and a detailed set of specifications related to all the relevant test-beds and simulation experiments.


Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 16 16.2 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 16.3 Figs. 16.1 – 16.6 Physa ‘Urbanism in the Dust of the Mining Industry: Bio-computing Mining Waste to Nutrient Network.’ Fig. 16.1 A slime mould culture is fed with information related to the present and future mining activities in the Copper Corridor, Arizona. As the organism optimises its own metabolic functions it generates a network-like morphology of minimal material distribution channels. Fig. 16.2 Projected scenarios of bio-computed ‘manufactured landscapes’ in the Copper Corridor with colour coded material flows. Fig. 16.3 The three Petri dishes correspond to three key mining zones in the Copper Corridor. The colour indexes the mining mineral composition and is used to highlight the slime mould behaviours during the optimisation process. 80

Research Cluster 16

16.4 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Figs. 16.4 – 16.6 Bio-digital apparatus. Living slime mould, colour ink, agar, 3D-printed substratum, LED matrix, magnifying lens 5X, high-res web cam, Arduino microprocessor, processing code. The apparatus enables bio-digital communication between living slime mould and the computer. The slime mould is fed information from survey drawings via food location, 3D printed morphology and light signals. The behaviour of the monocellular organism is then recorded in real-time to feed a processing script able to decode its position, speed and colour to compile an evolving manufactured landscape for the Copper Corridor in Arizona. The apparatus enables the testing of co-design protocols live and explores multiple scenarios of network optimisation in a bottom-up process driven by emergent collective intelligence. 81

Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


16.8 Figs. 16.7 – 16.13 Attini ‘Post-Waste Cities’. Fig. 16.7 Survey drawing indexing production of urban biodegradable waste in the city of Catalina, a booming community near Tucson, Arizona. The code computes and plots waste quantities in relation to waste type, building type, proximity among neighbouring blocks and virtual plot areas. Fig. 16.8 Post-Waste Morphologies. Biodigesting Chambers. The image illustrates the relationship between urban code and the morphology of biodigesting chambers based on the fungi gardens in the Attini ants’ nests. The morphology and dimension of the chamber is a function of the climate, number of households and (their density, position) as well as the estimated bio-digesting capacity of enzymes. 82

Fig. 16.9 Wet model and robotic apparatus, 3D printed substratum, saw dust, agar, micelium, bacteria. The apparatus enables testing of bio-digesting capacities in relation to a specific urban protocol. The robot feeds the model following urban bio-waste production patterns computed in the urban code.

Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 16 16.10 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 16.11 Fig. 16.10 Waste to nutrient digital simulation. The code extrapolates growth parameters from the biological wet model and simulates scenarios of waste becoming the base nutrient for growing bio-digital building envelopes.Fig. 16.11 Digital 3D-scanned model of growth. Fig. 16.12 Wet model. Mapping the biological growth process and colour coding time-based growth patterns. Fig. 16.13 Simulated scenario of large-scale biodigesting building envelope in its mature stage of development.



Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 16

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Figs. 16.14 – 16.20 Zoox ‘Renewable Energy Morphologies: The Internet of Energy’. Fig. 16.14 Exploded axonometric view of the urban code. Incident solar radiation is registered by each node (household location in the city of Cordes Junction near Arcosanti, Arizona) which moves and orientates upwards to maximise its capturing. The algorithm is derived from a polyp-oriented model of stony coral colony growth. Fig. 16.15 Plan of the evolving layered morphology. The code computes potential solar energy production in each node and compares it with typical consumption per household, per square metre. Nodes with surplus production begin selling to nodes with surplus consumption, creating a real-time renewable energy network. Fig. 16.16 Biocells envelope, wet model and apparatus. Each face of the mesh morphology is

a biocell containing chlorella microalgae. As the surface is exposed to light it activates the photosyntesis in the cells generating a weak electrical current. The apparatus measures the current and swithches on the LEDs when a threshold is reached. The process evolves in time simulating the emergence of a renewable energy exchange network based on the biocell algal technology.


Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


16.18 Fig. 16.17 Simulated scenario of renewable solar energy morphology and incident radiation for the city of Cordes junction, Arizona. Fig. 16.18 Section of biocells living envelope. The image highlights the layered system composed of living photosynthetic biocells (top layers) and older dried strata composing the inner core of the envelope.


Research Cluster 16

16.19 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

16.20 Fig. 16.19 Detail of morphological studies of a multilayered biocells envelope. Laser cut polypropylene, living and dried high viscosity algal solution, agar. Fig. 16.20 Detail of living algal biocells envelope. The image shows individual cells with living chlorella producing oxygen, differentiating as a consequence of unequal light exposure. Also visible in each cell are the anode and cathode capturing the weak flow of electrons.


Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


16.21 Figs. 16.20 – 16.24 Nidus ‘Urban [MMS] Urban Multitude Microclimate Singularities’. Fig. 16.20 Masterplan of the simulated new morphology of the Meteor Crater, Arizona, generated by the application of the niger ant nest building algorithm after 10000 iterations. The masterplan can be divided into two layers. The bottom layer indexes the local climate conditions (solar radiation, wind direction and wind speed), affecting the evaporation rate of the digital pheromone signal. The top layer shows the new terrain as a set of contour lines and agents. Fig. 16.20 Scenario of new ground morphology resulting from relocated pellets of soil within the meteor crater basin. The overall quantity of material is kept constant, but the microclimatic singularity of the crater is intensified and differentiated by the algorithm to produce 90

pockets with specific local urban climates. Fig. 16.22 3D printed model of the simulated morphology of the Meteor Crater basin. The image shows a moment in the process of cooling highlighting areas of differential cooling speed. Such differences in temperature in the large-scale of the Crater provokes the emergence of local thermal drafts, thus generating pockets of specific climatic conditions. Heat lamps have been used as heat sources while a wind fan provided directional cooling. This experiment simulated prevailing environmental conditions on 21 June, when the sun rises from the north east and the prevailing wind is from south. Fig. 16.23 Sectional testing model. Sectional models make it possible for us to test not only the superficial but also internal morphological variations. Fig. 16.24 Simulated scenario of

Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


16.23 material differentiation and emergence of biotones and ecological niches. The morphology is assessed and areas of lower solar exposure are identified for planting while other zones are pierced to allow light access within inhabited volumes. A soft robotic system is designed to feed the morphology with a bacterial solution able to consolidate the soil into biorock formations and provide substratum for plant, animal and human colonisation.


Research Cluster 16

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 16 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Mess-Match Ulrika Karlsson, Maj Plemenitas

Students Yubing Chen, Yari Jin, Mitali Kedia, Boqun Li, Yiwei Li, Yin Liu, Bowei Quan, Shruti Sandhir, Yue Sun, Yunchao Tang, Anabelle Viegas, Xinyao Xiang, Yang Yang, Muhammad Azmil Zakri

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Project Teams Heterogenous Aggregate System Yubing Chen, Boqun Li, Bowei Quan,Yue Sun Regenerative Landscapes Yari Jin, Mitali Kedia, Xinyao Xiang, Muhammad Azmil Zakri Loop Yiwei Li, Yunchao Tang, Anabelle Viegas Deposition: Additive Morphology of the Igarape Yin Liu, Shruti Sandhir, Yang Yang Thanks to our consultants and critics: Mollie Claypool, Ruairi Glynn, Marcelyn Gow, Moa Karlsson, Philippe Morel, Godofredo Pereira, Emmanouil Zaroukas


Mess-Match is an ambiguous concept, having simultaneous irreconcilable positions, that fluctuate between something inclined to muddle, to interfere, to get involved in, at the same time doing something together, to join one to another. It has an inclination to disturb or obstruct identity and systems, but operates from within the system it is attempting to challenge. Research Cluster 17 studies cross-scalar relationships when water, as an important restructuring force of urban concern, in its different states – liquid, gas and solid – engages with the material structure of a city, ranging from granular scales and material processes, to larger formations and manufactured urban objects such as grounds, buildings, edges, surfaces to scales of transportation and infrastructure. Relationships of variable resolutions are crucial when moving between scales of engagement. Through material and computational cross-scalar design research, the Cluster employs a projective ambivalence when designing, testing, fabricating and modulating differentially scaled urban proposals for a water saturated urban context. If surfaces are the boundaries of matter between solid, liquid or gaseous elements, what happens when a surface gets lax, is punctuated or the encapsulation erodes or produces leakages? The surface dissolves into a fuzzy mélange of solid and liquid matter, gaseous elements and space. A surface is more than a surface’s boundaries of matter, it has by-products – it produces architectural qualities, microclimates, energy, biotic and abiotic matter, conditioned by its multiple distributed contexts. It sets up variable links between the instant qualities of cities, with material processes of landscapes. Through large-scale simulations and material tests Cluster 17 investigates cross-scalar urban design for the H2O connected boom town of Manaus, Brazil. Manaus, the only large town in the Amazon rainforest, is situated where the two rivers of Rio Negro and Rio Solimoes meet and slowly join the Amazon River, which has its estuary in the Atlantic Ocean. This year, Cluster 17 has developed design research methodologies focusing on the affiliations and exchange between physical and digital simulations. The digital simulations allow for the extrapolation of processes to another scale, potentially an urban scale. In that sense the digital simulations act as a hinge between the material granular experiments and the study of processes at an urban, landscape and infrastructural scale, providing for the study of cross-scalar relationships. Taking into consideration technique specific resolutions and the material and mathematical consequences when translating or moving between media and across scales, the concept of ‘variable resolution’ as both been used in a way of critically engaging the project of urban design as well as a generative tool for design development.

Research Cluster 17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 17.2 Figs. 17.1 – 17.8 Heterogenous Aggregate System Fig. 17.1 Non-interlocking material based heterogenous aggregate systems. Fig. 17.2 Urban intervention. Fig. 17.3 Time-based sequence of adaptive and resilient urban edge. Fig. 17.4 Reconfiguration sequence. Figs. 17.5 – 17.8 Adaptive morphology based on variable resilience to erosion and water forces from the site.



