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MArch Architectural Design

The Bartlett School of Architecture UCL


Image: B-Pro Show 2015


Contents

6 Introduction Frédéric Migayrou, Bob Sheil 8 MArch Architectural Design (AD) Alisa Andrasek Wonderlab Alisa Andrasek Research Cluster 1 Synthetic Constructability: Increased Resolution Fabric of Architecture Alisa Andrasek, Dağhan Çam, Andy Lomas Research Cluster 4 Computational Mereology: Large-Scale Discrete Fabrication Gilles Retsin, Manuel Jiménez García Research Cluster 6 Material Consequences Daniel Widrig, Soomeen Hahm, Stefan Bassing, Igor Pantic

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BiotA Lab Professor Marcos Cruz, Richard Beckett Research Clusters 5 & 7 Bio-Digital Materiality RC5: Guan Lee, Vicente Soler RC7: Professor Marcos Cruz, Richard Beckett, Christopher Leung, Javier Ruiz

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60 Interactive Architecture Lab Ruairi Glynn, Vincent Huyghe Research Cluster 3 #softerarch 112 116 118 119 120 121 122

AD Staff Biographies Bartlett Staff, Visitors & Consultants Bartlett Lectures Sir Banister Fletcher Visitor Professorship 22 Gordon Street Here East New Programmes

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Image: BiotA Lab Research Cluster 5 field trip to Iceland


Introduction

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Professor Frédéric Migayrou Chair, Bartlett Professor of Architecture Director of B-Pro At The Bartlett School of Architecture, B-Pro offers two advanced postgraduate courses: the MArch Architectural Design (AD) led by Alisa Andrasek, which offers the most advanced experimental research in computational design and fabrication; and the MArch Urban Design (UD), led by Mark Smout, which offers critical approaches towards creative urban and landscape design, and defining creative strategies for global cities and communities. The 12-month B-Pro courses welcome a diverse international student cohort, offering highly structured access to the realisation and application of research, and to the production of new schemes of conception and construction in architecture and urbanism. Throughout the year, B-Pro develops numerous seminars, workshops, lectures and public events, such as Plexus, to underpin these ideas and promote collaboration, discussion and inspiration. The 2015-16 AD course was organised around research clusters driven by their respective tutors and grouped into labs (Wonderlab; BiotA Lab; Interactive Architecture Lab) to target both specific speculative and prospective fields and domains of application. The latest technologies – robotics and AI, CNC fabrication, 3D printing, supercomputing, simulation, generative design, interactivity, advanced algorithms, extensive material prototyping, biotechnologies, and links to material science – and their many applications are researched in great depth. The exploration of supercomputing and software packages such as Maya, Grasshopper, Arduino, Processing, Houdini, and other generative platforms, also forms a core part of B-Pro’s innovative approach to conception and fabrication, enabled by our top-of-the-range digital production facilities. In 2015-16, UD was framed around two streams that looked at creative approaches 6

towards environments and cities at all scales, especially innovative design. Along with the Urban Morphogenesis Lab, the clusters developed alternative proposals and models, based on new morphological concepts and protocols, which reflected how cities are complex, dynamic living systems. Critical environmental and ecological questions are also viewed through an interdisciplinary lens, embracing fields such as archaeology, anthropology, design theory, ecological history, advanced computing, government, law, media, philosophy, planning and political theory; thereby acknowledging the dispersed and often paradoxical nature of contemporary urbanism. Through contextual case studies and interventions, we address the challenges involved in resolving complex issues facing populations, public space, building typologies and land use. The Bartlett International Lecture Series – with numerous speakers, architects, historians and theoreticians, sponsored by Fletcher Priest Architects – presented the opportunity for students to encounter fresh takes on emerging research, alongside lectures and workshops organised by Joseph Grima and Dan Hill, the School of Architecture’s Sir Banister Fletcher Visiting Professors for 2015-16. The installation of The Bartlett School of Architecture in a temporary building at Hampstead Road offered the opportunity to extend and reconfigure the school production facilities and the B-made workshop, and to anticipate the completion of our new building at 22 Gordon Street, in the heart of Bloomsbury. Our exciting temporary home at Hampstead Road offered a new space for the B-Pro Show – which presented the work of all clusters, including drawings, models, animations, installations and constructions, demonstrating the intense activity undertaken throughout the year. Through a shared vision of creative architecture, B-Pro is an opportunity for students both to participate in a new community and to


Introduction

Professor Bob Sheil Director of The Bartlett School of Architecture In the final furlong of a 12-month journey of experimentation, learning, testing, representation, invention and reinvention, production of these show catalogues began about three weeks before the B-Pro show opened. Catalogues are but a snapshot of a vast mountain of work, and both collating them and editing them is a tricky business. The first few pages begin to emerge just a few days before students submit portfolios for internal examination. The final few pages fall into place just a few days before preparation for the external exams and show intensify. The privilege to be a witness to this performance, and watching page upon page flesh out with an abundance of ideas, bravery, optimism and critique, has been inspiring. Our 12-month B-Pro programmes are immensely important to the school, and this importance is growing. They are important because they are melting pots, where embryonic experimentation meets rigorous research and theoretical contextualisation. This buoyancy has allowed us to launch two new 15-month MArch programmes for 2017-18, one in Design for Performance and Interaction, and another in Design for Manufacture, with more to come in 2018-19, and beyond, in Landscape, Bio-enabled Design, and Film. This is a pivotal time for The Bartlett School of Architecture, and the excellent work contained in these books hints very loudly at a new and exciting era that lies just a few months away.

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The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

affirm the singularity of their individual talents. These programmes are not only an open door to an advanced architectural practice but also form the base from which each student can define their particular approach and architectural philosophy, in order to seek a position in the professional world. 2015-16 saw the delivery of a new MRes in Architecture and Digital Theory, dedicated to the theory, history and criticism of digital design and digital fabrication, with open seminars that explored the historical and critical frameworks for digital innovation. In 2017-18, The Bartlett is launching four new programmes that explore environmental and structural design, fabrication, performance architecture and conceptual spatial theories: MArch Design for Manufacture, MArch Design for Performance and Interaction, MEng Engineering and Architectural Design and MA Situated Practice. B-Pro, entirely devoted to creative design, will become even more of a nexus of stimulating exchanges between history and theory, design and technology. With 2016 being the 175th anniversary of architectural education at UCL, this year’s B-Pro exhibition and accompanying catalogues are testament to the depth, quality and intensity of The Bartlett’s current creative vision and those who guide it. As ever, they also showcase the commitment, passion and ingenuity of our dedicated students.


MArch Architectural Design Programme Leader: Alisa Andrasek

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

The MArch Architectural Design (AD) is a 12-month post-professional programme invested in the frontiers of advanced architecture and design and its convergence with science and technology. Composed of an international body of experts and students, it is designed to deliver diverse yet focused strands of speculative research, emphasising the key role computation plays within complex design synthesis. Design is increasingly recognised as the crucial agency for uncovering complex patterns and relations, and this has never been more important. Historically, the most successful architecture has managed to capture cultural conditions, utilise technological advancements and answer to the pressures and constraints of materials, economics, ecology and politics. Presently, this synthesis is accelerated by the introduction of computation and the everevolving landscape of production. With access to B-made, one of the most advanced fabrication workshops in Europe, AD students are introduced to highly advanced coding, fabrication and robotic skills, aimed at computational and technological fluency. Simultaneously, students are exposed to larger theoretical underpinnings specifically tailored to their enquiries. Students are part of a vibrant urban and professional community, in one of the most exciting cities in the world, enriching the process of learning and opportunities for networking. Placing advanced design at its core, AD devotes a high proportion of its time to studio-based design enquiry, culminating in a major project and thesis. The programme is organised into labs, each with its own research agenda, underpinned by the shared resources of technical tutorials and theoretical lectures and seminars. The latest approaches to robotics and AI, CNC fabrication, 3D printing, supercomputing, simulation, generative design, interactivity, advanced algorithms, extensive material prototyping and links to material science are explored. AD engages critically with new 8

developments in technology, which are rapidly changing the landscape of architecture, its social and economic role and its effectiveness in industry applications. Students are introduced to theoretical concepts through lectures and warm-up design projects supported by computational and robotics skills-building workshops. Throughout the year, students work in small teams or individually, according to the methodology of each Research Cluster, amplifying their focus and individual talents in the context of complexities of design research and project development. Projects are continuously evaluated via tutorials with regular design reviews by external critics. Alongside its cutting-edge research, AD hosts public lectures and seminars throughout the year. The MArch AD programme sits alongside the MArch Urban Design (UD) programme within the overarching structure of B-Pro, led by Professor Frédéric Migayrou, Chair of the School of Architecture. This year the MArch AD programme was divided into three labs, offering students the opportunity to choose a distinct field of enquiry: Wonderlab Led by Alisa Andrasek BiotA Lab Led by Professor Marcos Cruz and Richard Beckett Interactive Architecture Lab Led by Ruairi Glynn Each lab follows a unique approach with regular inter-lab debate, creative exchange and vibrant discussion. Image: MArch AD, Wonderlab RC6, ‘Brilock’. Self interlocking component-based system. Research directed by: Daniel Widrig, Stefan Bassing, Soomeen Hahm, Igor Pantic. Students:  Mayank Khemka, Huan Pu, Xiangyu Ren, Jianfeng Yin


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Wonderlab Lab Director: Alisa Andrasek

