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E-merging Design Research: Pop-Up City MSc Spatial Design: Architecture & Cities The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 2015 –2016


E-merging Design Research: Pop-Up City MSc Spatial Design: Architecture & Cities The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 2015–2016

Edited by Sophia Psarra Fani Kostourou Kimon Krenz


preface

evidence-led explorations and designbased approaches, each of which currently belongs to different educational and professional silos. The course combine expertise from architecture, urban design, social sciences and related areas. It draws from collaborators in London, UCL and internationally through field trips abroad, workshops, seminars, publications and exhibitions of experimental design/ research projects, artistically inspired and scientifically grounded work. The Bartlett School of Architecture, one of the most renowned international schools, based in a truly global city is a fitting place from which to interrogate the wider challenges of architecture and cities in a rapidly transforming world. It is from this perspective that we undertook our investigation of informal settlements in Rio in 2016. Given both the prominence and the permanence of this particular urban form in that city our hypothesis might easily be stated as ‘the favela IS the city’. The contributions which follow provide a glimpse into a ‘self-organising’ urban system accompanied by speculations about the potential for intervention and what forms those interventions might take.

The E-Merging Design Research module (EDR) is a new research/practice-based module in the SDAC MSc at the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. It brings the measurable aspects of urban and architectural environments (evidencebased) to serve those aspects that are considered immeasurable, such as design, intuition, ethical position, social values, place-making, and wellbeing. As none of the measurable and immeasurable aspects can separately provide a holistic approach to creating value, or satisfy the concerns of both policy makers and people, the module offers a unique integrated pathway to design/data-to-knowledge. The course focuses on cities as physical/virtual networks reasserting the values of embodied space in face-to-face encounters and digital communications. It develops responses to urban and social challenges, such as new and emergent forms of urbanisation, urban heritage and historic urban environments, sustainability, informal settlements, healthy environments, rapid urbanisation, safety, security, mobility and immigration. The students encounter a range of theories, technologies and methodologies for breaking down the barriers between

Sophia Psarra Course Director MSc Spatial Design: Architecture & Cities

Children playing in an alley in Bairro Barcelos, Rocinha. Credit: Fani Kostourou 3 Preface


Pop-Up City A Data-to-Knowledge Approach to Urbanism and Design Interventions

Dr. Sophia Psarra This was the second year in which the E-merging Design Research Studio explored the topic of urban informality. Informality is one of the big forces shaping today’s developing cities and the built environment. According to the U.N., by 2030 six of every ten people will live in cities, with ninety per cent of this growth happening in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Caribbean. It is estimated that more than a billion people in today’s informal settlements do not have access to clean water, and lack basic infrastructure, such as sanitation and toilets. Up to recently, the standard approach among designers, planners and city officials was to demolish informal settlements and build new housing, without access to jobs or public infrastructure. For example, ‘Minha Casa Minha Vida’ (MCMV), an ambitious programme of largescale housing instituted in 2009 in order to upgrade cities in Brazil, provides housing in underserviced regions, cutting residents off their intricate social ties in favelas. Offering little public and social services, MCMV housing significantly reduces people’s access to employment, requiring longer times of commute to the commercial centres of cities.1

RIO DE JANEIRO AERIAL VIEW location of favelas Favelas

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Aerial view of Rio de Janeiro, highlighting the location of favelas. Credit: Krenz, et al. 2016 4 Pop-Up City

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5 Pop-Up City


defining question: how to design urban propositions that combine design innovation with data analysis and empower people to improve their urban lives. Our research of Rio and its informal settlements indicates that - deprived of regulations and state-provided infrastructure - favelas develop support structures that are strongly dependent on their physical and social networks (p. 9). This knowledge was brought to the service of design propositions through bottom-up urbanism. The studio engages with Rocinha in Rio de Janeiro, developing a range of creative methodologies that generate knowledge about the city and embed it into the scale of neighbourhood through space syntax analysis, GIS mapping, field work and in-situ visits. Instead of producing fixed outcomes such as buildings, or configuring open spaces only by physical means, students develop designs that worked as social, economic and environmental infrastructures. These ranged from communal farming and urban agriculture (p. 16, Maghzian) to devising plans that address unemployment though the growth of local businesses (p. 70, Lu, p. 46, Fouad); from repairing existing infrastructure systems (p. 23, Jaime Vaca) to making infrastructure dismountable and portable penetrating the dense network of alleys in Rocinha (p. 64, Sun); and from combining network analysis with environmental considerations (p. 40, Barrientos TriĂąanes) to identifying opportunities for actively shaping vertical or residual spaces (p. 57, Sarri, p. 29, Gil Pfeil). The combination of analytical

Interventions such as the MCMV clearly show that dealing with informality requires new approaches, addressing improvisation, adaptability, public engagement and the human resourcefulness encountered in informal urbanisation. It also requires data-to-knowledge, describing cities through models of urban complexity and evolutionary processes. However, in environments that are shaped by selforganising communities, the Western model of evidence-based design imposed top-down by designers, analysts and policy makers is not socially relevant. Producing design and analytical knowledge is different than applying knowledge and implementing design decisions. We need paradigms that are responsive to the complex relationship between producing knowledge about the city and acting in the city. These paradigms should take into account modes that are more diverse than the traditional Western model of urban production, such as collaborative agencies, systemic environments, and rapidly urbanising contexts. Acting in the city requires utilising existing spatial and socio-economic networks alongside strong input from residents with the intention of encouraging community engagement and grassroots planning.2 As to the disciplines of architecture urban design and planning, we need new kinds of design thinking, and new pedagogical models that are capable of addressing spatial complexity, combined with creative, social, ethical and critical agendas. This approach underlies the E-merging Design Research studio (EDR) with the

6 Pop-Up City


and design explorations was based on the interaction between the two kinds of knowledge avoiding any hierarchical bias in their relationship. On the contrary, analytical and design ideas were intertwined through feedback loops linking mappings that generate various kinds of evidence with design intuition. Analysis and design propositions were each altered by outcomes that emerged from both sides in the design process. On the one hand, street network analysis is informed by socio-economic data found on site, such as data related to age-group population, crime hot spots and transportation. On the other hand, design ideas are adjusted to knowledge emerging from the street network analysis as a way to interrogate design intentions and identify the most advantageous urban locations. Moving between analytical knowledge, theoretical speculation, various

forms of social engagement and self-built architecture, students developed design approaches that work as alternatives to the inherited top-down models of immutable interventions. 1 “In the Latin America and Caribbean region, where regularization of informal housing has historically contributed to providing housing solutions, informal settlements continue to be a significant feature of urban areas with at least 24% of the region’s urban population still residing in slums, in spite of a 9% decrease in recent years”, Habitat III Issue Papers 22 Informal Settlements, p. 3.

2 “Slum dwellers, in particular, have important knowledge, skills and capacity to contribute, direct and own the upgrading process. An inclusive approach towards the improvement of their living conditions brings fundamental socio-cultural changes towards a rights-based society”y, ibid. p. 2.

Estrada da Gávea, Rocinha. Credit: Fani Kostourou 7 Pop-Up City


rocinha An INtroduction

Fani Kostourou Kimon Krenz Rio DE JANEIRO

This divisive perception, however, is not based on analytic approaches that deal with the ways in which favelas relate to the city. Most of the times favelas have been visually represented in simplified ways and without precise quantitative evidence. This lack of data analysis is more responsible for constructing myths rather than overcoming them. For example, while Rio’s favelas are commonly considered to be located on hillsides, studies have argued for a more complex picture.[16,6] A detailed streetnetwork model shows that few favelas are located on steep topography and these concentrate on the historic centre of the city.[12] On the contrary, a large number of favelas are located in flat areas in the periphery, close to infrastructural networks. This shows that favelas are not spatially segregated, but in most cases in immediate proximity or next to busy streets and spaces of economic potential. Third, while local centres in formal parts of Rio form continuous linear networks, favelas feature dense internal networks that segregate them, turning them into discontinuous ‘islands’ (Figure 1). What all three characteristics demonstrate is a fragmented spatial system that is a result of an incremental without

During the last century and despite public policy efforts to tackle informality in Rio de Janeiro, informal settlements have increased–more rapidly than the formal city–both in terms of number and size.1 This process has been affected by three developments that touch upon public policies, critical cartography, and academic discourse.[1,15,23] Starting with the latter, there is an overriding perception that favelas are being socially, culturally, politically and economically excluded from the rest of the city. This has also shaped the spatial representation of Rio de Janeiro over the years, strengthening its impression as a ‘divided city’.[2] Past public urban development strategies, addressing informal growth such as Rio Cidade, FavelaBairro, Growth Acceleration Programme (PAC) and Morar Carioca, have been widely criticised. Justin McGuirk highlighted their limited approach, which eventually reinforced the prejudicial inequality between the formal and the informal areas.[13] This image of ‘otherness’ is reproduced to such extent that Rio’s inhabitants belonging to middle and upper class do not treat favelas as parts of the city.

