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MArch Architecture (ARB/RIBA Part 2) Compiled from Bartlett Books 2004–2017


Our Design DNA At The Bartlett School of Architecture, we have been publishing annual exhibition catalogues for each of our design-based programmes for more than a decade. These catalogues, amounting to thousands of pages, illustrate the best of our students’ extraordinary work. Our new Design Anthology series brings together the annual catalogue pages for each of our renowned units, clusters, and labs, to give an overview of how their practice and research has evolved. Throughout this time some teaching partnerships have remained constant, others have changed. Students have also progressed from one programme to another. Nevertheless, the way in which design is taught and explored at The Bartlett School of Architecture is in our DNA. Now with almost 50 units, clusters and labs in the school across eight programmes, the Design Anthology series shows how we define, progress and reinvent our agendas and themes from year to year. Professor Frédéric Migayrou Chair of The Bartlett School of Architecture Professor Bob Sheil Director of The Bartlett School of Architecture


2017 What is New? Matthew Butcher, Jonathan Hill 2016 The Public Private House Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2015 Occupying the City of London Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2014 The Shock of the Old and the Shock of the New Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2013 Factual Fictions Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2012 A New Creative Myth Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2011 Hybridisation and the Air and Industry of London Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2010 Time, Motion, Energy Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2009 Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2008 Hubbert Curve Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2007 Making History Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2006 City within a City, the Independent Quarter Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2005 About Time Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill 2004 The Public Private House Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


What is New? Matthew Butcher, Jonathan Hill


Unit 12

What is New? Matthew Butcher, Jonathan Hill

Year 4 Sophie Barks, Boon Yik Chung, Samuel Coulton, Iga Martynow, Dan Meredith, Elin Soderberg Year 5 Christia Angelidou, Mariya Badeva, Emma De Haan, Mihail Dinu, Clare Hawes, Rawan Hussin, Raphae Memon, Meya Tazi, Ioana Vierita The Bartlett School of Architecture 2017

Thank you to our Design Realisation tutor James Hampton of Periscope, and DR structural consultant James Nevin of Blue Engineering Thank you to Ben Clement and Sebastian de la Cour of benandsebastian Thank you to our critics: Ana Araujo, Alessandro Ayuso, Shumi Bose, Eva Branscome, Barbara-Ann Campbell-Lange, Tom Coward, Oliver Domeisen, Ben Ferns, Paul Fineberg, Omar Ghazal, Sean Griffiths, Jessica In, Chee-Kit Lai, Constance Lau, Lesley McFadyen, Tom Noonan, Luke Pearson, Peg Rawes, Gilles Retsin, Tania Sengupta, Ana Vale, Nina Vollenbröker, Dan Wilkinson

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The desire for the new is seen in our need to consume the latest fashions, technologies, artworks and ideas. The promise of the new stimulates the recurring cycles of production and obsolescence that feed consumption in a capitalist society. But it is also a creative and critical stimulus to cultural, social and technological innovation. This year, our aim is to explore how this informs the ways we conceive and produce architecture. Often, what is presented as new is not new at all, but a revival of an earlier form, idea or practice. To ask ‘What is new?’ involves other questions: why is it new, how is it new, and where is it new? Alongside cultural and social investigations into notions of newness, we ask what is really new in any subject that concerns us. The 20th century avant-garde were the quintessential advocates of the new. They sought to discover art forms that would question bourgeois traditions and transform society culturally, socially and politically. Their influence was profound even though they were assimilated into the cultural establishment. To explore the possibilities for a better world, we ask what is a new avant-garde today, what should it propose, what values and systems should it question and why. To understand what is new, we investigate the present, the past and the future: we think historically. Defining something as new is an inherently historical act because it requires an awareness of what is old. We are not interested in unquestioning newness for its own sake, and we do not wish to reject the past or negate its value. Sometimes the old is even more radical than the new. Rather than the modernist tabula rasa in which the new destroys the old, we propose an evolving dialogue between the new and the old in which one informs the other. Thomas More’s Utopia celebrated its 500-year anniversary in 2016, reviving questions of its present relevance. One possible translation of its full title ‘De optimo rei publicae deque nova insula Utopia’ is ‘Of a republic's best state and of the new island Utopia’. More was reputed to have refused to translate his Utopia from Latin, but we look at translation as a means to imagine the new. Our site is Berlin. More than any other European city, Berlin offers a cavalcade of buildings that were once really new. Continually reinventing itself, Berlin offers a historically and politically fecund environment in which our students proposed a state, an island or a quarter of considered newness. Initially this new state was remotely imagined from London. In Berlin we set its foundations, and on our return to London this ‘city within a city’ was brought to fruition.


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Fig. 12.1 Raphae Memon Y5, ‘Tierwald: Berlin’s City-ArchitectScenographer’. The project is a landscape of buildings-aspublic-squares, deep in a constructed forest within Berlin’s Tiergarten. In the centre is the city-architect-scenographer, a yearly appointed artistic director of the city who coordinates the fragmented architectures so that they transform during the interstices between sunrise and sunset. The design facilitates scenographic proposals for the city, which are designed, built, tested, performed and stored. Light creates perceptive conditions of darkness and provokes scenographic occupations for the future. Fig 12.2 Iga Martynow Y4, ‘Museum for Dada Art’. The museum is located on the exact site of a 1920s exhibition. It plays on ideas of the nonsensical and absurd, recreating the original gallery as a labyrinth of

interconnected rooms, inhabiting the spaces between the white, superfluous grid. Fig. 12.3 Elin Soderberg Y4, ‘The New Friedrichshain Bank’. Addressing themes of financial speculation and time, the project positions itself within the recurring property cycle. Set within a geological and seasonal timescale, it discusses the possibility of a new model for slow banking. Fig. 12.4 Boon Yik Chung Y4, ‘Museum for 20th Century Arts’. A fix for Herzog & de Meuron’s botched attempt, the project employs creative strategies associated with artistic practice in the synthesis of idea and physical production of architecture, to create gallery spaces truly representative of 20th century arts: radical, humorous and subversive. The alternative proposal tests the limit of architecture as a creative practice, and personal and societal

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12.8 expression. Fig. 12.5 Sophie Barks Y4, ‘Kriminalgericht Totschlag; Law Court, Berlin’. The project responds to the constructed, complex environments of dreams that feature a directory of architectural elements both familiar and unfamiliar, assembling these fragments and juxtaposing them together. It also embodies the liminal transition theories of ritual and its place within our society. Fig. 12.6 Dan Meredith Y4, ‘The Cuvry Brache Memory Health Clinic’. The project proposes that in a society obsessed with information and data collection, the things we remember are new. Forgetting is made spatial and experiential through degradation – symbolic of the decay of human memory. Fig. 12.7 Samuel Coulton Y4, ‘Berlin School of Environmental Policy’. Climatic conditions are recorded and celebrated as the occupants and architect enjoy

‘submitting to the seasons.’ Timescales at the micro and macro levels are exhibited, through tracking of the sun across a room, bleaching of cladding over a year, or gradual change in how the building can be used. Fig. 12.8 Mariya Badeva Y5, ‘Eastern Objects, Western Fields: The Architecture of the New Berlin Quarter’. Situated in Berlin’s biggest void, the former Tempelhof airport, the project explores newness and nostalgia, utopia and heterotopia, emptiness and possibility, event and appropriation. An island within a city, the proposal conceives of a new quarter in the heart of Berlin, established by the users of the field. A dispersed assemblage of unexpected individual buildings, the dynamic space is put to the creativity of the new non-architect, allowed on the field not simply as a visitor but also as a creator. 197


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12.9 Fig. 12.9 Emma de Haan Y5, ‘New Architecture of Romance’. We are at a moment in history where political relationships between countries, governments, politicians and subjects are turning sour. As a reaction, this project proposes a New Architecture of Romance for Berlin. Applied to a Ministry for Foreign Reunification affairs, the building facilitates the long and intimate discussion needed for diplomats to decide whether to divorce, marry or reunite. Its language challenges our flippant visualisation of romance, reinstating its fundamental importance with a material palette that is also a relational cross-section.

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12.11 Figs. 12.10 – 12.11 Ioana Vierita Y5, ‘Under the Linden-Tree, a Nursery and an Elderly Care Home in Berlin’. This project proposes a new urban model for a future intergenerational city as a new typology for urban space. It seeks to unite generations that have become estranged from one another, or who are generally displaced outside the city centre, by offering them a habitat in the city. Continuing the tradition of German Romanticism’s desire for a harmony between the creative genius and the rational world, public space is represented as a dreamy part-paper, part-papercrete ambiguous space, which stirs the visual imagination.

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12.12 Fig. 12.12 Mihail Dinu Y5, ‘EU Renegotiations Institute’. This project is concerned with the Union’s Extended Process of Self-Inquiry initiated in the aftermath of the British EU Referendum. Its functions are housed within a parastatal architecture which manifests critical distancing through its campus layout. Material unity and the stereotomics of the fragments washed ashore by the flexing and convoluting of the Spree create an architecture of multiple localities within the city of Berlin.

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12.14 Figs. 12.13 – 12.14 Clare Hawes Y5, ‘In the Pink: A New Headquarters for the United Nations’. Following the election of Donald Trump in November 2016, the future status of the United States within the United Nations has become uncertain. The project speculates on the relocation of the UN Headquarters from its existing location in New York to Lustgarten, Berlin. The project is an investigation into where the new headquarters should be located, what it should look like and how it might function.

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12.16 Fig. 12.15 Rawan Hussin Y5, ‘The International Commission for Nazi-Looted Art’. The proposal is a response to the looting of art in Germany by Soviet forces after World War II, and its hardness is an analogue for its fleshy history. A new advisory body is responsible for investigating the war-related removal of cultural property under Soviet occupation, while housing a collection of objects that have been subject to illegal trafficking and destruction. Fig. 12.16 Meya Tazi Y5, ‘Kreuzberg is Not Babylon: The Civil Defence Community of Kreuzberg’. The project becomes the symbol of its resilient and insurgent communities, a prototype of resistance against gentrification. An alternative ecological typology uses waste to counter the urban and anthropogenic crisis. An architecture of assemblage, as a barometer to the changing environment 202

of Kreuzberg, destabilises the entrenched imagery of individualistic mastery and control of the mogul system. Kreuzberg’s waste becomes its resource reservoir and resists its full domestication. Fig. 12.17 Christia Angelidou Y5, ‘Four Journeys to ‘New Hope’, a School for Cypriot Peace Culture Education, in the Last Divided Capital: Nicosia, Cyprus’. The project attempts to restore peace in the island of Cyprus, by inviting people from both Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities to recognize their shared connections to existing places of division. Four journeys through four different parts of the school unfold temporal and physical locations of the past as a crucial means of creating understanding between the different groups of people.