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Wonderlab is invested in the search for and materialisation of the rare, the unseen and the unexplored. It believes that the poetic and aesthetic magic of wonder can be analysed, synthesised, engineered and designed. Architecture’s ‘superpower’ has always been the creative synthesis of a multitude of elements. Historically, the most successful architecture has managed to capture cultural conditions, utilise technological advancements and answer to the pressures and constraints of materials, economics, ecology and politics. Today, this synthesis is increasingly open and accelerated with the introduction of computation and the evolving landscape of production. Design is the crucial agency for uncovering patterns and direct engagement with complexity, and this has never been more important. Wonderlab’s main area of expertise is in innovating new computational design and fabrication processes. Principal research trajectories include simulation and GPU-run supercomputing, in which large quantities of data allow traversing scales and disciplines, embed micro into macro, from the scale of material science to full-scale architectural applications. By encoding matter with algorithmic parameters – now widely practiced in the sciences and many industries such as the automotive sector – we are working with what could be called ‘materialisation prior to materialisation’, designing not only form but possible material states, before they are materialised. Through its work with simulation, Wonderlab demonstrates how we can now design to a previously unimaginable level of performance and simultaneously uncover truly fresh aesthetic possibilities of this new ‘increased resolution’ fabric of architecture. One of Wonderlab’s main missions is to evolve thinking about what architecture and design could be. We aim to re-imagine the possibilities of architectural design research, engaging with territories that are not traditionally 10

considered to be in the domain of architecture. A carefully curated combination and breadth of diverse talent in Wonderlab makes this the largest Lab in B-Pro at The Bartlett and an incredibly exciting place to be. Wonderlab is building a network of industry collaborators from diverse areas such as the visual computing industry, engineering, manufacturers, building, film, business innovation and architecture. We are working in what is predicted to bring massive revolution to many fields: the investment of the industry into robotics and artificial intelligence. We are also extending our collaboration to other research labs, especially in compatible scientific territories, such as computation, material science, robotics and nanotechnology, at UCL and beyond. We actively seek industry partners and pilot projects as materialisation opportunities to put the Lab’s advanced research to the test in real applications, in order to accelerate innovation. Wonderlab is made up of three research clusters: Research Cluster 1 Synthetic Constructability: Increased Resolution Fabric of Architecture Alisa Andrasek, Dağhan Çam, Andy Lomas Research Cluster 4 Computational Mereology: Large-Scale Discrete Fabrication Manuel Jiménez García, Gilles Retsin Research Cluster 6 Material Consequences Daniel Widrig, Stefan Bassing, Soomeen Hahm, Igor Pantic

Image: MArch AD, Wonderlab RC1, Li-Quid. 3D printed chair prototype. Research directed by: Alisa Andrasek, Dağhan Çam, Andy Lomas. Robotics: Feng Zhou. Students: Zhuoxing Gu, Tianyuan Xie, Bingyang Su, Anqi Zheng


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Synthetic Constructability: Increased Resolution Fabric of Architecture Alisa Andrasek, Dağhan Çam, Andy Lomas

Students Zuardin Akbar, Supanut Bunjaratravee, Siqi Chen, Wei Wen Cui, Zhuoxing Gu, Yuwei Jing, Ayham Kabbani, Leonidas Leonidou, Ge Liang, Manrong Liang, Hang Li, Ji Lin, Xiao Lu, Zhe Pang, Zefeng Shi, Bingyang Su, Tianyuan Xie, Yiting Yang, Chi Zhang, Anqi Zheng, Baolin Zhou, Eleni Ziova

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Project teams Morphocyte Zuardin Akbar, Yuwei Jing, Ayham Kabbani, Leonidas Leonidou Wrinkle in Space Zhe Pang, Baolin Zhou, Siqi Chen, Hang Li Gossamer. Skin Supanut Bunjaratravee, WeiWen Cui, Manrong Liang, Xiao Lu, Zefeng Shi Li-Quid Zhuoxing Gu, Tianyuan Xie, Bingyang Su, Anqi Zheng Cellnepho Eleni Ziova, Yiting Yang, Ge Liang, Ji Lin, Chi Zhang Report Tutor Mollie Claypool, Evan Greenberg Fabrication Tutor Feng Zhou Robotics Vicente Soler, Vincent Huyghe Thanks to our collaborators Enrico Dini, Vincent Huyghe, Gennaro Senatore, Vicente Soler, Feng Zhou Thank you to our sponsors nVidia and Formfutura

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High volumes of computing (via GPU-run supercomputing), computational physics simulations, discretised and adaptive algorithms such as Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) and the inclusion of large data sourced from multiple domains, are opening new spaces of synthesis for architecture. This architecture draws on large data from the finer-grain physics of matter – matter as information, enabled by computation. It not only expands on technically enriched material formations, but also activates previously hidden material powers, enabling the creation of designs that in both imagination and performance are beyond our anticipation. 3D printing is now going mainstream and growing in scale, becoming increasingly relevant to architecture. Multi-material printing introduces blending material states in high detail, with the capacity to increase material performance, including minimising the weight and volume of structures while maximising their strength; enabling mass customisation at any level of detail; and yielding previously unseen aesthetic possibilities. Such high-resolution construction methods are further accelerated by the finer-grain physics simulations, disrupting the blueprints of architecture, resulting in structures with the increased resilience, plasticity and malleability of complex interrelated systems – in short, increased design-ability within complex ecologies. Innovation is accelerated by simulating material states and thus radically cutting down the need for exhaustive physical prototyping. Complex syntheses of geometry and physics, fortified by principles of self-organisation, are allowing designers to work with materialisation prior to materialisation. Boundless opportunities open up by coupling robotics with material behaviours and the ability to design various extensions for robotic arms via 3D printing. The four research projects presented here each outline a version of an Increased Resolution Fabric of Architecture. ‘Morphocyte’ are building on Wonderlab’s research on Cellular Division (CD), by simulating biological processes such as morphogenesis or cancer cell growth, and using its differentiating power to create an unseen, intricate and heterogeneous design vocabulary. Students working on project ‘Wrinkle in Space’ are using CD research to develop a series of paths for 3D printing architectural fabrics at variable resolutions of ‘wrinkling’. Team ‘Gossamer. Skin’ are looking at the potential of high-resolution 3D printed building envelopes, using Multi-Agent Systems (MAS) to react to the data of light, heat and structural resilience, in order to design 3D printing paths for robotic extrusion. ‘Li-Quid’ are using fluid dynamics to develop macro-spatial formations, and simultaneously using vector data of fluid flows to develop paths for robotic spatial extrusion lattices that capture the movement of the liquids. The resultant geometry is more adaptable, structurally stronger than generic lattice, and visually enticing. Cellnepho are looking into the differentiated typology of cells within voxel fields in order to achieve variable density, structural strength, elasticity (if printed with soft materials), and porosity for filtering light and creating variable opacity.


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1.3 Figs. 1.1 – 1.6 Morphocyte ‘Topoform’. The project focused on simulating morphogenetic processes through Cellular Division (CD). These processes generated fresh phenomena, through the relationship of physics, aesthetics and perception. Furthermore, high-resolution articulation in architecture yielded superperformance of the structure through varying density and porosity. Material and fabrication constraints informed the generation of speculative designs and large data involved in the process required the introduction of machine learning techniques for design-search. Such new computational resources allowed for the emergence of unseen aesthetics.

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1.8 Figs. 1.7 – 1.12 Li-Quid ‘Tide’. Li is a concept in Chinese philosophy. It refers to the underlying reason and order of nature as reflected in its organic forms. The research is grounded on revealing the underlying Li in fluid dynamics, which can be applied not only to conceptual design phases, but also to form generative processes and fabrication solutions. Li also means forces in Chinese, which is a prominent element in fluid simulation that allows liquid to evolve a sophisticated distribution of matter in space. The form creation and fabrication strategies try to capture the directionality of fluid vectors which contributes to the diversity of patterns and spatial sequences in architecture.

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1.14 Figs. 1.13 – 1.18 Cellnepho [= cellular cloud, etymology: cell + (greek) nephos = cloud]. This project is about the design of cellular structures in different scales, so that they provide an intricate performance. Firstly, it is a chair design which integrates softness and secondly it is an architectural atmosphere, a hybrid of two natural systems – clouds and forests. Design is formed as a continuous fabric, where one element gradually turns into another. The varying porosity of the structure results in a high performance in the scale of the furniture as well as rich visual effects in architecture. To fabricate the chair, which consists of very fine cells, a flexible plastic is 3D printed layer by layer. To materialise the architectural elements, plastic is robotically extruded in space. 19


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Figs. 1.19 – 1.27 Gossamer. Skin ‘PhE.n.velope’. This project investigates the potential of increased resolution in computational design and robotic fabrication to speculate new architecture with unseen performance and aesthetic. The design of the Building Envelope was reinvented via the high resolution ‘stigmergy’ behaviour in the Multi-Agent System (MAS), fabricating surfaces from local-based logic at multi-resolution. This architectural speculation is a context-responsive generative system that provided, over large architectural skins, a high-resolution customisation of performances, such as shading, weathering, structure enhancing, and crafting extended habitable spaces. The intricacy of the building envelope is then realised through precise robotic extrusion in the voxel space to enhance

printing efficiency and structural aesthetic for direct application, while capturing the complex agent’s behaviours and the directionality of the generative system.

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1.28 Figs. 1.28 – 1.32 Wrinkle in Space ‘Pulp Orange’. The project produces multi-resolution ‘wrinkly’ formations through additive manufacturing. Using cellular division algorithms, the project develops a sequential particle growth system with high fluidity and intricacy. The digital system has embedded fabrication constraints, resulting in a clean tool-path and high accuracy of robotic fabrication. Through furniture and architectural design, the project exhibits wrinkly behaviour as an effective way to organise space and structure. As a consequence of new technologies of digital simulation and fabrication, fresh possibilities are open for architectural design, and the computational wrinkle explores a new language of materialisation. 25


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Computational Mereology: Large-Scale Discrete Fabrication Gilles Retsin, Manuel Jiménez García

Students Efstratios Georgiou, Pooja Gosavi, Supakij Homthong, Palak Jhunjhunwala, Donghwi Kim, Hyein Lee, Meizi Li, Qianyi Li, Juan Olaya, Pratiksha Renake, Panagiota Spyropoulou, Zoey Tan, Claudia Tanskanen, On Yee Wong, Yiheng Ye, Xiaolin Yin

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Project teams VoxaTile Efstratios Georgiou, Palak Jhunjhunwala, Juan Olaya, Yiheng Ye INT Qianyi Li, Zoey Tan, Claudia Tanskanen, Xiaolin Yin WireVoxels Supakij Homthong, Donghwi Kim, Meizi Li, On Yee Wong MickeyMatter Pooja Gosavi, Hyein Lee, Pratiksha Renake, Panagiota Spyropoulou Thank you to our partners Mollie Claypool, Vicente Soler Thanks to our critics Isaïe Bloch, B-made, Roberto Botazzi, Dağhan Çam, Brendon Carlin, Mario Carpo, Mustafa El Sayed, Octavian Gheorghiu, Soomeen Hahm, Sofia Krimizi, Hyunchul Kwon, Alvaro Lopez, Tim Lucas, Frédéric Migayrou, Sille Pihlak, Raffael Petrovic, Peter Scully, Patrik Schumacher, Robert Stuart-Smith, Vicente Soler, Siim Tuksam, Marios Tsiliakos, Adam Vukmanov, Daniel Widrig, Lei Zheng