View from a residential rooftop in Rocinha. Credit: Kimon Krenz 9 Rocinha. An Introduction


Normalised angular choice > 1.4 1.3 - 1.4 1.2 - 1.3 0.0 - 1.2 Favelas km 0

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Rocinha

Figure 1: Street network analysis, Rio de Janeiro. Credit: Krenz, et al. 2016


‘all-at-once’ conceptualised growth process. In fact, the entire city of Rio de Janeiro grew over the years based on a random but rapid residential development process rather than a systematic urban planning process, which accommodates economic activity in certain parts of the city and connects disconnected pieces into a whole.[10] This one-sided city development may explain the creation of both the formal and the informal city counterparts as they followed the same logic.

immediate impact on the financial support of the community by the government. The rapid growth and unregulated urban extension of favelas mean that their inhabitants live in physical environments, which lack public investments and infrastructure.[3] Consequently, Rocinha is characterised by residents with low levels of literacy, high rates of poverty, limited access to basic sanitation and lack effective waste management.[3] Albeit the governmental UPP’s ‘pacification’ attempts to take control of Rocinha from the drug gangs in 2008 and most notably in 2011, drug trafficking is still present as a phenomenon. Rocinha reality, however, is not solely one of downfalls, as it has a rich economic infrastructure with more than 5000 different shops and a diverse variety of cultural institutions. It is also characterised by strong social cohesion and politically represented by three different resident associations with elected leaders.[14] These facts highlight the complexity of such built environments similar to Rocinha where very little is known about their emergence, consolidation and functioning. This lack of information is not only due to the governmental neglect, but also its complex spatial configuration making data collection a hard task. Interestingly enough, the most detailed cartographic representation of Rocinha’s streets and houses was not produced by the city planning department, but by Carlos Pedro, a resident and currently the owner of Rocinha’s postal service. In response to the limited knowledge, a closer view on Rocinha’s street network gives insight into its morphological characteristics and historic emergence. One main street,

Rocinha

One of the most renowned examples of this process is Rocinha, Brazil’s largest favela. Due to its beneficial location and proximity to Rio’s Zona Sul–the city’s most affluent area–the favela has experienced a rapid population growth. Set in between the two steep hillsides of Morro do Laboriaux and Morro Dois Irmãos, the development of the settlement has been limited by its geographic conditions resulting in one of the densest places in Rio de Janeiro.[4] Due to intensified migration from rural to urban areas in the last decades, millions of people left the countryside and moved to Rio in the hope of finding better work opportunities. The outcome of Brazil’s latest 2010 census estimated Rocinha’s total population at approximately 70.000, an increase of 23% compared to the previous decade.[4] While all favelas in Rio are characterised by growth rates far above that of the city average (5%), Rocinha is among the fastest growing ones. Much controversy took place over the 2010 census, as local community leaders were questioning the results and presented alternative estimates of more than 180.000 people. This difference would have an

12 Rocinha. An Introduction


Estrada da Gávea, crosses the entire settlement and accommodates most of the favela’s economic activity. Buses also pass through this road. Close by emerged Bairro Barcelos, the oldest and most thriving area. This area does not only form one of the main entrances to the settlement, but also features–contrary to the rest–a grid-like street network, which is easily accessible and allows for easier navigation (Figure 2). Most of the other parts of Rocinha can be described as maze-like configurations. Throughout the years the steep topography forced inhabitants to extend the neighbourhood through meandering streets and staircases, rather than continuous linear streets. While this makes it difficult

for strangers to navigate, locals with their inherent knowledge of the area, find their way during everyday journeys. Building on this and with further collection of data on site the following student projects contribute to the understanding of Rocinha’s complexity and by extension indicate an analytical approach worth considering in the investigation of similar phenomena of informalities. They also act as a mechanism for data production. 1 There is a lot of debate about using the terms ‘formsl’ and ‘informal’, we are aware of the difficulties introduced by these notions, but no better terms have been so far found to describe official cities and favelas.v

Morro do Laboriaux

Bairro Barcelos

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Morro Dois Irmãos

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Figure 2: Figure ground plan of Rocinha. Credit: MSc SDAC 2014/15 13 Rocinha. An Introduction


FRAMEWORK As Justin McGuirk recently asked, ‘if architecture is just speculation then could there be a more fitting legacy of that period than Spain’s 3.5 million empty homes’?[13] If 1.5 million citizens of Rio live in the 1,000 favelas, and if squatters around the world build more square miles of city than architects, developers and the government, how can we take the World Cup projects, the Olympic ‘legacy’ seriously? Between the competing agendas of iconic mega architecture and the efforts to combat poverty, between the hunters of land profit and the slums, between the authored creations of architects and the multiple authorless settlements, between the acres of new infrastructures and the thousands of relocations to make way for Olympic projects fundamental questions need to be kept in mind: – Can architecture reclaim its social and political role as a discipline? – Can spatial dimensions alone assure the success of social programmes? – Can theoretical and analytical approaches such as space syntax enable architects to be agents of social and political change? – What aspects should these approaches address so as to strengthen architecture’s social and political agency? – How does the designer step back from dictating the form of a building or a city over time? – How does science as the epistemological model with its assumed detached objectivity relate to social and political

values and the need to serve ethical imperatives? – How do we navigate between the modernist model of architecture and widely spread processes of informal settlements and urbanisation? – Can architecture have the tools to propose an alternative idea about the city (at a time where cities are being shaped by global economics at a speed beyond municipal control)? – How do we overcome the gap between the iconic architectural project and the city as a by-product of urban policy and development? – If one third of the world’s populations have shifted from the country to the periphery of the city, what can we learn from their resilience and resourcefulness? Aims

– Acknowledging the informal as a vital part of the city’s social capital and ecosystem. – Reversing the tide of segregation and rebuilding cohesion. – Addressing challenges and developing alternative approaches to favela upgrading that foster spatial, social, economic and ecological innovation. Configuration: Sites

Students selected ‘sites’ in Rocinha so as to address a variety of spatial conditions. The term ‘sites’ has broader meaning that is not confined to a single geographical location, social category, clear boundaries,

14 Framework


morphological or economic definition. Sites were chosen either by virtue of being certain types of spaces (such as public spaces) or places that might be at different locations but are linked together by sharing network-like properties. Examples of sites included:

to resources and modes of production that ensure that urban networks can be established, evolve and maintained over time. Performance: Thematic threads T1: Social and economical practices – sociality employment and micro-economies of the collective.

S1: Pervasive centrality

T2: Modes of citizenship, identity and sharing (social programmes, spatial and social connectors).

The purpose was to construct self-sustaining urban nuclei interconnected with other urban nuclei, with multiple uses and common collective spaces.

T3: Ecology and infrastructural systems – modes of co-habitation, equal access to resources, sustainable urban eco-systems.

S2: Urban Edge

Engaging areas situated between the informal settlements and the official urban fabric. For spatial and social integration to be addressed, it first needs to be defined. The design had to take into account physical characteristics and socio-economic models of exchange from both sides.

While the thematic threads address programmatic and socio-economic considerations, the four ‘sites’ concern the physical manifestations of these considerations. Together, sites and thematic threads provided opportunities for a crossover matrix along form-space making and various types of performance. This allowed a distribution of students and groups according to sites and crossover themes. The design projects were set within the context of theories and methods that are explored in the MSc SDAC programme. Students used analytic techniques to interrogate and develop their design ideas. Technical terms used in their project descriptions are defined in the glossary section at the end of this volume.

S3: Civic Space

The emphasis in this case is on urban space, in order to establish a network of other civic spaces such as plazas, urban walkways, pedestrian channels, etc. S4: Infrastructural nodes

The primary concern in this category was nodal points between different types of infrastructure, when systems interdepend and collide (transportation, markets, educational, social infrastructure, etc.) The emphasis was on shared access

15 Framework


Rising Rocinha: De-marginalising the informal through socioeconomic solidarities Nazila Maghzian


Urban Agriculture With the majority of population working outside the area, half of the community using electricity illegally, receiving water free of charge, and almost no local production, Rocinha lives subsidised to a very high degree. ‘Rising Rocinha’ is a social de-marginalization attempt for the favela. A network of community centres, based on the already existing infrastructure of institutions such as nurseries, is used to initiate a process of urban agriculture. This will be done by passing on knowledge of rainwater collection, as well as strategies of activating green roofs and facades for agricultural purposes for the local community. Products of such agricultural production can subsequently be used for local and external exchange.