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The Public Private House Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


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The Public Private House Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill

Year 4 Christia Angelidou, Mariya Badeva, Emma De Haan, Mihail Dinu, Simona Fratila, Clare Hawes, Rawan Hussin, Yi Lu, Raphae Memon, Ilaria Rigodanzo, Henry Schofield, Meya Tazi, Ioana Vierita

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Year 5 Stephanie Brancatisano, Kacper Chmielewski, Holly Crosbie, Matthew Sawyer, Luke Scott, Zahra Taleifeh, Matthew Turner Thanks to our Design Realisation tutor James Hampton and structural consultant James Nevin We would also like to thank our critics: Eva Branscome, Ruth Bernatek, Emma Cheatle, Tom Coward, Edward Denison, Tina Di Carlo, Oliver Domeisen, Murray Fraser, Omar Ghazal, James Hampton, Colin Herperger, Charles Holland, Jan Kattein, Chee Kit Lai, Constance Lau, Ifi Liangi, Jon Lopez, Hugh McEwen, Lesley McFadyen, Hikaru Nissanke, Tom Noonan, Luke Pearson, Mariana Pestana, Rahesh Ram, Peg Rawes, Jane Rendell, Alisdair Russell, Oliver Salway, Tanya Sengupta, Ro Spankie, Eva Sopeoglou, Tijana Stevanovic, Elly Ward, Gabriel Warshafsky, Dan Wilkinson, Alex Zambelli

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In Unit 12, we recognise the history within the discipline of architecture – an internal dialogue of evolving ideas, forms and tectonics – and we equally acknowledge the history of architecture’s interdependence with social, cultural and political developments. Claiming a degree of artistic autonomy is as necessary to creative speculation as understanding and engaging contemporary conditions. In many eras, the most fruitful innovations have occurred when ideas and forms have migrated from one time and place to another by a process of translation that has been as inventive as the initial conception. Critical admiration of the past has often been a creative stimulus in the present. Erwin Panofsky even identifies the start of the Renaissance with the moment when “the whole classical sphere … became an object of nostalgia”. The unnecessary opposition between tradition and innovation was a modernist cliché. But the most celebrated modernists were more subtle in their approach, leading Le Corbusier to compare Platonic forms to cars and Mies Van Der Rohe to state: “I felt that it must be possible to harmonize the old and the new in our civilisation. Each of my buildings was a statement of this idea”. Vincent Scully concludes that the architect will “always be dealing with historical problems—with the past and, a function of the past, with the future. So the architect should be regarded as a kind of physical historian”. The most creative architects have always looked to the past to imagine a future, studying an earlier architecture not to replicate it but to understand and transform it. Twenty-first century architects need to appreciate the shock of the old as well as the shock of the new. A recurring theme states that the house is the origin and archetype of architecture. The home of the home, as we understand it today, is seventeenth-century Netherlands, when domestic architecture became private and familial. In subsequent centuries, the segregation of functions within the home mirrored the segregation of functions within the city. Challenging this isolation, Louis Kahn recalled the Renaissance analogy of a house and a city to characterise the house as the smallest social institution, concluding that, “every building is a house, regardless of whether it is a Senate, or whether it is just a house.” Our project this year is the design of a house-institution for an international organisation or society in London, which as a place to live and work has a public and a private life.


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Fig. 12.1 Kacper Chmielewski Y5, ‘Humanistic Typology’. The project investigates a relationship between elements of ecclesiastical architecture and the fulfilment of the psychological needs of humanity, with special attention to religious interpretation of light. Questioning the notion of Divine Light, the project proposes its replacement for secular society – Humanistic Light – relating translucency of digitally milled marble to the works of Johannes Vermeer, and humanist values. Fig. 12.2 Christia Angelidou Y4, ‘The Future of Humanity Institute’. The project unfolds as a narrative, which takes part in a world that is in chaos politically, socially and environmentally. The spaces witness contradictory events and programmatic impossibilities: surgeons, philosophers and astrophysicists all congregate until new hypotheses appear.

The collage technique is evident in the juxtaposition of materials and the fragmentary conditions hint of an architectural language of assemblage. Fig. 12.3 Raphae Memon Y4, ‘The Theatre of Tectonic Veils’. As a tower of theatre, the building hides and reveals the backstage nature of everyday performance on the streets of Seven Dials. By night a scenography emerges to transform the area into a working stage-set. Veils become tectonic and spatial as actor/ spectator boundaries are broken, and the public space performs within a new narrative. Fig. 12.4 Yi Lu Y4, ‘Confucius Institute’. Located on Wood Wharf, a former dockland close to Canary Wharf, the institute acts as a temporal retreat allowing people to slow down the pace. The architecture is interpreted in phenomenological dimensions, directed towards spatial

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12.6 sequence, light, and material, which formulates users’ multi-sensory experience and ultimately leads to one’s spiritual cultivation — the core thinking in Confucian philosophy. Fig. 12.5 Mariya Badeva Y4, ‘The UNPO Public Private House’. Remembering that autonomy refers to notions of separation, opposition, confrontation and critical distance, and defined by certain new typologies, the project proposes a house-institution for the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation — UNPO. The project highlights the creative tension between the claim to autonomy and the social and political realities of the present. Fig. 12.6 Matthew Turner Y5, ‘The New London Law Court’ questions the traditional solidity of the language of the law court, in which the architecture is often one of stability and reassurance in opposition to the

ambiguity of right and wrong. It is located at the confluence of The River Fleet and The Thames, a hinterland between the power of The City and Westminster. The location was once known as Alsatia, a sanctuary that was immune to the powers flanking it. Thus, the building inhabits a fluctuating intersection of both the political and environmental.

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Fig. 12.7 Ioana Vierita Y4, ‘A House for Natural Philosophers’. The proposal explores the possibility of a fully permeable research institution. As a reflection of the empiricist way of learning, based on intuitive thought and personal understanding, the experience of the building resides in the perception of ephemeral moments, playing on the idea of distorted memories and unfamiliarity of space that once seemed familiar. Fig. 12.8 Rawan Hussin Y4, ‘The International Climate Change Register’. The isolated structure seals itself in an ancient woodland, and explores the relationship between the natural and artificial. The institute will contribute towards the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to review and assess the most recent scientific information produced on site. Fig. 12.9 Emma De Haan Y4, ‘The Compulsive Creator’s

Drawing Centre’. Within every creative process, there is a compulsive obsession with production. A pattern of creation — a compulsion to draw. The building explores the explainable and the inexplicable, conscious and subconscious, intended and accidental. Examining how users may interrupt a desired system creating an exquisite corpse, grafting owner and un-ownership. Fig. 12.10 Mihail Dinu Y4, ‘Royal Commission for Perpetual Peace’. Negotiations involve intense dialogue between two or more parties. In the proposal delegates assess the viability, stability and risk of their strategies with every exchange. The design reflects on these human practices and negotiates timescales, skills and the human component into a unified space, radiating architecture.

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Fig. 12.11 Henry Schofield Y4, ‘Exuberance Architecture’. A language derived from analysing the dichotomy between religion/hedonism. The project references versions of the temple of worship and the garden of paradise that it depicts. Exotic fruits, lavish colours and voluptuous bodies are three key typologies recognised throughout the temple that have been applied to the design of a Soho Love Hotel and City of London Police Station. Fig. 12.12 Simona Fratila Y4, ‘Deptford School of Etiquette’. The proposal comes as a reaction to current economic investments by looking at different forms of capital. It follows Pierre Bourdieu’s interpretation of mannerism as a form of cultural and embodied capital. Architecturally, the project analyses the concept of stairs, reinterpreting them symbolically as a form of social ascension.

Fig. 12.13 Meya Tazi Y4, ‘Nascere: The House of the Stewards of the Orchard’ escapes the inception of humanity as a geological force, modifying man’s behaviour with its non-human creation. In a forced intimacy and coexistence, human labour redeems the contaminated land of Silvertown for the life of a new orchard — a territory where man-made does not resist the autonomy of nature. Fig. 12.14 Clare Hawes Y4, ‘Tower Hamlets Civic Centre’. The project proposes a new civic centre for the communities of Tower Hamlets. Visitors are encouraged to donate materials at the wedding and memorial ceremonies, offering visitors a sense of ownership. The building is an architecture of celebration: celebrating life, death, community and place.

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12.15 Fig. 12.15 Matthew Sawyer Y5, ‘The Masonic Temple’. The proposal metaphorically utilises the Freemasons' infamous relationship with public and private spaces to critique the increasingly urgent issue of undemocratic land ownership in London. The architectural typology is crafted around the notion of transparency, as its revealing crosssectional façade exposes the Temple’s daily work both to its surroundings and within its context. The architecture directly responds to the critique by providing moments of openness, contrasted against the historic Masonic privacy. This ultimately causes its visitors to question their ability to experience the architecture in its entirety.

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12.16 Fig. 12.16 Holly Crosbie Y5, ‘Gallions Reach’. A hydrological landscape that aims to decontaminate a toxic urban site. The proposal divides the site into smaller test sites, each on a ten-year cycle of stabilising the contamination and providing a safe and usable public space. The language of the architecture has evolved through the manipulation of water and as a continuation of the landscape. The buildings are formed of nested layers; the outer layer provides a protective shell that is softened by the weather, while in contrast; the inner habitable layers are highly glazed, cleaned and polished. The internal spaces provide varying degrees of environmental comfort with no definitive threshold between interior and exterior. 189


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12.18 Fig. 12.17 Stephanie Brancatisano Y5, ‘The Global House of Mayors’ proposes an alternative mode of democratic urban governance which resonates in the dual global/local condition of our urbanised world. Sited at Rainham Marshes in the Thames Estuary, the House is in constant exchange with nature, seeking to inform the decision-making processes of the mayors. Fig. 12.18 Zahra Taleifeh Y5, ‘The Registry — Birth, Marriage, Death’. A model building for the devotion of objects, identity and sexuality as opposed to social hierarchy, wealth and power. The project speculates a Registry Office as a place that re-emphasises the ceremonial aspects of registration rather than the administrative processes, a monument to the public and a site of ‘public intimacy'. 190

Fig. 12.19 Luke Scott Y5, ‘Law and the Natural Order’. The proposal recognises the Law as a distinctly human practice; its associations being with the civilised and structured society. In order to isolate and enhance the platonic nature of this practice, it is embedded within an expressly organic, non-human condition, as the hard lines and choreographed occupation of the Court meets the sporadic life of the forest.