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Two provocations, one by Neil Leach and one by Neil Gerschenfeld, perfectly summarise the current challenges for ‘digitally intelligent architecture’. Leach argues that, “while there is clearly a practice of designing that involves the use of digital tools, there is no product as such that might be described as digital” (Leach 2015). On the other hand, Gerschenfeld states that the ‘digital fabrication’ Leach refers to is actually continuous and analogue (Ward 2010). 3D printers and CNC routers are computer-controlled, but operate as analogue machines, which continuously cut or add material to make parts. These two statements leave us with a strong argument against digital fabrication, and establish a clear gap between the digital as a process and its materialisation. Challenging the statements of the two Neils, Research Cluster 4 investigated an approach to architectural design that is fundamentally ‘digital’. Shifting away from an understanding of fabrication as a continuous process, students researched fabrication methods and material organisations that are physically digital. VoxaTile proposes to 3D print materially efficient large-scale building blocks that can be robotically assembled. Through a combinatoric design method, part-to-whole relations are established which bridge between the micro-scale of robotic tool-path organisation to the macro-scale of architectural part-to-whole relations. These serialised building blocks can be understood as lego-like pieces, but with the ability to respond to specific conditions like structural behaviour. INT aims to introduce complexity in prefabrication. The team looks into robotic assembly of digital materials while also addressing the relation between users and robots. Through implementing feedback in the robotic assembly process, human interaction is incorporated. The design process becomes truly indeterminate and plays out in physical space, allowing for varying degrees of customisation and order. On the architectural scale, the project establishes a meaningful relation between degrees of order, fabrication method and human interaction. WireVoxels proposes to fabricate building blocks out of robotically bent steel rods. These blocks are composed of a limited number of serialised steel elements and share the same connection system, which allows for efficient assembly. The combination of the topology or body-plan of each building block can change in response to its local structural condition. MickeyMatter developed a plastic injection moulded block that aims to increase the tolerances in a robotic assembly process. These elements can be gripped with vacuum suction and slip into place through its spherical geometry. The team developed a computational method based on combinatorics, which is able to efficiently assemble these serialised elements into complex, non-repetitive assemblies with multiple scales. Complex part-to-whole relations develop as a result of both aesthetic decisions, as well as constraints of the robotic fabrication process.


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Figs. 1.33 – 1.37 INT ‘Versatile’. Fig. 1.33 Field of chairs generated by a computational process based on combinatorics. The chairs consist of a serially repeated tile, which can be aggregated in different combinations. The computational process is able to evaluate local structural conditions, which influence the tile combinations. The chair designs evolve between lower and higher entropy – some combinations are highly constrained, others are more free. The initial starting condition for all chairs is the same, and just involves an abstract diagram for load distribution. Fig. 1.34 Human-robot interaction in the assembly process. A discrete combinatorial system and logic can address user accessibility – in the hands of the user, a discrete tile could become almost anything. When the assembly system is combined with

feedback, the tile aggregations and distribution of materials can be tracked and detected and human interaction can be incorporated into the assembly process. In such a system the user can gain design autonomy and have a part to play in the output. Tracking of tiles enables an interesting assembly interaction in terms of labour where certain tiles are placed by a human as a problem for the robot to solve, allowing for a co-dependent collaboration and the creation of a physical computational space. Figs. 1.35 – 1.36 Screenshots from the computational process. A longer tile was introduced to allow for structures that can deal better with tension. Fig. 1.37 Robotically assembled chair as a collaboration between robot and human.

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1.39 Figs. 1.38 – 1.40 INT ‘Versatile’. Fig. 1.38 Series of lowentropy chairs with constrained patterns as a result of more human input. The three designs explore different structural conditions and aesthetic concerns. Fig. 1.39 Series of computationally generated columns exploring different structural pattern, aesthetics and assembly methods. Small tiles are used to interlock longer tiles and assemble different chunks together. Fig.1.40 Three approaches for robotically assembled columns. The middle column negotiates both low entropy and high entropy – slipping in and out of control. It uses an equal proportion of smaller base tiles and long tiles. The right column uses a majority of long tiles, as opposed to the left one which is based mainly on the smaller base tile. 32


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Figs. 1.41 – 1.44 VoxaTile ‘Topopath’. Fig. 1.41 A custom built pellet extruder deposits rough plastic particles into a continuous structure. This industrial-style extruder allows for cheaper manufacturing costs as it avoids the use of more expensive filaments. The toolpath is highly differentiated and results from a combinatorial computational process. A single line segment is combined into complex patterns in response to structural data. Ribs and different hierarchies emerge from the process. Fig. 1.42 Prototypical designs for a chair based on the initial condition of a panton chair. The typical cantilever of the chair generates specific structural constraints. The chair displays different levels of hierarchies and completely bypasses the layered character otherwise visible in spatial 3D printing. Fig. 1.43 Robotic printing process of the chair.

The pellet extruders melt PLA particles and cools them down after they leave the nozzle. The process allows for mixing different types of pellets. Fig. 1.44 This close up shows the different micro-hierarchies in the printed toolpath. These hierarchies adapt to local structural conditions and also diffuse the initial serialised module used to aggregate the toolpath.

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Figs. 1.45 – 1.49 VoxaTile ‘Topopath’. This series of diagrams illustrate the process of discretisation. An initial generic structural condition is analysed and gives a completely differentiated cloud of principal stress data. In the next steps, this data is rationalised to become suitable for fabrication concerns on both a micro and macro scale. The stress data is voxelised and discretised – which means that the number of orientations is reduced to a discrete set of options. Subsequently, different voxels are aggregated into ‘voxatiles’. These voxatiles are large-scale tiles which can be used for robotic assembly on the scale of architecture. The voxatile is a lego-like, serially repeated piece, but it is able to adapt its internal structure to specific loading conditions. The last step shows the generation of fine-grain toolpaths which correlate

with the structural conditions of the larger voxatiles. These toolpaths are 3D printed which allows for an efficient distribution of material. Fig. 1.49 This close-up shows an architectural space with a porous and vectorial character. The combinatoric design method establishes part-to-whole relations which bridge between the micro-scale of robotic tool-path organisation all the way through to the macro-scale of architectural part-to-whole relations. The design shifts between continuity and discreteness, therefore combining both ideas for robotic assembly and 3D printing.

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1.51 Figs. 1.50 – 1.51 MickeyMatter ‘MetaBall-ism’. Fig. 1.50 Robotic assembly process of the first MickeyMatter chair. The chair is made out of two scales of plastic elements. A sphere-based geometry is used to allow the blocks to slide into place without a high level of precision in order to facilitate assemblage with a rapid robotic pick and place mechanism using air suction. The building blocks are lightweight and are prefabricated with injection moulding using aluminium moulds and plastic pellet extruder. Fig. 1.51 Close-up of the MickeyMatter chair. The computational method based on a combinatorial system enables the combination of discrete elements in different rotations and produces high levels of heterogeneity on different scales. 39


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1.53 Figs. 1.52 – 1.53 MickeyMatter ‘MetaBall-ism’. Fig. 1.52 Design for a table using the MickeyMatter elements. The table implements initial ideas for a more architectural approach to the system, implementing tectonic differentiation between the vertical and horizontal parts of the structure. Different ribs are established and the thickness can be varied in response to structural conditions. Combinatorial patterns are continuously variegated throughout the table. Fig. 1.53 Aluminium moulds used for the medium-scale elements. These highly precise moulds are used for plastic extrusion and allow for the efficient fabrication of cheap building blocks. Experiments were carried out with different types of plastics, from hard PLA plastic to soft and flexible plastics. Fig. 1.54 WireVoxels ‘Interlace’. The team proposes to fabricate building blocks out of 40

robotically bent steel rods. The project started from long, continuous steel rods, which are then cut and bent into discrete elements. These elements are then re-assembled into structurally efficient, continuous, spaceframe-like structures. The combination of the topology or body plan of each building block can change in response to its local structural condition. The discretisation of the building elements allows for efficient assembly and welding. This results in continuously differentiated, yet highly optimised structures, both in terms of structural performance and fabrication logistics.


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1.56 Figs. 1.55 – 1.57 WireVoxels ‘Interlace’. Fig. 1.55 Design for a 4x4m floor slab based on topological optimisation. This differentiated and efficient structure is composed of welded voxel-like units which always consist of the same serialised elements. The body plan of these voxels changes according to their local condition. For example, the direction of the triangulations has to be variegated to establish truss-like behaviour. Depending on the forces active in the structure, some ares are reinforced with extra rods. This process introduces extra hierarchy in the structure. Fig. 1.56 Robotic bending process. A custom designed end-effector was built, which allows to bend metal rods in three dimensions. The serialisation of the bending process makes manufacturing highly efficient. Using the same discrete elements, many 42

different design iterations can be developed. Fig. 1.57 Assembly of a part of the 4x4m floor slab. A combination of welding and steel-zip ties are used. The elements composing a voxel-like unit are welded, steel zip ties are used to combine the voxels into larger clusters. Locally, these clusters are reinforced with more welded spots.