Two neighbourhoods with a high concentration of institutions and public space were chosen for the initiation phase of the project. Between these two, the neighbourhood associated with higher to-movement and through-movement (both measures at R400) is devoted to the initial phase (see glossary). The other two neighbourhoods with a high number of institutions can potentially become export areas. In order to examine these allocations, however, all institutions are also checked against the age group and the number of people they are associated with, as well as the square meters of space that is available to them. Making It Possible Urban agriculture is made possible in Rocinha through the collection of rainwater and the use of a specific brick called cobogó a common construction material in the area (see glossary). In terms of water collection, Rio features strong seasonal rainfall, which makes the collection of rainwater a meaningful venture. Simple inverted umbrellas connected to a water tank by a pipe can be set up without significant expenditure. With regards to the building material for agricultural purposes, the existing cobogó was taken, altered and improved. A simplified design is developed that can be used in vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. Following specific guidelines, the agricultural products growing on roofs and facades of buildings will have economic, environmental and aesthetic value. This is possible by combing different plants requiring similar growth conditions and suitable aesthetic properties.[19]

Stages of Growth The project develops in five stages. In the first stage, the process of urban agriculture is initiated within Rocinha. In the second stage, public areas are used for urban communal farming. Moreover, these public spaces are prepared to facilitate markets for local exchange. In the third stage, the urban agriculture is expanded to private roofs and facades of buildings. The fourth stage is devoted to exporting the local produce to the rest of Rio de Janeiro. The fifth stage of the process aims at expanding and intensifying urban agriculture locally in a more creative way. In order to facilitate these stages, the measure of metric mean depth R200 (see glossary) was used to look at Rocinha as a patchwork of neighbourhoods, each of which contained different numbers of institutions, and available public space.

17 Nazila Maghzian


Neighbourhood patchworks identified by Metric Mean Depth R200. The ones shaded are those that have the highest number of institutions and public space

High potential neighbourhoods for initiating urban agriculture and NAIN R400

18 Nazila Maghzian


High potential neighbourhoods for exporting agricultural produce

Neighbourhoods arrived at, for different stages of the process through parameterising urban agriculture and available institutions

19 Nazila Maghzian


Cobogรณ appropriated for urban agriculture

Urban agriculture and market for local exchange in the PAC Project

20 Nazila Maghzian


Urban agriculture and interaction between public and private space

21 Nazila Maghzian


Urban Vaccine: Solving the health and infrastructure problem Felix Francisco Jaime Vaca


Context Rocinha, like many other informal settlements around the world, is facing socio-economic problems. Many of these issues are related to its infrastructure, which is either missing or in poor condition. In several cases, serious health problems arise from the lack of sewage and drainage, which puts these issues at the forefront of this project, aiming to improve health and everyday life in such settlements. In a research study by the local authorities in 2012, it was revealed that in Rocinha every neighbourhood had been affected by tuberculosis, due to an open sewer located at Rua do Canal.

Project Phases Based on the waterless toilet system, the project is divided into four stages: The first stage consists of processes for separating the solid waste from grey water. In the second stage, the solid waste are taken to digesters, which are located in the most integrated parts of the urban layout (see glossary), where they are then transformed into fertiliser and biogas. The grey water that goes to the general sewer system is redirected to bamboo gardens that are used as an urban bio-filter, recycling the grey water before it goes to the open sewer. Bamboo is chosen because of its properties of cleaning the water, its capacity to rapidly grow and its versatility as a raw material. In the third stage, spaces for urban agriculture are developed along the open sewer. Here the previously generated fertiliser and the recycled water from the urban bio-filter can be used to produce vegetables. The agricultural products can be sold elsewhere or consumed by the local community. Finally, in the fourth stage, the urban interconnections are improved in the area to enhance accessibility and legibility of the site. This is achieved by linking the existing commercial activities from Rua do Alegria with Rua do Canal. This intervention has a positive effect on the movement potential in the area, providing the foundation for the generation of shops and a market where people in Rocinha sell agricultural products.[7]

Strategy Changing and repairing existing sewer systems is very expensive, and cities often do not have sufficient funds for such ventures. This project proposes instead to make use of waterless toilet systems, such as LooWatt. [25] Such systems separate solid waste from grey water before conveying them to the general sewer system. This system also allows recycling solid waste and turning them into fertiliser and biogas. The design intervention starts by focusing on the neighbourhood that is most affected by the open sewer. In order to have this intervention accepted by the inhabitants, the design needs to improve not only the infrastructure, but also the living conditions of people in Rocinha. This is done by seeing the poor infrastructure less as a sole engineering problem, and more as an opportunity to strengthen the local economy, and a way to reduce rates of crime and segregation.

23 Felix Francisco Jaime Vaca


Landscape intervention. Plan and section of the project


Existing sewage netowrk in Rocinha

FUEL

Waterless Toilet System

1. Detachment of register from the toilet

2. Register is delivered to the digestor

3. Solid waste are processed and transformed into Bio-gas and fertiliser

Sewer System Current Situation

26 Felix Francisco Jaime Vaca


Design strategy Problem definition and interventions

27 Felix Francisco Jaime Vaca


Collaborative Sidewalks: The Architecture of Extension Pedro Gil Pfeil


A New Road System This strategy takes advantage of the government expansion of Rua 4 and incorporates it into the transport system of Rocinha, in order to create a parallel road to Gávea. It also changes the two-way traffic direction of these two streets into a one-way circular system. Informed by the existing attributes of the street network, the project increases the area of space available for pedestrian use along these streets and encourages the growth of commercial activities.

“[Favelas] Rather than erasure, what they required was enhancement.” McGuirk[13] Enhancement Rather than Erasure Rocinha is the densest favela in Rio de Janeiro (78,209 people/km 2). Estrada da Gávea is its main road and gathers most of Rocinha’s economy, pedestrian and vehicular movement. Due to the lack of squares, parks and playgrounds, this road constitutes the main public space in the favela. However, the street infrastructure is poor with extremely narrow, irregular and discontinous the sidewalks. While the use of the street requires a clear, well serviced and mixed-traffic road, the sidewalks currently are an undefined territory between the public area of the street and the private buildings that define it. Paradoxically, although very little public space exists for sidewalks, there are plenty of residual spaces, which are poorly used and accummulate waste. This problem affects pedestrian mobility, forcing pedestrians to walk on the road most of the time. As most local people say: “in Rocinha it is more likely to die in a traffic accident than in a drug dealer conflict”. In spite of these problems, the fragmented and unsuitable sidewalks constitute one of the main trading areas, directly opening up to the many businesses along this street, and forming a crucial part of Rocinha’s economy.

The Architecture of Extension This strategy proposes a ‘catalogue’ of design scenarios and possible configurations for potential extensions of the commercial shops towards the street. These extensions can develop as intermediate spaces between the shops and the public space. The intention is to create a ‘collaborative’ sidewalk, where either the public space can extend inside the existing shops, or the shop’s activities can extend to space outside. Market Space and Rocinha’s Grande Stair Drawing inspiration from McGuirk’s ideas about cities in Latin America and Hillier’s theory of movement economy, the project enhances, integrates and revitalises existing residual spaces into an integrated network of spaces for pedestrians, cars, business and markets. A new food market area and a large stair are proposed to connect Estrada da Gávea with Rua 4. The market is located in a currently underused parking area where most of the through-movement is found (NACH R2100, see glossary). It consists of fixed vertical

Sidewalk System The project proposes a new sidewalk system in order to provide safer spaces for pedestrians and improve the trading capacity of street economy. It consists of four main strategies:

29 Pedro Gil Pfeil


perimeter of the market. The idea is to give people access to one of the biggest open spaces in Rocinha and formally occupy the space so as to organise some of the dispersed commercial events in the area. This strategy complements the piecemeal redevelopment of the main street infrastructure by small holders, for it brings together the local community to reclaim public space, and through collaboration promote the local economy.

columns, with movable stands and awnings, supporting a variety of configurations. The vertical elements compose a permanent structural framework, which provides the basic infrastructure: water and electricity. The rest of the design is based on a modular system (Dexion) that allows merchants to customise their space by adding furniture such as shelves, tables, or other equipment like electrical appliances. Subsequently, other complimentary activities such as restaurants and services are expected to settle down around the

Dinner Room

Bus Stop

Commercial Extension

m: s:

Existing appropriation of sidewalks 30 Pedro Gil Pfeil

mobility service blocked space


Normalised Choice R2100 Scale 1:5.000

Gavea Road / 1,37 Rua 4 / 1,30

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Low

Rocinha segment map analysis NACH R2100

Foreground and Background Patchwork Scale 1:5.000

Gavea Road / 1,37 Rua 4 / 1,30

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Foreground NACHr2100 Background Tdwr1200

Rocinha foreground and background patchwork

31 Pedro Gil Pfeil


Proposed system VGA Integration Rn ! !! !! !!!!!!! !! !!!! !!!!!!! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! ! !!! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! !!! ! !! ! !!! !!! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !! ! !! !! ! !! !!! !!! !!! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!! ! !! !!! !! ! ! !! ! !! !! !! ! !! !! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! !! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! ! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !!! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !!! ! ! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !! ! ! !! !!! !! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !!! ! ! !! ! ! ! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !!! 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!! !! !!! !! !! !! !! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!! !! ! ! !! ! !! !!! !!! !! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! ! !! !! !! !! !! ! !!!!!! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! !!! !! ! !!! !! ! ! ! !! !! !!! !!! ! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! ! ! ! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! ! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !!! !! !! !!! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! ! ! !! !! ! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! !! !!! !!! !!! ! ! ! !!! !!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!! !!!!!!!!! !! ! !! !! !! !! ! !! !! !! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! !! !!! !! !! ! !!! !!! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !!!!! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! !! ! !! !!! !!! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! !! !! ! !! ! !!! !!! !!! !! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! ! ! ! ! ! !! !!! !!! !! ! ! !!! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! ! ! ! !! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! !!! ! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! !! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! !! !! !! ! !!! !! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! !!!!! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! !! ! !! !! ! ! !! ! !! !! !! !! !! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! ! ! ! !! !!! ! ! ! !! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! !! !! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! !! !! !!! !!! !!! ! ! ! !! !! !! ! !! ! ! !! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! !!! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! !! ! ! !! !! ! !! !! !!!!!!! ! ! !! !! ! !!!! !