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Occupying the City of London Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


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Occupying the City of London Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill

Year 4 Stephanie Brancatisano, Kacper Chmielewski, Holly Crosbie, Matthew Sawyer, Luke Scott, Zahra Taleifeh, Matthew Turner Year 5 Akhil Bakhda, Samiyah Bawamia, Larisa Bulibasa, Alex Cotterill, Benjamin Ferns, Helena Howard, Tereza Kacerova, Joseph Reilly, Adam Shapland The Bartlett School of Architecture 2015

Thanks to our Design Realisation tutor James Hampton and structural consultant Ben Godber. We would like to thank our critics: Abi Abdolwahabi, Gianluca Adamei, Alessandro Ayuso, David Buck, Shumi Bose, Nat Chard, Tom Coward, Alison Crawshaw, Maria Fedorchenko, Daisy Froud, Omar Ghazal, Manuel Jiménez Garcia, Rory Hyde, Adam Kaasa, Jan Kattein, Constance Lau, Ifigenia Liangi, Lesley McFadyen, Justin McGuirk, Tom Noonan, Luke Pearson, Francisco Sanin, Eva Sopeoglou, Jill Stonor, Michiko Sumi, Gabriel Warshafsky, Nina Vollenbröker, Fiona Zisch

In the early 18th century around 500,000 people squeezed into the City of London, with homes, businesses, industries and cemeteries side-by-side. Today, less than 10,000 people live there. The City’s massive buildings and tight street pattern make it the most urban part of Greater London but it is only a workplace, and empty at the weekend. Unit 12 proposes that the City’s population will increase to 500,000 so that its dense urban life will match its dense urban fabric. No longer will the City be dedicated only to the financial market. Instead, it will contain all the activities associated with metropolitan urbanism, as well as those that challenge familiar assumptions about urban life. Each student in Unit 12 has proposed a new building and a new programme that contributes to a socially, culturally and politically vibrant City of London. Monument and Ruin The early 21st century is often associated with ephemerality and transience. Without rejecting these qualities, we propose that monumentality should be celebrated too. Rather than only adulatory, the monument’s purpose is complex and questioning. The etymology of the term refers to the Latin monumentum, which in turn derives from monere, meaning to remind, warn and advise. The monument is interdependent with the ruin. Monuments can be ineffective means of collective remembrance, and their original meanings are soon obscured unless they are reaffirmed through everyday behaviour. Alongside the creation of monumental buildings that recall and represent societal values, there is a process of forgetting in terms of material decay and ruination, which may result from natural processes or human actions. Monumentality is a characteristic of the City but it only serves to glorify the financial market. Instead, we have inverted familiar hierarchies so that unexpected and everyday building programmes are celebrated. We have posed the question: what should we monumentalise today? And equally, we have asked: what should we ruin today? Rather than the monument and the ruin being conceived as conflicting, they are constructive themes interdependent within a single building dialectic. Designs on History To design, the architect must decide what to remember and what to forget. Vincent Scully concluded that the architect will ‘always be dealing with historical problems – with the past and, a function of the past, with the future. So the architect should be regarded as a kind of physical historian’.1 The most creative architects have looked to the past to imagine a future, studying an earlier architecture not to replicate it but to understand and transform it, revealing its relevance to the present. 21st century architects should appreciate the shock of the old as well as the shock of the new. 1 Vincent Scully, American Architecture and Urbanism (1969), London: Thames and Hudson, p.257

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Fig. 12.1 Benjamin Ferns Y5, ‘Pontifical Academy of Sciences’. Architecture must be used to challenge the docile pedagogy on the role of knowledge in education, the morality of scientific endeavour, and to respond with a transcendental teaching rooted in inquisitiveness and experiential realities. The Pontifical Academy of Sciences, established in 1603, is assembled from raised thematically organised libraries and ritualistic lecture spaces, situated within a modulated landscape to induce physical and metaphysical wandering. Fig. 12.2 Kacper Chmielewski Y4, ‘Atheistic Typology’. It is estimated that by 2040 affiliations to the Anglican church in Britain will be less than 1% of the population. A new contemporary type of cubistic iconoclasm has been developed to accommodate for the discourse between the fallen religious

doctrines and nostalgia for ecclesiastical beauty. Fig. 12.3 Holly Crosbie Y4, ‘Rehydrating the City of London’. The monument to drinking water provides two basic needs for life, water and shelter. A landscape of filtration along the river fleet purifies surface and river water to rehydrate the dry drinking fountains of the City of London. The curious forms of the filtration landscape become a riverbank retreat. Fig. 12.4 Luke Scott Y4, ‘An Alternative Civic Archetype’. The streets of the City of London serve as a new political stage, in which a field of elements are assembled, deconstructed and appropriated through crowd occupation. Destablising familiar forms, materials, and symbols of municipal architecture through their rearrangement, the proposal seeks a permeable and interpretive theatre for events to unfold in the street.

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Fig. 12.5 Matthew Sawyer Y4, ‘A New Guildhall’. The project hypothesises a future City of London. A new Guildhall administrates and facilitates the deconstruction and reconstruction of the city in an attempt to increase experience. The building also houses an archive to collect and display relics from the ‘Old City’. Fig. 12.6 Stephanie Brancatisano Y4, ‘The City Cooperatives’ seek to monumentalise nature by giving power to ephemeral moments of the environment. Nature represents adaptation and diversity, countering the social and economic exclusivity that pervades The City. The project addresses this monoculture by proposing a network of decentralised Cooperative Councils, bringing the priorities of all Londoners to the forefront. Fig. 12.7 Matthew Turner Y4, ‘The London Institute of

Alternative Cartographies’. The London Institute of Alternative Cartographies is located at the confluence of The River Fleet and The Thames, a political and environmental fault line between the powers of The City and Westminster. In this fluctuating environment the project develops a fractal tectonic in order to alter perceptions of mapping and definitions of space. Fig. 12.8 Zahra Taleifeh Y4, ‘Birth, Love and Death: The Registry Office’. The public building works on the premise that each person would register a birth, marriage and death here, allowing the architecture to be experienced at three different stages of life and in three different emotional states. The architecture plays with perception, depending on the emotional state of the user, and the same room can be read in three different ways: as life, death or love.

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12.10 Figs. 12.9 – 12.10 Joseph Reilly Y5, ‘The Raft of the Medusa’. Crossrail have sent 4.5 million tonnes of earth, from beneath the City of London’s Streets, to Wallasea Island in Essex. The project follows the exiled earth down the Thames to Wallasea where a new simpler city emerges upon the foundations of ancient London. A brewery, bakery and mill are built around a vast floating raft of wheat: a commodity for a cleaner economy. The programme laments the disappearance of the City’s vibrant past life, whilst allegorically critiquing the sterility of the contemporary plutocratic City.

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12.12 Fig. 12.11 Akhil Bakhda Y5, ‘Mars Circus, City of London: United Spacefaring Nations Headquarters’. The little known UNOOSA (United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs), is currently one of the largest committees in the United Nations. With a membership of 77 nations, 14 of which are currently spacefaring, the committee has grown rapidly from its humble beginnings in 1958 when there were only 18 member nations. The committee has had to respond to spikes in space activity from a small base within the United Nations Offices in Vienna. This project explores the notion of a new United Spacefaring Nations Headquarters in the City of London to house the activities of the burgeoning UNOOSA, particularly in response to the ever intensifying space race to Mars. Fig. 12.12 Adam Shapland Y5, ‘Independent Cornish Assembly’. Cut into the

sublime granite cliffs between Geevor and Levant coastal tin mines, the Independent Cornish Assembly is proposed as a direct response to the growing campaigns for Cornish Independence and political separation from a centralised Westminster government. The project imagines a parliamentary system which is embedded within a prototype industrial landscape designed to de-water the extensive underground flooded mine shafts and tunnels whilst extracting the high concentrations of precious metals from the contaminated water. The resulting hybrid architectural condition therefore aims to demonstrate a practical clean-up model whilst evoking experiences of the picturesque and industrial sublime. 187


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12.14 Fig. 12.13 Helena Howard Y5, ‘The City of London Craft Guild of Polychromy’. The guild proposes a re-engagement with craft through the introduction of a 21st century Gothic revival. Polychromy is used to counteract the new 21st century blandness – that of the steel and glass financial sector. Apprentices aged 18 and above are taught both digital and analogue techniques of architectural colour production, in order to facilitate the spread of the New Gothic polychromy throughout the Square Mile and beyond. Fig. 12.14 Tereza Kacerova Y5, ‘The Neighbourhood House’. In a city where property prices and rents are increasing every year, the project questions the efficiency of modern living and proposes to rethink the typology of a home as an enclosed, compartmentalised and increasingly segregated space. 188

The project argues that the architecture of the domestic sphere shapes the way we inhabit our surroundings and proposes a house as a neighbourhood. This consists of a public, private and intermediate zone, which compensates for the size of the dwellings and provides necessary space where the residents can spend their time, live-work-meet.


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12.15 Fig. 12.15 Larisa Bulibasa Y5, ‘A Financial Library For The Square Mile Labyrinth’. As a microcosm of the City of London, the Financial Library is an attempt to translate the complex and often conflicting state of affairs apparent in the incomprehensible and absurd theatrical scene of the financial district into a labyrinthine architecture that is simultaneously a narrative and a physical experience.

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12.17 Fig. 12.16 Alex Cotterill Y5, ‘Planned Ignorance ’. Through speculating on a reinhabitation of the City of London to its former capacity, this project is a satirical take on modern society’s struggle to become ‘sustainable’ at the expense of their normal lives, capitalising on the economy of pleasure as an analytical and idealistic tool to integrate society with its waste and reinvent Eden on earth. Fig. 12.17 Samiyah Bawamia Y5, ‘Association of Feminists in Property’. The architecture of the headquarters for the Association of Feminists in Property responds to the second-wave feminist movement by accepting and empowering the female experience, while playing up feminine attributes as defined in Luce Irigaray’s writings. Taking precedence from the reading of Sir John Soane’s museum as a feminist architecture, the

headquarters aim to generate ideas and hidden associations, while creating subjectivities rather than being prescriptive. A saturation of space and colour is also a reaction against the 20 th century modernism which has left the City of London with a limited architectural vocabulary and palette.