Research Cluster 17





The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17 17.11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 17.12 Figs. 17.9 – 7.15 Regenerative Landscapes Fig. 17.9 Selective interception, localised processing, distributed manufacturing Fig. 17.10 State changing material properties for adaptive performative morphologies. Fig. 17.11 Detail 1. Interceptor Fig. 17.12 Detail 2. Differentiated structural assemley. Fig. 17.13 Detail 3. Differentiated structural assemley Zone C55. Fig. 17.14 Detail 4. Differentiated structural assemley Zone H13. Fig. 17.15 Structural articulation for multi-objective performace.




Research Cluster 17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17

17.17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Figs. 17.16 – 17.26 Loop Fig. 17.16 Territorial hydrological map of Manaos, Brazil. Figs. 17.17 – 17.19 Particles enforced with internal and external forces: separation, cohesion, alignment, dreg and coagulation. The underlying data map introduces parameters from the physical context. Fig. 17.17 Detail 1. Fig. 17.18 Detail 2.


Research Cluster 17 17.20 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 17.21 Figs. 17.20 – 17.22 Extrusion. Formation based of differentiation of the material and forces. Fig. 17.23 Extrusion. Formation material experiment. Fig. 17.24 Behaviour patterns enforced with internal and external forces: separation, cohesion, alignment, dreg and coagulation. The underlying data map introduces parameters from the physical context.



Research Cluster 17


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 17

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Research Cluster 17

17.26 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

17.27 Figs. 17.25 – 17.35 Deposition: Additive Morphology of the Igarape Figs. 17.25 – 17.27 Differentiated deposition pattern based on heterogenous material composition, transferred by the water flow in the Igarap. Relationship between flux,territory and strategic placement of introduced objects. Fig. 17.26 Detail 1. Fig. 17.27 Detail 2.


Research Cluster 17

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




17.29 17.28

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17.32 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




Figs. 17.28 – 17.31 Deposition patterns based on fluid dinamics,material difirentiations, topography, and shape of the introduced unit. Figs. 17.32 – 17.35 Semipermeable interceptor, developing secondary crystalisation, due to chemical composition of the river. Fig. 17.33 Detail 1. Fig. 17.34 Detail 2. Fig. 17.35 Detail 3.



Relational Urbanism Enriqueta Llabres, Eduardo Rico with Zachary Fluker

Students Yanxiu Chen, Jinghui Hu, Lei Huang, Jie Kang, Changlin Li, Weilong Li, Yiwen Liu, Guanghui Luo, Waishan Qiu, Meng Ran, Dan Shen, Jia Zhang, Hanxu Zhang, Yunke Zhang

Relational Urbanism explores how digital design techniques influence the way in which we think and design conditions of contemporary urban phenomenon. Moving away from a limited focus on density and centrality, Research Cluster 18 aims to engage with definitions of the urban that encompass the various dispersed territorial systems that currently support agglomeration and growth. This opens the door to new forms of territorial alliances that feed back into the image of the city, its inhabitation and habits of consumption, which raises the following questions on spatial specificity and design agendas: What is the role of design in the engagement with this new definition of metropolis?

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

How can we tap into the potential that these territorial systems offer in the creation of new spatial formulas for our cities? This year, we engaged with the definition of the systemic ‘hinterland’ of resource and supply around global city regions, uncovering unexpected geographies and new forms of understanding territory, city and landscape. The Metropolis of Alberta Tar Sand Extraction Tar sands or oil sands are unconventional sources of bitumen, captured in a mixture of oil, clay, sand and water. The recent extraction of this type of oil has resulted in an entire new geographic entity reaching a metropolitan condition in its own right. Extraction landscapes, refinery infrastructures, pipelines and ports form an entire network of new territories, which weave along with a seminomadic structure of inhabitation for mining workers. How can we use design to imagine new forms of metropolis resulting from the conflicts derived from this looming territorial transformation? The Cluster proposes a new form of urban praxis based on a relational approach to design: where design aims to foster the role of the Relational Capital in the territorial morphogenesis, a form of engagement between people, market, institutions and their related environment. Central to this argument is the development of Relational Urban Models (RUMs). These are digital design interfaces that relate spatial aspects of the urban environment derived from parameters (both internal and external to the design) and the representation of key infrastructural and environmental variables (traffic, CO2 emissions, preypredator ecology models, built area). The final aim of this type of model is not just the finalised layout of a rendered masterplan, but the facilitation of discussions about urban form and relationships between different decision makers. This should both unlock development potentials and feed design decisions back into the relational capital in the form of a design protocol. 110

Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 18 18.2

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



18.5 According to Relational Urbanism theory, proxy modelling ‘patches’ missing factors into urban design strategy, with the support of evidence-based knowledge from related disciplines, and advanced techniques and analysis methodologies. It allows architects to learn about the specific logic in landscape transformation by experiencing and intervening in a real-time physical simulation that refers to the real site. Relationships between urban issues and local geomorphology can be built as a systemic model. Figs. 18.1 – 18.9 Yanxiu Chen, Guanghui Luo, Waishan Qiu, Jia Zhang Fig. 18.1 Material and data transformation of relations. Figs. 18.2 – 18.4 The relational interface is contextualised with the reclamation and urbanisation proposal of the site project. Appearing in the form of digital UI, the relational interface consists of three models. 112

Fig. 18.3 Proxy model. Fig. 18.4 As the site project proposal is intrinsically embedded in reforming institutional regulation by intervening in the formation of landscape, the system behaviour in the territory can be visualised through a linked database in a mathematical model. Fig. 18.5 A digital model is applied, to analyse the solar, slope and geomorphology of the ‘created’ site. The design of urban morphology is instructed by the geomorphology analysis from the proxy model as well as slope and solar analysis from digital model. Figs. 18.6 – 18.9 The territory is structured by an infrastructure network based on the medial axis of islands that emerged during the geomorphology process. Buildings are organised by the slope groundwork and the building form is influenced by solar tunnel of the vegetation area.

