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MArch Architecture (ARB/RIBA Part 2) Compiled from Bartlett Books 2004–2017


Our Design DNA At The Bartlett School of Architecture, we have been publishing annual exhibition catalogues for each of our design-based programmes for more than a decade. These catalogues, amounting to thousands of pages, illustrate the best of our students’ extraordinary work. Our new Design Anthology series brings together the annual catalogue pages for each of our renowned units, clusters, and labs, to give an overview of how their practice and research has evolved. Throughout this time some teaching partnerships have remained constant, others have changed. Students have also progressed from one programme to another. Nevertheless, the way in which design is taught and explored at The Bartlett School of Architecture is in our DNA. Now with almost 50 units, clusters and labs in the school across eight programmes, the Design Anthology series shows how we define, progress and reinvent our agendas and themes from year to year. Professor Frédéric Migayrou Chair of The Bartlett School of Architecture Professor Bob Sheil Director of The Bartlett School of Architecture


2017 ö (Swedish) = ‘Island’/‘Refuge’ Abigail Ashton, Tom Holberton, Andrew Porter 2016 Import/Export Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter, Tom Holberton 2015 Ambiguous Territories Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter 2014 Alternative Inputs Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter 2013 Chronometrics Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter 2012 Continuous Translation Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter 2011 Portmanteau Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter 2010 Artificial Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter 2009 Interchange – *space/ object/ narrative Abigail Ashton, Christine Hawley, Andrew Porter 2008 Buy : Sell Peter Culley, Christine Hawley 2007 Show Peter Culley, Christine Hawley 2006 Hotel Peter Culley, Christine Hawley 2005 Liquid Architecture Christine Hawley 2004 Stay ÷ Time Christine Hawley, CJ Lim


ö (Swedish) = ‘Island’/‘Refuge’ Abigail Ashton, Tom Holberton, Andrew Porter


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ö (Swedish) = ‘Island’/‘Refuge’ Abigail Ashton, Tom Holberton, Andrew Porter

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2017

Year 4 Jack Clay, Katie Cunningham, Ahmed Al Gamal, Steve Graves, Yasaman Mohsanizadeh, Joe Travers-Jones, Yun Wan, Feng Yang, Anqi Yu Year 5 Paddi Benson, Jonathan Davies, Eleanor Downs, Eleanor Figueiredo, Aleks Kravchenko, Tom Savage, Katherine Scott, Alexia Souvaliotis, Sally Taylor, Aviva Wang, Camilla Wright Thank you to our Practice Tutor, Tom Holberton and our Structural Engineer, Brian Eckersley, EOC Thank you to our critics: Roberto Bottazzi, Mina Gospavic, Stephen Gage, Christine Hawley, Diony Kypraiou, Calum Macdonald, Luke Pearson, Charlotte Reynolds, Sayan Skandarajah, Tony Smart

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Stockholm is Scandinavia’s largest city, built over 14 islands with 50 bridges, on a greater archipelago of 20,000 islands, where Lake Mälaren meets the Baltic Sea. As one of Europe’s fastest-growing urban economies, it has embraced investments in ‘smart’ city networks and open data to develop the world’s second most prolific tech hub and become the startup capital of Europe. Yet this spirit of experimentalism is also made possible due to a certain Swedish isolationism, a position at the northern fringe of Europe, and the mindset of Jantelagen, which prioritises the collective over the individual. The ‘city between the bridges’ also comprises 30% water and 30% protected green space, culminating in a disaggregated city – not only geographically but socially, politically and financially. In an age where overwhelming quantities of ‘big data’ assert and drive the systems of top-down control and order, the unit considered the potential opportunities of the islands of small data we generate and carry ourselves through daily life in the city. We looked for how these personal digital traces and behaviours might translate to a unique architectural language that informs and alters behaviour. The year started with the Swedish ‘Stuga’ – this exploits the plentiful land to build simple sparse dwellings where Swedes will seek refuge in the summer months. Often located by water, they are built to a very basic standard where the ritualistic routines of survival – chopping wood, repairs and renovation – offer a counterpoint to the stress of urban life and provide a physical manifestation of the commitment to quality of life. Often passed from family to family, lent by friends or companies, they offer a place for solitude, quiet individualism, and time spent purposefully on selfdevelopment through communing with nature. The students were asked to design a personal retreat space. Taking any signal from their behaviour, movements, or activity, recorded through phones or any other digital and analogue means; they then test its translation into a personal spatial language through models and drawings. Projects were generated from the esoteric observations of routine, the glitches in data, or the disruptive cloud left behind. The students sited the main building project amongst the islands of Stockholm. They considered the political, legal and economic frameworks as sources of data. They drew on the social, human and environmental factors to explore new methods of forming space, controlling light and testing innovative materials. The unit was interested in the manifestation of these hybrids of immaterial and physical space into outcomes that were resolutely framed as design propositions. From the drawn or modelled language of the first project, they developed larger architectural proposals with detailed programmes, considering when their architecture acted as islands and when it acted as a bridge.


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Fig. 21.1 Paddi Benson Y5, ‘Lost [and Found] in Play’. The project constructs a playroom or real-space intervention within a Bartlett studio which relates to, and can stand in for, the remote site – the island of Långholmen in Stockholm. The reclaimed identities of Långholmen are then explored and examined through models of each of the interventions and their relationship to each other in the playroom. The project therefore inhabits two sites; the disused island of Långholmen and the constructed interactive space of play within the Bartlett studio. Each of the interventions is a transitional object within the playroom. Individually, they are informed by, and inform the purpose and identity, of their location. Figs. 21.2 – 21.3 Alexia Souvaliotis Y5, ‘Stuga’. The ‘Stuga’ exploits the plentiful land to build simple sparse dwellings

where Swedes seek refuge in the summer months. By looking at different images and how they make us feel depending on their colours/captured atmospheres, an architectural language will be developed by breaking down personal photographs of my house into their basic elements in order to create a physical and quantifiable data landscape. These data landscapes, which take the form of waterfall graphs, form an architectural toolkit to be used when designing each element of the Stuga, from the entire roof structure down to each individual floor tile. A set of virtual data is manipulated to become a tangible and physical environment for isolation and refuge. Fig. 21.4 Tom Savage Y5, ‘Can a Video Game Change the Way Stockholmers View their City?’ The city of Stockholm is in the grip of a housing crisis. A new social hierarchy has emerged based not on where one is

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21.6 able to live, but rather how long they can live there for. Stockholm’s inner city is gridlocked, with nowhere for new residents to go. Now Sweden’s unique unitary housing model has a twenty-year waiting list for inner-city homes. A new simulation, made using a layered organisational strategy of time-based buildings and infrastructure, is proposed to change a player’s social thinking from a location-based society to a time-based one. Fig. 21.5 Camilla Wright Y5, ‘A (Wiki) Leaking Building’. The Data Institute is a private coding school, server bank and public campus. It seeks to inform the citizens of Stockholm about digital data and draw attention to WikiLeaks concerning Sweden. Using computational methods, WikiLeaks data is encoded within the form and programmatic function of the building such that it both generates and loses

data during its lifespan. WikiLeaks manifest at all scales and materiality, from rock excavation to ‘punch card’ tickets. Fig. 21.6 Katherine Scott Y5, ‘Archiving the Anthropocene: Architecture in the Age of Man’. ‘The Anthropocene’ has been proposed as a term that describes our current geological age. The masterplan proposed is a forward-facing archive, critiquing the role of architecture in the Anthropocene. The landscape is a Bergsonian simultaneity, with historic geometric traces of architecture on the site re-established as new buildings for the deep future. The built landscape is considered as a process, constantly evolving in the duration of time, with each piece of architecture acting as a piece of data itself. This creates an Anthropocenic archive of ruins for the future. 277


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Fig. 21.7 Sally Taylor Y5, ‘SAD in Stockholm’. Stockholm consists of a recreational island, Djurgården, known as the city’s ‘Green Lung’. This is where people who live in the city go to escape urban life. A clinic and retreat from the winter blues is proposed within a landscape setting for the high percentage of Swedes who suffer from SAD. Using shadow studies to develop the form, the proposed scheme extends out into the Djurgårdsbrunnsviken bay. The proposal includes three key zones: ‘Dawn Clinic’, ‘Seasonal Gardens’ and ‘Winter Workout’, all of which are intended to help reduce some of the common symptoms of SAD. Fig. 21.8 Feng Yang Y4, ‘Teeth + Tea’. This project explored the spatial composition of rituals through model-making. Fig. 21.9 Jack Clay Y4, ‘Frank’s House’. A vessel to investigate the dialogue between freehand drawing

and digital fabrication. Fig. 21.10 Aviva Wang Y5, ‘Beautification Council’s Beautiful Building’. This project aims to challenge the Stockholm Council of Beautification (Stockholm’s Skönhetsrådet) which advises its city planning authority on all local proposals. The council has thirteen members from backgrounds which are mostly unconnected to architecture. Studying these council members as individuals of various ages and backgrounds enables the making of ‘rules’ for each member. These rules are applied to existing site buildings one after another as a metaphorical representation of their meeting, during which they take turns to give advice. The outcome of this process is a controlled yet unexpected piece, manifesting the Council’s unique influence on Stockholm’s urban form.