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The Shock of the Old and the Shock of the New Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Unit 12 The Shock of the Old and the Shock of the New Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill

Year 4 Akhil Bakhda, Samiyah Bawamia, Larisa Cosmina Bulibasa, Alex Cotterill, Ben Ferns, Helena Howard, Tereza Kacerova, Joseph Reilly, Adam Shapland

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Year 5 Rodolfo Acevedo Rodriguez, Amy Sullivan Bodiam, Emma Clinton, Jason Coe, Leon Fenster, Alastair King, Samuel Rackham, Louis Sullivan, Daniel Wilkinson, Xuhong Zheng Thank you to James Hampton, our Design Realisation Practice Tutor and Ben Godber, our Design Realisation Structural Consultant Thanks also to our critics: Ross Exo Adams, Fulvio de Bastiani, Shumi Bose, David Buck, Ben Campkin, Emma Cheatle, Mollie Claypool, Nigel Coates, Tom Coward, Tina Di Carlo, Stewart Dodd, Adrian Forty, Daisy Froud, Ben Godber, James Hampton, Penelope Haralambidou, Colin Herperger, Charles Holland, Catherine Ince, Moira Lascelles, Marina Lathouri, Constance Lau, John Macarthur, Igor Marjanovic, Luke Pearson, Barbara Penner, Chris Pierce, Rahesh Ram, Peg Rawes, David Roberts, Michiko Sumi, Tania Sengupta, Liam Young, Alessandro Zambelli and Fiona Zisch

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A Twenty-first Century Grand Tour Eighteenth century architects spent at least three years in Italy, collecting ideas, principles, experiences and artefacts to transfer home, from south to north. Their purpose was not to copy what they had seen but to translate it to a new context and climate, thus inventing a new architecture and a new landscape. The Grand Tour continued into the twentieth century. Commissioned to design a house when he was 20 years old, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s first client paid for his tour of Italy, while Rome inspired Louis Kahn in 1950 and Roma Interrotta defined postmodernism in 1978. This year, we travelled to Florence, Mantua, Venice, Verona and Vicenza on a twenty-first century Grand Tour. The most creative architects have always looked to the past to imagine a future, studying an earlier architecture not to replicate it but to understand and transform it, revealing its relevance to the present and future. Twenty-first century architects should appreciate the shock of the old as well as the shock of the new. Designs on History In 1969 Vincent Scully concluded that the architect will ‘always be dealing with historical problems – with the past and, a function of the past, with the future. So the architect should be regarded as a kind of physical historian … the architect builds visible history’. Like a history, a design is a reinterpretation of the past that is meaningful to the present, transforming both. Equally, a design is equivalent to a novel, convincing the user to suspend disbelief. We expect a history or a novel to be written in words, but they can also be cast in concrete or seeded in soil. The architect is a ‘physical historian’ and a ‘physical novelist’. What is a New City Today? Our site is Stewartby, a 1920s model town built to serve the world’s largest brickworks. The London Brick Company commissioned neo-classical public buildings and housing by Sir Albert Richardson, The Bartlett Professor of Architecture, who lived nearby. Today, the brickworks is abandoned and the town is empty, but just an hour from London. To imagine a new city, each student has designed its first civic building, which is a microcosm of the city and a catalyst for its growth. A hybrid of architecture, infrastructure and landscape, the civic building establishes a symbiotic relationship with its ever-changing immediate and wider contexts. Attentive to the environment, it recognises the co-production and creative influence of natural as well as cultural forces. Discursive, it encourages social and political engagement, and the interaction of public and private lives. Inventive, it reimagines histories and narratives, creating new myths for a new city.


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Fig. 12.1 Rodolfo Acevedo Rodriguez Y5, ‘The House of Eros’. The home was once the microcosm of the ideal society, with love and charity replacing the capitalism of the outside world. Today, ancient mythology comes to life in Stewartby, relating the narratives of humans and deities, which together with contemporary technologies introduce a new activity and meaning to the already there. Fig. 12.2 Adam Shapland Y4, ‘The Environment Agency Headquarters for Flooding’. The proposed building and surrounding landscape activates, and is activated by, the movement of flood water, which is re-directed south from the Great river Ouse at Bedford, in a seasonal relief effort. Fig. 12.3 Akhil Bakhda Y4, ‘Manifest Destiny: The Case and Consequences of Colonising Mars’. In its preliminary stages, this project seeks to explore the story of American

Frontier history in seeking to understand the trajectory of how we will colonise Mars from 2030. Fig. 12.4 Samiyah Bawamia Y4, ‘The Porcelain Foundation of Stewartby’. The Porcelain Foundation is perceived as an icon of luxury, replacing a polluted territory. It is a critique to Venturi’s statement of ‘Less is bore’ and investigates the idea of the building being a crafted object, relating to shrines and follies. Fig. 12.5 Ben Ferns Y4, ‘Solforico Consulate’. Through a composition of perverse juxtapositions and subverted hierarchies, the Italian Consulate is assembled from a montage of sulfur and brick. It questions Neapolitan identity, perception and transparency in hybrid spaces, revealing a sulfuric industry.

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Fig. 12.6 Helena Howard Y4, ‘The City Of Gastronomic Lichenology, Stewartby’. The city of Stewartby acts as the world centre for research into gastronomic lichen as a potential new source of nutrition, in order to alleviate the inevitable food crisis brought about by climate change. Fig. 12.7 Larisa Cosmina Bulibasa Y4, ‘The Urban Forestry College’. The project engages with exploring symbiotic relationships between architecture and nature looking at a physical and a poetical level between the two of them. Fig. 12.8 Tereza Kacerova Y4 ‘Clay Nanocomposite Fabrication Ground For Emerging Airship Industry’. Following on the industrial heritage of the site, the project proposes an alternative for an existing resource – Oxford Clay. A clay nanocomposite membrane fabricated on site is further utilised in construction of a training centre for

airship pilots. Fig. 12.9 Joseph Reilly Y4, ‘Anachronistic Forestry in the Near Future’. The project exists within the reforestation of Bedfordshire’s post-industrial brickfields. The uncanny architecture combines crafted pieces of timber with reclaimed objects from the redundant brickworks factory. Within a vast burgeoning woodland an anachronistic sawmill and workshop building form the first and last elements of a new slower city. Fig. 12.10 Alex Cotterill Y4, ‘(Stewartby) Land Mill.‘ The landfill can be understood as both a place of shared social significance, a collective repository for discarded material and an essential resource for exhausted material goods; it is somewhere between these three that the project sits.

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12.12 12.13 Fig. 12.11 Alastair King Y5, ‘A Home, an Office and a University’. This project explores the identity of Sir Albert Richardson (1880-1964), a Modern Georgian Paradox, through multiple scales, times and modes of representation. Fig. 12.12 Xuhong Zheng Y5, ‘Wilderness Institute’. Situated on the edge of a disused clay quarry at Stewartby, the Wilderness Institute houses a community of researchers, ecologists, planners and artists who inhabit the sublime wilderness of both the landscape and the architecture, establishing a new research and planning centre. The building forms an inhabitable wall around the pit, controlling entry and views into the site whilst acting as a catalyst for wilderness to develop – through actions such as seed dispersal, wind funneling, rainwater collection and release. The journey through the

building is constructed as a journey through a landscape. Fig. 12.13 Emma Clinton Y5, ‘Cathedral of St Thomas, Cathedral of Doubt’. Using Doubting Thomas as a narrative device, the project is designed through a series of fragments, exploring theological themes of the body and soul. In a constant state of disrepair, it becomes a celebration of our mortality, suspending disbelief through a tactile experience, explored through a series of incomplete pencil studies and 1:1 models.

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MArch Architecture Unit 12 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 12.14 Fig. 12.14 Daniel Wilkinson Y5, ‘The Courthouse of the 23rd Baroque’. This project speculates on Eugenio D’Ors’ idea that the Baroque isn’t a finite period in art history, but a recurrent disruptive artistic and political social cycle. Situated in the abandoned economic wastelands outside of Stewartby, the Court acts as the starting point for a new city which aesthetically turns away from the efficiencies and banalities of the structural celebrations which have dominated architecture for over a century. Acting as a landmark for its own logic, the Court structurally obscures itself through an ornamental irruption.

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12.16 Fig. 12.15 Amy Sullivan Bodiam Y5 ‘The New Crystal Palace’. Located on Deptford’s riverfront, the New Crystal Palace, a combination of the Master Shipwright’s house and new Kaleido Park, is a monument to Deptford’s industrial past and Sayes Court, London’s lost garden. Live-work opportunities are offered in a community built on respect for nature, industry without drudgery, equality and well being for all, ideals that resonate with those of the 1960’s counter culture. Small industries grow and sparkle like crystals as the Palace evolves. Festivals are held regularly to celebrate the rich tapestry of spaces and minds within the Palace. Fig. 12.16 Leon Fenster Y5, ‘Exilic Landscapes’. The projects asks what an idiosyncratically Jewish architecture might look like and posits that it is one which embraces the notion of exile

and the restlessness of uncertainty. A religious architecture not of the inaccessible sacred but of the disorder of human contradiction. A reading of history filled not with absolutes but with constant negotiation. As George Steiner puts it, ‘this is an era in which increasingly large swathes of humanity are “becoming Jews,” as defined by a consciousness of exile. Hence this approach to religious architecture is of great consequence for our age’.

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MArch Architecture Unit 12 12.18 12.17 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2014 12.19 12.18 Fig. 12.17 – 12.18 Samuel Rackham Y5, ‘The Royal Instituion’. This project concerns the construction of a new home for the Royal Institution on the Thames Southbank. The Royal Institution was the flagship institution of Romantic Science, where the arts and sciences were of equal importance and the theatrical nature of science was celebrated. This project aims to reintroduce these values and provide the foundation for a relationship between these seemingly oppositional domains. The institution will be given a new status as a representative of both Science and Art and by displaying the excitement of experimental science it can again become a part of the wider public consciousness.

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Fig. 12.19 Jason Coe Y5, ‘The New Bedford Forum’. The New Bedford forum is the public and political centre of New Bedford, a democratic model city for the Bedford Cooperative Brickworks. The city implements a participatory form of governance for its local government, while the brickworks are jointly owned and managed by its citizens. Objects of democratic activity are articulated through the brickwork, which lay dormant awaiting their activation through social occupation. Fig. 12.20 – 12.21 Louis Sullivan Y5, ‘The Living Dam’. A proposal towards a new typology of dam in response to the current anti-reservoir sentiment and the recent history of the world’s large dams. A useful pyramid for the twenty-first century, an Arcology, away from the image of solitary

hydrological infrastructures and towards a model which is not only integral but also integrated with society, environmentalism and ecology which may help alter the public perception of the essential infrastructures, re-instigate the principles of a hydraulic empire and encourage a cultural attitude towards beneficially living with dams.

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Factual Fictions Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Unit 12

Factual Fictions Jonathan Hill, Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow

‘English novels of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries were perceived by many of the middle and upper classes as immoral and illicit not only for their criminal content but for their very enterprise of fictionalising, inventing, forging reality, and lying. Novelists not only made up their stories, they also denied that their invented stories were fictions.’ Lennard J. Davis, 1983

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Histories and novels both need to be convincing but in different ways. Although no history is completely objective, to have any validity it must appear truthful to the past. A novel may be believable but not true. But recognising the overlaps between two literary genres, Malcolm Bradbury notably described his novel , 1975, as ‘a total invention with delusory approximations to historical reality, just as is history itself’. Objective as well as subjective, a design is a reinterpretation of the past that is meaningful to the present, transforming both, like a history. Equally, a design is equivalent to a novel, convincing the user to suspend disbelief. Part novelist, part historian, the architect creates ‘factual fictions’.  Sites of History ‘The existing monuments form an ideal order among themselves, which is modified by the introduction of the new (the really new) work of art among them.’ T.S. Eliot, 1917 The history of architecture can be conceived in terms of the need for individuals, or societies, to contradict, reinvent and distort – as well as affirm – a philosophical and aesthetic orthodoxy. These shifts may be necessary for the discipline to respond to changing social and cultural needs, or stem from a human desire for reinvention, which in turn affects social and cultural patterns. Students of Unit 12 were asked to challenge and expand a particular orthodoxy, to understand a particular aesthetic and philosophical position, and to create a personally driven shift in that stance.