Research Cluster 18

18.7 18.6

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




Research Cluster 18

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



18.14 Fig. 18.10 Yanxiu Chen, Guanghui Luo, Waishan Qiu, Jia Zhang Proposal for retail masterplan network. Figs. 18.11 – 18.16 Jinghui Hu, Lei Huang, Jie Kang, Dan Shen Fig. 18.11 A physical model simulates water and material flow of sands deposited into caves. Gathering data from the physical model, the project is informed by the three main tailing materials deposited at different regions. The varying positions and proportions of these result in varied land use such as green space, public square, theatre etc. Fig. 18.12 Geomorphology of material movement. Fig. 18.13 A relational diagram of the ecosystem. Fig. 18.14 Fibreoptic sensor structure based on maximising lighting efficiency. The location of the sand deposit area affects the placement of structures and the depth of each. Changing proportions of three types of sand result in 116

different land use. These varying land uses require different amounts of light, for example, green spaces need more natural light. Fig. 18.15 Master section of cave area, showing the structure of underground area, the principle of collected energy, and human activity. Fig. 18.16 Analysis of angle of light branch.

Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014




Research Cluster 18

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 18 18.19

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 18.20


Fig. 18.17 Yanxiu Chen, Guanghui Luo, Waishan Qiu, Jia Zhang Photo of material simulation. Fig. 18.18 – 18.22 Bowen Deng, Yiwen Liu, Yunke Zhang Fig. 18.18 Masterplan network. Fig. 18.19 The interface is a systemic combination of all the information from representative materials, digital geomorphological model, real-time control parameters, relevant analysis, ecological and economic models, and databased calculations. The interface generates the preliminary results of every main essential factor in the relational model, such as local biomass and economic profits. The interface also guides the interventions in the next iterations. According to previous site research and conditions, some essential elements were extracted from the local natural ecological systems and built into the computational model.

Both the ecological and economic models are based on mathematical equations that refer to ecological benefit and economic profit and create certain links or relationships between these elements. The ecological and economic models are interactive systems related to landscape transformation. This transformation is based on the analysis and a feedback mechanism which begin with the integration of preliminary analysis and guide the next artificial intervention. Users would take real interventions such as: the placement of new dams, the addition of sediment in specific areas, and changing the velocity of water to then analyse new generated evolutions. Figs. 18.20 – 18.21 Using the data and conditions extracted from the proxy modelling, the profits of specific industries can be simulated.


Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

18.22 Fig. 18.22 The generation of the masterplan network.


Research Cluster 18

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



Research Cluster 18




The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014


18.26 Figs. 18.23 – 18.26 Changlin Li, Weilong Li, Meng Ran, Hanxu Zhang Fig. 18.23 Overall mapping of material interpenetration in Slave Lake. Figs. 18.24 – 18.25 Interface as a comprehensive method containing mathematical formulas, proxy model and digital model information. A platform to illustrate all the data being produced. Based on the formulas, designers draw the first circle diagram to show the brief relationship of this specific territorial system. Here, they highlight the ecological and socioeconomic systems which bear the more flexible and complex material systems. The movement and interaction of the materials in both systems can better indicate the transformation of this territorial system. The second image illustrates the relationship after people intervene in the previous relative natural system. Fig. 18.26 The interface has

the the capacity to control ‘simultaneously 3D models of the territory altogether with intangible parameters linked to these models’ that can help people to build a deeper understanding of the relationships and inherent logic behind ‘urban and territorial form’ (Llabres, 2014). This mechanism encourages people to think about the relational truth behind spatial form. This form is not fixed, instead it is generated through interventions which are a process where people recognise and redistribute natural or industrial resources and try to find the appropriate way to maximise the benefit both for human life and natural surroundings. This figure shows the formation of urban blocks in a specific site.


Research Cluster 18 18.27


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 18.29 Figs. 18.27 – 18.30 Changlin Li, Weilong Li, Meng Ran, Hanxu Zhang Figs. 18.27 – 18.29 Following the gradual transformation of landscape and topography. Designers add new material or take new action on the top of the hills in the ever-changing flooding areas. Each action is changed and modulated by the reaction of topography, in an interactive time-based process. Designers capture the structural lines as the process moves step-by-step, to generate a geometry that is based on a branching network. The network has basic guidance derived from various functional aspects within the region, which carries different spatial properties and interactional systems. The constructional collective form and landscape areas are all based on geomorphological analysis. Fig. 18.30 This project intends to bring the time and process concept into the 124

approach of urban design. The material praxis can immerse designers in the novel and radical surroundings, which can show the specific and complex material movement and interaction. Similar to the way a surfer rides and reacts to an evolving wave, designers can make an immediate contextual decision which shows more respect to the formation process. Instead of designing fixed spatial forms, the whole project uses material praxis as the medium to explore utilitarian human interventions and mediate the various stakeholders based on the time concept. This possibility can open up the potential to reconceptualise urban design methodologies themselves in cooperation with material praxis in urban design.