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Fig. 21.11 Katie Cunningham Y4, ‘Siaröfortet Submarine Attractions and Gotland’s Submarine Dismantling Resort’. The theme of the projects is Sweden’s worsening relationship with Russia and its vulnerable geographical and political position between Russia and NATO. With a weak military unable to put a stop to current Russian acts of aggression, public awareness is the strongest available deterrent. Siaröfortet Submarine Attractions are proposed cruise ship stops along the archipelago. These installations react to trespassing submarines, allowing the users to catch a better glimpse. The main project looks at the potential Russian decommissioned submarines’ relationships to nuclear crisis. It proposes a dismantling facility which deals with the nuclear load, using the recycled material and unspent nuclear energy for leisure and

educational amenities. Its position on the Baltic island of Gotland is of defensive interest to both NATO and Russia. Fig. 21.12 Anqi Yu Y4, ‘24 Slussen’, a re-masterplan of a disconnected and pedestrian-unfriendly waterfront area in Slussen, a run-down traffic interchange built in the 1930s. As an urban strategy, this project reconnects water back to the existing city fabric and makes the water frontage more accessible to pedestrians by proposing a series of descending terraces and a new facility. As an active public space, this project explores the transformation between physical space and its appearance at night with controlled lighting, through taking the Scandinavian darkness as a canvas and lights as paint. At night, such luminous moments form specific atmospheres, which fit in with the wider night lighting context

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in Stockholm. Fig. 21.13 Aleks Kravchenko Y5, ‘Huset på SÖDER’. Influenced by the sociopolitical differences between Kungsholmen and Södermalm (often shortened to ‘Söder’), the project aims to create a new type of town hall to represent Söder. Located on Skinnarviksberget, the design aims to redefine the conservative relationship with the ground. Whilst the space uses in the town hall follow its precedent across the water, the spaces themselves are reimagined. ‘Huset på Söder’ investigates the thresholds between the existing and the man-made. The project has developed to explore the way building and model-making methods create design constraints. Materiality of the project is articulated through the methods of construction, further reflected through model-making method choices.

Fig. 21.14 Eleanor Downs Y5, ‘LET’S PARTICIPATE!’. Participation and the right to the city is investigated through the lens of tracking physical activity and measuring collective engagement. A new civic hall in the centre of Stockholm is proposed as a testing site for a physical manifestation of this investigation. The architectural proposal takes the form of a mechanised building requiring energetic input from participants. How can successful participation be defined and measured? What is a ‘right to the city’ in today’s terms? The new Medborgarhuset is a frenzy of participation, an exploration into the joy of effort. It demonstrates the noble aim of ‘Allborgarratten’ (right to the city) yet hints at more complicated, and perhaps sinister, undertones. 281


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21.15 Yasaman Mohsanizadeh Y4, ‘The Unicorn Incubator’. Fig. 21.16 Joe Travers-Jones Y4, ‘Return to Sender’. Fig. 21.17 Steve Graves Y4, ‘Maritime Graveyard’. Fig. 21.18 Eleanor Figueiredo Y5, ‘Glasbruksholmen’. This project seeks to reinstate a lost island in the Stockholm archipelago. The project addresses the paradoxical Swedish desire for both isolation and escape, and permanent connectivity through digital technologies: an environment is created whereby individuals can retain autonomy and find sanctuary within Stockholm’s urban fabric, whilst avoiding state surveillance. The island/enclave forms a reinvention of the bathhouse, providing a base for civic assembly in the heart of the city. It explores how architectural and spatial parameters are interpreted and/or distorted through transparency, reflection

and refraction. Fig. 21.19 Jonathan Davies Y5, ‘Sea Level: A Thousand Plateaus’. This project is a paradoxical attempt to design without autonomy – a proposal and a critique. A series of algorithms provide the framework upon which an urbanism is grown. Set within the Stockholm archipelago, the proposals explore the relationship between design and auto-generation. Raw material is fed through an adaptive system within the dry-dock and ejected into the Baltic Sea, territorialising it as Deleuzian ‘smooth space’. This is gradually punctuated through occupation as the landscape is augmented to provide utility – the process of ‘striation’. The interplay between these two conceptions of space develops a networked urbanism that fosters multiplicity and dynamism.

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Import/Export Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter, Tom Holberton


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import/export Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter, Tom Holberton

Year 4 Paddi Benson, Jonathan Davis, Matthew Mitchell, Tom Savage, Katherine Scott, Sally Taylor, Yiren (Aviva) Wang, Camilla Wright Year 5 Maria Filippou, Layal Merhi, Yolanda Leung, Sophie Richards, Samson Simberg, Tomohiro Sugeta, Angeline Wee, Sarish Younis The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Thanks to Structural Engineer Brian Eckersley at EOC; and critics Prof Christine Hawley, Prof Stephen Gage, Dr Rachel Cruise, Sayan Skandarajah, Paul Legon, Ned Scott, Jasmin Sohi, Johan Hybschman, Mags Bursa, Tony Smart, Isaie Bloch, Francesca Hughes. Thanks to our sponsors PDP London Architects – www.pdplondon.com

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Marseille is France’s second city by population. What it lacks in terms of the grand formality of the capital it more than makes up for with its cosmopolitan and colourful complexity, defined primarily by the Mediterranean port condition. Whilst this historical condition has produced a rich social, political and cultural territory there is also now a legacy of poverty, unemployment, social division and crime. Whilst the social, political and topographical condition of the city as an ongoing framework of exchange was of interest to the unit, we also continued with our project to explore the context of the city in terms of its invisible meta-data and how this, when treated as raw material, can be deployed as a source of invention and speculation for a new architecture. Urban space is increasingly defined by the infrastructures of communications, information and social interaction through new media. However, as these contemporary technologies develop at a rapid pace, the traditional paradigms of physical space become increasingly disconnected and irrelevant. The unit continued to explore how this disconnection can be addressed and new hybrids of hard and soft architecture can be invented and emerge. The unit considered how such metaphysical data systems can be a creative opportunity for interpretation and inventiveness that might in turn create, and participate in, the cultural and experiential life of the city. Further to which, the slippages, quirks and misinterpretations through translation of such information systems provided an equally rich source for new digital constructs and material outcomes. The students were asked to identify a system of information or data set and consider how they might deploy this within a design process or strategy. Different strategies were employed, information was derived from sound, temperature, humidity and other environmental origins. Some were based on societal information, human behaviours, communications and new media data sources. Political, economic and legal frameworks were also sources of data utilized. The unit formulated methods and techniques that developed the mechanics of how this data could be translated across software platforms. The unit is interested in the manifestation of such hybrids of immaterial and physical space into outcomes that are resolutely framed as design propositions; a new morphology of data-driven architecture.


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Fig. 21.1 Yolanda Leung Y5, ‘Promo-granate’. Promo-granate is a pomegranate production line and urban park located in Marseille. The project seeks to change the image of Marseille as a drug city and assist the pomegranate trade the same way it did the opium trade in the French Connection in the 70s. In the design project, the nature of different boundaries is associated with different elements of the urban park. Fig. 21.2 Katherine Scott Y4, ‘Metropole Aix-MarseilleProvence: A New Political Centre for a New Territory’. With the formation of a new territory, binding Marseille to its neighbouring Provençal towns, this scheme proposes a new civic role for this region’s new political hub. Combining the workplace with leisure, a beach acts as a democratic tool to re-involve the citizens into the act of politics. Narratives

investigated the way different people will participate in the scheme and how this can lead to unexpected encounters and exchanges. Fig. 21.3 Tom Savage Y4, ‘L’Immaginaire Collectif De Marseille’. Using French cinema as a tool for investigation, the proposal explores a new marketplace against the backdrop of a central and unofficial district which typifies the perception of the city it is located in. Cinema is used to explore the long-established French love affair with film as a means of self-expression. By distilling and dissecting these films, the proposal recombines their raw data as a set of new cinematically inspired structures, with the aim of creating an enhanced identity for Marseille that can help to foster an appreciation of the unique qualities of the city in its residents.

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21.6 Fig. 21.4 Yiren (Aviva) Wang Y4, ‘Calibreur de La Joliette’. The project tests out possibilities of city calibration at a local scale. By defining the Unité d’habitation as an ‘ideal’ modular piece of city, the project is based on comparing the proportion of spaces with different functions at various neighbourhoods and that in Unité d’habitation. As a project commissioned by the Euroméditerranée, Calibreur de La Joliette will not only benefit the local community but also turn Place de la Joliette together with Les Terrasses du Port Shopping Centre into Marseille’s new cultural centre. Fig. 21.5 Marianna Filippou Y5, ‘Marseille Cruise Landscape’. A proposal for a cruise boat terminal in the form of a landscape as an extension of the city of Marseille. The design is based on the circulation routes of cruise passengers entering and leaving the site. Its main

21.7 feature is a field of terracotta tiles layering the glazed roof of the proposed structure in order to control direct sunlight. Its materiality directly refers to Marseille’s image as a tiled roofscape and responds to the specific climate of a Mediterranean port city. Figs. 21.6 – 21.7 Tomohiro Sugeta Y5, ‘Translating Collective Portraits of City to Urban Interventions: Imaginary Marseille on Instagram’. Can data from social networks be manifested as physical structure in the city? The focus of the project is to explore the possibilities in designing urban interventions by translating data obtained from Instagram in Marseille. This bottom-up approach informed principles and site strategy, while the project attempts to reinvent civil space through a top-down analysis of sixteen years of minutes at city council. 255


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Figs. 21.8 – 21.11 Angeline Wee Y5, ‘Un Immeuble Meuble / A Movable Immovable’. Conservation principles, fundamentally based on changing ‘cultural values’, are integrated into written urban planning policy, then translated into built form. This project explores the quirks and possibilities of applying such fixed regulations to material heritage at varying scales, celebrating subjective interpretation of legislation in the name of conservation. Modifying buildings along Marseille’s iconic Vieux Port, it draws from the existing Code du Patrimoine, observations of preservation in the city and other methods of memorial, using algorithmic modelling to create a rules-based design system, representing non-negotiable and, at times, nonsensical application of certain heritage-based planning policies. 257


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21.15 Fig. 21.12 Camilla Wright Y4, ‘Limestone Museum’. The Museum is a testament to Marseilles' relationship with its adjacent limestone outcrop. Being intrinsic to time, layers within the stone are parallel to the narrative of limestone in the construction of Marseille and the formation of the Limestone Creeks. The prized nature of the stone led to an archaeological approach to quarrying, such that the limestone and its spectrum of data became the object of excavation. Fig. 21.13 Sally Taylor Y4, ‘Marseille Fos: Reuniting the City with the Sea’. Marseille’s Fos Port has large amounts of traffic arriving and departing on a daily basis; tankers, cargo and passenger cruise vessels. Through mapping these boats, hidden and temporal lines of the courses taken are exposed, documenting a very local and unique series of movements. The city’s waterfront 258

is obstructed by barriers resulting in little interaction with the Mediterranean Sea. Fig. 21.14 Jonathan Davis Y4, ‘A new organisational strategy of the Mediterranean’. The Project - an alliance of port cities independent of national identity creating ‘networked urbanism’. This is formed by connection and vector rather than division and territory, and develops a new spatiality through utilising the grid-like structures of the Marseilles quayside. Fig. 21.15 Layal Merhi Y5, ‘Prado Tranquille’. Investigating questions of culture, identity, and temporality, this project is an insertion on the edge of the Mediterranean. The intervention leverages Marseille’s diverse culture and urban history, referencing the Prado and the ‘bowl’ as the site in question, a program also key to the south of Marseille.