0

75

High

150 Mts

Scale 1:75

Catalogue of extensions

Scale 1:50

Scale 1:75

Scale 1:50

1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube

2. Beam Galvanised scaffold tube

1. Colum 1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube Galvanised scaffold tube

3. Litter Scaffolding joints

2. Beam 2. Beam Galvanised scaffold tube Galvanised scaffold tube

1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube

4. Pergola Strips of woods

3. Litter 3. Litter Scaffolding joints Scaffolding joints

2. Beam Galvanised scaffold tube

4. Pergola 4. Pergola Strips of woods Strips of woods

3. Litter Scaffolding joints

The Bus stop Extension

Kiosks and bus stops are o together in Rocinha. This proposal considers optimize one element for the two functions.

The Restaurant Extension

The Basic Structure

Restaurants in Rocinha are used to have extension on the streets. This proposal offer shade for the ground and a terrace.

4. Pergola Strips of woods

The basic structure for multiple alternatives for the architecture of extension. The system is based in scaffolding elements.

The Restaurant Restaurant Extension Extension The

The Structure Basic Structure Structure The Basic Basic

Exterior Dinning Room Restaurants in Rocinha are used to have extension on the streets. This proposal offer shade for the ground and a terrace. Restaurants in Rocinha are used to have extension on the streets. The Restaurant Extension and a terrace. This proposal offer shade for the ground

The basic structure for multiple alternatives for the architecture of extension. The system is based in scaffolding elements. The basic structure for multiple alternatives for the architecture of extension. The Basic The system is based in Structure scaffolding elements.

First Floor Shop

Basic Structure Staircase Isometric

Exterior Dinning Room Scale 1:75

Scale 1:75

Staircase Isometric Staircase Isometric Scale 1:75

BusTheStop - Kiosk Bus stop Extension

Kiosks and bus stops are o together in Rocinha. This proposal considers optimize one element for the two functions.

Shade for the Micro Square

Bus Stop - Kiosk Scale 1:50

Shade for the Micro Square

Scale 1:75

Shade for the Micro Square

Scale 1:75

First Floor Shop

Staircase Isometric

Kiosks and bus stops are o together in Rocinha. This proposal considers optimize one element for the two functions.

Restaurants in Rocinha are used to have extension on the streets. and a terrace. This proposal offer shade for the ground

First Floor Shop Scale 1:75 Shop First Floor

The basic structure for multiple alternatives for the architecture of extension. The system is based in scaffolding elements.

The Bus stop Extension

Kiosks and bus stops are o together in Rocinha. This proposal considers optimize oneExtension element for the two functions. The Bus stop

Scale 1:75

Scale 1:75

Scale 1:50

Scale 1:50

Shade for the Micro Square Scale 1:50

1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube

2. Reinforced Colum 3 galvanised scaffold tubes

1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube 1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube

3. Beam Galvanised scaffold tubes

2. Reinforced Colum 3 galvanised scaffold tubes 2. Reinforced Colum 3 galvanised scaffold tubes

4. Spiral staircase Scaffolding joints

1. Colum Galvanised scaffold tube

3. Beam Galvanised scaffold tubes 3. Beam Galvanised scaffold tubes

2. Reinforced Colum 3 galvanised scaffold tubes

4. Spiral staircase Scaffolding joints 4. Spiral staircase Scaffolding joints

3. Beam Galvanised scaffold tubes

The Spiral Staircase

Staircase

Inspire in the local solution of exterior staircases, this proposal offer a solution GSPublisherEngine to access to a second public level. 0.16.100.84 4. Spiral staircase Scaffolding joints

The Spiral Staircase

Staircase

Inspire in the local solution of exterior staircases, this proposal offer a solution GSPublisherEngine to access to a second public level. 0.16.100.84

Activate the First Floor

First Floor Shop

The foreground network of Rocinha has intense commercial use. GSPublisherEngine 0.16.100.84 This proposal offer to multiply the shopping area by activating the with commercial use.

Activate the First Floor

First Floor Shop

The foreground network of Rocinha has intense commercial use. GSPublisherEngine 0.16.100.84 This proposal offer to multiply the shopping area by activating the with commercial use.

32 Pedro Gil Pfeil

Shade for the Public Spaces

Shade for the Micro Squares

Rocinha has few spaces for leisure, therefore the residual spaces are some kind of "micro squares". This proposal offer shade and a children's slide, in order to improve the quality of the public spaces.

Shade for the Public Spaces

Shade for the Micro Squares

Rocinha has few spaces for leisure, therefore the residual spaces are some kind of "micro squares". This proposal offer shade and a children's slide, in order to improve the quality of the public spaces.

Low


Proposed food market and urban stairs

33 Pedro Gil Pfeil


Rocinha Young Enterprise Corridor Yanhua Yao


The Rocinha Young Enterprise Project The young population of Rocinha is exposed to a variety of challenges related to safety, education and economic disadvantage. This project makes provisions for an urban environment that addresses these challenges, enabling children to have access to a better educational and social facilities. As a spatial intervention project, the Rocinha Young Enterprise Project uses Rocinha’s existing open spaces to build a series of spaces for children. As a social intervention, it aims to create spaces for children in an informal urban setting.

as this can lead to a natural sense of safety. Choice is a mathematical measure for such movement potential and is used to inform interventions within Rocinha. Defining the activity framework Based on observations of children’s activities in Rocinha’s streets, the project provides three types of spaces creating synergies between different activities: a) A playground and art workshop: This is located in a semi-private space that is used only by children. Children have sole access to the highest level in this space. This will allow a visual control over the surrounding areas. The spaces in the site will be re-shaped to prioritise children and their activities. b) A small shop and animal shelter: This facility is designed as a semi-public space, where children have an opportunity to sell art they have produced in a playful way. It allows customers to be part of the mechanisms of safety and control. Moreover, it is proposed that taking care of homeless dogs can help children to build their sense of social responsibility. Possible customers are tourists, as well as local people and children. c) Walkways with small beds for urban agriculture: This is a combination of a public space for social interaction and a farming facility. Parents can accompany their children in learning basic principles of plants and agriculture. This intervention uses a set of terraces adjusting itself in the topography of the setting. The location of all sites in the project has been determined based on the street network as well as the uses in the area. For example, the art workshop shares space with an art studio nearby. Therefore, existing activities and services could take advantage of the provision of the workshop, teaching small classes of children and adults.