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Material Consequences Daniel Widrig, Soomeen Hahm, Stefan Bassing, Igor Pantic

Students Fayza Alshaalan, Sanchuth Choomsai Na, Zuokai Hu, Zixuan Huang, Hameda Jianahi, Minzi Jin, Huairui Jing, Mayank Khemka, Liyuan Ma, Noura Mhied, Huan Pu, Xiangyu Ren, Jia-Hao Syu, Qiaochu Wang, Aisha Wang, Haibo Xiao, Dun Yang, Jianfeng Yin, Lida Zhang

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Project teams PinFill Zixuan Huang, Huairui Jing, Dun Yang Weaverine Fayza Alshaalan Ropology Jia-Hao Syu, Aisha Wang, Lida Zhang Brilock Mayank Khemka, Huan Pu, Xiangyu Ren, Jianfeng Yin CONEcrete Sanchuth Choomsai Na, Liyuan Ma, Qiaochu Wang, Haibo Xiao Flextiles Zuokai Hu, Hameda Jianahi, Minzi Jin, Noura Mhied

With systems such as 3D printers and robotics increasingly facilitating the fabrication of ever more complex structures and designs, new sets of questions, constraints and concerns emerge. While we are now able to rapidly materialise almost any given shape we are struggling with issues such as high cost of parts, limited material choice and large-scale applicability. In addition, fully automated fabrication systems often force designers into rather linear production pipelines with little room to manoeuvre or improvise. Since machining is expensive and timeconsuming the actual process of making is often delayed to the very end of the design phase, usually delivering highly predictable, pre-simulated results. In such workflows, notions of spontaneity, artistic intuition and noise are usually undesirable. In this context, Research Cluster 6 (RC6) continues to explore hybridised design and fabrication models, in which tactile interaction with materials and form initiates and drives all research efforts. Embracing messiness as opportunity and failure as part of the process, we are particularly interested in novel combinations of analogue and digital methods in which hands-on and computer controlled design and manufacturing operations not just co-exist but overlap. By continuing our research in such customised, semi-automated processes, RC6 engages in the evolution of a new, crafted aesthetic, one that reflects a shift from an architecture predominately interested in representation and tools towards an architecture that brings new notions of craftsmanship, intuition and a post-digital design sensibility into the game. Structure The year started off with an intense workshop encouraging students to individually explore various material systems and to design and build a collection of sculptural objects. Accompanied by digital classes geared to enable student to start using multiple design packages such as Maya, Processing and ZBrush, students formed teams and started to work collaboratively. RC6 traditionally works in multiple scales throughout the year. With a particular focus on physical production, students gradually increased the scale and scope of their work through iterations of prototyping. Terms 2 and 3 were dedicated to the development of a proposal in which material experimentation, applied prototyping, coding and modeling converged into a coherent architectural design proposal.

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Figs. 1.58 – 1.63 PinFill Fig. 1.58 Digital mock-up of a wall piece. Developing the idea of ‘casting wood’ the project employs an intricate set-up of flexible textiles which is used as formwork to cast a composite material system of sawdust, woodchips and glue. Fig. 1.59 Digital Simulation. By applying a variety of stitching patterns to the mould, the structural behavior of the cast wood composite changes. Fig. 1.60 Digital mock-up. The system is tested by designing and building a series of architectural elements such as columns, walls and slabs. Fig. 1.61 Assembly logic. Larger chunks are fabricated in parts. After drying, elements are joined by a layer of smaller uncured / wet elements which, after drying, merge all parts into one structural piece. Fig. 1.62 Physical prototyping. Furniture pieces, such as chairs and tables are used as a 1:1

testing ground to develop the material system, assembly logic and formal language of the project. Fig. 1.63 Physical prototyping. Built within a wooden construction frame, the image shows part of a column in the process of making. Building parts are subdivided into medium-sized components and later assembled by applying a layer of connection pieces.

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Figs. 1.64 – 1.69 Ropology Fig. 1.64 Chair studies. The project explores rope as a low budget building material, focusing on its potential as a compression resistant architectural system. Figs. 1.65 Chair studies. By baking synthetic sisal rope components in a kiln, flexible parts can be transformed into hard, brick-like elements. By mixing hard and soft pieces, the system allows for gradual changes in its structural behavior. Figs. 1.66 – 1.67 Physical prototype. Furniture scale experiments were carried out throughout the year to develop a material-specific design language and to advance the development of the fabrication process. Fig. 1.68 Architectural proposal. Larger, architectural scale assemblies were designed to investigate the potential of the rope system as a self-supporting, space generating device.

Fig. 1.69 Architectural proposal. Located in the Negev Desert, Israel, ‘Ropology’ proposes a series of desert experience pavilions. Embedded in the rocks and hills, the structures provide shade and allow visitors to spend a night out in the open desert landscape.

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1.72 Figs. 1.70 – 1.72 Ropology Fig. 1.70 Rope studies. Synthetic sisal rope was chosen as the primary building material due to its flexibility, low cost and availability. It can easily be looped into various three-dimensional elements. Using a soldering gun allows you to punctually merge seams and fixate the emerging patterns. The rope-based compoinents can then be baked into structural elements. Fig. 1.71 Architectural proposal. Larger, architectural scale assemblies are designed to investigate the potential of the rope system as a self-supporting, space generating device. Fig. 1.72 Rope columns. Architectural elements were designed and built as a first attempt to create building scale parts. Figs. 1.73 – 1.74 Brilock Fig. 1.73 Design process. Brilock explores the idea of a modular, interlocking brick system that allows users to easily design and build 50

intricate objects and architectural elements without any tools, fasteners or bonding agents. During the design process attractor fields are used to digitally aggregate horizontally and vertically oriented spatial chunks. Linear elements are introduced to create larger spans and surfaces. Fig. 1.74 Furniture design. Furniture scale experiments were carried out throughout the year to develop a project-specific design language and to advance the development of the fabrication process.


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Figs. 1.75 – 1.79 Brilock Fig. 1.75 Architectural applications. To understand the full range of design possibilities of the system, larger chunks and architectural elements were designed and compiled into complex, spatial sequences. Figs. 1.76 – 1.77 Physical prototype. All interlocking components are fabricated in ABS by injection moulding. The catalogue of plastic modules is supplemented by a range of linear wood sticks. Those cheap and easy to fabricate parts can be used to quickly assemble larger chunks, to create surfaces and larger spans. Figs. 1.78 – 1.79 Architectural proposal. Nested within a 3D grid, architectural elements, such as walls, ceilings, staircases and columns feature radical shifts from high to low resolution. While injection moulded components are used to create intricate building details and

to build up mass, linear wood elements are used to create walkable surfaces and to vertically transfer loads.

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Figs. 1.80 – 1.85 CONEcrete Fig. 1.80 Digital growth. The project explores the idea of a simple, componentbased, parametrically controlled system that is able to grow articulated objects and spatial structures. Fig. 1.81 Structural detail. Arrays of stacked conical elements grow along linear path networks. Depending on various growth parameters the system can create structures gradually transitioning from dense, load-bearing bundles to porous, open surfaces. Changes in density can be controlled by changing stacking parameters and by introducing local bifurcations at any given point. Figs. 1.82 – 1.83 Furniture design. Furniture scale experiments were carried out throughout the year to develop a material-specific design language and to advance the development of the fabrication

process. Figs. 1.84 – 1.85 Physical prototype. Small, linear arrays of stacked cones made of metal mesh are preassembled and then compiled into larger chunks. Multiple layers of concrete are then sprayed on the mesh layout.

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Figs. 1.86 – 1.89 CONEcrete Figs. 1.86 – 1.87 Physical experiments. Initial studies explore the formal potential of a system compiled of simple, conical elements. The individual elements are fabricated by conically folding metal sheets. Figs. 1.88 – 1.89 Physical prototype. The system allows for the creation of structures transitioning from linear strands into surfaces and back. The concrete layer joins individual parts into one continuous structural system. The combination of metal mesh and spray-on concrete generates a low-cost, lightweight, concrete-based composite that enables users to build intricate furniture pieces and architectural spaces. Figs. 1.90 – 1.91 Flextiles Fig. 1.90 Spatial proposal. The project explores felt and its potential as a building material. The team developed a robotic needle felting process to create

felt pieces which gradually change the thicknesses and fibre layouts. Using a custom-made end effector, the team manufactured felt sheets with inbuilt tubular patterns. Expanding foam was later injected into those channels resulting in a lightweight, low cost and durable textile composite. Fig. 1.91 Spatial proposal. Larger spatial structures are fabricated by compiling smaller felt-based components which can then be connected by locally needle felting the seams.

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Figs. 1.91 – 1.95 Flextiles Fig. 1.91 Design Process. In a first design iteration, an initial framework is designed by using a digital spring set-up. Hyperbolic surfaces are then grown along the trajectories of this frame. Growth parameters can be controlled parametrically. Emerging surface patterns range from almost flat to highly intricate. Figs. 1.92 – 1.94 Physical prototypes. Prototypes are made of robotically felted, customised sheets. Tubular patterns are embedded in the sheets and can be used to inject expandable foam. The resulting composite parts are durable and lightweight, featuring gradual transitions from hard to soft. Fig. 1.95 Felt columns. Architectural elements were designed and built throughout the year to evolve a material specific design language and to create a building material. 58


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BiotA Lab Professor Marcos Cruz, Richard Beckett

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BiotA Lab is an innovative design research platform that merges architecture, biology and engineering. The lab explores new modes of simulation and production in architecture, as well as advances in the fields of synthetic biology, biotechnology, molecular engineering and material sciences, and looks at how these subjects are shaping an increasingly multidisciplinary approach to environmental design. The result is a new sense of materiality, new hybrid technologies and unprecedented living forms that are redefining not only building design, but our whole built environment. BiotA Lab work is produced between the design studio and laboratory, where innovative building systems are developed with the help of advanced computation. Modelling and simulation tools are implemented in parallel to material testing and organic growth in real laboratory conditions, providing feedback and data for the fabrication of construction components and prototypes. Students and researchers design, grow and build bio-digital prototypes that explore a new ecological model for architecture, responding to specific climates based upon the relationship between environmental conditions and the interfacial properties of materials with mircroorganisms. In opposition to the traditional complexities and highly costly ‘green architecture’, BiotA explores an alternative symbiosis between buildings and nature that is more computationally sophisticated, and far less expensive for buildings in high-density cities. Members of the BiotA Lab develop unique skills that bridge innovative computational design, materials, fabrication and laboratory protocols. This makes former students and researchers highly desirable to a wide range of architectural practices and laboratories with a particular focus on computational, ecological and bio-integrated design. The cross-collaborative nature of the work allows BiotA Lab students to work both individually 60

as cutting-edge designers and also as part of teams exploring new design agendas that respond to the ever-increasing environmental challenges of cities. Work produced in the BiotA Lab is regularly exhibited and presented in international events, including Syn.de.Bio (2014); Biofabricate, New York (2015); Biosalon, London (2015) and Ecobuild, London (2016). Projects have been featured in publications such as The Atlantic, Fast Company Magazine, Houzz, Building Design magazine, Architectural Research Quaterly, and the B-Pro catalogues. BiotA Lab also works in collaboration and partnership with Grymsdyke Farm UK; ArchID Lab, University of Newcastle; C-Biom.A, IaaC Spain; as well as UCL Biochemical Engineering; UCL Institute of Making; and UCL Centre of Nature-Inspired Engineering. BiotA Lab includes students from Research Cluster 5 (RC5) and Research Cluster 7 (RC7) (including individual, group and conjoint projects), as well as PhD by Design candidates, who form part of an international network of experts in environmentally-led design and novel applications of advanced biotechnologies in architecture, while also developing externallyfunded research.