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21.18 Fig. 21.16 Samson Simberg Y5, ‘Marseille Music and Cultural Centre’. Marseille has seen a wave of surveillance cameras being installed across the city with some 1,800 cameras currently in place. Located along a series of unmonitored routes cut hidden ‘corridors’ (a series of unseen, routes cut through the urban fabric of the city, unmonitored by the CCTV network), the Marseille Music and Cultural Centre seeks to re-associate Marseille’s ‘unwanted’ with their city, facilitating the city's alienated musical and artistic heritage whilst responding to the ambiguous and often unresolved qualities of CCTV. Fig. 21.17 Sarish Younis Y5, ‘Rue Des Mosquée’. The spilling of devotees upon the street is a recurring circumstance of overcrowded cellar mosques. The project, situated in the belly of the city, echoes this controversy by

reconstructing a typical street into one of prostration. This recreates the communal conditions between the cultures in an open public platform, conjoining the sacred and secular programmatic acts, as well as extending the dialogue of the known traditional house of prostration. Fig. 21.18 Paddi Benson Y4, ‘Éclat[S] Du Mythe’. The compound identity of Marseille is an inextricable interweaving of myth, reality, seen and unseen – a modernist construct: the industrial revolution, the continuous flux of migration, its colonial past, and the turbulence caused by inequality have all contributed to the creation of a unique image of the ‘phocaean city’. Each of these temporal imprints inherits a modernism that was never finished or achieved, which collectively illustrate the cultural entanglement of past and present Marseille. 259


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21.21 Figs. 21.19 – 21.22 Sophie Richards Y5, ‘The French Connection_Marseille and the Physical Internet’. The project proposes a new legal quarter for the city of Marseille. Using the Hague as a precedent for an international system of law, the International Court of Internet Justice proposed here is a global law court, which would review cases from all continents, using a new system of specialised internet law. The project operates at two scales. At the scale of the city, the project proposes a network of interventions, which fit into the existing fabric of Marseille. The project also works at the scale of a courthouse, considered as a 3D network of time, interaction, separation and process.

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Ambiguous Territories Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter


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Ambiguous Territories Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter

Year 4 Marianna Filippou, Layal Merhi, Fernanda Mugnaini, Sophie Richards, Samson Simberg, Angeline Wee, Sarish Younis Year 5 Jamie Lilley, Calum Macdonald, William Molho, Jens Kongstad Olsen, Francesca Pringle, Charlotte Reynolds, James Simcock The Bartlett School of Architecture 2015

Thanks to our practice tutor Tom Holberton and engineer Brain Eckersley. Thank you to our critics: Rachel Cruise, Stephen Gage, Christine Hawley, Paul Legon, Frédéric Migayrou, Ned Scott, Bob Sheil, Emma Spierin A massive thank you to Rhys Cannon and Gruff Architects for use of their CNC equipment We are grateful to our sponsors, Pringle Brandon Perkins + Will

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Unit 21 has recently looked at cities that both border the edge of Europe – Istanbul and Tangiers – as well as cities that are very much at the heart of Europe such as Berlin, Copenhagen and London. This year, we chose to look at two cities – London and Helsinki. Helsinki is very much at the edge of Europe. After Reykjavic, it is the second most northerly capital city in the world, at the edge of the beginning of the northern tundra and the transition from predominantly farmland to forest. Finland only joined the European Union in 1995. Although they were already members of the European Free Trade Association this accession effectively ended their neutral status during the cold war period. Whilst membership of the EU is only one measure of what being part of Europe might mean, it is clear that Finland has had a very different history from the classically Romanesque countries. Indeed, up until 1917 Finland was for 108 years formally part of Russia and before that a Swedish territory. Tensions with Russia inevitably still remain and in recent years the Russian government has made very strong threats to discourage Finland from joining the NATO alliance. Russian influence is very much in evidence through the historic architecture of Helsinki. It is this Russian and Scandinavian history that still puts Finland very much, despite its recent joining of the EU, on the edge of Europe. This condition of tension, defined by being on a political, geographic and climatic edge, has preoccupied the unit this year. We looked at the context of the city as not just a location for architecture but to utilise the layers of history, political structures, population, ecology and information networks as the motivators for the production of new architectural space. We considered emerging urban digital realms, typically defined by datascapes and invisible networks such as social media, which already organise and define new space and behaviours in the city.


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Fig. 21.1 Jamie Lilley Y5, ‘A Masterplan for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Assembly’ The project explores cartography’s influence on urban form. Helsinki has a rich cartographic heritage and has been born out of political control constructs that have descended from the map. The project explores the physical, social and digital map of the city to discover how these inputs can influence how we masterplan and construct our buildings. A cartographic paradigm was formed to show the cyclical relationship between reality, cartography, architecture and a reconstruction of reality. The proposal employs three historical sociopolitical grid systems that align with the city to construct the assembly masterplan programme. The three grids highlights the hypothesis that the way we map our cities influences how

we plan their futures. Figs. 21.2 – 21.6 Charlotte Reynolds Y5, ‘Uusi Kallio Common and Urban Quarry, Helsinki’. was inspired by the unique geological composition of Finland which has been experiencing continental uplift since the last Ice Age whereby the land is rising up from the sea by 11mm each year. The project is sited in the city of Helsinki, which sits on a rising granite bedrock. The proposal is for the development of a large existing granite outcrop to the north of the city in the rock district of Kallio. Kallio Common establishes a new attitude towards these sites which define the rock district and develop an attitude to these sites whereby the raw granite is exploited as a building material. Through a series of CNC-routed modelling techniques, a taxonomy of cutting and finishing resolutions were developed in line with known subtractive

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21.6 granite quarrying and finishing processes. The project exists at various resolutions and could be infinitely reworked and refined over time to develop a site which is dedicated to this natural resource of the city and attracts locals and tourists alike. The Uusi Kallio Common sets a precedent for future development and urban densification in Helsinki by exploiting this under-used material in the Finnish architectural vernacular to date.

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21.9 Figs. 21.7 – 21.10 Jens Kongstad Olsen Y5, ‘Hernesaari Snow Dumping Park’. The Hernesaari Snow Dumping Park, located in Helsinki, is a combination of a hard piece of practical city infrastructure and a leisure facility. During the harsh winters the park stores large amounts of snow, which has been collected and cleared from the city’s streets. This snow is then in turn used to augment, alter and construct a series of possible events and structures. Each year the park can take on a new constellation and contain different programmes – all bound to the temporal nature of snow. During the warmer summer months the melted snow creates a dramatically different set of options as the landscape shifts from solid to liquid in a hyper-saturated reflection of the Finnish climate. 256

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Figs. 21.11 – 21.12 William Molho Y5, ‘City of Edges: Helsinki dramatic and evolving backdrop to a number of stages and an Quarried Theatre’. Helsinki granite bedrock has been widely opportunity to expand the performance spaces when the relied on for excavated and underground structures over the water freezes. last century. Across the city, exposed, raw rock outcrops, act as natural public spaces. The project, at an urban scale, looks at visible granite patches around the peninsula, incorporating an interest for the new machining technologies for granite, to create a network of extracting and designing facilities. The theatre project, based on Harakka island is inspired by the monumentality of abandoned stone quarries. In a first step, a quarry is used to provide material for the workshops. Secondly, the theatre design elements (seating, stages, lobby and bar) are carved into the stone and finally, the furniture elements of the theatre are built in the island workshops. The sea creates a 257


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21.13 Fig. 21.13 James Simcock Y5, ‘Museum of Inventing Memory’. Our memories are often affected by distorting forces such as the media, political leaders or trauma. The project investigates the World War II Russian bombing raids on Helsinki, spatially translating evidence forensically extracted from wartime photography archives and historical bomb plot maps into a series of architectural mnemonic devices that together form a museum memorialising the Finnish victims. By using objective forensic techniques the museum allows observers to narrate the conflict events with an impersonal neutrality, enabling them to form a narrative untouched by distorting forces, allowing visitors to resist the fragility of remembering. Fig. 21.14 Calum Macdonald Y5, ‘Exceptive Laws’ seeks to reconceptualise architectural legacy in Finland by (re) 258

contextualising Finnish architectural development from 1917-2015 within its legislative, cultural, historical, corporeal, linguistic, and corporate conditions of the time. It continually rethinks what the role of the architect and architecture at large is within the notion of the sovereign. The underlying theme was to challenge traditional pre-juristic historical and theoretical lines of argument centred on nature, site, and environment, and expose them to the more systematic and enduring forces of modernism, which transformed Finland throughout the 20 th century. By using bio-political argumentation, that is, a complex system of analysis of state power with explicit regard to the body, it sets to survey, analyse, and propose novel ways of understanding the oversimplified geopolitical relationships between people,


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land and architecture by honing in on the cultural, legislative, and spatial idiosyncrasies of the Finnish constitution. Fig. 21.15 Sarish Younis Y4, ‘Barbican Playhouse’. The Barbican Playhouse is an expression of moments, illusion, movement and order. It holds performances which capture the essence of these moments in performance and programmatic format. Puppetry is a performance type that gives an illusion of life in something that is far from it. Such illusion is only achieved through how the puppets are ordered and mechanised in to capture movement that gives a sense of life. The Barbican Playhouse is a platform which not only holds performances at different scales, but also creates a space that reveals the making of performer’s puppetry. This gives the public deeper understanding of what lie behind the doors of a Playhouse.