Research Cluster 18 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014



RC12 field trip to Tangier, Morocco

UD Staff Biographies

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Professor Frédéric Migayrou B-Pro Director Frédéric Migayrou is Chair, Bartlett Professor of Architecture at The Bartlett School of Architecture and Deputy Director of the National Museum of Art, Centre Pompidou in Paris. He was the founder of the Frac Center Collection and of ArchiLab, the international festival of Prospective Architecture in Orléans. Apart from recent publications and exhibitions (De Stijl, Centre Pompidou, 2011; La Tendenza, Centre Pompidou, 2012; Bernard Tschumi, Centre Pompidou, 2013; Frank Gehry, Centre Pompidou 2014), he was the curator of Non Standard Architectures at the Centre Pompidou in 2003, the first exposition devoted to architecture, computation and fabrication. More recently, he co-organised the exhibition Naturalising Architecture (ArchiLab, Orléans 2013), presenting prototypes and commissions by 40 teams of architects working with new generative computational tools, defining new interrelations between materiality, biotechnology and fabrication. In 2012 he founded B-Pro, The Bartlett’s umbrella structure for post-professional architecture programmes. Andrew Porter B-Pro Deputy Director Andrew Porter studied at The Bartlett School of Architecture and has collaborated in practice with Sir Peter Cook and Christine Hawley CBE. In 1998 he and Abigail Ashton set up ashton porter architects, they have completed a number of award winning commissions in the UK and prizewinning competitions in the UK and abroad. Andrew is co-leader of The Bartlett’s MArch Architecture Unit 21, and has been a visiting Professor at the Staedel Academy, Frankfurt and guest critic at SCi-Arc, Los Angeles and Parsons New School, New York.


Dr Adrian Lahoud UD Programme Leader, UDI Stream Leader, RC11 Tutor Adrian Lahoud is an architect and former Director of the MA Research Architecture at the Centre for Research Architecture, Goldsmiths. His work sets out a philosophical, scientific and architectural history of scale using case studies of post-war urban planning, territorial governance and climate modeling. He lectures and exhibits internationally and has written extensively on questions of spatial politics and urban conflict with a focus on the Arab world and Africa. Claudia Pasquero UDII Stream Leader, RC16 Tutor Claudia Pasquero is an architect, engineer, author and educator. She worked in London as an architect before co-founding ecoLogicStudio with Marco Poletto in 2006. She has lectured and taught internationally, as Unit Master at the AA, London; Hans and Roger Strauch Visiting Critic at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; and Visiting Lecturer at the Institute of Advanced Architecture of Catalonia (IAAC), Barcelona. Claudia is co-author of Systemic Architecture - Operating manual for the selforganizing city (Routledge, 2012). Professor Peter Bishop Professor of Urban Design Peter Bishop was Director of Design for London, advisor to the Mayor and deputy CEO of the London Development Agency. He has worked on regeneration projects including Kings Cross and the Olympics. He is a director at Allies and Morrison and author of The Bishop Review and The Temporary City, an exploration of temporary urbanism.

Sam Jacoby RC11 Tutor Sam Jacoby is a chartered architect with an AA Diploma and a doctorate from the Technische Universität Berlin. He has worked in the UK, USA, and Malaysia and taught at the Architectural Association School of Architecture, the University of Nottingham and The Bartlett.

Peter Besley RC12 Tutor Peter Besley is co-founder of Assemblage, which has won a string of major international design competitions and commissions with the United Nations and governments of the Middle East. Peter was previously a senior architect at Allies and Morrison, London, involved with numerous leading urban design and architecture projects, including the London 2012 Olympic Games and legacy masterplan. Hannah Corlett RC12 Tutor Hannah Corlett studied architecture at the WSA and The Bartlett. Before setting up Assemblage she worked on international projects with Will Alsop and Niall McLaughlin, including Peckham Library (Stirling Prize 2000). Her work in the Middle East was Highly Commended in the International 2014 AJ Women in Architecture Awards.

Ross Exo Adams RC14 Tutor, History Theory Tutor Ross Exo Adams is an architect, urbanist and researcher, whose work looks at the political and historical junction between circulation and urbanisation. He has published and exhibited his work widely and taught at the Berlage Institute, Rotterdam, Brighton University, and the AA. He is currently completing a PhD at the London Consortium. Beth Hughes RC14 Tutor Beth Hughes has worked on projects of all scales around the world. She has worked for OMA/Rem Koolhaas and Point Supreme Architects in Athens, Greece. In 2011 Beth established her own practice, now based in London. Her work has been extensively published and awarded in several international competitions. Davide Sacconi RC14 Tutor Davide Sacconi studied Architecture at the Università degli Studi di Roma Tre and completed postgraduate research at the Berlage Institute of Rotterdam. He is the founder of Tspoon, a research based office, and UGO, a critical practice that was awarded first prize in the European 12 Competition in Oslo.