Image: BiotA Lab, ‘Computational Seeding of Bioreceptive Materials’. EPSRC funded research on bioreceptive concrete panels, exposed to a 12-month environmental testing cycle at The Bartlett School of Architecture, London.


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RC5&7

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Bio-Digital Materiality RC5: Guan Lee, Vicente Soler RC7: Professor Marcos Cruz, Richard Beckett, Christopher Leung, Javier Ruiz

RC5 students Nianhai Chen, Man Guo, Wing Yi Lau, Haroran Lyu, Rui Mei, Luis Menendez Sanchez, Tianyi Shi, Xian Shi, Xueyi Sun, Chenhao Wang, Jingya Wu, Rui Xing, Lijin Yu, Ruinan Zhang, Xuxuan Zhu

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

RC7 students Julie Hagopian, Chong Hong, Chih Hsu, Nan Huang, Qian Huang, Yuxin Jiang, Mohit Jotwani, Kooyoung Kwon, Yue Li, Xinhe Lin, Jiarui Liu, Yi Liu, Yueguang Ma, Sanika Mohite, Shiyi Sun, Zheng Tang, Zhili Wang, Yucong Xiao, Qungyue Zeng, Xinyi (Valery) Zhou Thank you to our critics Alisa Andrasek, Richard Beckett, Dr Sandra Manso Blanco, Silvia Brandi, Maite Bravo, Prof Mario Carpo, Natsai Audrey Chieza, Prof Marjan Colletti, Ruairi Glynn, Maria Kuptsova, Dr Sandra Manso, Mathilde Marengo, Areti Markopoulou, Prof FrĂŠdĂŠric Migayrou, Dr Brenda Parker, Andrew Porter Thesis supervision RC5 Ruby Law, Heatherwick Studio RC7 Paul Bavister, Dr Sandra Manso Blanco, Prof Mario Carpo, Natsai Audrey Chieza, Prof Marjan Colletti, Dr Sean Hanna, Dr Christopher Leung, Dr Brenda Parker, Peter Scully, Nick Westby Workshops Sofoklis Giannakopoulous Dr Brenda Parker

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Reseach Cluster 5 Research Cluster 5 (RC5) is interested in how experimentation with prototypes can transition into manufacturing processes at a larger scale. This year, working under BiotA Lab, we are asking questions beyond material production, and looking into the responsiveness of material in the context of wider environmental issues. Our material-driven research continues to focus on ceramic, concrete and timber. Computer-aided design and manufacturing has provided opportunities for the rethinking of design in construction. Digital controlled building technology and material research, at various scales together, have opened up rules for structures that diverge from traditional tectonics. Digital designs conceived on our computer screens are weightless and without the grain of their material structures. This aim of our research projects is not merely the mastery of digitally controlled tools, but also that of material craft, as well as the suitable synthesis of mathematical and empirical knowledge with environmental constrains. This year, our projects include robotic 3D printing and slip casting of architectural ceramic components, the role of steel reinforcement in concrete construction, and bamboo construction with 3D printed joints. Research Cluster 7 As part of a two-year investigation, this year students continued to explore bio-receptive design as a new methodological, technological and aesthetic research paradigm in architecture. Computation and digital simulations, including complex self-generative and procedural growth algorithms, were developed alongside material exploration with bioreceptive materials and analogue making to include all forms of digital fabrication. Projects started by definining a clear biological agenda focused on one or two species (such as algae, mosses, liverworts, lichens and ferns), as well as specific sites and environmental conditions. Topics this year revolved around themes including material and design engineering, environmental sustainability, new rules for structures, cell/tissue growth, novel architectural tectonics and large-scale fabrication.


Project teams RC5 Pinbamboo Tianyi Shi, Chenhao Wang, Lijin Yu Concrete Kirigami Luis Menendez Sanchez, Xueyi Sun, Wing Yi Lau, Jingya Wu Saddled Clay Man Guo, Haoran Lyu, Rui Xing, Xuxuan Zhu RC7 Bioreceptive Claycrete Chong Hong, Nan Huang, Yi Liu, Jiarui Liu Bioreceptive Calcareous Composites Yuxin Jiang, Xinhe Lin, Zhili Wang, Qungyue Zeng Hydrogel Scaffolds for Algae Proliferation Julie Hagopian, Sanika Mohite, Qian Huang, Xinyi (Valery) Zhou Multi-Scaled Environmental Variables Governing Growth Mohit Jotwani Impure Aesthetics of Bioreceptive Marble and Cork Composites Chih Hsu, Kooyoung Kwon, Shiyi Sun, Yucong Xiao RC5&RC7 Carbonated Sprayed Concrete Yue Li, Xian Shi, Zheng Tang, Ruinan Zhang Bioreceptive Tilebricks Yueguang Ma, Chen Nianhai MeiRui

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2.5 Figs. 2.1 – 2.6 Bioreceptive Tilebricks An investigation into double-sided, glazed, structural ceramic cladding (RC5/RC7). Fig. 2.1 Digital simulation of a tilebrick generated using an agent-based system. Figs. 2.2 – 2.6 Bioreceptive Calcareous Composites (RC7). The project aims to create a bio-fabrication system that utilises Magnesium Phosphate Cement-based concrete to potentiate bioreceptivity on the outer surface of the building. The work derives from 1) rigorous material testing of variable porosity and aggregate size; 2) environmental considerations based on the essence of lichen biology with a focus on solar radiation analysis; 3) geometric and surface conditions that were generated according to innovative casting techniques. Fig 2.6 Rendered image of pavilion located in the Marshlands of London. 64

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2.7 Fig. 2.7 Bioreceptive Calcareous Composites (RC7). A variety of prototypes were constructed to explore how a multi-layered casting system with different particle sizes could control water transport and retention in the components.

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2.10 Figs. 2.8 – 2.10 Bioreceptive Claycrete (RC7) Following a rigorous material study of a mixed clay and concrete composite (claycrete), the project focused on developing a wall system that promotes the growth of a varied plant ecology on its surface. The advantage of such a mix is to define a material condition that is both structural and resistant to age, as well as porous and bioreceptive for growth. Substantial wind analysis via computational fluid dynamic software allowed us to define the geometric rules of the building tectonic which was remodelled according to its varied environmental performance. The composite’s performance in retaining water was created by adding perlite as a highly absorbent, yet also ultra-light aggregate, avoiding the common problem of weight of such porous materials. 67


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0.0 2.13 Figs. 2.11 – 2.14 Bioreceptive Claycrete (RC7). A novel taxonomy of plants that grow pervasively on external walls was created with the aim to identify species, mainly ferns, with shallow roots that do not harm the material surface. These were grown and tested in vitro under controlled thermal and humidity conditions over material of different densities. The root morphology of the plants and their responsive behaviours to specific natural environments were also explored digitally, suggesting the basic morphology of the overall design. Additionally, a hybrid and novel fabrication system of 3D robotic clay extrusion over CNC milled claycrete casts allowed for a selective growth system of the wall panels, defining areas of high and low porosity, as well as smooth and rough textural variance of the surface morphology. 68


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2.14 Fig. 2.14 The fine balance of material plasticity and gravity, machine performance, and speciation defined the parameters for the overall aesthetic exuberance and depth of the wall panels.

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2.17 Figs 2.15 – 2.17 Multi-Scaled Environmental Variables Governing Growth (RC7). This project explores how the analysis and design of multi-scale environmental conditions of building surfaces can evolve strategies to develop and augment conditions suitable for the growth of bryophytes. Micro-shading of exposed surfaces by carving or extruding are used to modify these conditions based on real-world environmental and geographical data sets, including orientation, solar radiation, surface temperature and water retention/channelling. Repeated cycles of analysis, modification and simulation lead to evolving tectonics at multiple scales to elicit the desired conditions and locations for growth. 70

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Figs. 2.18 – 2.21 Hydrogel Scaffolds for Algae Proliferation (RC7). The project investigates how 3D bio-printing with hydrogels can produce bioreceptive architectural scaffolds for a pavilion structure in Camley Street Nature Park, London. Figs. 2.19 – 2.20 Hydrogel is a responsive and dynamic material that can autonomously absorb and retain water, being bio-compatible and non-toxic to algae cells. As a synthetic substance, it can be manipulated based on its chemical composition and 3-dimensionalised by means of robotic fabrication that allows to create highly complex, yet also controlled geometries. 3D bio-printing of algaeencapsulated hydrogels can therefore offer new application of possibilities and opportunities for architectural design following a top-down developmental approach wherein the

properties, capabilities, and limitations of the material are what inform the resultant component complexities. Fig. 2.21 A series of prototypes were constructed that successfully respond to climate variations and vicissitudes in the London area, serving as a suitable platform to host a variety of micro-algae on the building’s surface.

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Figs. 2.22 – 2.26 Impure Aesthetics of Bioreceptive Marble and Cork Composites (RC7). The research was developed via intense computational growth simulations that generated a complex surface warping, leading to a varied typology of fissures, protrusions, crevices and ridges. These formations were materialised in form of casts with concrete composites that included marble and cork powder, defining a diverse gradient of smooth and rough textural conditions. Fig. 2.25 The building project focused on the design of a contemporary grotto for biological growth that promotes a special sense of intimacy through its acoustic qualities in the landscape. The overall 3-dimensionality and depth of the surface with its tectonic conglobulation is conceived in relation to the aesthetics of marble (pure) and cork (impure).

Fig. 2.26 The grotto is subdivided in panels that integrate a multitude of surface geometries. The linear striation of vertical patterns on the top and centre of the panels promotes the irrigation of water in lower areas where the depth of crevices and protrusions enhance the absorption and retention of moisture. The morphological coagulating of matter defines ideal spaces for liverworts to proliferate, while encouraging the absorption of sound in the intimate areas of the building.

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2.28 Figs. 2.27 – 2.29 Bioreceptive Tilebricks An investigation into double-sided, glazed, structural ceramic cladding (RC5/ RC7). The tilebricks are made of clay with an appropriate pH and porosity level to absorb and retain water for moss growth. The clay has soda added to specific areas to create differentiated glazed surfaces when the components are fired in a kiln. Areas of glazed and non-glazed areas define zones that inhibit or enhance the bio-colonisation of the component’s complex surface. Fig. 2.29 The project focuses on the design and fabrication of a bioreceptive wall to be located at Grymsdyke Farm in Oxfordshire. A variety of tilebricks were digitally simulated and generated via agent-based systems with an artificial flocking structure that followed the environmental analyses of the site.