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Specification and Craft ‘On a wet day it may look drab and forbidding, and they might scuttle away from it. On a sunny day it’s magical, but then buildings are like that, they should be.’ Denys Lasdun, 1979 For an (architectural) factual fiction to be believable there needs to be a real understanding of craft, materials and detail, which should not only have a convincing provenance and be subject to rigorous testing but also be grounded in an appreciation of the political, cultural and meteorological climates in which they can thrive. Industries and Infrastructures for an Independent London ‘But, it is manifest, that those who repair to, no sooner enter into it, but they find a universal alteration to their Bodies, which are either dryed up or enflamed, the humours being exasperated and made apt to putrifie, their sensories and perspiration so exceedingly stopped, with the loss of Appetite, and a kind of general stupefaction, succeeded with such and, as do never, or very rarely quit them, without some further Symptomes of dangerous Inconveniency so long as they abide in the place; which yet are immediately restored to their former habit; so soon as they are retired to their Homes and they enjoy fresh again.’ John Evelyn, 1661 Even in the 17th century, London was ten times the size of the second largest English city. Today, it is culturally, socially and economically distinct from the UK and has more in common with New York and Shanghai than Aberdeen and Manchester. Proposing that London should have the degree of autonomy given to Catalonia in Spain or Scotland in the UK, we asked students to design industries and infrastructures for an independent London. In Unit 12 our discussions are dialogical. Some students supported London’s proposed independence, while a few suggested that it should become more dependent, and others focussed on the independence of other regions.


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Unit 12 would very much like to thank Domi Oliver and Carl Vann, Design Realisation Tutors, and Ben Godber, Structural Consultant, as well as the critics: Alessandro Ayuso, Nick Beech, Shumi Bose, Carolyn Butterworth, Barbara Campbell-Lange, Nat Chard, Emma Cheatle, Tom Coward, Alison Crawshaw, Oliver Domesien, Bill Hodgson, Will Hunter, Jan Kattein, David Kohn, Adrian Lahoud, George Lovett, Hugh McEwen, Ollie Palmer, Mariana Pestana, Sophia Psarra, Natasha Sandmeier, Ruth Silver, Eva Sopeoglou, Catrina Stewart, Tom Weaver, Finn Williams and Danielle Willkens. Year 4 Emma Clinton, Jason Coe, Daniel Leon Fenster, Alastair King, Samuel Rackham, Rodolfo Rodriguez, Louis Sullivan, Daniel Wilkinson, Xuhong Zheng Year 5 Christine Bjerke, Graham Burn, Feras El Attar, Charlotte Knight, Anders Strand Lßhr, Amy SullivanBodiam, Fiona Tan, Cassandra Tsolakis, Kieran Thomas Wardle, Owain Williams, Zihong (Tim) Yue

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Fig. 12.1 Cassandra Tsolakis, Y5, An alternative school of architecture in London based on decoding the underlying universal orders which structure our experience. The school argues for freedom and insight into design by encouraging fragmentation as a principle technique. Fig. 12.2 Samuel Rackham, Y5, The Royal Meteorological Society: Exploring notions of romanticism through the marriage of art and science, the society creates meteorological phenomena within an ornamental framework, capturing the beauty of weather through architectural form. Fig. 12.3 Louis Sullivan, Y4, The Cockaigne Academy of Sugar Production. A modern interpretation of the medieval mythic utopia of Cockaigne. An edible architecture constructed entirely of caramel and realising dependency on sugar through the built environment.

Fig. 12.4 Daniel Wilkinson, Y5, Communism I gave you my heart, you cooked it medium well. The leftovers from failed Communism are ground into aggregate for an ideological slurry. This happens in London, a result of the CPC’s financial assistance to the UK.

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Fig. 12.5 Xuhong Zheng, Y4, Orchestration of light, shadows and politics at the New City Hall. A set of new civic halls across the city for an independent London, proposing an architecture that exploits the temporality of natural light to determine how politics and activities occur within different spaces. Fig. 12.6 Emma Clinton, Y4, The Cloth House. The project is interested in the relationship between body and garment as an allegory for the built environment. The ‘completed’ building – or garment – is manipulated, adapted and transplanted by the dweller. Fig. 12.7 Rodolfo Rodriguez, Y4, The station will accommodate the flow of passengers going to and coming from London to work, as well supply destinations with the necessary fuel to service the station building. The programme of the infrastructure is based around the meteorological

calendar and the cycle of the seasons. Fig. 12.8 Jason Coe, Y4, A Bell Foundry for New Jerusalem: A Participatory Democracy for London is realised through the implementation of an aural communication network of bells and a new civic architecture for London. Fig. 12.9 Alastair King, Y4, Tower Hill Community: a building for a community of construction workers, critiquing the banal architecture of modern London with an architecture informed by ‘A Pattern Language’. Fig. 12.10 Daniel Leon Fenster, Y4, As disparate cultures collide, picturesque ornament is rescued from the wreckage of bland multiculturalism. Wren’s heavenly domes are borrowed by Chinese companies and inverted to become a descent into glorious debauchery and frivolity.

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MArch Architecture Unit 12 12.11 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2013 12.12 Fig. 12.11 Feras El Attar, Y5, The Aerotropolis of Sheerness. An airport-cum-city model that encourages integration between aviation and the city, using an architectural language that reflects and enhances the spatial/bodily disposition experienced in the realm of air travel. Fig. 12.12 Fiona Tan, Y5, A Manual Towards a New London satirises the curious habits of Londoners as seen through Singaporean eyes. The building celebrates and enforces the arbitrary etiquettes that govern life in London. Fig. 12.13 Owain Williams, Y5, The Gasification Authority is a government energy department charged with licensing industrial operations in UK coal mines. With reserves set to expire within 40 years, the building considers its imminent redundancy and the establishment of a devolved government for the Rhondda Valley directly in its place. 180


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MArch Architecture Unit 12 12.14 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2013 12.15 Fig. 12.14 Charlotte Knight, Y5, The City of London proposes the relocation of Gresham College as a singular institution located within Austin Friars Square to strengthen the disseminating of knowledge to encourage a cultural exchange within the city. Fig. 12.15 Zihong (Tim) Yue, Y5, Confucian Aspirations and Self Cultivation – An Architectural SelfPortrait. The project is a series of architectural drawings portraying the consciousness and unconsciousness of a Confucian mind, which also embodies the core struggles and aspirations of the Chinese nation. The programme starts with self-cultivation, and then expands to that of family, then to community and ultimately landscape. The project puts together a picture of peace and harmony that has been lodged in the Chinese mind throughout history 182


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12.17 Fig. 12.16 Christine Bjerke, Y5, The FX Beauties Club explores feminine economies with the focus on the historical and contemporary ‘floating world’ between the woman and money, power and mirrors. Fig. 12.17 Graham Burn, Y5, Flatpack school redux: an MDF Russian Orthodox school, church and community centre in Harringay. The Orthodox Church is at the centre of Russian life: religion, education and community have come together as the spine of the population throughout history, and are deployed here in an emerging worker community. Constructed entirely from MDF, inherently fragile and responsive when exposed to weather and use, the building acts as a barometer for shifting policies and politics on a local, national and international level by being in a constant state of construction, repair and decoration to

counter erosive effects of occupation and prepare for future use. Fig. 12.18 Kieran Thomas Wardle, Y5, The Palace of Eastminster. An agoric building to temporarily house Parliament on the banks of the Thames in Essex. The Palace of Eastminster reconfigures Parliament around the notion of the public square, forcing elements of encounter and protest into the heart of the legislative programme.

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A New Creative Myth Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Unit 12

A NEW CREATIVE MYTH

Jonathan Hill, Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow

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Exceptional architects are exceptional storytellers, weaving a narrative that completely convinces the designer as well as the users. Denys Lasdun succinctly remarked that each architect must devise his or her ‘own creative myth’, a set of ideas, values and forms that are subjective but also have some objective basis that helps to make them believable. Lasdun concluded “My own myth … engages with history.” Creative architects have always looked to the past to imagine the future, studying an earlier architecture not to replicate it but to understand and transform it, revealing its relevance to the present.

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A city also needs a creative myth, which allows its inhabitants to understand it collectively and imagine its future. A new creative myth generates a new genius loci — genius of the place — an idea that originated in classical antiquity and has influenced architects for centuries. The genius of the place is made as much as it is found, formed from the fusion of new ideas, forms and spaces with those already in place. Edinburgh became the ‘Athens of the North’ and Rome is associated with La Dolce Vita, the good life. Sometimes a myth fades and a new myth must replace it for a city to prosper. To explore this idea each student developed their own ‘creative myth’ to allow them to design a building that could propose a new ‘creative myth’ and genius loci for the city it inhabits. This year our site was Istanbul, a city whose character, name and architecture have changed many times. Once the capital of the Roman Empire and then the Ottoman Empire, it is now the principal city of the Turkish republic. As Byzantium, it was renamed Constantinople in honour of the Roman Emperor. Its modern title — Istanbul — derives from a Greek phrase that means both ‘in the city’ and ‘to the city’. Istanbul’s most famous building — Hagia Sophia — exemplifies the city’s shifting image. First a church and then a mosque, it is now a museum and representative of Ataturk’s secular republic. Located both in Europe and Asia, Turkey’s future may lead towards the European Union or in a different direction. Istanbul is a city of many dualities. From its location, the city straddles the Bosphorus Strait, the divide between East and West. To its religion, the secular state is overwhelmingly Muslim but has Christian and Jewish communities that connect to and provide an echo of Istanbul’s many pasts. And finally to its economy, Istanbul is a city where great wealth is held by a few and poverty experienced by many. Within this context, and key to our investigations, was an examination of distinct sites, spaces and economies within Istanbul that are under extreme pressures to re-invent or defend themselves for survival. As a starting point


Unit 12 would like to thank Dominique Oliver, Carl Vann, Ben Godber; Rachel Cruise, Oliver Wilton, Shibboleth Shechter, Brendan Woods, Peg Rawes, Hilary Powell.