Where are children particularly vulnerable? The project uses census information on the demographic distribution of Rocinha, in order to define the areas where most children live in the settlement. The highest concentration of children population in the area is determined by looking at the comparison between particular unique local populations and a global average of children. The project also identifies the areas affected by drug-dealing activities in order to locate safe areas for children in the settlement. The project also considers the street/path/roads and routes children travel on a daily basis on the way to school or to day-care facilities. Potential places for interventions A number of spaces positioned along these daily travel routes were considered in terms of their size and position in the street network of Rocinha. What was looked at was the measure of Choice accounting for through- movement (see glossary) in order to identify those sites that underperform, attracting very little movement, and those that are well connected, distributing high levels of movement. The idea is to generate higher movement potential and hence have more ‘eyes on the street’[11], 35

Yanhua Yao


Adolescent neighbourhoods Drug dealing spots 0.805

1.198

0.785

1.258

0.782

Legend

1.175 1.103

1.070

0.605

1.130

Rocinha_Rio_de_Janeiro 0.306 00 -- 0.306 0.306 - 0.693 0.693 - 0.767 0.767 - 0.818 0.818 - 0.875 0.875 - 0.929 0.929 - 0.996 0.996 - 1.067 1.154 1.067 - -1.401 1.154 1.154 - 1.401

Where the adolescent population is situated in relation to drug dealing locations? – Normalised Choice R1200

Sports complex School Cresh Art studio Library Theatre 500m

Metric step depth 500m from the highest NACH R400 segment in the neighbourhood 1

36 Yanhua Yao


Three space function elements

Workshop space

Making & painting

Market space

Trading, selling & animal shelter

Planting space

Planting & public space

37 Yanhua Yao


Where children need to travel on a daily basis is also where drug trafficing takes place

High risk segments for adolescent Neighbourhood 1 Metric step depth 500m distance segments from drug dealing spots Metric Step Depth 500m segments from the highest NACH400 segement in the neighbourhood 1

Spatial Design Concept

Integrating poor and well performing spaces; Integrating space with the high choice value streets

Intergration Link Top 20% NACH400 value segments Young Enterprise Corridor Connection

Enhancing the awareness of children ownership of the space through strategically implementing the interventions

38 Yanhua Yao


Site 2 spatial interventions : encouraging visual integration, sports spaces extension & tourism attraction

39 Yanhua Yao


Dispersing, stretching, breathing!: Recovering the alley network Melissa Barrientos TriĂąanes


Streets as insufficient public space Rocinha is squeezed. Rocinha cannot breath. Because of the extreme population density, and the natural and constructed barriers that hinder its expansion, free-ground in Rocinha is kept for supporting new constructions instead of creating public space. This leaves public life relegated to very narrow streets. Estrada da Gávea, the main street of the favela and principal public space, struggles to accommodate the community’s social life, everyday commerce and traffic. Rocinha’s central activities need space to expand, and could expand, had the large network of alleys extending deeply into the favela been suitable for use. Alleys today are narrow, dark, congested, insecure and unhealthy. They usually remain underused, being avoided by visitors even though they are located one turn away from the main street. As the population keeps growing over already crammed spaces, apartments are continuously added over the roofs of existing buildings, further affecting sunlight and natural ventilation. Given their existing spatial potential, this project proposes to transform strategically located alleys from a source of tuberculosis and drug dealing, into sunny, healthy and easily navigable public paths. In order to explore the possibilities for public space expansion, the project uses the spatial analysis of Rocinha and the syntactic measures of Choice and Integration at metric radii 400 and 800 (see glossary).

new uses other than through- movement. These characteristics together with low levels of visibility inside and across the alleys could be fundamental reasons for failing to allow the development of diverse uses other than residential. Opening the alleys’ inlets to gain visibility from the main street and creating a chain of small public squares inside the alley is the first step taken in this design proposal. The intention behind the squares is to act as ‘oases’, defined by vertical building facades that are also opened up in order to bring fresh air and light into the ground level, while offering alternatives for new socio-economic activities to settle down. It is expected that the symbiotic system of natural light and ventilation in combination with the new spaces and facades can relieve and regenerate the contested urban system. Prototype and future implementation The project takes alley no 344 for a prototypical intervention. This alley connects two main streets of Rocinha: Estrada da Gávea and Rua 4. It is selected because of its strategic location within a central ‘ring’ of movement, highlighted by the street network analysis as a possible starting area for regeneration. Enlarged entrances and squares are provided by claiming the ground floor apartments, and relocating their owners at the top of the same buildings. This way, structures are extended up to their entire height potential of six floors. A new structural system is also proposed. It consists of a metallic lightweight skeleton system, capable of accommodating more residential spaces with less overall weight keeping the building foundations intact. Roofs and facades are constructed by pre-fabricated and demountable modular panels. (continue on page 44)

Connected squares and paths The alleys of Rocinha demonstrate certain spatial characteristics that badly effect their performance despite their potential in the network configuration. They are too tight for allowing natural light and fresh air to reach the ground, and too narrow for supporting

41 Melissa Barrientos Triñanes


Street alleys morphological categorisation and their inlet angles 42 Melissa Barrientos TriĂąanes


43 Melissa Barrientos TriĂąanes


The system allows the new roofs to capture sunrays and wind, and direct them through the façade system to the ground. Eventually, the transformation of the ground level will support profitable sociable activities, such as shops and day care facilities. The flexibility of the modular construction and

the progressive vertical growth of buildings as local real estate business will provide a successful prototype for enhancing other neighbourhoods. Liberated by the constraints of tight space, Rocinha will grow healthier and wealthier, and will finally breathe.

Alley 344, before and after the interventions

44 Melissa Barrientos TriĂąanes


Design sequence Progressive construction of squares in alleys

Current narrow alley

Relocation of ground flats

Completing height potential

Adding sunray capturing system

Adding wind flows capturing system

Upper facades are completed

Neighbours get inspired!

Entire height potential is completed

45 Melissa Barrientos TriĂąanes


Sky-Bound: Rooftops as a SocioEconomic Base Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad


Rooftops: the reason behind the strategy In spite of its rich social activity patterns, Rocinha lacks the vacant spaces that can enable these activities to grow, organise and spatially consolidate themselves. The same applies to the local economy. Not only in favelas, social and economic activities and their expression in space greatly determine the living standards of the people living in the area. Based on these observations, the project introduces a dual design strategy. The first part targets the social and cultural life, while the second one deals with the local economy through infrastructural provisions for tourists and visitors. In both cases, rooftops are chosen as the sites for possible action. Rocinha’s rooftop area makes up for a total of 520,528sqm. Furthermore, in favelas as a consequence of the lack of open space, the rooftops often become an extension of the daily life activities at the ground level. Used as laundries, storage spaces, recreational areas, outdoor kitchens or sources of income, they are an integral part of the Brazilian culture. This project focuses exclusively on roof terraces, spotlighting thus the ingenuity of these local practices. Sky bound, the project title highlights the need to overcome the limitations imposed by the density of occupation at the ground level, which leaves almost no space for urban intervention.

of open spaces. The range of proposed activities is based on the shortage of spaces designated for the younger generation (children up to 14 years old) such as day-care facilities. It capitalises on the existing use of roofs as sources of income, by making space for recreational activities and supporting the local economy. The rooftops used in the design proposal are selected based on the following parameters: (1) They are located on buildings found in areas which are easily accessible, characterised by high levels of throughmovement (Normalised Choice metric R1200, see glossary). (2) They are located in areas that are easily walkable, something which is measured by calculating the steepness of the surrounding streets. (3) They are safe and secure. This is explored in approximation by calculating the network distance of rooftop spaces from hotspots known for drug-dealing. (4) They are located in areas close to existing schools, day-care units and facilities for children and visitors. (5) They are suitable enough to accommodate the proposed activities. Factors here include the surface area of the roof, the height of buildings, the current land uses, the materials used in the construction of roof and the interconnections among roofs in neighbouring buildings. Interventions for the locals A children’ day care facility is proposed for the first design intervention. Other potential activities are those addressing the needs of local young people, such as social hubs, outdoor workout spaces, playgrounds, and a platform for performances or rooftop cinema. (continue on page 51)

Rooftops: re-appropriation and mapping The strategy is divided into two phases. The first one consists of a series of interventions on roof terraces located along the high street is proposed, based on the idea of urban acupuncture. In the second phase of the project, these interventions expand into additional urban areas, creating a network

47 Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad


Accessibility of Rocinha measured through normalised Choice R1200 and plotted on the buildings

1.75

1.75

0.0

0.0

Feasibility of the site for day care interventions measured through school catchment areas (network measured) R250

Proximity

highest

Lowest

48 Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad


Reachibility of the rooftops measured through normalised Integration R1200 plotted on buildings

3.69

0.18

Feasibility of the site for touristic activities measured through hostels’ catchment areas (network measured) R50

Local Residents accommodation

Local Hostels

Potential Rooftop development (R=40 m)

Chosen Sites for further studying

49 Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad


Convex spaces analysis of the touristic sites

Chosen site for rooftop touristic hub: cafe & BBQ

50 Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad


Interventions for the visitors The second part of the strategy enables local residents to generate income by providing services to visitors and tourists. This translates into the establishment of a series of leisure activities, such as cafes, bars, restaurants, BBQ and party spaces, which can all benefit from the rooftop views over Rocinha.

Building material and process It adopts simple and cheap design elements of scrap materials (tyres, sand bags, wood waste). Like Campo Cebada in Madrid, the locals can choose what and where to build, participating in the building process.