The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Samaneh Moafi RC11 Tutor Samaneh Moafi is an Iranian/Australian graduate of architecture and a PhD candidate at the AA. Her research explores the relationship between projects of mass housing and industries. She has worked with a number of art and architecture practices and exhibited work in the United States, Italy, Germany, South Korea, Iran and Australia.

Jonathan Kendall RC12 Tutor Jonathan Kendall is Partner and Director of Urban Design at Fletcher Priest Architects. He is leading the design of one of Europe’s largest regeneration projects, the Stratford City masterplan. Jonathan leads a studio in Latvia and has led projects in the Middle East and across Europe, Abu Dhabi, St Petersburg and Bangalore.

Platon Issaias RC15 Tutor Platon Issaias is an architect. He holds an MSc in Advanced Architectural Design from GSAPP, Columbia University and a PhD from TU Delft. His doctoral dissertation ‘Beyond the Informal City’ focuses on the history of planning in Athens and the relation between conflict, urban management and architectural form.

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Camila E. Sotomayor RC15 Tutor Camila Sotomayor explores ruins as contemporary zones of architectural reanimation. Her PhD in Architectural Design at The Bartlett is investigating time-based design through material decay at the microscopic scale. She is the founder and director of Department of Decay and has been a Unit tutor for the MArch UD programme since 2010. Marco Poletto RC16 Tutor Marco Poletto is an architect, author and educator. He has taught at the AA, London; the IAAC, Barcelona; and Cornell University. His projects have been published and exhibited throughout the world and he is co-author of Systemic Architecture Operating manual for the self-organizing city (Routledge, 2012). He is co-founder of ecoLogicStudio. Ulrika Karlsson RC17 Tutor Ulrika Karlsson is partner and founding member of the research and design practice servo Stockholm. She is a professor in architecture at KTH, Stockholm, where she previously was the Director of the Architecture programme. Ulrika is also a professor at Konstfack – University College of Arts, Craft and Design.


Maj Plemenitas RC17 Tutor Maj Plemenitas is an experimental architectural and cross-scale design practitioner, researcher and educator, and founder and director of awardwinning design research practice LINKSCALE. He carries out research, exhibits his work and lectures internationally. Zachary Fluker RC18 Tutor Zachary Fluker is an architect, industrial designer, and cabinet-maker. He graduated from Emily Carr University of Art and Design and the AA. His research into interfacing digital with physical environments and computational fabrication has led him to collaborate with several practices in the UK and Canada including Philip Beesley Architect. Enriqueta Llabres RC18 Tutor Enriqueta Llabres is an architect, social scientist and researcher with an MSc in Local Economic Development from The London School of Economics. In 2009 she founded award-winning practice Relational Urbanism. She is a Design Critic in Landscape Architecture at Harvard and has collaborated with institutions worldwide as a critic and lecturer. Eduardo Rico RC18 Tutor Eduardo Rico is a Civil Engineer and MA Landscape Urbanism graduate and a member of design practices including Groundlab and Relational Urbanism. He is currently engaged in strategic advice on infrastructure and transportation for urban masterplanning at Arup. His work is focused on alternative design practices feeding infrastructural inputs into architectural urbanism.

Godofredo Pereira History Theory Module Coordinator Godofredo Pereira graduated as architect from FAUP, Porto. He holds an MArch from The Bartlett and is currently completing his PhD at the Centre for Research Architecture, Goldsmiths University with a research on Underground Fetishism.

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Mollie Claypool History Theory Tutor Mollie Claypool is a writer, designer and theorist with research interests in mechanisation, production and fabrication, the philosophy of science and computational methodologies. She is a Teaching Fellow in Architectural Design at The Bartlett, where she is BSc Architecture Programme Co-Leader and runs MArch Architecture Unit 19. Sam Jacoby History Theory Tutor Sam Jacoby is a chartered architect with an AA Diploma and a doctorate from the Technische Universit채t Berlin. He worked in the UK, USA, and Malaysia and taught at the AA, the University of Nottingham and The Bartlett School of Architecture. Lorenzo Pezzani History Theory Tutor Lorenzo Pezzani is an architect based in London. Since 2011, he has been working on Forensic Oceanography, a project that critically investigates the geography of the Mediterranean Sea as frontier. He is completing his PhD at the Centre for Research Architecture at Goldsmiths, University of London. Emmanouil Zaroukas History Theory Tutor Emmanouil Zaroukas holds a diploma in Architecture from Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece, and a postgraduate degree in Digital Architecture Production from the IAAC, Spain. He is a PhD Candidate at the University of East London, where he is researching artificial cognitive processes and neural networks. 131

Staff & Consultants

MArch UD Professor Frédéric Migayrou Director of B-Pro Andrew Porter Deputy Director of B-Pro Dr Adrian Lahoud Programme Leader, UDI Stream Leader Claudia Pasquero UDII Stream Leader The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Cluster Tutors and Teaching Assistants RC11 Sam Jacoby Dr Adrian Lahoud Samaneh Moafi RC12 Peter Besley Hannah Corlett Jonathan Kendall RC14 Ross Exo Adams Beth Hughes Davide Sacconi RC15 Platon Issaias Camila E. Sotomayor RC16 Claudia Pasquero Marco Poletto RC17 Ulrika Karlsson Maj Plemenitas RC18 Zachary Fluker Enriqueta Llabres Eduardo Rico History Theory Module Coordinator Godofredo Pereira History Theory Tutors Ross Exo Adams Mollie Claypool Sam Jacoby 132