Year 4: Graham Burn, Charlotte Knight, Lulu Le Li, Anders Strand Lühr, Fiona Tan, Cassandra Tsolakis, Owain Williams, Kieran Wardle, Tim Zihong Yue Year 5: Emily Farmer, Jerome Flinders, Patrick Hamdy, Benjamin Harriman, Ifigeneia Liangi, Yifei Song, Gabriel Warshafsky

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The following pages give a glimpse of the work of the unit produced within this last year. The work can also be seen as a continuation of themes that have developed within the unit over recent years, with each year having added something new to the unit’s agenda, ambition and passions. Unit 12 has always encouraged the work of each student to be particular to his or her own interests, allowing them to develop a particular and distinct architectural voice that can be tested and developed through research, programme, drawing and making. This year, and in recent years, the work of the unit has also been able to continue a theme that we have become increasingly interested in: monumental buildings. In particular, those buildings designed and viewed under construction, in use and in ruin, with each phase to be seen as neither distinct, nor unique nor final. In Unit 12 we have continued to consider and develop a contemporary meaning of monumentality. Allowing a diverse range of influences, including social, political and meteorological, to play a part in the life and the material of the monument. Rather than static monuments as a unit we have proposed buildings that are in a state of flux, caught between the monument and the ruin, the material and the immaterial.

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for these investigations we looked at, and researched, the waterfront area of Zeytinburnu and its attempts at economic regeneration after the disappearance of the area’s tanneries. We examined underground economies within the city, including a previously state-supported black market. We looked at a city with its history of immigration and its many different communities, not all now welcome. We considered the place of religion and its architecture in a secular, but significantly Muslim, state. And lastly we sought to understand the slow extinction of the artisan industries in the area of Sishane, an old commercial centre in pre-Ottoman and Genoese times. Through this interrogation a deeper understanding of the city, its future as well as its past, has been established, acting as a catalyst to each student’s individual approach to their architecture, their reading of site and understanding of history.


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Fig. 12.1 Gabriel Warshafsky, A Grotesque Public Body, Istanbul. Roof Plan, Detail. A new headquarters for Istanbul’s public corporations, centring around the annual sponsorship and production of the world’s largest feast. Fig. 12.2 Patrick Hamdy, Saliferous Monastery, Istanbul. The Saliferous Monastery attempts to provide the city with a new urban pilgrimage site, incorporating an annual salt harvest, which will begin on an existing national holiday celebrated on 23rd April. The natural occurrence of decay conflicts with the man-made task of daily construction and maintenance of the monastery. Fig. 12.3 Gabriel Warshafsky, A Grotesque Public Body, Istanbul. Long Section.

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Fig. 12.4 Patrick Hamdy, Saliferous Monastery, grid building which generates its independent source of Istanbul. Long Section. Fig. 12.5 Charlotte Knight, The power — a symbol for autonomy from the authority and Nameless Monastery, Istanbul. Night Perspective. The power of the government. Nameless Monastery conceals a theological school for the Eastern Orthodox Church of Constantinople, illegally continuing its teaching so that the ancient religion will not be lost. As the nuns retreat from the outer world, they see only the sky and are thrown back onto their solitary selves. Fig. 12.6 Fiona Tan, The Lost and Found Power Station, Istanbul. Snapshots. A monument to the faceless migrant worker who built the city but remains excluded from it. It becomes an allegorical response to the fragile existence of the migrant class, and the government’s refusal to grant them a settled identity by proposing a completely off-

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Fig. 12.7 Emily Farmer, The Writers’ Harbour, Istanbul. The Authors’ Lobby. The Writers’ Harbour, which inhabits the interstitial site of Istanbul’s main passenger port, is occupied as both a tourist thoroughfare and a safehouse for proscribed authors. The Harbour is the first purpose-built headquarters for an existing board, The European Writers’ Parliament. Fig. 12.8 Cassandra Tsolakis, Gateway into Phanar. Losing Your Marbles. Challenging the perceived value of location, the Gateway into Phanar encourages the returning Greek population to question the intrinsic connection between humans and their notions of ‘home’. Fig. 12.9 Tim Zihong Yue, The Institute of Leathercraft, Istanbul. From destruction of flesh and bones to the craft of skin, from nightmare to aspiration, the architecture is an allegory for the essential transition underlying the leathercraft industry.

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Fig. 12.10 Lulu Le Li, Water Theatre, Istanbul. Morning Perspective. A living body: breathing and sweating to modify its environment. The labyrinthine spaces within work with strategies of revealing and framing to blur the distinction between performer and spectator as they engage with filtered and artificial weather conditions. Fig. 12.11 Graham Burn, ROCOR (MDF) Church of Aksaray, Istanbul. Large Etching. A Prototype Russian Orthodox Church is erected across a dormant construction site. Constructed entirely from MDF, the building weeps, warts and wilts in the Istanbul climate. Glossy paints and varnishes are applied religiously to preserve the church. Fig. 12.12 Benjamin Harriman, A New British Consulate Typology, Istanbul. Wedding Chapel Model. Sited in Istanbul, it is a slow, unwieldy, but rapid to

dismantle, networking and promotion facility. Fig. 12.13 Owain Williams, Findikli Garden Foreign Office, Istanbul. Elevation Detail. Charged with cultivating planting for a picturesque garden, a centrepiece meeting room forms a loaded backdrop for Turkish foreign policy on the banks of the Bosphorus. Fig. 12.14 Benjamin Harriman, A New British Consulate Typology, Istanbul. Courtroom Model. Fig. 12.15 Benjamin Harriman, A New British Consulate Typology, Istanbul. Police Station Model.

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Fig. 12.16 Anders Strand Lühr, The Nation of Sivriada. Section: The Island is Carved out by the Quarry. Sited on an island of the coast of Istanbul in the Sea of Marmara, this project proposes an environment that is a symbiotic merging of nature and culture- whilst exploiting it for its resources through the reintroduction of quarrying. Fig. 12.17 Kieran Wardle, Council for Territorial Exchange, Istanbul. Perspective. The Council investigates the attribution of authority, through architecture, to an invented political organization that attempts to govern questions of power and identity through discussion and compromise. Fig. 12.18 Jerome Flinders, Hypoxic Complex, Istanbul. Perspective of Gateway to Complex. A Clumsy Climate Change Mitigation Strategy and Asthma Sanatorium in Istanbul.

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Fig. 12.19 Jerome Flinders, Hypoxic Complex, Istanbul. in having sex. The lover’s tree house is a response to Roof Plan. Fig. 12.20 Yifei Song, The Circus City, limited private space. It is designed so that people would Istanbul. Plan. The project aims to re-introduce the have to hold hands in order to climb on it. circus programme to the City of Istanbul, searching for a new experience that reinterprets the traditional Turkish acts. The circus offers a fictional and nostalgic world which criticizes the contemporary nature of Istanbul’s rapid urban transformation. Fig. 12.21 Yifei Song, The Circus City, Istanbul. Spectator exploring the trapeze. Fig. 12.22 Yifei Song, The Circus City, Istanbul. View of upper gallery. Fig. 12.23 Ifigeneia Liangi, Nostalgia of the Future, 2013. The Lover’s Tree House. The apartments of the area of Kipseli are particularly small and private space is limited. It is common for big families to use the living room as an extra bedroom, which causes difficulty

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Hybridisation and the Air and Industry of London Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


M A rch A rch U n i t 12

HYBRIDISATION AND THE AIR AND INDUSTRY OF LONDON ‘Immature poets imitate; mature poets steal; bad poets deface what they take, and good poets make it into something better, or at least something different.’ T.S Eliot The Future of the Past Unit 12 investigates contemporary and historical trends that emphasise the interrogation of historical discourses and styles as a means of design. In particular we examine how these practices sample, adapt and then hybridise preexisting references to illicit new significance. Such a hybrid can be a means of criticism as well as production, both in terms of what is proposed and how it is communicated, so that individual architectures explore and expose understandings of site, time and history.

Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow & Professor Jonathan Hill

Modern Romanticism The term ‘romanticism’ is often applied pejoratively, suggesting disengagement from contemporary concerns. Instead, collaborations and conversations between painters, poets and scientists characterised eighteenth-century romanticism, which valued intellect as well as emotion, invention as well as history, time as well as place. Unit 12 identifies the romantic origins of an architectural environmentalism that has

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had a profound influence on subsequent centuries. Today, anthropogenic climate change ensures the increasing relevance of this evolving tradition. The Air and Industry of London Recognising a ‘Hellish and dismall Cloud of SEACOALE’, John Evelyn proposed a number of practical and poetic remedies in Fumifugium, 1661, the first book to consider London’s atmosphere as a whole. Coal-burning trades, butchers and burials were to be relocated east of the city so that the air and water would be unsullied. Evelyn’s proposal was only instigated centuries later and London continued to be known as the “Big Smoke’ until the mid-twentieth century. London is now the cleaner, functionally segregated city envisaged by Evelyn. But to create a compact and sustainable city, MArch Unit 12 proposes that London’s industries—breweries, brickworks, cemeteries, power plants—are once again integrated into the city as long as they do not pollute its air and water, responding to Evelyn’s poetic intentions. Year 4: Feras El Attar, Emily Farmer, Patrick Hamdy, Benjamin Harriman, Anders Luhr, Yifei Song, Amy SullivanBodiam, Olga-Maria Valavanoglou, Gabriel Warshafsky Year 5: Steve Baumann, Christopher Cox, James Crick, Omar Ghazal, Geraldine Holland, Michael Hughes, Thomas Luke Jones, Na Li, Dijan Malla, Hugh McEwen, Catrina Stewart, Erika Suzuki


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12.3 Fig. 12.1 Omar Ghazal, Frame House, Battersea, London. Functioning as an allegory and critique of the historical, and continuing, militarisation of the child in Western society, ‘The Frame House’ proposes a new Boy Scout headquarters next to Battersea Dogs Home in London. The project explores architecture’s role in constructing notions of the self and nationhood. Fig. 12.2 – 12.3 Chris Cox, The London Brickworks, City of London. Utilising the waste clay excavated from building sites across the City of London, The London Brickworks proposes a new model industry, which reintroduces brick production into the heart of the metropolis as the building material for new housing that will significantly increase the City’s residential population.

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12.7 Fig. 12.4 The monastery houses both the Tibetan Dalai Lama and the Chinese Panchen Lama, each occupying the building according to particular rituals and needs. Two means of construction — fast industrial production and slow laborious craftsmanship — are combined so that the building assumes a hybrid state that can be read politically, programmatically and architecturally. Fig. 12.5 Na Li, Monastery of the Himalayas, City of London. Fig. 12.6 James Crick, The Threadneedle Boxing House, City of London. Incorporating a boxing club on the site of the Royal Exchange, the building’s programme and architectural language are both literal and allegorical, with references to the raw aggression and discipline of boxing and the translation of roughly hewn timber sections into carefully crafted timber joints. The building houses the performance of the boxing match and is itself

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a performance. Fig. 12.7 James Crick, The Threadneedle Boxing House, City of London. Fig. 12.8 Erika Suzuki, Her Majesty’s Paper Factory, City of London. Utilising the vast quantities of waste paper produced by the City of London, the building recycles and manufactures paper for use in both print production and building construction. As a speculative and experimental building material, paper generates an architecture that is industrial in structure, form and surface articulation. Fig. 12.9 Michael Hughes, The Reformation of the General Post Office for the Digital Age, City of London. This project proposes a new model for the Royal Mail, in which airships and rockets replace traditional modes of transporting mail. With the implementation of this new infrastructural system the skyline of London is transformed into a high level performance stage in which airships pirouette and rockets’


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12.11 vapour trails frame the night sky. Fig. 12.10 Catrina Stewart, The Farm House: Colour for a Greener Architecture, Southwark, London. The Farmhouse Tower is a new model for urban farming and self-sufficient communal living, powered by the energy created from waste. Twin programmes — intensive agriculture and energy production — require the towers to be densely planned and personal space is limited. Those who abide by the tenancy rules are rewarded with additional space and privacy, allowing this colourful architecture to be more sinister, with its punitive overtones an allegory of contemporary sustainability. Fig. 12.11 Hugh McEwen, Aylesbury Town Hall, Southwark, London. A new town council is proposed for the existing but neglected Aylesbury Estate community. The first building for this new council, the Town Hall aims to encourage increased engagement between the

community and council. Aylesbury Town Hall uses a pop aesthetic with vernacular patterning, allowing the architecture to be approachable and inclusive, yet also politically and socially propositional.