Fig. 21.16 Francesca Pringle Y5, ‘Reinventing Winter in Helsinki’. Due to Helsinki’s location, summer days are long with up to 19 and a half hours of daylight. Helsinkiers spend the summer island hopping in the archipelago south of Helsinki. However, for four months of the year the archipelago freezes over making the islands inaccessible and there are as few as six hours of daylight. Much of the outdoor culture lies dormant. The project aims to interject a new masterplan in to Helsinki, creating 33 catalyst zones which provide high salinity, non freezing waters for water sports and synthetic day lighting zones. The architectural strategy of the catalyst zones was generated by manipulating ice profile data from the Baltic Sea into 3D forms using a geometry translation system and 3D scanning to generate the building façades. 259


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21.19 Fig. 21.17 Marianna Filippou Y4, ‘Constructed Microclimates’. The project originates from the circulation patterns of commuters and their response to different weather conditions. A water harvesting system, stepped landscape at platform level and a forest of columns which fill the platform and direct circulation are included. The proposed building will control extreme humidity levels and use harvested water to produce steam as an ephemeral material, enclosed within steam rooms, where commuters can benefit from its healing qualities. Fig. 21.18 Sophie Richards Y4, ‘A Political Enclave’. Inspired by 15th century coffee houses, the proposal looks to create a political hub, investigating the role of sound within political systems, creating an illusion of transparency and equality through an architecture that is descriptive of sound, which can 260

encourage and manipulate debate. Fig. 21.19 Angeline Wee Y4, ‘The Offline Park’. The proposal responds to the superstylised imagery and language of the Metropolitan Railway’s ‘Metro-land’ housing campaign which sold suburban London as healthy, ‘rural’ and ideal for the dream lifestyle, but its centre as cramped and ‘urban’. This project aims to subvert these understandings of ‘rural’ and ‘urban’. The inflated landscape of the Offline Park is suspended over the Barbican platforms forming an idyllic country escape within the centre of the city and returning the Barbican to ‘rural’ arcadia. Fig. 21.20 Jamie Lilley Y5, ‘A Masterplan for the Helsinki Metropolitan Area Assembly’.


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Alternative Inputs Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter


Unit 21 Alternative Inputs Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter

Year 4 Jamie Lilley, William Molho, Jens Kongstad Olesen, Francesca Pringle, Charlotte Reynolds, James Simcock Year 5 Emma Louise Carter, Naomi Gibson, Wai Hong Hew, Yu Chien (Wendy) Lin, Risa Nagasaki, Simona Schroeder, Sayan Skandarajah, Tess Martin, Antonina Tkachenko The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014

Thank you to our Practice Tutor Tom Holberton and Engineer Brian Eckersley Thanks to our consultants and critics: Peter Cook, Rachel Cruise, Stephen Gage, Christine Hawley, Tom Holberton, Luke Pearson, Godofredo Pereira, Nick Tyson

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Physical change in the contemporary city is inevitably slow. Building stock has a slow turnover and such change is measured in decades or even centuries. However, there are other systems and forces at work in the city that are fast changing and far-reaching in their impact. Communication technology, information systems and networks have a much more profound impact on us now than traditional architectural space. This year Unit 21 continued to investigate how these fundamental influences can motivate and initiate new architectural space. Long-established building techniques still predominate and the processes of advanced industrialisation are still very limited within much of the building industry. The Unit recognises that advanced techniques of digitised fabrication will change this and we relish the opportunities that are implicit within these realms. Whilst this lag in technology and the economies of scale which preserve the current situation remain, the Unit continued to speculate on how such futures could emerge. Urban space is defined evermore by invisible systems of force, action and event. Contemporary technology such as datasets and networks of communication and information are one such system. But there are also the invisible forces of a political, cultural and economic nature which can be identified. In addition there are environmental systems of both natural phenomena such as weather, and artificial systems which have outputs as varied as sound, smell and pollution. The Unit continued to develop new tools to represent and interpret such systems. In particular, we investigated methods of representation that reflect the slippage and distortions that occur between these translations from drawing to building; and these methods and processes were treated as a creative opportunities that both developed and represented new models of architectural space. The Unit initially embarked on a three-week drawing investigation. This exercise was both about identifying an invisible system of organisation or communication within the city, and inventing a method of drawing to represent this. Both then became generators for the year’s work. We then visited the city of Copenhagen to look at reclaimed lands and egalitarian societies. Year 4 worked on a project for the redesign of the ‘Scene and Heard’ theatre in Somers Town, Camden, which they later used for their design realisation. Both year groups worked on projects in Copenhagen, for differing timescales.


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Fig. 21.1 & 21.6 Tess Martin Y5, ‘Cruise Copenhagen’. Cruise Copenhagen aims to improve the currently unsustainable and parasitic relationship between the cruise industry and the city through the provision of a new port-side experience and two inner-city destinations for cruise passengers, residents and tourists alike. Fig. 21.2 Yu Chien (Wendy) Lin Y5, ‘Copenhagen Exchange School’. The scheme aims to revitalise Christiania by attracting youths back into the area with the Exchange School’s barter skill classes, self-built student accommodation and interactive learning spaces. The architectural language is based upon three behaviours that are central to the realisation of this scheme from conception to building construction and usage. Fig. 21.3 Wai Hong Hew Y5, ‘Museum of Cartography / Reconstructing Copenhagen’. Fig. 21.4 William Molho Y4,

Somers Walls, London, A series of stills were extracted from ‘Somers Walls’, a filmed continuous elevation of Somers Town Boundaries. Fig. 21.5 Risa Nagasaki Y5, ‘Time-Based Landscape: Bridging, Floating, Staging Copenhagen’. The project extends the city of Copenhagen, bridging the harbour. The landscape transforms with seasons, tides, and operas.

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Fig. 21.7 Jens Kongstad Olesen Y4, ‘A Record of Change’. A Radiographic perspective. Redevelopment plan for a local community theatre in Somers Town. Incorporating the previous life cycles and history of the existing building in the new design proposal. Fig. 21.8 – 21.9 Charlotte Reynolds Y4, ‘The Pocket Park Prototype’, Copenhagen. Setting out a precedent for government funded ‘pocket parks’ to provide public space in designated vacant urban plots under 5000sqm, responding to the artificial construct of the city. Manipulation of the existing artificial land produces a series of incremental and ‘unfinished’ parks across Copenhagen of which certain elements will be inherited by future site development. A language of excavation and relocation of earth allows the site mass to remain constant throughout.

Fig. 21.10 Antonia Tkachenko Y5, ‘Copenhagen Arts Terrain’. Exploration of an architectural language derived from mobile experiences of the urban fabric. This approach is employed in revitalising a disused railway terrain in Copenhagen’s Vesterbro into a vibrant terrain dedicated to local arts initiatives. Architectural space is derived from a series of moving viewpoints and frames, such as the railway carriage. The proposal forms a dual relationship with the users, engaging with both the global and neighbourhood speeds and timescales.

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21.12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 21.13 Fig. 21.11 – 21.14 Sayan Skandarajah Y5, ‘Curating an Egalitarian Territory’, Copenhagen. Responding to the geopolitical and archaeological slippage between territory and equality in Copenhagen, the project seeks to define an exclusivity in architectural identity through the proposal of an emergent nine-square enclave in the heart of the city. Using egalitarian principles of order, distribution and composition, six architectural interventions and their associated infrastructures are defined, containing at their scale the principles and vocabulary of the enclave as a whole. The project thus reflects the tensions of the inevitable territorial exclusivity of a society that is founded upon principles of equality.

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The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 21.17 Fig. 21.15 – 21.16 Naomi Gibson Y5, ‘The Performing Ground of Fragmented Identity.’ This proposition uses the microcosmic act of performance and the socio-spatial qualities of stage typologies to re-imagine local activities and transform the socio-political tensions of Nørrebro, a culturally diverse district of Copenhagen. Centered around and based upon two sites of local collective memory – the void site of Jagtvej 69 and a deconsecrated corner of Assistens Cemetery – locals are invited to meet and explore ‘other’ both peacefully and agonistically, and to celebrate local heterogeneity. Fig. 21.17 Simona Schroeder Y5, ‘Building for the Invisible: Rethinking the Concept of Danish Asylum Centres’. Transforming the Folkets Park in Copenhagen, it becomes a user-driven urban park for asylum seekers and citizens of Copenhagen alike. The 260

landscape also performs as a community centre uniting the neighbourhood. Various activities encourage a social and cultural exchange between the participants regenerating the area and integrating asylum seekers. Fig. 21.18 Jamie Lilley Y4, ‘Semiotics’. An investigation into the creation of an alternative street scape. The symbology of a street is depicted through plotting the longitude of the signs origin against of the street datum. Fig. 21.19 Emma Louise Carter Y5, ‘Better Building: The Incremental House’. The proposal discusses the beneficial development of floating incrementally built family houses. A house begins as a small, structural service core that is developed over time through the addition of timber plug-in spaces chosen, manufactured and constructed at a time that suits each individual household financially and socially.