Scrap wood panels

Scrap tyres

Stages of developing the rooftop micro-intervention

51 Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad


A ‘Step’ Forward in Public Space Improvement Shuyu Zhao


Background The lack of public space is one of the serious problems in Rocinha. The majority of the existing outdoor public spaces are occupied by functions, such as parking lots or football fields, while some of them are just empty. Most of these spaces do lack fundamental facilities for people to sit, communicate or exercise. Vast areas of the local terrain are taken up by steep slopes with plants and are not well used, ending up as areas of waste and refuse. As a result, beyond the everyday activities of walking and shopping, Rocinha’s open spaces do not create a lot of opportunities for potential encounters, socialisation and communication between local people.

neighbourhoods at the back of the site. The second site is located on the east side of Rocinha. It is a typical rectangular space with a medium slope gradient. It is connected with three crèches and has relatively high values of to-movement and through-movement. The design uses different sizes of stairs and platforms to change the slope according to the proposed activities. The idea is to provide increased levels of surveillance and security that can make it a safer space for the community. Both the first site and this site have movable stair components, which can be recomposed by users, depending on their needs. The third site is a retaining wall with a public space on top. This site lacks vertical accessibility and divides the area. It is located in the west of Rocinha close to a graffiti art studio. It has a relatively high slope gradient and high through-movement value. The proposed strategy is to use stairs that can help turning the wall into a usable space. The proposition will allow people to access the public space at the top, while offering other activities such as rock climbing and street art. In addition to the proposed stairs, this intervention will feature as an artwork itself. The idea is that the community takes ownership by decorating the stairs with tiles, salvaged from Rocinha’s dilapidated structures and buildings.

Strategy The strategy proposed makes use of public stairs in order to generate possibilities for social interaction. Based on research of through- and to-movement potential of Rocinha’s streets network (see glossary), analysis of the topography (morphology and gradient) and social programmes, such as cultural institutions, three sites are selected for interventions. All of these sites are from the foreground network of Rocinha (see glossary). The first site is a big open space with a low slope gradient, located close to a library and a music school at the centre of the settlement. It has high to-movement and through-movement potential, which expects high numbers of users and concentration of people. For this site, the plan is to design several steps dividing the big area into smaller sections each for a different activity. A planned community centre is incorporated into this intervention. This will create a gate situation, opening up to the background network (see glossary) and providing easy access to people who will be entering from adjacent

Further development It is envisaged that the proposed strategies will extend to the background network of Rocinha (Site A, B, C, D), offering additional potential communication opportunities. The aim is to enhance the sense of community, which is a strong factor in the creation of social relationships between people in disadvantaged communities and poorly serviced urban environments.

53 Shuyu Zhao


Mapping the territory

Site 2 Site 1

Site 3 Bus line along main street Foreground network Background network Sites Surface with slope & green Open space Proposed community center Library Art studio Church Media center Dancing school Sports center School Creche Music school Theatre

Selection of three sites and their characteristics Site 1

Site 2

Site 3

NAIN R400

NAIN 400

NACH R400

NACH 400

Existing uses: library, music school, school, church

Existing uses: creches

54 Shuyu Zhao

Existing uses: art studio, media center, creche


Site3: Section and axonometric of proposal

55 Shuyu Zhao


Site2: Axonometric of proposal

56 Shuyu Zhao


57 Shuyu Zhao


Vertic-scape: Staging an infrastructure of hybrid assemblages Sotiria Sarri


Urbanisation versus Bio-diversity loss Rocinha, one of the most urbanised of Rio’s favelas, is overtaking the surrounding landscape, despite the efforts to contain this growth. The density of the favela and the density of the surrounding nature mean that each of the two environments, the favela and the landscape, is alien to the other. A gap is thus observed between what is considered as formed landscape and what is seen as a functional landscape.[5] The consequences of removing any vegetation to build inside the favela led to bio-diversity loss, land degradation, increasing incidences of erosion and negative impacts on water bodies. Moreover, the lack of green spaces coupled with inadequate waste management in the interior of the settlement, put public health at risk.

appropriate sites for the design project. First, the syntactic measures of normalised Integration R400 and normalised Choice R800 (see glossary) are employed for the diagnosis of those vertical public spaces along the main road that have a high to-movement and through-movement potential. Second, a detailed inventory of Rocinha’s underused vertical surface types is produced based on parameters of landscape morphology, existing land use activity, area, slope and accessibility. This helps then, formulating a combinatorial index where specific activities are associated with each of the identified types of sites. Finally, the above exploration leads to the suggestion of a network of linked vertical spaces – instead of individual ones–, that engage with both ‘local’ (background) and ‘global’ (foreground network) activities.

Intruding Green – Vertical Field Conditions Vertic-scape is a proposal to ‘hack’ the highspeed urbanisation process by activating a series of in-between vertical public spaces in the favela, introducing a series of ‘hybrid assemblages’ which can save resources by reusing existing waste. Allen’s ‘field condition’ theory is integral to the project, implying an architecture that leaves space for change and improvisation.[1] The in-between vertical surfaces are approached as bottom-up phenomena, defined by localscale spatial connections, in an attempt to create an ecology of various elements that will stimulate a diverse network of social interaction.

Staging the Surfaces: a new kit of parts The proposed system to activate the in-between vertical public spaces consists of a flexible scaffolding modular system made of reclaimed steel, and provided from local construction stores. The aim is to have minimal interference with the surroundings, using discarded materials and low-cost recycling technologies. This system is based on a 2x1 (m) grid designed, so as to be easily assembled and disassembled, accommodating different needs and allowing for a tactical appropriation by future users. Processes over time – A collective vision The strategy unfolds in three phases. The first phase concerns a process of initiation: installation of the scaffolding structure in the identified sites. (continue on page 61)

Working method The foreground (retail) and background (residential) networks are combined with the figure-ground map of Rocinha to identify

59 Sotiria Sarri


Public and vertical green spaces

possible assemblage spaces vertical spaces connecting public surfaces grocery/market/bar/restaurants construction & motor stores

Network of linked vertical spaces

main road

Vertical spaces with land uses

Vertical green spaces close to foreground network

Material production & assemblage spaces

Vertical green spaces close to background network 60 Sotiria Sarri


The second phase in the project involves the introduction of specific programme, closely linked to the foreground and background network. On one hand, commercial uses are proposed in combination with playing and gathering activities and in direct relation to the foreground network, as the system that organises micro-economies and large-scale movement. On the other hand, urban agriculture is suggested in response to the background network, which is the network of residential activities and social

interactions among the local community. Finally, the third phase focuses on the future expansion of the initial system and its appropriation by the inhabitants for other programmes and new sites. The working method, the design proposal and the implementation strategy all address different scales of physical properties and social activity based on the concept of an urban landscape that is ‘continually reinvented as it is continually reconstructed’.[17] A kit of parts: Modularity of the design proposal

Prototype structural system

After-school playground

Composting

Vertical orchard

Commercial pavilion

Waiting platform

Communal kitchen

Eco-hub

61 Sotiria Sarri


Part of vertical spaces classification

FUNCTION

FACIALITY single

active

VERTICAL SURFACES *categorisation inspired by FOA

multiple

inactive

multiple

AREA (sq.m)

BALANCE

GEOMETRY

perpendicular

continuous

shiing

discontinuous

SECTION

1. Elongated 69599

250,00

(a) ‘The Linear Wall’

2. Compressed 98186

55,16+82,75

1. Linear 33611

265,70

(b) ‘The Stairway’

2. Curvilinear 75244

68,66 + 99,39

62 Sotiria Sarri


Multi-platform activity: ‘The linear stairway’ typology

63 Sotiria Sarri


Stitching the Motor-taxi Wei Sun


Mobility in Rocinha Rocinha’s current street and road infrastructure are in fairly poor condition. Many homes and businesses are accessed by alleys (34%), stairways (33%) and streets that cannot be used by vehicles (15%). There are very few transportation options. As 57% of all trips in this region are made using motorcycles and bicycles, these vehicles form the major mode of transport. This is because of Rocinha’s particular topography, as other types of transportation cannot easily function in the steep and narrow alleyways of the settlement. The motor taxi used by the locals emerged not only as a solution but also as a form of social infrastructure. It has become a strong element of the cultural identity of residents in Rocinha, facilitating their mobility and connecting them with their friends and neighbours. Motor taxis are vital to the community, functioning as an employment opportunity for the young and unskilled part of the population. They enable them to participate in the economy, integrate them into their housing communities, and increase their knowledge and social networks, both inside and outside the favela.

the topographical conditions of these communities, while also respecting their local culture. The interventions proposed to consist of two strategies: first, foldable trailers for motorcycles such as Tricycle House and second, a provision of facilities that overcome challenges of height and topography.[20] The first strategy involves creating a new network for temporary and essential services, such as distribution points for emergency and ambulances for unreachable areas. Other social services, such as remote libraries and opportunities for physical activities will also be available in strategic locations. Potential sites for these interventions are selected by overlapping metric step depth at a radius of 200m from bus-stops, and metric step depth at a radius of 150m from the terminating points of motorcycle trips, superimposing the results of a census-based analysis (see glossary). The aim is to define those spatial points that are: a) accessible via a motor taxi; b) cover the largest possible area of inaccessible places for motorised transport modes. The second strategy is a more permanent intervention, stacking diverse social programs that maximise the site’s potential, including public transportation, social facilities and health services. Inspired by Cedric Price’s ‘Fun Palace’, the project proposes that informal settlements could be transformed into dynamic spaces that involve top-down planning and bottom-up initiatives, which will interconnect different parts of the area, and transform them into active platforms.