The resulting surface morphologies aim at potentiating moss growth on specific areas of the components.

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2.31 Figs. 2.30 – 2.31 Bioreceptive Tilebricks An investigation into double-sided, glazed, structural ceramic cladding (RC5/ RC7). To manufacture the tilebricks, a novel and rather complex casting system was developed in which 38 separately milled plaster components creating the overall mould for the casts. Fig. 2.32 Carbonated Sprayed Concrete (RC5/RC7). A study into asymmetric catenary structures. An extensive study of catenary structures defined the formal basis of the work, being later reinterpreted and remodelled through digital branching simulations. These investigations defined the overall building anatomy with both linear and porous aggregate geometries that were 3D printed and sprayed with concrete.

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2.34 Figs. 2.33 – 2.35 Carbonated Sprayed Concrete (RC5/RC7). A study into asymmetric catenary structures. Junctions and domes of digital catenary systems are augmented through environmentally driven simulations to evolve symmetrical orders towards asymmetric tectonics using agent-based systems. Fig. 2.34 Asymmetric Catenary systems create a series of continuous arched spaces that define roof conditions as parabolic geometries. Fig. 2.35 The project is centred on the design of columns and a roof structure for one of the ruins of Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire. The porosity of the ceiling and the corresponding light penetration heightens the atmospheric power of the ruin.

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2.37 Figs.2.36 – 2.38 Saddled Clay Structural porosity in architectural ceramics and glass (RC5). The overall pattern is generated as a sinusoidal grid with changes in amplitude following noise function. The grid cells are clustered into components using nearest neighbour logic on an overlaid pseudo-random point cloud of homogeneous density. Fig. 2.37 A robotic 3D printing toolpath is designed from scratch around the material properties of clay. Clay viscosity, drying time and brittleness are all taken into account to achieve the cleanest extrusion. Fig. 2.38 The geometry is designed to the limits of the material constraints. Doublecurved saddle surfaces are used to maximise the amount of cantilevered material without collapsing. 84


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2.40 0.0 Figs. 2.39 – 2.41 Saddled Clay Structural porosity in architectural ceramics and glass (RC5). Two-part glazing process, chun base and basic chun. Tourmaline also added for more variations in colour. Fig.2.41 The saddled geometries here are adapted to a polygonal grid (Hexagons and Pentagons) of a spherical dome. Each component is unique despite their similarities. The saddle surfaces in between the components are structurally efficient and allow for intricate porosity. The overall pattern is generated as a sinusoidal grid with changes in amplitude following noise function. The grid cells are clustered into components using nearest neighbour logic on an overlaid pseudo-random point cloud of homogeneous density.

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2.43 Figs.2.42 – 2.43 Saddled Clay Structural porosity in architectural ceramics and glass (RC5). This glazed ceramic component shows a cast glass element inserted within. The mould for the glass is produced with the robotic arm in order to generate texture consistent with the layered and contoured ceramic counterpart. Fig.2.43 This image shows the application of our robotically manufactured architectural ceramic and glass installed as a large-scale semi outdoor promenade in London’s Camden Market. Fig.2.44 Concrete Kirigami Lightweight and modular sprayed cement architecture (RC5). The bending process of the trimmed metal sheet is computationally simulated to preview the final geometry of the two-dimensional pattern. 88


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2.46 Figs 2.45 – 2.48 Concrete Kirigami Lightweight and modular sprayed cement architecture (RC5). Figs 2.45 – 2.47 The concrete spraying process is first simulated using the level sets method. This allows us to predict the final look of the design depending on the amount of material sprayed. It also helps understand how the details of the original pattern affect the particle accumulation. Fig. 2.48 Component variations are generated by changing both the bi-dimensional pattern and the amount of bending. On every location, the type of component is programmatically selected following a rule set that defines changes in density, opacity and thickness throughout the overall design.

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2.51 Figs. 2.49 – 2.52 Pinbamboo Customised 3D joints in bamboo construction (RC5). Design sketches for a bamboo structure. The curvature of the members is digitally simulated to reflect their actual behaviour when subjected to an active bending load. Fig.2.50 The nature of this design requires unique joints between members. These are parametrically generated following the tangent vectors of the adjoining members and 3D printed. Figs. 2.51 – 2.52 The modular component adapts to the overall geometry respecting fabrication constraints. For example, to adapt to a smaller areas, only the curvature is increased by changing the relative joint positions while keeping member lengths constant.

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Interactive Architecture Lab #softerarch

Ruairi Glynn, Vincent Huyghe

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Students Ava Aghakouchak, John Russell Beaumont, Somya Chaturvedi, Juncheng Chen, Bahnfun (Darcy) Chittmittrapap, Siyuan Jing, Alexander Kendall White, Hyo Yeon (Hannah) Kim, Maria Paneta, Takashi Torisu, Haavard Tveito, Menglin (Ariel) Wang, Yiyi Wang, Xiaoxuan (Lydia) Zhou

The Interactive Architecture Lab is a multidisciplinary research cluster interested in the behaviour and interaction of things, environments and their inhabitants. Areas of focus include Adaptive Responsive Environments, Kinetic Design and Robotics, Multi-Sensory Interfaces, the Internet of Things, Performance and Choreography, and Biological and Material Computation. Each year’s theme, described below, is intended to drive early research exploration and the development of core skills. However, the studio actively encourages students to break out and over the course of the year develop their own research agendas.

Teaching assistants Kaspar Althoefer, William Bondin, William Victor Camilleri, Ersinhan Ersin, Julie Freeman, Dominik Koller, Francois Mangion, Helge Wurdemann

Brief This year we have softened the perceived boundaries between the body and our built environment. Through the design of physical and virtual installations we have explored material and immaterial approaches to what a soft architecture can be. A number of recent technological developments have led our exploration.

Thanks to our critics and consultants Foteini Aravani, Paul Bavister, Bastian Beyer, Georger Bull, Marina Castan, Benjamin Custance, Carole Collet, Delfina Fantini van Ditmar, Paulien Dresscher, Behnaz Farahi, Anne Frobeen, Stephen Gage, Jon Goodbun, Chris Green, Josef Hargrave, Andy Hudson-Smith, Clara Jo, Mária Júdová, Megan Kieran, Sebastian Kite, Rolf Knudsen, Siuli Ko, Samantha Lee, Tim Lucas, Elisa Magnini, Veronica Gomes Natividade, Bakul Patki, Richard Roberts, Carmen Salas Pino, Michael Straeubig, Chryssa Varna, Matt Wade, Rich Walker, Philip Wilck, Duncan Wilson, Rachel Wingfield, Marc Winklhofer We are grateful to our partners Marshmallow Laser Feast, UCL Mechanical Engineering Soft Haptics Lab

Soft Robotics The future of robotics is soft. Improvements in flexible and programmable materials are literally re-shaping robotics away from typically rigid structures driven by servomotor systems, towards more fluid and responsive mechanics inspired by nature. Virtual Reality The indivisible relationship between our visual-auditory experience of virtual space and our somatic sensory body grounded in physical space is fractured by VR technologies. We have examined ways to bridge the virtual and physical, building mixed realities where both immaterial and material worlds interact. Artificial Intelligence In the search for a softer body to architecture, we have explored the soft architecture of the human brain, studying the nature of ‘thinking’ through cybernetic theory and experiments in computational neuroethology. 2016 Artists in Residence We have had the pleasure of collaborating with one of the UK’s leading creative studios. Marshmallow Laser Feast are famous for producing groundbreaking work at the intersection of art and cutting-edge technology. Recent work has focused on creating spatial experiences between the virtual and the real, pushing creative and technical boundaries. Their work ranges from real-time animations and large-scale interactive installations to live events and performances. www.interactivearchitecture.org

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Figs. 3.1 – 3.5 John Russell Beaumont, Haavard Tveito, Takashi Torisu ‘The Palimpsest’. Fig. 3.1 Through The Palimpsest, St James’ Gardens become a collective memory for discussions of the future of London. The impression of a conversation remains visible in The Palimpsest on Drummond Street. The cover image shows the impression of a conversation visible in The Palimpsest presenting Drummond Street as its context. Fig. 3.2 Visitors using custom-made Google Tango VR headsets during the ‘We Are Now Festival’ at the Roundhouse, London, May 2016. Fig. 3.3 Kinetic Depth Camera interviews with local community recorded and implanted into the Palimpsest. Fig. 3.4 An example of how a personal narrative recorded in 3D and a scan of an apartment slated for demolition would appear in The Palimpsest.

Fig. 3.5 A composite image of the physical and digital worlds of the park overlaid. Impressions of the proposed HS2 train station at Euston appear alongside a collage of personal stories.

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3.6 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

3.7 Figs. 3.6 – 3.7 Bahnfun (Darcy) Chittmittrapap ‘Syntony’. Fig. 3.6 Detail drawing of components of a single unit of the Syntony ecology. Each unit rotates around a central axis driven by servo motors and a microcontroller. A large front parabolic dish projects sound between multiple units. A smaller rotating dish at the back acts as a sound collector with a built in microphone. Figs. 3.7 Installation of multiple units communicating with each other through sound. Projected lights signal the transfer vectors of information. Visitors to the installation can interact by interfering in the sonic network causing kinetic reconfigurations of the space. Figs. 3.8 – 3.9 ‘Flux’ for ‘We Are Now Festival’ designed and built by Alex Kendall White, audio control coding and recording by Bahnfun (Darcy) Chittmittrapap. Fig. 3.8 Section through 98

Installation installed at the Roundhouse in Camden wearenowfestival.org. Curators Megan Kieran & Adrienne Miller of the Royal Central School of Speech & Drama. Fig. 3.9 Audio Installation suspended in Roundhouse Lobby area. Photo Credits: ‘We Are Now Festival’. Special Thanks to the support of The Bartlett’s Architecture Projects Fund.