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Chronometrics Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter


Unit 21

Chronometrics Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter

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Mercatorial projection is a translation between the curvilinear geometry of the surface of the earth and a two dimensional – or flat – projection. It is a deliberately false system that preserves the angles and meridians of the earth but presents it as a digestible tableau from which we can easily orientate ourselves. Since the creation of this geometric system in 1569 we have been conditioned to understand the world in this way; and it is ironic that after the world was largely established as spherical in the 15th century we have had such a predominantly ‘flat earth’ view since. Prior to the invention of satellite GPS; the dilemma between these two systems is exemplified by the history of the marine chronometer and the struggle to develop improvements in error correction (i.e. Harrison and the story of longitude). This year the Unit continued to investigate such systems of slippage and distortion in the context of the translation between drawing and building. We developed a chronometric architecture that asked how you might represent time based and dynamic spatial systems or environmental datasets. Panorama By its very nature a panorama is artificial. It is a false view constructed from a series of views, which would ordinarily be unattainable with our natural cone of vision. In project one the Unit was asked to construct or draw a proposal that was optically panoramic or responded to a particular panorama of their choosing. They were asked to consider the scale of the panorama – for instance was it micro-scale rather than the conventional macro view? It could heave been a panorama of a normally hidden landscape or re-interpretation of what a panorama might be within contemporary culture. This first project was viewed as a tool to investigate initial ideas on the panoramic and the artificial, and how one might take these ideas forward into the year’s work.

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Pavilion Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens in Cornwall is a garden that has only recently opened to the public. Amongst other sculpture pieces, it houses two of only five site sculptures by James Turrell in the UK. Turrell is one of the key references used by Robin Evans in his essay ‘Translations from Drawings to Buildings’ which the Unit drew inspiration from last year. Evans describes such translations as having the capacity to ‘get bent, broken and even lost on the way’ and this continued to preoccupy the Unit. Tremenheere is located in Penzance and looks out onto Mounts Bay and St Michael’s Mount; there is a 25-mile panoramic view out of the garden stretching from the Lizard Point to Lands End. The garden at Tremenheere is the work of one man who, over a fifteen-year period aided by a JCB, has remodelled and planted the new landscape that is apparent today. Whilst the scale of this undertaking and its obsession is reminiscent of the work of Simon Rodia in constructing the Watts Towers in LA, it is a project that is bedded in the history of the artifice of the English garden. In the manner of Stourhead it is a purely synthetic construct, shrouded in the picturesque. However it is an exotic scenario as the diverse global planting makes use of the warm microclimates found in Cornish valleys. A series of new buildings are planned for the garden. The first, a visitor centre with a restaurant and shop, has just been completed. The next building planned is for a pavilion and this was the subject of the first building project of the year. It was a live project. The Unit held an internal competition and the intention was for Tremenheere to build the winner. Alex Gazetas project was chosen and he will be in discussions with Tremenheere and the local planning department shortly. This project was used as the basis for the fourth years Design Realisation document.


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Year 4 Emma Carter, Naomi Gibson, Wai Hong Hew, Yu Chien (Wendy) Lin, Tess Martin, William Molho, Risa Nagasaki, Joseph Paxton, Simona Schroeder, Sayan Skandarajah, Antonia Tkachenko Year 5 Alexander Gazetas, Sarah L’esperence, Shogo Sakimura ashtonporter.com ashtonporter.net

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Tangier In the New Year the Unit visited Tangier. It is an extraordinary city due to its geographic position. On the very edge of Africa and immediately adjacent to Europe it is a key portal between the two. Tangier looks inwards to the fast developing continent of Africa; and it looks outwards to Europe as a major trading partner. It is also at the gateway to the Mediterranean and is at the heart of an expanding shipping economy (both touristic and trading). Its ports are developing rapidly to cater for this. Historically, Tangier is obviously a densely layered culture with long traditions of both European and Arabic religious, political and mercantile systems. It is also more recently a draw for artists and writers and filmmakers. The Unit developed urban strategies and programmes based on their earlier chronometric research. The fourth year also had the privilege of being invited by Kengo Kuma to participate in a competition to design a retreat in a rural area of Japan. Eight university teams were invited from all over the world. Thank you to our critics: Professor Christine Hawley, Dr Rachel Cruise, Tom Holberton, Costa Elia, Godofredo Pereira, Professor Stephen Gage, Jonathan Kendal, Professor Peter Bishop, Theo Sarantoglou Lalis, Charlotte Bocci, Dr Neil Armstrong Design Realisation Tutor: Tom Holberton Unit Structural Engineer: Brian Eckersley Unit 21 would like to give a special thanks to Tom Holberton and Dr Neil Armstrong for their support this year.

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MArch Architecture Unit 21 21.1 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2013 21.2 Fig. 21.1 – 21.2 Sara L’Espérance, Y5, Medina Parasite, Tangier. Inspired by the contrast between the tight, dark and winding streets of Tangier’s Medina and the light and whimsical roofscape, the Medina Parasite seeks to bring public life to new heights as a hovering, expanding parasite in and amongst the roofscape of the old city. Developed as a flexible structure, the proposed parasite acts as a ‘base’ for future expansion as the need for public space increases. Moments from this base have then been re-appropriated elsewhere within the Medina as scale-shifted versions of their original function. These scale shifts not only change in size and orientation, but in their function as well: a lookout turns into a compressive prayer chamber, a dark stairwell into a viewing platform, thus recalling previous memories of past experiences. 258

Fig. 21.3 Sayan Skandarajah, Y4, Restituted Territories, Tangier. Spatial and temporal exchange is explored at the Tangier Medina wall; a threshold between opposing city conditions as well as between the foreign and local communities.


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Fig. 21.4 Antonina Tkachenko, Y4, Performative Flooding of Tangier Interzone. Proposed fluctuating levels of water flood the hyper-textural landscape and create a series of formal and informal performance spaces, bridging the boundary between the Medina and the Port. Fig. 21.5 Sayan Skandarajah, Y4, Restituted Territories, Tangier. Spatial and temporal exchange is explored at the Tangier Medina wall; a threshold between opposing city conditions as well as between the foreign and local communities. Fig. 21.6 Simona Schroeder, Y4, Tangier Roofscape Theatre. Bringing the tourists and travellers into the ‘horizontal Medina’ and creating spaces for communication with the people of Tangier. Fig. 21.7 Wai Hong Hew, Y4, Tangier Folklore Museum. The Folklore Museum exhibits and documents the oral tradition of sharing stories, culture and

experiences of the Tangerines. A series of momentary experiences are intentionally composed and then spontaneously connected to one another to indicate a design and program that is intriguing, imaginative and story-like, and to complete the history of the Medina wall with the integration of the design as a wall façade. Fig. 21.8 Tess Martin, Y4, The 6-Hour City: A Cruise Tourist Bubble for the City of Tangier. The development of the cruise tourist bubble proposes a reform of the way cruise passengers experience the city, and the way the city presents itself to the cruise industry, ultimately by changing the power / profit relationship between city and cruise company.

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Fig. 21.9 Risa Nagasaki, Y4, Pixelated Topography, Cornwall: shift of focus and blurring the boundaries. Fig. 21.10 Yu Chien (Wendy) Lin, Y4, House of Wisdom, Tangier. Tangier’s public library is built as a continuation of the ancient Medina wall and introduces tourists (penguins) to Tangier’s modern culture through subtle movements of the digital structure revealed at intervals. Fig. 21.11 Tess Martin, Y4, The 6-Hour City: A Cruise Tourist Bubble for the City of Tangier. The development of the cruise tourist bubble proposes a reform of the way cruise passengers experience the city, and the way the city presents itself to the cruise industry, ultimately by changing the power / profit relationship between city and cruise company. Fig. 21.12 Emma Carter, Y4, A [Cornish] Tropical Landscape, Cornwall. SpringTime - Carved microclimates choreograph seasonally

responsive routes through the landscape and provide optimum conditions for tropical plants to thrive all year round. Fig. 21.13 Joseph Paxton, Y4, Tremenheere Kinetic Pavilion, Cornwall. The pavilion’s design focuses on the interstitial zones created between the kinetic roof and the natural landscape below, providing perpetually transgressive states of opacity through multiple layers of ever-changing configured light modules. Fig. 21.14 Emma Carter, Y4, B[r]eaching Tangier, Plage Municipale. Respectful interjections into abandoned and disused public spaces along the beach front in Tangier, aiming to rejuvenate an undeveloped and leftover area of a currently evolving, yet stagnant, city.

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21.17 Fig. 21.15 Shogo Sakimura, Y5, Heterotopic Triarama, Cornwall. Framed views across the horizon are altered by a shifting landscape, which reflects and camouflages architectural moments. Fig. 21.16 Alexander Gazetas, Y5, Light Cloud Pavilion, Cornwall. The form of the pavilion has been derived from light levels across the site in Tremenheere Sculpture Gardens, which were mapped and turned into point cloud data. This was then used to form the ‘cloud-like’ roof ceiling, floor, lighting, screening and structural elements. The intention behind the competition-winning pavilion is to manifest the world of hidden information into physical form. Fig. 21.17 Naomi Gibson, Y4, The Unreliable Narrator’s Stock Exchange, Tangier. Like the guides and verbal tales that permeate Tangier, the Unreliable Narrator’s Stock Exchange is illusory and 264

contrary, designed to disorientate visitors and never reveal the full story. It distorts and manipulates the trade and economic information created within it, questioning the boundary between fantasy and truth, presenting a false picture of the economic health of the city. Fig. 21.18 Joseph Paxton, Y4, [Hydrodynamic] Landscapes of Liminality, Tangier. The Masterplan insertion deals with thresholds of old and new in the city of Tangier, creating a multilayered event of kinetic oscillations, fluctuations, fragmentary vision and perceptions of space, this is explored through the drawing of technological and experiential datascapes.