Design Idea However, the limited transportation options affect the distribution of various vital social services, such as schools and health care facilities. Instead of solving the poor transportation infrastructure, the project improves the provisions of these services, by using the flexibility and capacity of motorcycles to reach inside areas that are not currently serviceable. The challenge is to implement solutions that overcome

65 Wei Sun


LEGEND Density for residents over 60 years old (person/ sq m)

Church Health care

0.68-0.98 0.98-1.84 Metric step depth from bus stops

Library Sport centers Schools

above 350m Metric step depth from Motortaxi stops

Institution spaces

above 200m

Motortaxi ends Bus stops

Selected areas OKM

O.275KM

O.55KM

Areas with low physical accessibility for both motor-taxis and social services

LEGEND

Church

Density for residents over 60 years old (person/ sq m)

Health care

3.5-5.2 5.2-8.6 Metric step depth from bus stops

Library Sport centers Schools

0-350m Metric step depth from Motortaxi stops

Institution spaces

0-200m

Motortaxi-ends Bus stops

Selected areas OKM

O.275KM

O.55KM

High coverage of motor-taxis in Rocinha 66 Wei Sun


Strategy of site typologies

Main Streets Market streets Streets for motorcycles Motorcycle-ends Alleyway & Staircase Bus stops Parking spaces

Mobility pattern of Rocinha 67 Wei Sun


Design strategy: Folding cars with different program

plan

elevation

elevation

carrier

remote library/ interim arctivity point

medical point

Design strategy: Stacking diverse programs to maximize sites’ potential

open market

new entrance to local neighborhood

institutional space/ seperate circulation

Open Platform

Multifunction

community Integration

terrace

68 Wei Sun

collaborative space event space


Integrated strategy

69 Wei Sun


Activating Business Activating Rocinha Ye Lu


Project Aim Achieving better educational and wellbeing standards, as well as building a healthier environment are the most wanted things in Rocinha. However, well behind these unresolved issues lie the realities of marginalisation, deprivation and unemployment. On one hand, the majority of residents work outside Rocinha and most of them are being stigmatised as ‘favelados’. On the other hand, most of the high-income occupations within Rocinha are taken by outsiders. Despite being centrally located next to affluent parts of the city and constituting one of the largest urban communities in Rio de Janeiro, Rocinha is characterised by solid boundaries, expressed in both spatial and social terms. So the question is, how can one overcome the existing social inequality between those inside and outside of Rocinha? How can one boost the local economy of the favela without relying on governmental policies, but instead by taking full advantage of its resourcefulness? This project looks at the micro-economy of Rocinha through (1) mapping the multiple socio-economic actors, and businesses (types, size, degree of formality) taking part in the process (2) analysing the street network where these businesses are located, and (3) recording the built typologies of mixed use buildings.

within families, neighbours and the local community. Besides, pastry can become a special local product for tourists, while reaching out to larger food markets and festivals, eventually boosting the entire community identity and culture. Design With Pastry Business The design strategy is based on three aspects: society and economy, spatial network and built form. Three types of spaces are proposed in order to develop the pastry business: communal kitchens, familybased kitchens and nomadic kitchens. First, space syntax analysis is used as a way to understand the spatial attributes of the pastry business, and help identify sites for each of the three types. Second, the commercial frontages, the way shops occupy public space and mix with residential uses, are explored, and used in the proposed interventions. Finally, the design considers procedures from goods supply to production, selling, consumption and recycling, including various groups of people being involved at different moments in the process. Re-imagine Rocinha The pastry business will act as a catalyst for other types of business, such as chef training, drink selling and online trade. The development of these economies relies on the joint effort of government, institutions, architects, and most of all the residents of Rocinha. The ultimate aim of the proposal is to generate a benign system of making, distributing and exchanging goods with both the outside and the inside of the community, abolishing notional boundaries. Through bilateral socio-economical exchanges with other parts, Rocinha can gradually turn into a highly productive area of Rio, integrating itself into the socio-economic infrastructure of a broader urban environment.

Why Pastry? The mapping reveals 245 shops and 38 business types that fall under 5 business categories: supply (71%), service (10%), utility (3%), tourism (14%) and culture (2%). Among these, the pastry business is considered to be one of the few local production activities with great potential. It is a business that can get children, elderly people and housewives, actively involved in the production process. It is also a strategy that can help forge social connections 71

Ye Lu


potential neighbourhood proposed communal kitchen potential family kitchen proposed supply points high choice-value roads

Strategy plan Strategic Section

Pastry shop

Communal kitchen

Stalls

Supermarket

72 Ye Lu

Community party

Family kitchen


Design interventions divided into three categories

Connections between different business types

73 Ye Lu


Different kitchens and events

74 Ye Lu


75 Ye Lu


Glossary of terms as clay, glass, ce­ramics or even marble. The cobogó was created in Recife, Pernambuco in the 1920s. Its name derives from the surnames of the three engineers who created it: Amadeu Oliveira Coimbra, Ernest Au­gust Boeckmann and Antonio de Gois. Used to replace walls or parts of them, the cobogó allows air circulation and a view from the inside to the outside, while filtering out the sun’s direct rays and obscuring the view from the outside in to preserve privacy.

Sources Glossary, Online Training Platform, Space Syntax, UCL (2015) http://otp.spacesyntax.net/ glossary/

Background network The background network is part of a theoretical conception of a generic city as being comprised of a foreground network of linked centres at all scales set into a background network of residential space. The background network is said to vary across residential of spatial areas whole spatial cultures, depending on the way in which that culture seeks to restrain and structure co-presence between, say, inhabitants and strangers or men and women. Sources Hillier, B. (2001) “A Theory of the City As Object: Or, how spatial laws...space”, In Proceedings of 3rd International Space Syntax Symposium, Atlanta, USA, pp. 02.21; Hillier, B. & Netto, V (2002) “Society Seen Through the Prism of Space: Outline of a theory of society and space”, Urban Design International 7, 181-203. pp. 182; Hillier, B. (1996) Space is the Machine: A configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. vi.

Foreground network The foreground network is constituted by the spaces maximising natural co-presence and linking centres at all scales. Sources Hillier, B. (2001) “A Theory of the City As Object: Or, how spatial laws mediate the social construction of urban space” , In: Proceedings of 3rd International Space Syntax Symposium, Atlanta, USA, pp. 02.21; Hillier, B. (1996) Space is the Machine: A configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. vi. Integration Integration is a normalised measure of distance from any space of origin to all others in a system. In general, it calculates how close the origin space is to all other spaces, and can be seen as the measure of relative asymmetry (or relative depth). SOURCES Hillier, B. and Hanson, J. (1984) “The Social Logic of Space”, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 108-109.

Choice Choice measures how likely an axial line or a street segment it is to be passed through on all shortest routes from all spaces to all other spaces in the entire system or within a predetermined distance (radius) from each segment. Sources Hillier, B., Burdett, R., Peponis, J. & Penn, A. (1987) “Creating Life: Or, Does Architecture Determine Anything?”, In: Architecture et Comportement/Architecture and Behaviour, 3 (3), 233-250. pp.237.

Metric Mean Depth Metric mean depth is the average metric distance from each space to all others. SOURCES Hillier, B. (2009) “Spatial sustainability in cities: organic patterns and sustainable forms”, In Koch, D., Marcus, L. and Steen, J. (eds) Proceedings of 7th International Space Syntax Symposium, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH): Stockholm, Sweden, pp. k01.3-4.

Cobogó The cobogó is the Brazilian name for a perforated vertical surface traditionally made out of hollow concrete blocks resulting in elegant geometrical patterns. Today a variety of materials are used for the blocks such

76 Glossary of Terms


Radius Radius is the set of spaces selected from the whole system to be analysed round a root space. For example, it is used to select all spaces within 1000m from a root space. Sources Turner, A. (2008) “Getting Serious with DepthMap: Segment Analysis and Scripting”. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at Lecture at University College London.

Movement economy The theory of the movement economy , built on the notion of natural movement, proposes that evolving space organisation in settlements first generates the distribution pattern of busier and quieter movement pattern flows, which then influence land use choices, and these in turn generate multiplier effects on movement with further feedback on land use choices and the local grid as it adapts itself to more intensive development. Sources Hillier, B. (1996) Space is the Machine: A configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 125-127.

Segment analysis Segment analysis is any analysis of a segment map, including topological, angular and metric analyses. It is normally undertaken in DepthMap software. Sources Turner, A. (2004) Depthmap 4: a researcher’s handbook. London: Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, UCL. pp. 26.