Lorenzo Pezzani Emmanouil Zaroukas External Examiners Matias Del Campo Professor Evan Douglis Prof Christian Girard Marta Malé-Alemany Critics, Consultants and Technical Tutors Aristide Antonas Andrea Bagnato Kivank Basak Peter Bishop Gianfranco Bombaci Ilaria Di Carlo Franco Cassano Joon Chung Mollie Claypool Phillip Clemens Carole Collet Marjan Coletti Matteo Costanzo Orsalia Dimitriou Enrico Dini Marco Dorigo Mark Drury Sara Franceschelli Iulia Fratila Sherief Gaber Manuele Gaioni Mehran Gharleghi Octavian Gheorghiu Richard Goodwin Marcelyn Gow Penelope Haralambidou Manuel Herz Dan Hill Sami Jalili Adam Jasper George Jeronimidis Immanuel Koh Katya Larina Marina Lathouri Theo Lorenz John Macarthur Samar Maqusi Stavros Martinos Gabriele Mastrigli Luca Montuori Bruno Moser Iker Mugarra Shaun Murray Ricardo De Ostos Christos Pallas Daniel Fernández Pascual Peg Rawes Arturo Revilla

Charles Rice Amin Sadeghy Alon Schwabe Patrik Schumacher Corrine Silva Tanjia Simens Vicente Soler Douglas Spencer Melissa Sterry Georgio Talocci Paulo Tavares Richard Taylor Viktor Timofeev Nazli Ece Ünsal Manos Zakouras Emmanouil Zaroukas Thanos Zartaloudis Elia Zenghelis

Bartlett School of Architecture Chair of School Professor Frédéric Migayrou Bartlett Professor of Architecture Director of B-Pro Director of School Professor Bob Sheil Professor of Architecture and Design through Production Director of Technology

Professors, Visiting Professors and Stream Directors Robert Aish Visiting Professor in Computation Laura Allen Senior Lecturer Director of Publications & Public Events Professor Peter Bishop Professor of Urban Design Director of Enterprise Professor Iain Borden Professor of Architecture & Urban Culture Vice Dean of Communications

Professor Mario Carpo Reyner Banham Professor of Architectural History & Theory Director of History & Theory Professor Nat Chard BSc Architecture Year 1 Co-Director Professor of Experimental Architecture Dr Marjan Colletti Senior Lecturer Director of Computing Professor Peter Cook Emeritus Professor Professor Adrian Forty Professor of Architectural History MA Architectural History Programme Director Professor Colin Fournier Emeritus Professor of Architecture & Urban Planning Professor Murray Fraser Professor of Architecture & Global Culture Vice Dean of Research Professor Stephen Gage Emeritus Professor of Innovative Technology Professor Christine Hawley Professor of Architectural Studies Director of Design Professor Jonathan Hill Professor of Architecture & Visual Theory MPhil/PhD by Design Programme Director Professor CJ Lim Professor of Architecture & Cultural Design Vice Dean of International Affairs Dr Yeoryia Manolopoulou Senior Lecturer Director of Architectural Research

Josep MiĂ s Visiting Professor Niall McLaughlin Visiting Professor Frosso Pimenides Senior Lecturer BSc Architecture Year 1 Co-Director Dr Peg Rawes Senior Lecturer Associate Director of Architectural Research MArch Architectural History Programme Leader (from 2014) Professor Jane Rendell Professor of Architecture & Art Peter Scully Technical Director of B-Made

Dirk Krolikowski Lecturer in Innovative Technology & Design Practice Associate Coordinator of Year 4 Design Realisation Dr Adrian Lahoud Reader in Urban Design MArch UD Programme Leader

Mollie Claypool BSc Architecture Programme Co-Leader Elizabeth Dow BSc Architectural Studies Programme Co-Leader Dr Penelope Haralambidou Lecturer in Architecture Coordinator of MPhil / PhD by Design

Izaskun Chinchilla Moreno Senior Research fellow Peter Guillery Senior Research Associate Survey of London

Dr Barbara Penner Senior Lecturer BSc Architectural Studies Programme Co-Leader MPhil/PhD History & Theory Programme Director

Helen Jones Research Associate Survey of London

Academic and Honorary Staff Yannis Aesopos Affiliate Academic Abeer Al-Saud Affiliate Academic Dr Marcos Cruz Reader in Architecture Tom Dyckhoff Honorary Research Fellow Ruairi Glynn Lecturer in Interactive Architecture Tim Lucas Lecturer in Structural Design Yael Reisner Affiliate Academic

Sally Hart Research Assistant

Bartlett Manufacturing and Design Exchange (B-Made) Abi Abdolwahabi Richard Beckett William Bondin Matt Bowles Bim Burton Inigo Dodd Richard Grimes Robert Randall Peter Scully Matthew Shaw Paul Smoothy Will Trossell Emmanuel Vercruysse Martin Watmough Sam Wellham

Dr Hilary Powell Research Fellow Harriet Richardson Research Associate Survey of London Andrew Saint Principal Research Associate Survey of London