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Continuous Translation Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter


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“To translate is to convey. It is to move something without altering it. This is its original meaning and this is what happens in translatory motion. Such too, by analogy with translatory motion, the translation of languages. Yet the substratum across which the sense of words is translated from language to language does not appear to have the requisite evenness and continuity; things can get bent, broken or even lost on the way.” Robin Evans, Translations from Drawings to Buildings and Other Essays (1997)

It is inevitable that buildings will be constructed increasingly by factories, machine tools and other automata. However, as with traditional building methods, it is not inevitable that those buildings will also be architecture. The unit has sought to investigate and speculate on how such processes will ensure an outcome that is architecture.

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The use of emerging digital technologies means there is an opportunity for the construction industry to move from its current, predominantly 19th century mode of operation, to one of super-industrialisation. In the last 50 years the role of the architect has been eroded and compartmentalised within the increasingly specialised fields of the construction industry. By understanding and developing the relationship between software (representation) and hardware (building), the architect is in a position to reclaim their role as both initiator and master builder. More importantly, as the architect will have a potentially more direct relationship between the drawing, production and the building there are new sets of creative opportunities and tactics to investigate and invent. One of the key themes the unit focused on is the translation from software to hardware. In its simplest terms this might mean the translation from digital representation to physical object. However, the unit posited the idea that this may be an overly deterministic and simplified operation; we were therefore interested in the spillage in the system, in the same way that Evans refers to getting bent, broken or lost. It is possible that this mistranslation is a by-product of the processes you invent or it is a deliberate aim to re-contextualise or distort data. Equally, we welcomed the idea that these processes are not linear and self-contained. As always, we encouraged a layered approach which could just as easily incorporate analogue, visceral, political, environmental and cultural inputs; in any case we expected a hybridised approach which would allow for tactics of assemblage. After the empowerment of Renaissance painting through perspective a new language


Further to which, as such historical techniques were deeply analogue they were both unrepeatable and one-way. The unit has considered how, using digital translation, the process could be reversible and interchangeable. In other words can we translate from digital to physical and back to digital to introduce a feedback into the process? In this way a building can be both dynamic (or animate) and responsive.

Unit 21 would like to thank our critics: Prof Christine Hawley, Prof Stephen Gage, Dr. Rachel Cruise, Tom Holberton, Godofedo Pereira, Narinder Sagoo, Tim Furzer, Luke Pearson, Peg Rawes. Design Realisation Tutor: Julie Stewart. Unit Structural Engineer: Brian Eckersley

Year 4: Ka Lai Kylie Chan, Alexander Gazetas, Sara L’Espérance, Risa Nagasaki, Gordon O’Connor-Read, Shogo Sakimura Year 5: Qing Gao, Mina Gospavic, Eleanor Hedley, Tia Randall, Yeung Piu So, Yi Su, Chun Ting Gabriel Lee, Anthony Smith, Sophie George, Ayaka Suzuki

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The unit continued to develop the idea from previous research that the city is treated as a landscape of data that can be harnessed and transformed onto a generator of architectural language. This year the city landscape under observation has been Berlin; a city of the 19th century, broken and reconnected in the 20th century and currently struggling to establish it’s identity for the 21st century.

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of techniques was developed to nuance and manner the work. For example, sfumato was used to soften edges and to create the illusion of depth and chiaroscuro was the use of strong dark and light contrast to again further heighten the sense of perspective. There were also other techniques such as the cartoon (or large paper drawing) that allowed the transfer from sketch to canvas or plaster surface. This year the unit attempted to invent new terms and/or behaviours for the process of translation that has an equivalent contemporary status that sfumato or chiaroscuro has to perspective.


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Fig. 21.1 Sophie George, Opportunistic Geometries, The project tests whether bespoke digital methods can be used in a political and provocative way. It questions levels of chance and control within a design project and uses methods that embrace indeterminate outcomes. A new Federal Constitutional Court of Germany is proposed in Berlin on a site formerly occupied by the Berlin Wall. A single module of the Berlin Wall was modelled and scanned using a homemade 3d scanner. The homemade scanner contained nuances and inaccuracies, producing areas of slippage in the resulting 3d mesh. These areas of slippage, or ‘opportunistic geometries’ were used to design the key spaces of the new Court. The challenge of the project lay in combining these opportunistic geometries with the functional requirements of the Court.

Fig. 21.2 – 21.5 Mina Gospavic, Berlin Artspark, This project seeks to inquire what the civilian’s image of the city is — using the film and photographic image as synonyms of subjective experience - to identify the qualities of repetitive and cyclical daily movement through Berlin, and subsequently how this can act as a strategy to design an alternative architectural proposal for the city. At the intersection of two subjective experiences, lies the architectural intervention of an Artspark which extracts the geometries from these views structurally and spatially into a landscape of performance areas, outdoor galleries and public spaces.

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Fig. 21.6 — 21.9 Yeung Piu So, Karl Marx Allee Monument, “Perhaps spectators walking along the existing monument in Karl Marx Allee (KMA) is similar to the way Robert Smithson toured the monuments in New Jersey. However, not many of us can be as sensitive and imaginative as he did to read those monuments allegorically. Perhaps, we don’t even want another Smithson to read the future KMA and say this is “a kind of self-destroying postcard world of failed immortality and oppressive grandeur.” Accommodating more than 2,000 apartments, the present KMA deserves positive regeneration. Interacting with the existing Stalinist architecture built from 50s to60s, the proposal will be an anti-nostalgic scheme. Rather than being haunted by the unproductive nostalgia, it will mark the end of the GDR power, and transform it

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into a new park of possibilities by translating the existing motifs along the boulevard. To stop the unproductive and even dangerous nostalgia of the citizen, like the mother in the film Goodbye Lenin, the project made use of architecture as a tool to help people understand the condition of memory and their history. Meanwhile, it will regenerate the area as new urban recreational hub, putting emphasis on the present livelihood.”

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Fig. 21.10 Yi Su, Pina Bausch’s Dance School, This dance school is equipped with special studios for practicing specific emotions in Pina Bausch’s dance, and provides the audience with different viewing experiences for each studio according to the particular emotion in it. The dancers’ and the audience’s viewpoints are crucial in experiencing the building. A subjective strategy is applied in the design process, which relies on the designer’s understanding from extracting emotions from Bausch’s dance till transforming the emotions to dance studio design. Fig. 21.11 Tia Randall, Die Engelbeckengärten, The Engelbeckengärten, a community agricultural gardens was designed to provide the infrastructure that enables a social framework to be developed by the local residents and users, over time. Within the landscape, we

find objects of intrigue and invention, that allow for the manual manipulation of processes within the gardens. Users become physically entwined with the site, their constant presence and activities are required to animate and continue to develop the form of the proposal. At the same time, the individual objects of invention themselves create intimate event experiences with their users. Their language of inherent movement evokes curiosity in those who find them. Once the user has discovered their workings through child-like investigations, the enjoyment of the experience perpetuates their use.

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Fig. 21.12 Ayaka Suzuki, Place-Making, An investigation into the eviction of the collective housing residents in Berlin, the chain reaction of protests, with live uploads of videos and comments online is translated into the unfolded expression of the event. Fig. 21.13 Sara L’Espérance, Urban Playground, The Urban Playground was designed to challenge the typical understanding of the playground’s role in an urban context and redefine it as a space where ‘play’ can encompass all urban dwellers, not simply children. Fig. 21.14 Qing Gao, The Museum of Domesticity, Metamorphosized from historical maps of Cockfosters in each decades, the evolution of suburban morphology is encrypted in the roofscape of the Museum of Domesticity. 3-d scanning of typical domestic items provided further materials with which

to construct the galleries. Fig. 21.15 Eleanor Hedley, The Theatrical Landscape, This project has sought to define an architecture of the view. This has been explored via the three characteristic viewing techniques displayed by the protagonists of Richard Wagner’s opera ‘Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg’: empathetic, fragmented and unified viewing. Fig. 21.16 Chun Ting Gabriel Lee, Place-Making, “We have attempted to present interior reality and exterior reality as two elements in process of unification, of finally becoming one” — André Breton. A series of analogue photographic experiments to explore the idea of superimposition of spaces, time and scale.

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Portmanteau Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter


M A rc h A rch U n i t 21

PORTMANTEAU Istanbul is the only major city that straddles two continents. This geographical split is the first and most obvious of a multitude of cultural, political, religious, social and historical layers. No single description or account can adequately describe the city. ‘At this point I could no longer tell if I was in Byzantium, Konstantinopolis or Istanbul. I realised that I made a trip where I traversed three civilisations and three periods at the same time. But this city with three names and three histories was in fact still the same. I thought that it was perhaps not coincidental that amidst the city walls, bearded church fathers had discussed to the point of exhaustion the secret of the trinity, that is how “one thing” could be at once “one” and “three”.’ Umberto Eco

field trip. Students constructed their portmanteau from information gleaned from remote or mediated versions of the city, that were based on received notions that predated their experience of Istanbul. The remainder of the year was spent pursuing and developing the ideas generated by the portmanteau and sites in Byzantium, Constantinople and Istanbul. For further information on the unit visit — www.unit21.ashtonporter.net Unit 21 would like to thank our critics: Prof Christine Hawley, Prof Stephen Gage, Prof Colin Fournier, Godofedo Pereira, Tom Holberton, Narinder Sagoo, Charlotte Bocci, Holly Lewis, Dr Rachel Cruise. Year 4: Mina Gospavic, Chun Ting Gabriel Lee, Tia Randall, Yi Zoe Su, Ayaka Suzuki Year 5: Sarah Alfraih, Oliver Bawden, Beatrice Beazley, Alicia Bourla, Paul Broadbent, Sarah Bromley, Naomi Bryden, Costa Elia, Maiia Guermanova, Paul Legon, Roger Molina-Vera, Lucy Paton