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12.15 Fig. 12.12 Luke Jones, The Intellectual Commons, City of London. Initially formed from a series of rogue university departments, all of which were axed due to economic cuts, ‘The Intellectual Commons’ references the Arcadian aspirations of 1950s welfarism while it presents a new prototype for intellectual debate and cultural discourse, in which buildings alter, shift and grow in response to diverse demands. Fig. 12.13 Geraldine Holland, Bathing House, City of London. Constructed from chalk, steam and glass, ‘The Bathing House’ presents a new typology for the housing tower in which extensive communal and public rooms balance private apartments. Drawing water from London’s rising water table, the building seeps, steams and weeps, continually evolving a system of lakes, waterfalls and bathing pools as spaces to aid social interaction. Fig. 12.14 Dijan Malla, The College of Faith and Reason, Russell Square, London.

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Informed by the fusion of the arts, sciences and spirituality in late seventeenth-century England, the College of Faith and Reason facilitates academic research amidst an eclectic and allegorical collection. The architecture works playfully with the occupants’ preconceptions of the relationship between private and communal spaces, engaging all the senses as a means to encourage and increase communication and collaboration. Fig. 12.15 – 12.16 Steve Baumann, The New London Necropolis, City of London. Combining the programmes of necropolis, power station and orchard, this project seeks to readdress our contemporary relationship with death and its role in planning the contemporary city. Utilising the energy capacity and allegorical potential of the three programmes, ‘The New London Necropolis’ is self-sufficient, independently managing the relentless cycles of life and death that are housed in its fabric.

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Time, Motion, Energy Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip/MArch Unit 12 Yr 4: Steven Baumann, Oliver Bawden, James Crick, Omar Ghazal, Michael Hughes, Luke Jones, Na Li, Dijan Malla, Hugh McEwen, Erika Suzuki, Daniel Swift Gibbs Yr 5: Tom Noonan, Tom Reynolds, Anna Vallius

Time, Motion, Energy This year we explored time, motion and energy. On sites situated along the Thames, Year 5 students each proposed a building for a specific site that had a catalytic effect on London and a locality. The most creative architects have looked to the past to imagine a future, studying an earlier architecture not to replicate it but to understand and transform it, revealing its relevance to the present. Soane looked to ancient Greece, Mies admired Schinkel and the Smithsons absorbed the spirit of the picturesque. As a creative stimulus and narrative resource for twenty-first century architecture, Unit 12 focuses on earlier centuries as well as those more recent. When everybody else is looking in one time and one place, it’s always good to look elsewhere. Combining our concerns for immediate and historical time, we draw buildings in multiple states: under construction, as a recently discovered ruin, and with a future use. Representing loss as well as potential, the ruin is a means to represent time and reconsider monumentality. Combining a concern for subjective experience and environmental awareness, Unit 12 recognises a picturesque and romantic thread that began in the eighteenth century, continued in romantic classicism and was revived in the mid-twentieth century as a means to question one modernism – international, mechanical and insensitive – in favour of another – local, emotive and environmentally aware. Today, climate change ensures the increasing relevance of this evolving tradition.

Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow & Jonathan Hill

Top: James Crick, Egeus (the barn). Middle: Anna Vallius, Public Bath-house Along the Subterranean Walbrook, section. Bottom: Luke Jones, New Imperial Finance Ministry, sectional perspective; Daniel Swift Gibbs, IERS HQ: Calibrometric Projection Series III.


Clockwise from top left Erika Suzuki, Domestic River Smokery, elevation; Dijan Malla, Cathedral, Isola de San Michele, section; Na Li, Monastery of the Himalayas, City of London, perspective; Steven Baumann, Urban Cemetery, axonometric; MichaelHughes, Agrarian Airship Terminus, perspective; Omar Ghazal, Halfway House, The Dining Plane and The Smoking Pan; Hugh McEwen, Anarchitecture, linocut; Oliver Bawden, House Module, under construction.


Tom Reynolds, Brickworks and Night School, Mucking, sections.


Tom Noonan, John Evelyn Institute of Arboreal Science, Deptford. Clockwise from top left: detail; the new forest; undercroft.


Tom Noonan, John Evelyn Institute of Arboreal Science, Deptford, river perspective.


Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip/MArch Unit 12 Yr 4: Michael Wai Ho Hung, Villian Wing Lam Lo, Tom Noonan, Tom Reynolds, Erika Suzuki, Anna Vallius. Yr 5: Hakan Agca, Will Wai Lam Chan, James Church, Alex Hill, Kumiko Hirayama, David Potts, Francesca Wadia, Eva Willoughby, Alan Worn

“Perhaps when you cut into the present the future leaks out” William Burroughs, Origin and Theory of the Tape Cut-Ups, 1976

During the 1950s writer William Burroughs and artist Brion Gysin experimented with a new writing technique dubbed the cut up and later the fold in. These experiments involved taking an initial text that was then cut up at random and re-arranged to create a new text. The aim of these experiments was to alter certain given assumptions of our understanding of time, history and memory. They were later used by Burroughs as a means to predict the future. This year Unit 12 used the principles of this technique and its emphasis on the cut, incision and juxtaposition, both conceptually and physically, in determining architectures, readings of site and understandings of architectural history. Many of the most creative architects have looked to the past to im agine a future, studying an earlier architecture not to replicate it but to transform it, revealing its relevance to the present. Soane looked to ancient Greece, Mies admired Schinkel and the Smithsons absorbed the spirit of the picturesque. Modernism was supposedly based on the rejection of history but this is now known to be a myth. As a creative stimulus and narrative resource for twentiethfirst century architecture, Unit 12 focuses on earlier centuries as well as those more recent. When everybody else is looking in one time and one place, it’s always good to look elsewhere. “Berlin is a laboratory. Its historical richness lies in the prototypical sequence of its models; neoclassical city, early metropolis, modernist test bed, war victim, Lazarus, Cold War demonstration, etc” Fritz Neumeyer, ‘OMA’s Berlin: the polemic island in the city’, 1990 This year the site for this investigation was Berlin.

Jonathan Hill, Elizabeth Dow, Matthew Butcher

Above: Will Chan, City of London Saffron Monastery.


Above: Alex Hill, The Alchemic Plant, Templehof.


Clockwise from top left: James Church, The Institute of Monumentality; Erika Suzuki, The Multicultural Cemetery, Tempelhof; Hakan Agca, The Carbon Capture Plant, super-critical furnace; Anna Vallius, Institute of Negotiation, Tempelhof; James Church, The Institute of Monumentality; Lam Lo, Sanatorium of Light, Water and Glass.


Clockwise from top left: Francesca Wadia, The Halal Abattoir Berlin; Tom Noonan, The Ministry of Urbanism meets the Institute of DeUrbanism; Tom Reynolds, Recovery of Soul: Woodcut House; Michael Wei Ho Hung, The Seed Bank for Urban Agriculture; Kumiko Hirayama, Colour Farmada, Berlin Airlift; Eva Willoughby, The Weavers of Tempelhof.


This page: David Potts, The Museum of Illicit Culture. Previous page: Alan Worn, Curated Cultural Outpost.


Hubbert Curve Matthew Butcher, Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip Unit 12 Yr 4: Hakan Agca, Will Chan, James Church, Kumiko Hirayama, Christian Madsen, Fei Meng, David Potts, Francesca Wadia. Yr 5: John Ashton, Cat Jones, Fai Lam, Yejun Pee, Louise Strachan, Xin Yu.

Hubbert Curve In the 1956 meeting of the American Petroleum Institute, the noted geoscientist M. King Hubbert predicted that available fossil fuel reserves would be dramatically reduced by 2050 and fully depleted by 2200. Hubbert’s accurate prediction of the 1970s energy boom and subsequent fuel crisis - the Hubbert Peak - gave credence to his other prediction - the Hubbert Curve. In 2007 the town of Hubbert Curve was established as a speculative prototype and viable precedent for communities in Britain to exist without fossil fuels. Independent from the administration and laws of the UK government, and sited at the edge of London, the town is tolerated by government agencies on the basis that it shares its knowledge of new methods of energy generation with the general population of the UK. Sustainable, the town trades and exchanges with its environment, adapting and adjusting, in response to the other. Self-sufficient, each building produces its own power and creates an excess that serves the general needs of the town. Seasonal, the town is responsive to its climate and site, creating conditions that are conducive to its survival and growth. Discursive, the town encourages social and political engagement, and the interaction of public and private lives. Independent, the town learns from earlier centuries as well as those more recent, inventing and adapting narratives, histories and myths that define its character. In New York, students were given the option to continue with Hubbert Curve or to devise their own project. In Unit 12, as well as history, we are interested in personal history. When everyone else is looking in one direction and one place, it’s always good to look elsewhere.

Jonathan Hill, Elizabeth Dow, Matthew Butcher

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Top: David Potts, The Trading House, during a celebration. Bottom: Xin Yu, Lower Hope Marshville, bathroom window.

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Clockwise from top left: Xin Yu, Lower Hope Marshville; Fei Meng, Mud Bridge, Cliffe Creek, perspective of bridge keeper’s house; Will Chan, U(dys) topia, panorama; Hakan Agca, Beacons at Lower Hope Point, microalgae growth structures.

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Clockwise from top left: James Church, section through Lime Kiln and chalk cliff with Parson’s Pigeon Racing Club beyond; Cat Jones, Guild of Dressmakers, New York, stitched indigo facade dissolving; Cat Jones, Guild of Dressmakers, New York, front door; Kumiko Hirayama, Floating Algae Farm (a Celebration of Pollution), Cliffe Marsh, night view. Opposite page: Cat Jones, Guild of Dressmakers, New York, elevation through thoroughfare.