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Dr Ben Campkin Senior Lecturer in History & Theory Director of UCL Urban Lab Coordinator of Year 3 History & Theory

Research Fellows and Associates

James O’Leary Lecturer in Innovative Technology & Design Practice Coordinator of Year 4 Design Realisation

Frosso Pimenides Susan Ware Senior Lecturer Sub-Dean and Faculty Tutor BSc Architecture Year 1 Director of Professional Studies Co-Director Part 3 Programme Director Andrew Porter Mark Whitby Principal Teaching Fellow Visiting Professor in Structural B-Pro Deputy Director Engineering Dr Tania Sengupta Lecturer in Architectural Programme Directors/ History & Theory Leaders and Departmental Tutor Coordinators Coordinator of Year 4 History & Theory Alisa Andrasek Reader in Advanced Mark Smout Architectural Computation Senior Lecturer MArch GAD Programme Coordinator of Year 5 Thesis Leader Patrick Weber Julia Backhaus Senior Lecturer MArch Architecture Coordinator of Pedagogic Programme Leader Affairs Matthew Butcher Lecturer in Architecture and Performance BSc Architecture Programme Co-Leader

Oliver Wilton Lecturer in Environmental Design

Philip Temple Senior Research Associate Survey of London Andrew Thom Senior Research Associate Survey of London

Professional Services Professional Services Administration Meredith Wilson Academic Services Administration Izzy Blackburn Michelle Bush Emer Girling Eleni Goule James Lancaster Tom Mole Research Luis Rego Communications and Website Laura Cherry Jean Garrett Michelle Lukins Finance and HR Sarah Clegg Stoll Michael Rita Prajapati Facilities Graeme Kennett Bernie Ococ 133

B-Pro Lectures

B-Pro has developed numerous lectures, seminars and workshops promoting a broad dialogue in the realisation and application of research in architecture and urbanism. This year’s speakers included:

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Bartlett Plexus Isaïe Bloch, Evan Boehm, Daghan Çam, Arthur Carabott, Benjamin Dillenburger, Mostafa El-Sayed, Jelle Feringa, John Harding, Andy Lomas, Sergej Maier, Keiichi Matsuda, Mathrioshka, Andreas Müller, Matthew PlummerFernandez, Davide Quayola, Gilles Retsin, Rub-A-Dub, ScanLab, Thibault Schwartz, Vicente Soler, TeamRoto, Mike Tucker, Maria E. Villafañe, Melissa Woolford BioCities Mike Batty, Carole Collet, Ilaria Di Carlo, Marco Dorigo, Sara Franceschelli Melissa Sterry, George Jeronimidis, Patrik Schumacher In Dialogue Nabil Ahmed, Lindsay Bremner, Adrian Lahoud, Lorenzo Pezzani, Godofredo Pereira, Paulo Tavares Material Matters Bruce Bell (FACIT), Philippe Block (BLOCK Research Group, ETH Zurich), Daniel Bosia (P.ART, AKT), Ingo Ederer (voxeljet), Manfred Grohmann (Bollinger + Grohmann), Michael Hansmeyer (ETH Zurich), Benjamin Koren (One to One), Tim Lucas (Price & Myers), Ralph Parker (Price & Myers), Fabian Scheurer (Design to Production) n_Salon Giuseppe Longo, Luciana Parisi, Tom Trevatt Urban Practitioners Mark Brearley, Ben Campkin, Neil Deely, Michael Hebbert, Peter Rees, Chris Schulte, Robert Schmidt, John Worthington


International Lecture Series The Bartlett International Lecture Series features speakers from across the world. Lectures in the series are open to the public and free to attend. This year’s speakers included: AY Architects Marie-Ange Brayer EcoLogicStudio Kees Christiaanse Carole Collet Peter Cook Verena Conley Thom Faulders Sara Franceschelli Usman Haque Go Hasegawa Manuel Herz Wes Jones Perry Kulper Ross Lovegrove Brendan MacFarlane Felipe Mesa Spyros Papapetros Alex Schweder Julien de Smedt Lars Spuybroek servo / Stockholm + Los Angeles Tom Verebes Ma Yansong The Bartlett International Lecture Series is generously supported by the Fletcher Priest Trust.

Big Data workshop held in Term 2 by RC3 (Interactive Architecture Lab) and MA Textile Futures at Central Saint Martins, UAL


Publisher Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL Editors FrĂŠdĂŠric Migayrou, Andrew Porter Graphic Design Patrick Morrissey, Unlimited weareunlimited.co.uk Editorial Coordination Laura Allen, Laura Cherry, Michelle Lukins Photography Stonehouse Photographic stonehousephotographic.com Virgilio Ferreira virgilioferreira.com Copyright 2014 The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN 978-0-9929485-1-1

For more information on all the programmes and modules at The Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment, UCL, visit bartlett.ucl.ac.uk The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 140 Hampstead Road London NW1 2BX T. +44 (0)20 3108 9646 architecture@ucl.ac.uk

Team Physa [Mingjie Fan, Shihong Sun, Nan Yang, Kai Kai Zhou], MArch UD, RC16, ‘Bio-Digital Futures, The Copper Corridor’

Profile for The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL

MArch Urban Design (UD) 2014  

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