This year, the unit continued to explore the idea of collage as a means to construct the city. It is as likely that the material of any such collage is defined by the lost geometry of an earlier incumbent as it is the physical material of a new object or the multitude of wireless information and hidden systems. Illusion and composition of the physical and the mimetic have continued to be a preoccupation within the unit. The unit was initially asked to ‘construct’, ‘make’ and/or otherwise design a portmanteau; this was a 4-week project and acted as a precursor to the Abigail Ashton & Andrew Porter

Fig 21.1 Sarah Bromley, Theatrical Pleasure Ground, Located on the old site of the great Byzantium Cemetery in Istanbul. A series of models exploring the physical and non-physical create a time-based landscape. The landscape comprises theatrical machines that are split into three time-based categories: Automatic, Reactive and Interactive. Each of the categories relates back to one of the three 18th century travel writers that instigated my year’s work: Gerard de Nerval, Mark Twain and Edmondo de Amicis. Fig 21.2 Sarah Alfraih, Museum Of Identity, Situated in Istanbul the Museum of Identity is an architectural intervention that is proposed to be built along the parameters of previously defined ‘Portals’ that investigate the spatial considerations of identity production. Here, the city of Istanbul becomes a site for the exploration of a philosophical inquiry into place which

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questions the very way in which we locate ourselves within it. Once we recognise that space and social relations are made through each other, we can ascertain that the production of identity becomes central to spatial discourse.


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21.4 Fig 21.3 Alicia Bourla, Floating Library Istanbul. A floating library for women and children, the Library celebrates the need of women for social encounters outside of the household. Fig 21.4 Lucy Paton, El Malecon Reanimación. Cuba is in a transitional phase. Assuming that it is transforming into a free-market economy, it is inevitable that there will be increased foreign investment and construction. With little development over the last 50 years much of the urban fabric is in a dilapidated state. Proposed is a Regeneration project for the Malecon, the seafront boulevard of Central Havana. On 9 sites left void from collapsed or demolished buildings community-based projects celebrate Cuban culture, and create a transitional architecture that prevents the Malecon becoming a characterless strip of hotels. They aim to reanimate the ‘City’s Living Room’ and provide new facilities to stimulate

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community regeneration. Fig 21.5 Paul Legon, City Hall Istanbul. This work focuses on creating an architectural Portmanteau of Order and Disorder by using anamorphic techniques. Each anamorphic construct conceals its organising geometry from all positions appearing abstract and disordered except from a unique invisible coordinate where the ‘eccentric observer’ is able to discover the hidden order/system.


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21.7 Figs. 21.6 – 21.10 Costa Elia, The Istanbul Pogrom Museum. This year’s work has been an architectural investigation into a particular event in Istanbul’s history — the Istanbul Pogrom, a large-scale riot directed against the minorities of the city that took place on the 6 September 1955. This event forever changed the demographics of the city, transforming it in the following 50 years from the traditionally multicultural site it was, to the relatively monocultural city it is now. The major proposal of the year was for a museum dedicated to the event based on the island of Buyukada off the coast of the city centre. This island was the former religious centre of the lost Greek population of the city, and the site that the museum is based on is the first piece of confiscated land returned to the Greek Church since the event. The project began with the design of five exhibits, 3D forensic reconstructions

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of particular spaces of the pogrom as shown in the photographs (Exhibits ‘B’ and ‘C’ shown in Figs 21.7, 21.8). Five exhibition halls were then designed around the exhibits to allow visitors to assume the photographer’s position and view these exhibits framed exactly as they appear in the images (Figs 21.6, 21.9, 21.10). Furthermore, visitors are guided around the exhibits in particular ways to allow them to gain new perspectives on the reconstructions that aren’t shown in the photographs and in the process are ‘framed’ themselves in particular ways. The intention of the project is to give the Pogrom a new relevance to modern society, through the questioning of what ‘objective’ evidence — whether forensic, or photograhpic — can really be constituted as.


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Artificial Abigail Ashton, Andrew Porter


Dip/MArch Unit 21 Yr 4: Sarah Alfraih, Beatrice Beazley, Alicia Bourla, Sarah Bromley, Naomi Bryden, Costa Elia, Maiia Guermanova, Paul Legon, Tomo Ogata, Lucy Paton Yr 5: Sarah Brighton, Vivian Wing Man Chung, Tom Elliot, Zachary Keene, Laurence Mackman

Artificial Villa Aldobrandini is not set to one side of its garden, it is at its centre; the villa is treated as an optical instrument for the viewing of the garden. The view to the water theatre is composed by the framing of the loggia and doorway, a trompe lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;oeil outer door and a reflective glazed inner door. Although it is intended to view onto and frame an external Arcadian vision of landscape, the garden is as synthetic as the painted door. There are many example of this synthetic nature, whether it be the Romantic English rural landscape, such as Stourhead in Wiltshire, or the ever-shifting Jones Beach in Long Island, New York. This year, we asked Unit 21 not just to develop a world of the purely synthetic but to investigate the collage of the more subtle layers between the various readings of the real, the physical and the mimetic. Furthermore we asked that students not think of this as a landscape or as an extra-urban setting, but that the context should be overtly urban. The city was their playground. Unit 21 established sites in Greater London, and identified and responded to systems of interaction, by calibration and re-reading, and establishing new systems which responded to the context. They considered how a system works as an ecology and in particular, how it behaves in terms of co-operation and symbiosis. We travelled to China for our field trip.

Abigail Ashton & Andrew Porter

Clockwise from top: Paul Legon, Constructed Shadows; Maiia Guermanova, A Hydropark, Canning Town; Tom Elliot, Supposed Urban Space, Bethnal Green; Naomi Bryden, Tripartite, Lea Valley.


Top: Sarah Brighton, A Data Landscape, Greenwich. Bottom: Naomi Bryden, Tripartite, Lea Valley.


Top left: Sarah Alfraih, Mobile Productive Landscapes. Top right: Zachary Keene, A Filmic Mall, Hong Kong. Middle: Paul Legon, Constructed Shadows. Bottom: Sarah Brighton, A Data Landscape, Greenwich.


Top: Tom Elliot, Supposed Urban Space, Bethnal Green.


Top: Sarah Bromley, Issac Waltons Walk, Old River Lea. Bottom: Zachary Keene, A Filmic Mall, Hong Kong.


Costa Elia: Three Dimensional Boundary, Tottenham Hale.


Interchange â&#x20AC;&#x201C; *space/ object/ narrative Abigail Ashton, Christine Hawley, Andrew Porter


Dip/MArch Unit 21 Yr 4: Zak Keene, Sarah Brighton, Laurence Mackman, Andrew Walker. Yr 5: Carrie Behar, Katie Walmsley, William Aitken, John Lawlor, Bilal Malik, Chein Chin-Yin, Carolina Razelli, Raphaela Potter

Interchange - *space/ object/ narrative An intertwining set of themes ran throughout the programme this year, it will (in essence) involving reading the city, interpreting place and constructing narrative. The project sequence is aware of, and responsive to, all aspects of environment. Three areas of London are offered, each with a particular character, they have a life that is both dynamically of the moment and a hidden history with ghostly memories of the past. The observer must paint a picture of this place, a poetic interpretation of context. Thanks to Julie Stewart

Christine Hawley, Abigail Ashton and Andrew Porter


Clockwise from Top: Carrie Behar, Sopot Beach Spa; Will Aitken, Willesden Market and Scout Camp


Above: Katie Walmsley, House Theatre. Opposite Page Top Row: Sarah Brighton, Anamorphic Pleasure Garden; John Lawlor, Productive Landscape; Zak Keene, Greenway Follies: The Ghosted Cooling Tower of Abbey Mills Pumping Station.


Second Row: Bilal Malik, Urban Calligraphy; John Lawlor, Productive Landscape; Will Aitken, Willesden Market and Scout Camp; Laurence Mackman, Kinetic Garden; 3rd Row: Chein Chin-Yin, Old Kent Road Lido. Bottom Row: Will Aitken, Willesden Market and Scout Camp, Sarah Brighton, Anamorphic Pleasure Garden, Zak Keene, Morphing Tidal Funhouse.


This Page & Facing Page: Katie Walmsley, House Theatre.


Buy : Sell Peter Culley, Christine Hawley


BSc Unit 21 Yr 4: Chih-Yin Chien; John Lawlor; Bilal Malik; Carolina Razelli; Katie Walmsley. Yr 5: Nicolas Lundstrom; Owen Jones; Benjamin Lee; Krishma Shah; Charlene Shum; Tumpa Husna Yasmin;

Buy : Sell What constitutes a sale? What defines value? What are the implications of trade on an architectural proposition where ‘faux’ products and illicit sales sit uncomfortably alongside carefully regimented and audited procedures of transaction? In 2007, the exchange of non-essential goods reached an all time high, with Sotheby’s and Christie’s reporting sales of over US$300 million in a single week. But 2007 also saw £12 billion of the value of the stock market wiped and another £1bn withdrawn from customers of one bank in a single day; 2008 now threatens with the cry of ‘credit crunch’. Responding to the brief, students quickly developed their own territory of transaction, outlining the buyer and seller roles and the delicate balance developed in the process of establishing a sale. Work reflected the shifting power of a ‘deal’ and developed a view on currency as a vehicle. The ‘purchase’ varied, from a tangible object, a concept, an emotion. Students were expected to develop a view of commodity in the 21st century and the perceived value of built space in its language, materials and cultural significance. We explored an architecture of negotiation, of risk, of shifting value.

Christine Hawley and Peter Culley

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Above: Charlene Shum, Section Through the Pawn Shop.

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This page: Nicolas Lundstrom, Pigeon Racing Loft Development.