Normalised angular choice Normalised choice aims to solve the paradox that segregated designs add more total (and average) choice to the system than integrated ones. It divides total choice by total depth for each segment in the system. This adjusts choice values according to the depth of each segment in the system, since the more segregated is, the more its choice value will be reduced by being divided by a higher total depth number. This would seem to have the effect of measuring choice in a cost-benefit way. Sources Hillier, B., Yang, T. & Turner, A. (2012) “Normalising Least Angle Choice in DepthMap - and how it opens new perspectives on the global and local analysis of city space”, The Journal of Space Syntax, Vol 3, No 2, pp. 105-193.

Spatial-transpatial solidarity Studying the social logic of space, Hillier and Hanson suggest that every society has spatial groups of people that live and move in greater proximity to each other than to others, and conceptual (transpatial) groups based on socially or professionally similar people. The groups of the second kind are conceptual because they do not depend on spatial proximity, although they could coincide with spatial groupings. The former are spatial because they rely on spatial proximity for their social relations. Sources Hillier, B. & Hanson, J. (1984) The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Normalised angular integration Normalised angular integration aims to normalise angular total depth by comparing the system to the urban average. SOURCES Hillier, B., Yang, T. and Turner, A. (2012) “Advancing DepthMap to advance our understanding of cities: comparing streets and cities, and streets to cities”, In Greene, M., Reyes, J. and Castro, A. (eds) Proceedings of 8th International Space Syntax Symposium, Pontifica Universidad Catolica de chile: Santiago, Chile.

Step depth Step depth, also called point depth in the previous version of DepthMap, follows the shortest path from the selected root line (or segment) to all other lines (or segments) within the system, and the path length is recorded on the line (or segment). Sources Turner, A. (2004) Depthmap 4: a researcher’s handbook. London: Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, UCL. pp. 28.

77 Glossary of Terms


references 1 Allen, S. (1999) “Infrastructural Urbanism”, In: Points+Lines: Diagrams and Projects for the City, New York: Princeton Architectural Press.

9 Hillier, B. (1996) Space is the Machine: A configurational Theory of Architecture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

2 Brandão, Z. (2006) “Urban planning in Rio de Janeiro: a critical review of the urban design practice in the twentieth century”, In: City & Time, 2(2), pp. 37-50.

10 Hillier, B., Yang, T. & Turner, A. (2012) “Normalising Least Angle Choice in DepthMap - and how it opens new perspectives on the global and local analysis of city space”, In: The Journal of Space Syntax, 3(2), pp. 105-193.

3 Cavallieri, F., Vial, A. & Lopes, G. (2007) Diferenciais Intra-urbanos no Rio de Janeiro: contribuição ao cumprimento da meta 11 do milênio, Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Pereira Passos. Retrieved from http://portalgeo.rio.rj.gov.br/estudoscariocas/ download/2384_Diferenciais%20Intra-urbanos.pdf

11 Jacobs, J. (1961) The Death and Life of Great American Cities, New York: Random House. 12 Krenz, K., Kostourou, F., Psarra, S. & Capille, C. (2015). “Understanding the City as a Whole: An Integrative Analysis of Rio de Janeiro and its Informal Settlements”, In: ISUF 2015 XXII International Conference: City as Organism. New Visions for Urban Life, 1, pp. 647–660.

4 Cavallieri, F. & Vial, V. (2012) Favelas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro: o quadro populacional com base no Censo 2010: Coleção Estudos Cariocas, Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Pereira Passos, 16. Retrieved from http://portalgeo.rio.rj.gov. br/estudoscariocas/download%5C3190_ FavelasnacidadedoRiodeJaneiro_Censo_2010.pdf

13 McGuirk, J. (2014) Radical Cities: Across Latin America in search of a new architecture, New York: Verso. 14 Neuwirth, R., 2016 Shadow cities: a billion squatters, a new urban world, London: Routledge.

5 Corner, J. (2006) “Terra Fluxus”, In: The Landscape Urbanism Reader, ed. Waldheim, C., New York: Princeton Architectural Press, pp. 023-033.

15 Novaes, A. R. (2014) Favelas and the divided city: mapping silences and calculations in Rio de Janeiro’s journalistic cartography, In: Social & Cultural Geography, 15(2), pp. 201-225.

6 Dovey, K. & King, R. (2011) Forms of informality: morphology and visibility of informal settlements, In: Built Environment, 37(1), pp. 11-29.

16 O’Hare, G. & Barke, M. (2002) The favelas of Rio de Janeiro: A temporal and spatial analysis, In: GeoJournal, 56(3), pp. 225-240.

7 Hillier, B. (2001) “A Theory of the City As Object: Or, how spatial laws mediate the social construction of urban space”, In: Proceedings of 3rd International Space Syntax Symposium, Atlanta, USA, pp. 02-21.

17 Pollak, L. (2006) “Constructed Ground: Questions of scale”, In: The Landscape Urbanism Reader, ed. 1 Waldheim, C., New York: Princeton Architectural. Press.

8 Hillier, B. & Hanson, J. (1984) The Social Logic of Space, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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18 Psarra S., Kostourou F. & Krenz K. (2016) ‘Designed and Emergent Tectonics: Resituating Architectural Knowledge’. The Plan Journal, 0(0), pp. 11-28. doi: 10.15274/TPJ-2016-10000 19 Purnell, B. (2007) Crops in Pots: 50 great container projects using vegetables, fruit and herbs. Octopus Publishing Group: London 20 Tricycle house (2012) China: People’s Industrial Design Office (PIDO) 21 Turner, A. (2004) Depthmap 4: a researcher’s handbook. London: Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, UCL. pp. 26. 22 Turner, A. (2008) “Getting Serious with DepthMap: Segment Analysis and Scripting”. [PowerPoint slides]. Presented at Lecture at University College London. 23 Valladares, L. (2008) Social science representations of favelas in Rio de Janeiro: A historical perspective. In: LLILAS Visiting Resource Professors Papers Retrieved, 9(3), pp. 2011. 24 Ventura, Z. (1994) Cidade partida, São Paulo: Companhia das Letras. 25 Waterless Energy - Generating Toilet Technology (2016) UK & Madagascar: Loowatt.

79 References


Acknowledgements Edited by: Sophia Psarra, Fani Kostourou and Kimon Krenz Printed by: SLS Print

Professor Alan Penn, The Dean of the Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment, UCL All teaching staff of Spatial Design Architecture Cities MSc, The Bartlett, UCL MPhil/PhD Students, The Bartlett, UCL Vinicius M. Netto, UFF Rio de Janeiro Henrique Lorea Leite, PENSA - Sala de Ideias, Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro - Casa Civil Joao Meirelles, PENSA - Sala de Ideias, Prefeitura do Rio de Janeiro - Casa Civil Centro de Operações Rio (CORio) Jan Kattein, Jan Kattein Architects Molly Hiatt, Wilkinson Eyre

Copyright © 2017 The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN: 9-780995-481947

In Rocinha: Zezinho Renato da Silva, Favela Adventures Jody King, Favela Phoenix, Rocinha Oberdan Basilio, Rocinha Guesthouse Paulo Amendoim, former president of Rocinha’s residents association Lília Lima, Creche Arte Tio João Creche Municipal Castelinho Complexo Esportivo da Rocinha União Pró-Melhoramentos dos Moradores da Rocinha (UPMMR) Associação de Moradores e Amigos do Bairro Barcellos (AMABB) Biblioteca Parque da Rocinha C4 Unidade de Pronto Atendimento, Vila Verde Centro Internacional De Estudos E Pesquisas sobre a Infância (CIESPI) CIEP Doutor Bento Rubião GRES Acadêmicos da Rocinha CEDAE Rocinha Spin Rocinha Dj School (NGO) Wark da Rocinha

For more information in the MSc Spatial Design: Architecture & Cities programme and the E-merging Design Research module at the Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL, visit http://www.bartlett.ucl. ac.uk/space-syntax/programmes/mres-msc/mscspatial-design.

For data provision: Maíra Pinheiro, National School of Statistical Sciences (ENCE) PCRJ – IPP Instituto Pereira Passos, Rio de Janeiro

80 Acknowledgements


Nazila Maghzian Felix Francisco Jaime Vaca Pedro Gil Pfeil Yanhua Yao Melissa Barrientos TriĂąanes

Ahmed Tarek Zaky Fouad Shuyu Zhao Sotiria Sarri Wei Sun Ye Lu

9

780995

481947

E-merging Design Research: Pop-Up City | MSc Spatial Design: Architecture & Cities  

The E-Merging Design Research module (EDR) is a new research/practice-based module in the SDAC MSc at The Bartlett School of Architecture, U...

E-merging Design Research: Pop-Up City | MSc Spatial Design: Architecture & Cities  

The E-Merging Design Research module (EDR) is a new research/practice-based module in the SDAC MSc at The Bartlett School of Architecture, U...