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This page: Neil Kahawatte, The Residence of the UK Minister of the Environment and the Holkham Land Agent. Top: the summer recess. Bottom: autumn storms. Facing page: Peter Watkins, The Dunwich Foundation - a House for Displaced Populations, Morston, the parishioner’s bench after the twenty-five year storm, 1842.

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Making History Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip Unit 12 Yr 4: John Ashton, Alex Hill, Cat Jones, Antonios Kallergis, Fai Lam, Ben Lee, Yejun Pee, Louise Strachan, Elly Tabberer, Alex Tait, Eva Wiiloughby, Xin Yu. Yr 5: Neil Kahawatte, Peter Watkins.

Making History As a creative stimulus, narrative resource and gene pool for twenty-first century architecture, Unit 12 focuses on earlier centuries as well as those more recent. When everybody else is looking in one direction and one place, it’s always good to look elsewhere. Because as well as history, we are interested in personal history. Weather Architecture Often understood as distinct from architecture, weather can instead be a positive and initiating architectural force. Contemporary weather is not limited to sun and rain, it also includes the changeable hybrid weathers that society and architecture manufacture. A weather-responsive and weatherabsorbing architecture is indicative of a wider agenda: a changeable architecture for changeable conditions. The Port Authority A port is a means and site of exchange, whether of energy, goods or information. A port also harbours, and develops. Our project is The Port Authority. Our site is coastal, shifting and subject to conflicting natural and man-made forces - winds, tides, politics, climate change - that affect each other on a global and a local scale. On a coastline where some ports are now a mile inland and others are submerged by the sea, we aim to establish a new port and a new town. We propose an architecture that reciprocates, trades and exchanges with its environment, one expanding and contracting, receiving and donating, adapting and adjusting, in response to the other.

Jonathan Hill and Elizabeth Dow Technical Tutor: Chris Davy

Top: Xin Yu, The Dancing Wonderland, Wells-next-the-Sea, concrete wall and fabric wall. Middle: Fai Lam, The Sailor’s Workshop, Wells-next-the-Sea, the invisible story. Bottom: Ben Lee, The School Retreat, Blakeney Point, the boiler room.


Clockwise from top left: Alex Hill, The Colossus of Wells, Wells-next-the-Sea, section; Louise Strachan, Glass Blower’s Studio, Holkham, the view inland; Cat Jones, Morston Village Hall, elevation and The Morston Shipwright/Dressmaker’s House, elevation; Yejun Pee, The Retreating Music Rooms, Holkham, after a sand storm; Elly Tabberer, The Hunting Lodge, Holkham, the trophy chair.


Clockwise from top left: Eva Willoughby, Blakeney Farm, Blakeney Point, seasonal farm produce calendar; Neil Kahawatte, The Residence of the UK Minister of the Environment and the Holkham Land Agent, the great hall in a downpour; Peter Watkins, The Dunwich Foundation—A House for Displaced Populations, Morston, the parishioner’s canopy, 1832; John Ashton, The Shedding Myth, Blakeney, the monster in the marsh and sectional perspective; Eva Willoughby, Blakeney Farm, Blakeney Point, samphire pot roof and algae stills.


This page, top to bottom: Neil Kahawatte, The Residence of the UK Minister of the Environment and the Holkham Land Agent, weather laboratory, measuring change; Peter Watkins, The Dunwich Foundation—A House for Displaced Populations, Morston, the lead miners wait, 1901 and the view towards Morston, 2020 and the arrival of the Manor Garden Allotments, 2008.


This page: Neil Kahawatte, The Residence of the UK Minister of the Environment and the Holkham Land Agent. Top: the summer recess. Bottom: autumn storms. Facing page: Peter Watkins, The Dunwich Foundation—A House for Displaced Populations, Morston, the parishioner’s bench after the twenty-five year storm, 1842.


City within a City, the Independent Quarter Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip Unit 12 Yr 4: Beatie Blakemore, Ed Carter, Neil Kahawatte, Gro Sarauw, Peter Watkins. Yr 5: Eva Baranyai, Geraldine Booth, Ben Clement, Sebastian de la Cour, James Hampton, Emma Neville, Pouya Zamanpour.

City within a city, the independent quarter The Trading House This year's project is The Trading House, a home to industry and commerce. On sites in Venice and London, The Trading House is a catalyst for a productive and thriving city independent of tourism. Here trade is also understood as a model for the relations between a building and its immediate and wider environments. Weather Architecture Rather than opposed to architecture, weather can be a positive and initiating architectural force. Contemporary weather is not limited to sun and rain, it also includes the changeable hybrid weathers that society and architecture manufacture, carbon monoxide pollution, flooding, acid rain or the electromagnetic weather of the mobile phone, radio and computer. A weather-responsive and weather-absorbing architecture is indicative of a wider agenda: a changeable architecture for changeable conditions. Making History We are interested in the new. But we are equally interested in the old. As a creative stimulus, narrative resource and gene pool for twentieth-first century architecture, Unit 12 focuses on earlier centuries as well as those more recent. When everybody else is looking in one time and one place, it's always good to look elsewhere as a discovery may be yours alone, and thus more surprising and personal. As well as history, we are interested in personal history. Technical Tutor: Chris Davy Environmental Tutor: Prashant Kapoor

Jonathan Hill and Elizabeth Dow

Top: Emma Neville, Climate Register, Venice, paper reading room. Middle: James Hampton, Accademia della Morte, Venice, the death of the campanile. Bottom left: Emma Neville, Climate Register, Venice, wax balustrade; right: Ben Clement, Spaces For Solitude: Bankrupts' Institute, Venice, misadministration office.


Clockwise from top left: Peter Watkins, The Archive of Oral Histories, Rialto, Venice, glass chair; Pouya Zamanpour, Silent Dialogues, Arsenale, Venice, internal perspective; Ben Clement, Spaces For Solitude: Bankrupts' Institute, Venice, mastering yourself; Eva Baranyai, The City of London Cries, Smithfield, London, ballroom reflected ceiling plan; Peter Watkins, The Archive of Oral Histories, Rialto, Venice, petrified forest; Sebastian de la Cour, The House of Obstacles and Invitations, Venice, a bonsai in bondage.


Left:Sebastian de la Cour, The House of Obstacles and Invitations, Venice, (top) a door to burgle detail, (bottom) a door to burgle . Right: Ben Clement, Spaces For Solitude: Bankrupts' Institute, Venice, the plumber who gives too much.


This page: James Hampton, Accademia della Morte, Venice, the timber yard.


Top: Neil Kahawatte, House of Tides, Venice, section. Middle left to right: Peter Watkins, The Archive of Oral Histories, Rialto, Venice, section; Beatie Blakemore, The Janus House, Venice, water seepage; Eva Baranyai, The City of London Cries, Smithfield, London, acoustic pavement detail. Bottom left: Ed Carter, Consulate of the Peoples' Republic of China, Venice, lacquer wall, detail, right: James Hampton, Accademia della Morte, Venice, the memory palace. Facing page: Geraldine Booth, Nursery-Nursery, Browning's Island, Little Venice, London, section.


About Time Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip Unit 12 Yr 4: Eva Baranyai, Geraldine Booth, Ben Clement, Harriet Comben, Sebastian de la Cour, James Hampton, Ann Leung, Emma Neville. Yr 5: Anton Ambrose, Jennifer De Vere-Hopkins, Laura Dewe Mathews, Misa Furigori Gonzalez, Louise Heaps, Lina Lahiri, Bilal Mian, Tobiah Samuel, Paul Thomas, Olga Wukounig.

About Time Our project this year, a Public House, is a Time Machine and a Weather Station. Public House The most private of spaces, a house familiarly houses an individual or a family. But we also speak of the House of Commons, the house of correction, the curry house, the art-house, the hothouse, and many other houses. This year, our project is such a public house. It is a house to house a society. Time Machine References to C20 modernism dominate contemporary architecture and earlier periods are largely ignored. As a creative stimulus, narrative resource and knowledge base for C21 architecture, Unit 12 focuses on earlier centuries as well as those more recent. Seen in this light, architecture, as a discipline and as a building, is never complete; it is a compound of many moments, not one. Weather Station Instead of the familiar opposition of weather and architecture, weather is a principal material and weathering is a principal process of the Public House. Weather can be man-made and electromagnetic as well as natural, while weathering is not simply decay. It can be protective, as in the rust coating on Corten steel, and positive, drawing attention to the wider environment and the possibility and potential of change. For Unit 12, weather is a positive and initiating architectural force. Technical support: Chris Davy. Critics: Abi Abdolwhabi, Constance Lau. Consultants: Prashant Kapoor (Price and Myers), Rutger Snoek (Michael Hadi).

Elizabeth Dow and Jonathan Hill

Clockwise from top left: Tobiah Samuel, Misa Furigori Gonzalez, Louise Heaps, Jennifer De Vere-Hopkins.


Clockwise from top left: Bilal Mian, Lina Lahiri, Olga Wukounig, Paul Thomas. Overleaf, left: Anton Ambrose, right: Laura Dewe Mathews.


The Public Private House Elizabeth Dow, Jonathan Hill


Dip Unit 12 Yr 4: Anthony Ambrose, Laura Dewe Mathews, Louise Heaps, Candas Jennings, Lina Lahiri, Jessica Lawrence, Tobiah Samuel, Rafaelle Seth, Umut Yamac. Yr 5: Matthew Butcher, Charlie de Bono, Catherine Greig, Evelyn Hayes, Chee Kit Lai, Juliet Quintero, Rupert Scott, Ruth Silver, Max Dewdney, Tim Wray.

The Public Private House A recurring theme in architectural discourse states that the house is the origin and archetype of architecture, the manifestation of its most important attributes. Certain houses are both an official residence and a home, the representation of both a public and a private self. This year our project is to design such a house in London for a person or group with both a public and a private life. In accordance with the Mayor’s demand, outlined in The London Plan, for new housing to accommodate other social programmes, The Public Private House is doubled publicly and privately, coexisting with another function and other occupants. The Public Private House is a prototype for dense, urban living. Exploiting the fluctuations of architecture and nature, it creates a self-sufficient micro-city and hybrid ecology – natural and artificial – conducive to its survival and growth. In seasonal dialogue with its environment, it is a catalyst for change an architectural fertiliser in a specific part of London. Critics: Abi Abdolwahabi, Constance Lau.

Elizabeth Dow and Jonathan Hill

Clockwise from top left: Juliet Quintero, Charlie de Bono, Tim Wray, Matthew Butcher, Evelyn Hayes.


Clockwise from top left: Chee Kit Lai, Ruth Silver, Max Dewdney, Matthew Butcher, Rupert Scott.


ucl.ac.uk/architecture

Bartlett Design Anthology | Unit 12  

Architectural design teaching on The Bartlett School of Architecture's BSc and MArch Architecture programmes is organised around ‘units’: co...

Bartlett Design Anthology | Unit 12  

Architectural design teaching on The Bartlett School of Architecture's BSc and MArch Architecture programmes is organised around ‘units’: co...