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Figs. 3.10 – 3.17 Juncheng Chen, Siyuan Jing, Xiaoxuan (Lydia) Zhou ‘Golem’. Figs. 3.10 – 3.11 The project explores possibilities in mobile structures by investigating various strategies for locomotion. Inspired by Theo Jansen’s mechanisms designed for walking movements, the approach of Golem is to design lightweight, low-cost and sustainable mobile structures, using air as the main energy input. As part of the development of Golem, workshops were run on our field trip to Brazil where the kit was shared with two leading schools of architecture, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo da Universidade de São Paulo. Fig. 3.12 ‘Golem-Kit’ is made up of opensource 3D printed parts and laser cut MDF. The low-cost open approach allows people to share designs, hack and propose new parts.

As the Golem kit progresses a larger ecology of parts will develop. More details can be found at www.golemkit.org. Fig. 3.13 ‘Golem Cube’. The robot can achieve locomotion by altering its form to shift its centre of gravity. One ‘step’ follows a specific actuation sequence of air muscles. An autonomous air pump system with solar panels is located at the core of the structure to provide energy.

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3.15 The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

3.16 Figs. 3.14 – 3.17 ‘Golem RONomad’. Inspired by Ron Herron’s Walking City (1964), Rodney Brooks’ Genghis robot (1989) and walking morphologies in biological systems, the architectural scale walking structure consists of six ‘legs’ connected to a main body which functions as a shelter. Mobility is achieved by actuating the 6 ‘legs’ to generate biomorphic walking movements. The ‘legs’ and ’body’ can break down to individual modules with the same compositions assembled by the Golem-Kit. Each ‘leg’ has same range of movements in multiple degrees of freedom, and the same sequence of actuation in alternating orders, generating biomorphic gaits to achieve mobility.

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3.19 Figs. 3.18 – 3.21 Somya Chaturvedi, Menglin (Ariel) Wang ‘Phyxelbots’. Fig. 3.18 Coupling digital information spaces with physically transformable environments. Digital worlds or virtual spaces have great capabilities to demonstrate emergent and generative behaviour within their own discrete worlds, but this often remains disconnected to the physical world we live in. Phyxelbots aims to bridge this gap by connecting digital and physical worlds using the generative qualities of virtual spaces to inform our physical spaces. Fig. 3.19 Diagram explaining the layered internal mechanisms of the Phyxelbots mechatronics. Fig. 3.20 Layered construction of the internal electronics of a Phyxelbot. Fig. 3.21 Configuring four modules into a collective formation with colour projection. 104

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Figs. 3.22 – 3.25 Ava Aghakouchak, Maria Paneta ‘Sarotis’. Fig. 3.22 Wearable soft robotics experiments with fluidic channelling to speculate on chemical interfaces between prosthetics and the body. Fig. 3.23 Sarotis Kit. The kit consists of three silicone prosthetic attachments, a 3D scanning device and an actuation mechanism. The prosthetic pieces attached to the neck and legs are actuated based on the scan constructed by the 3D scanning device. The scans control the state of the air pumping system which drives the inflation and deflation of the silicone pieces channels. Fig. 3.24 Sarotis maps a low-res image of the environment by the pressure of its soft material on the user’s skin creating an amplifier of spatial awareness. Fig. 3.25 Exploded Drawing of Mechanism. Drawing of the internal structure and electronics of the

actuation belt consisting of nine blood pressure micro air pumps, nine micro solenoids, Arduino microcontroller, Bluetooth communication module and batteries. Fig. 3.26 Hyoyeon (Hannah) Kim, Yiyi Wang ‘Soft Optics’. An installation exploring the effects of the softness of light and inflatable objects to construct space. Fifty nine soft panels around a geodesic sphere structure support the suspension of iridescent inflatable spheres that create a range of different effects of light and visual perception for the observers.

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Image: B-Pro Show 2015


AD Staff Biographies

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Professor Frédéric Migayrou B-Pro Director Frédéric Migayrou is Chair, Bartlett Professor of Architecture at The Bartlett School of Architecture and Deputy Director of the MNAM-CCI (Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre de Création Industrielle) at the Centre Pompidou Paris. He was founder of the FRAC Center Collection and of ArchiLab, the international festival of Prospective Architecture in Orléans. Apart from recent publications and exhibitions (De Stijl, Centre Pompidou, 2011; La Tendenza, Centre Pompidou 2012; Bernard Tschumi, Centre Pompidou 2013; Frank Gehry, Centre Pompidou 2014; Le Corbusier, Centre Pompidou 2015), he was curator of Non Standard Architectures at the Centre Pompidou in 2003, the first exposition devoted to architecture, computation and fabrication. More recently, he co-organised the exhibition Naturalising Architecture (ArchiLab, Orléans 2013), presenting prototypes and commissions by 40 teams of architects working with new generative computational tools, defining new interrelations between materiality, biotechnology and fabrication. In 2012 he founded B-Pro, The Bartlett’s umbrella structure for post-professional architecture programmes.

Andrew Porter B-Pro Deputy Director Andrew Porter studied at The Bartlett School of Architecture, winning the Banister Fletcher Medal and the RIBA Silver Medal for his graduation project. He has collaborated on projects with Sir Peter Cook and Christine Hawley CBE, and was the project architect for the Gifu Housing project in Japan. He practices with Abigail Ashton as Ashton Porter Architects and has completed a number of award-winning commissions in the UK as well as prizewinning competitions in the UK and abroad. Andrew is co-tutor of The Bartlett’s MArch Architecture Unit 21, has been a visiting Professor at the Staedel Academy, Frankfurt and guest critic at SCI-Arc, Los Angeles and Parsons New School, New York. Alisa Andrasek MArch AD Programme Leader, Wonderlab Director, RC1 Tutor Alisa Andrasek is a director of Biothing and Bloom Games. She is a Reader at The Bartlett, and Professor at the European Graduate School. She has taught at the Architectural Association (AA), Columbia, Pratt, UPenn and RMIT. Her work has been exhibited at the Centre Pompidou, Paris; New Museum, New York; Storefront, New York; FRAC, Orleans; and TB-A21, Vienna. She curated exhibitions for the Beijing Biennial 2006, 2008 and 2010, and is a co-curator of the PROTO/E/ CO/LOCICS Symposium in Rovinj, Croatia. Dağhan Çam Wonderlab RC1 Tutor Dağhan Çam is a teaching fellow at The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL, conducting research on robotic fabrication and parallel algorithms with GPU computing. He is also the co-founder and CEO of Ai Build, a London based startup developing Artificial Intelligence and Additive Manufacturing technologies. Previously he worked at Zaha Hadid Architects. He holds a masters degree with Distinction from the Architectural Association.

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Andy Lomas Wonderlab RC1 Tutor Andy Lomas is a mathematician, Emmy awardwinning CG supervisor and digital artist. His artwork explores how complex geometries can be created by simulating growth processes. He has had work exhibited widely including at the ZKM, the Royal Academy and the Royal Society. Production credits include the Matrix: Reloaded, Matrix: Revolutions and Avatar.

Gilles Retsin Wonderlab RC4 Tutor Gilles Retsin is the founder of Gilles Retsin Architecture, an award-winning London based architecture and design practice, investigating new architectural models that engage with the potential of increased computational power and fabrication to generate buildings and objects with a previously unseen structure, detail and materiality. He graduated from the Architectural Association Design Research Lab in London. Prior to founding his own practice, he worked in Switzerland with Christian Kerez. His work has been exhibited internationally, and is part of the collection of the Centre Pompidou in Paris.

Soomeen Hahm Wonderlab RC6 Tutor Soomeen Hahm is founder of SoomeenHahm Design, a London-based firm focusing on architectural design, research and education. Her work focuses on the changing paradigm of architectural design thinking under the impact of increasing computational power. She specialises in designing through the use of coding, digital simulations and 3D modeling. Igor Pantic Wonderlab RC4 Tutor Igor Pantic is currently working as a lead designer for Zaha Hadid Architects. He graduated from the AADRL, and has previously taught computational courses in the UK and internationally. His current interests are focused on the exploration of generative design methodologies and research into material and behavioral systems informed by algorithmic logic. Stefan Bassing Wonderlab RC4 Tutor Since graduating from the State Academy of Fine Arts, Stuttgart, Stefan Bassing has been working with renowned practices including Zaha Hadid Architects and Ross Lovegrove. His work focuses on contemporary design methodologies involving 113

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Manuel Jiménez García Wonderlab RC4 Tutor Manuel Jiménez García is a registered architect in UK and Spain and the founder and director of MadMDesign, a London-based research practice, focused on the integration of computational methods and digital fabrication. He is also co-director of Nanami Design, a robotic manufacturing startup based in Madrid and London. Alongside his practice, Manuel is currently a design tutor on AD Research Cluster 4 and MArch Architecture Unit 19 at The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL. He is also curator of the Bartlett Computational Plexus.

Daniel Widrig Wonderlab RC6 Tutor Daniel Widrig founded his studio in London in 2009. After graduating from the Architectural Association Daniel worked for several years with Zaha Hadid where he was significantly involved in designing some of Hadid’s most iconic buildings and products. His studio now works in a broad range of fields including art, fashion design and architecture. He has received international critical acclaim and has been published and exhibited internationally. He is a recipient of the Swiss Arts Award, Feidad Merit Award and the Rome Prize.


computation and progressive technologies responding to architecture and design at a multiplicity of scales.