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Clockwise from top: Nicolas Lundstrom, The Feather Factory; Krishma Shah, The Wapping Shoe Castle; John Lawlor, Yellow Steam Chamber; Chih-Yin Chien, Model of The Shop of Smell; Bilal Malik, The Arrival of the Dragons.

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Clockwise from top left: Tumpa Husna Yasmin, Fluidic Landscape; Chih-Yin Chien, Shop of Smell; Benjamin Lee, Manga Gallery.

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Top: Carolina Razelli, Contemporary Art Gallery in the City, exploratory cross-sections. Bottom: Owen Jones, St Thomasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Opium Refinery.

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This Page: Owen Jones, St Thomasâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Opium Refinery, sections.

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Show Peter Culley, Christine Hawley


Dip Unit 21 Yr 4: Owen Jones, Nicholas Lundstrom, Krishma Shah, Charlene Shum, Jasminder Sohi. Yr 5: Doug Hodgson, Emma James, Jimmy Kim, Claire Metivier, Stavros Nissiotis, David Storring, Kai Ming Wong.

Show We start the year by studying one of the world’s largest and most unusual museum collections. The objects Henry Wellcome brought together range from the ancient to the magical, from the religious to the scientific. Beautiful, mysterious or bizarre, they all illuminate the history of human beings. In 2003 the Quay brothers created a short animation to document the extraordinary assemblage and simultaneously reveal an extremely beautiful yet odd inner cosmos of things. “The film suggests the idea that all passionate museum visitors know to be true: that the objects become even more interesting after the last visitor has left the gallery.” This collection has been the subject of translation and this year we are asking that you consider the notion of display, how to show ideas, imagination and mystery. This can be interpreted through a number of different media and it should fundamentally challenge the notion of how you ‘show’. What is your show? Our starting point is the physical object, the alchemic potion, the magic ritual but the exercise does not need to be confined. The year will develop through investigation of a single scene of particular personal interest into a carefully considered brief for an architectural strategy. You will be encouraged to look at specialized and distorted techniques of exhibition, theatre, and lighting design through drawings, models and film.

Christine Hawley and Peter Culley

Top: Kai Ming Wong. Middle left: Krishma Shah, Astronomy Centre, Mill Hill, sectional perspective through floatation chamber and exhibition room; right: Doug Hodgson, an investigation into ‘The Atrocity Exhibition’, by JG Ballard. Bottom: Owen Jones, UCL corridor, black and white photo from Lost Negative.


Top: Kai Ming Wong. Middle: Doug Hodgson, section through Dr. Travisâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s residence and the M5. Bottom left: Owen Jones, briefcase scene, black and white photo from Lost Negative; right: Claire Metivier.


This page, top to bottom: Krishma Shah, music box movement model â&#x20AC;&#x201C; hand rotating in plan; Nicholas Lundstrom, process montage of installation; Stavros Nissiotis, Control - Randomness / Casino Game 21 / Dice & Card Table / 1.1 Installation; Casino - Vienna / Exclusive Salon hosting Game 21 / Sectional Perspective / scale 1.50.


Clockwise from top left: Charlene Shum, The Courtyard Hotel; Emma James, cakes and bread transported around the building animate; Jasminder Sohi, sectional perspective of tea house & museum; Emma James, dance in a static form, perspex model; David Storring, Gabriel Prokofievâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s String Quartet No.1 - a translation of the second movement; A Symphony in the City - social housing, Hommerton, London; Jasminder Sohi, ground plan of tea house & museum.


This page: Jimmy King. Top: â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Showâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, a maquette about stamps as a parcel. Bottom left to right: view through glass into basement workshop, a relief model, glass, paint, ink, collage; entrance staircase to exhibition space.


This page: Jimmy King, Wiener Werkstatte Glass Museum, Vienna, Austria, view looking north showing glass faรงade.


Hotel Peter Culley, Christine Hawley


Dip Unit 21 Yr 4: Ronan Friel, Doug Hodgson, Emma James, Poppy Kirkwood, Claire Methivier, David Storring, Kai Ming Wong. Yr 5:Salim Amir, Imran Jahn, Arati Khanna, Vimal Mehta, Dora Sweijd.

Hotel Derivation - hĂ´te, French - to host The notion of a 'place to stay' goes back to ancient colonising societies moving through fixed strongholds with 'pit stops' along key routes. Hosting 'travellers' for finanicial return originates from the earliest 'business' travel along trading routes often where harsh climate would require a particular level of protection . Early records show some form of hostelry in major towns .Religious institutions have also traditionally provided 'board and lodging' for those requiring a 'safe house' or simply to top up incomes from land, benefactors etc. Some hotels have had 'residents' who remained by choice or otherwise as semipermanent guests, sometimes for convalescence or escape. Often writers will cite a particular period or piece of work as owing to time spent at someone else's convenience. The hotel has come to define a class and section of society according to its design and styling. Hotel types are often based on pre-selecting the appropriate type of visitor - budget hostels, boutique, motel, no-frillsbusiness, designer, classic opulent, art, airport, love, resort, capsule, conference / casino - and this style is generally represented in external appearance, public spaces and advertising - its image. Once inside the chosen environment, like airline seating, overt class related terminology is emphasised for room types - 'economy', 'standard', 'deluxe', 'super deluxe', 'penthouse', 'king suite' - this adds motivation to 'upgrade' and flout personal betterment. Understood social protocols are often tested and morphed on crossing the hotel boundary .

Christine Hawley and Peter Culley

Top: Ronan Friel. Bottom: Poppy Kirkwood.


Clockwise from top left: Kai Ming Wong, Claire Methivier, Doug Hodgson.


Facing page: Arati Khanna. This page, top: Emma James; bottom: Salim Amir.


Top: Vihmal Mehta. Bottom: Imran Jahn.


This page: Dora Sweijd.


Liquid Architecture Christine Hawley


Dip Unit 21 Yr 4: Arati Khanna, Stavros Nissiotis. Yr 5: Jonathan Ashmore, Lucy Evans, Kostas Grigoriadis, Tom Holberton, Anthony Lau, John Oliver, Sang-Kil Park, Anthony Smith, Ursula Thompson, Dennis Tsang, Alex Tucker, Lawrence Wong, Louise Yeung.

Liquid Architecture Van Leeuven's 'Springboard in the Pond' explores the human relationship with water from a variety of viewpoints: social, religious, artistic and philosophical. Much has been written and designed that relates form to water, but this unit explores the notion of liquid architecture. Our contemporary relationship to water falls broadly into two categories. The first is functional – its consumption is vital as is its use in irrigation, transportation and cleansing. The second is for leisure and decoration – the pool, the pond, the lake. However, this elementary summary fails to capture the conceptual potential that is both symbolic and functional. Water's iconic status embraces both spiritual and metaphoric supremacy and bourgeois banality. Zumthor's Bath House at Vals is a sepulchral experience of water, light and aroma. Ludwig Leo's Hydraulic Pumping Station in Berlin is a piece of expressionist engineering. Water can more generally be used as a symbol of metamorphosis, water becomes steam, mist, cloud, wave. From Ovid to the present day, water is the element through which change of form is depicted. The design proposals undertaken utilise water in a number of different states (liquid, solid, vapour) and its latent and dynamic energy are exploited. Traditionally, water is contained and allowed to flow for specific functions. These proposals explore a range of utilisation and interpretation – an architecture that is liquid.

Christine Hawley

Clockwise from top left: Jonathan Ashmore, Lucy Evans, John Oliver, Jonathan Wong, (group project) Anthony Smith + Sang-Kil Park.


Clockwise from top: Alex Tucker, (group project) Anthony Lau + Dennis Tsang + Louise Yeung + Dennis Tsang, Ursula Thompson, Kostas Grigoriadis. Overleaf: Tom Holberton.


Stay รท Time Christine Hawley, CJ Lim


Dip Unit 21 Yr 4: Jonathan Ashmore, Lucy Evans, Gregoriades Kostas, Tom Holberton, Anthony Lau, John Oliver, Sang–Kil Park, Ursula Thompson, Dennis Tsang, Alex Tucker, Lawrence Wong, Louise Yeung. Yr 5: Grace Craddock, Pedro Alejandro Gil, Doris Lam, Grace Ng, Mark Shaw, Adam Whitlock Wood.

Stay ÷ Time A fascination of cities over time is that they tell stories about people, the way they lived, worked and what they felt was important. Whether it is poetry and myth, technology and finance, the cultural fabric is built into architecture one layer over the next, generation after generation. The project this year is concerned about the reading of context, but perhaps not in the most orthodox sense. Our location is Penang in Malaysia, an erstwhile trading port on the historic spice routes to the east. This small island city reflects its rich cultural past from early Indian civilisation to that of the Portuguese, Dutch, British and later the Japanese military occupation of World War 2. Like many cities of occupation, those that came left their legacies. The colonial imprint announces its origins clearly, but the interwoven material style of the Chinese and indigenous Malay community provides a more subtle backdrop. The multi-cultural histories are like continuously interwoven threads, seen in the buildings and landscape, recorded in literature, and lived out in everyday life. The programme is for a place to stay. It may include some of the traditional components of the hotel, but a wider and more poetic interpretation of ‘stay’ is explored – a place to observe, listen or read; a place that reflects the environment, sensitive to its context but, at the same time, making a sharp, direct and tough statement for the future.

Christine Hawley and cj Lim


Opposite and this page: selected individual and group projects.


ucl.ac.uk/architecture

Bartlett Design Anthology | Unit 21  

Architectural design teaching on The Bartlett School of Architecture's BSc and MArch Architecture programmes is organised around ‘units’: co...

Bartlett Design Anthology | Unit 21  

Architectural design teaching on The Bartlett School of Architecture's BSc and MArch Architecture programmes is organised around ‘units’: co...