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Professor Marcos Cruz BiotA Lab Director, RC7 Tutor Marcos Cruz is Professor of Innovative Environments and Director of BiotA Lab at The Bartlett. He has developed an extensive career as a researcher and educator, having led MArch Unit 20 for over 17 years. In addition to holding the Directorship of The Bartlett (2010-14), he has also taught at UCLA, University of Westminster and is currently Visiting Professor at the IaaC Barcelona. Cruz has published and lectured widely and is co-founder of the architecture practice marcosandmarjan. His research on Neoplasmatic Architecture won the RIBA’s Research Award in 2008. He is currently Principal Investigator of an EPSRC-funded ‘Design the Future’ research project entitled ‘Computational Seeding of Bioreceptive Materials’. Richard Beckett BiotA Lab Director, RC7 Tutor Richard Beckett is a Lecturer and Co-director of BiotA Lab at The Bartlett, currently working on an EPSRC funded project ‘Computational Seeding of Biorecpetive Materials’. He has a multidisciplinary background in biochemistry before going on to study and teach architecture at UCL. His investigations into architecture have remained cross-disciplinary, focusing on the contemporary discussion on digital architecture and novel fabrication alongside the impact of biotechnology on architecture and more specifically, investigations into the use of living or semi-living materials in our built environment. Christopher Leung BiotA Lab RC7 Tutor Christopher Leung is an architect trained at The Bartlett, earning a doctorate from UCL for 114

work on passive thermal actuators for the environmental control of buildings. He has expertise in design and physics modelling of environment-to-material exchanges of water and energy through original work as a researcher on the EPSRC ‘Computational Seeding’ project with Professor Marcos Cruz. Javier Ruiz BiotA Lab RC7 Tutor Javier Ruiz is a design tutor at The Bartlett where he develops computational techniques and design strategies for experimentation in architecture. He has previously worked at Grimshaw Architects, Foster + Partners, CRAB Studio (Sir Peter Cook + Gavin Robotham) and Eralonso Arquitectos. He has also collaborated with marcosandmarjan. Guan Lee BiotA Lab RC5 Tutor Guan Lee is an architect, lecturer, and director of Grymsdyke Farm. He studied at McGill University, Montreal, the AA, and The Bartlett, where he completed his doctoral studies on the relationship between architectural craft, making and site. In his own practice he explores digital fabrication in conjunction with hands-on building processes using a range of materials, including clay, concrete and plaster. Vincente Soler BiotA Lab RC5 Tutor Vicente Soler graduated in architecture from the European University of Madrid. He specialises in computational architecture, generative design and robotics applied to architecture. He has worked with several architectural offices, including AMID.Cero9* and has lectured internationally, including at University of San Sebastian, San Pablo CEU University, the COAMU (Association of architects of Murcia), and the European University of Madrid.


Staff Biographies

computational design research, robotic assembly and fabrication methods and technologies.

Vincent Huyghe Interactive Architecture Lab RC3 Tutor Vincent Huyghe is a Belgian architect specialising in computational design and robotic fabrication. He obtained a Masters in Advanced Architecture at IAAC followed by a Master of Adaptive Architecture and Computation at The Bartlett. He gained professional experience in the field while employed at Robofold. Professional areas of interest are robotics, automation, scripting and software development, digital fabrication, micro-controllers and electronics.

Lisa Cumming RC6 Report Tutor Lisa Cumming currently works with Wilkinson Eyre. She graduated with a Masters in Architecture and Urbanism from the Architectural Association’s Design Research Laboratory with a focus on adaptive architectural environments. Lisa gained her BArch (Hons) in New Zealand and has tutored and practiced within architecture in both New Zealand and the UK.

Professor Stephen Gage Report Coordinator Stephen Gage studied at the AA and has worked in the UK and California. He has taught at The Bartlett since 1993, where he is Professor of Innovative Architecture. He has been an external examiner at The University of the Arts and the University of Liverpool; he is part of the RIBA architectural course validation panel. Mollie Claypool RC1 & RC4 History & Theory Tutor Mollie Claypool is a Lecturer in Architecture at The Bartlett School of Architecture, where she co-directs the BSc Architecture RIBA/ARB Part 1 course and runs MArch Architecture Unit 19. She is a historian, designer and educator with interests in

Natsai Chieza RC7 Report Tutor Natsai Audrey Chieza is a design researcher working at the intersection of Design Innovation and Biotechnology, exploring how the life sciences can enable new design and craft processes for a post-fossil fuel environmental paradigm. She holds a degree in Architectural Design from the University of Edinburgh, and a Masters in Material Futures from Central Saint Martins.

Ruby Law RC5 Report Tutor Ruby Law is a Designer working at Heatherwick Studio. She studied and practiced architecture in Hong Kong, Beijing, and Massachusetts before graduating from The Bartlett. She is interested in digital fabrication and material engineering. Her work has been exhibited in Hong Kong, Rome, Venice and London. Fiona Zisch RC3 Report Tutor Fiona Zisch is a researcher and lecturer at the University of Innsbruck and the University of Westminster. She is finishing a transdisciplinary PhD by Design in architecture and neuroscience at UCL. Her research focuses on how neural mechanisms represent space and construct architectural experience. 115

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Ruairi Glynn Interactive Architecture Lab RC3 Leader Ruairi Glynn is Director of the Interactive Architecture Lab and a practising artist and researcher. He’s co-founder of the Fabricate Conference series and has taught internationally at ETH, Zurich; TU, Delft; The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Denmark and the Angewandte, Vienna. He has exhibited his work at Tate Modern London, Centre Pompidou Paris and National Art Museum of China Beijing. He also works commercially with clients including Twitter, Nike, Lego, Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Arup, and BuroHappold.


Bartlett Staff, Visitors & Consultants

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

A Wes Aelbrecht Ala Alfakara Visiting Prof Robert Aish Dr Kinda Al Sayed Abeer Al Said Laura Allen Kit Allsopp Gregoria Astengo Sebastian Andia Alisa Andrasek Sabina Andron Edwina Attlee Bartek Arendt Abigail Ashton B Julia Backhaus Mark Ballard Stefan Bassing Scott Batty Paul Bavister Richard Beckett Johan Berglund Dr Doreen Bernath Prof Peter Bishop Izzy Blackburn Isaïe Bloch William Bondin Prof Iain Borden Shumi Bose Roberto Bottazzi Andy Bow Matthew Bowles Eva Branscome Thea Brezank Pascal Bronner Giulio Brugnaro Mark Burgess Bim Burton Matthew Butcher

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C Dr Graham Cairns Dağhan Cam Blanche Cameron Ben Campkin Tina Di Carlo William Camilleri Prof Mario Carpo Dr Brent Carnell Martyn Carter Eray Cayli Martyn Carter Megha Chand Prof Nat Chard Laura Cherry Izaskun Chinchilla Moreno Dr Evengelia Chrysikou Mollie Claypool Dr Marjan Colletti Emeritus Prof Peter Cook RA Roger Courtney Paul Crudge Prof Marcos Cruz D Dr Edward Denison Bernadette Devilat Dr Ashley Dhanani Paul Dobraszczyk Inigo Dodd Oliver Domeisen Elizabeth Dow E Dr Eve Eylers F Ava Fatah gen Schieck Bernd Felsinger Peter Ferguson Pedro Font Alba Zachary Fluker

Emma Flynn Prof Adrian Forty Colin Fournier Sara Franceschelli John Fraser Prof Murray Fraser Daisy Froud G Prof Stephen Gage Jean Garrett Stelios Giamarelos Visiting Prof Nicholas Grimshaw Visiting Prof Joseph Grima Emer Girling Ruairi Glynn Dr Jon Goodbun Kevin Green Adam Greenfield Dr Sam Griffiths Kostas Grigoriadis Peter Guillery H Michael Hadi Soomeen Hahm James Hampton Dr Sean Hanna Tamsin Hanke Usman Haque Dr Penelope Haralambidou Prof Christine Hawley Colin Herperger Prof Jonathan Hill Visiting Prof Dan Hill Prof Bill Hillier Thomas Hillier Bill Hodgson Tom Holberton Stephen Howson Beth Hughes

Dr Anne Hultzsch Francesca Hughes Vincent Hughe Maxwell Hutchinson I Damjan Iliev Jessica In Platon Issaias J Michal Jablonksi Nannette Jackowski Carlos Jiménez Cenamor Manuel Jimenez Garcia Steve Johnson Helen Jones Mikella Johnson K Dr Kayvan Karimi Mara-Sophia Kanthak Jonathan Kendall Simon Kennedy Anne Kershen Xavier de Kestelier David Kirsch Fani Kostourou Gergely Kovács Sofia Krimizi Dirk Krolikowski L Chee-Kit Lai Felipe Lanuza Justin Lau Eli Lee Dr Guan Lee Stefan Lengen Lucy Leonard Dr Christopher Leung Ifigeneia Liangi


Staff, Visitors & Consultants

Prof CJ Lim Olga Linardou Enriqueta Llabres Andy Lomas Alvaro Lopez Tim Lucas Michelle Lukins Segerström

N Jack Newton O Jamie O’Brien Brian O’Reilly James O’Leary Bernie Ococ Luke Olsen Ricardo de Ostos Jakub Owczarek P Dr Garyfalia Palaiologou

R Robert Randall Eva Ravnborg Dr Peg Rawes Luis Rego Dr Aileen Reid Sophie Read Prof Jane Rendell Gilles Retsin Harriet Richardson Eduardo Rico Ian Ridley Aleksandrina Rizova Gavin Robotham Indigo Rohrer Dr Jonathan Rokem Javier Ruiz Stefan Rutzinger S Dr Kerstin Sailer Dr Sahed Saleem Prof Andrew Saint Kristina Schinegger Carina Schneider

Peter Scully Dr Tania Sengupta Dr Miguel Serra Sara Shafiei Prof Bob Sheil Naz Siddique Colin Skeete Paul Smoothy Mark Smout Vicente Soler Camila Sotomayor Brian Stater Emmanouil Stavrakakis Dr Kimberley Steed German John Steadman Dimitri Stefanescu Tijana Stevanovic Rachel Stevenson Catrina Stewart Chris Stutz Sabine Storp Michiko Sumi T Martin Tang Dr Lusine Tarkhanyan Huda Tayob Philip Temple Colin Thom Michael Tite Victor Torrance Freddy Tuppen Tomas Tvarijonas

W Susan Ware Barry Wark Bill Watts Peter Webb Patrick Weber Nick Westby Mark Whitby Andrew Whiting Daniel Widrig Finn Williams Graeme Williamson Meredith Wilson Dr Robin Wilson Oliver Wilton Katy Wood Y Umat Yamac Michelle Young Z Paolo Zaide Emmanouil Zaroukas Stamtios Zografos

V Dr Angie Vanhoozer Dr Tasos Varoudis Melis Van Den Berg Viktoria Viktorija Nina Vollenbröker Prof Laura Vaughan

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M Visiting Prof John Macarthur Dr Abel Maciel Dr Yeoryia Manolopoulou Jonathan Martin Maximo Martinez Adriana Massidda Emma-Kate Matthews Prof Níall McLaughlin Jeremy Melvin Josep Miàs Stoll Michael Bartlett Prof Frédéric Migayrou Jeffrey Miller Tom Mole Ana Monrabal-Cook

Igor Pantic Jacob Paskins Claudia Pasquero Thomas Pearce Luke Pearson Prof Alan Penn Dr Barbara Penner Godofredo Pereira Victoria Perry Frederik Petersen Mads Petersen Simon Pilling Frosso Pimenides Maj Plemenitas Kim van Poeteren Andrew Porter Arthur Prior Sophia Psarra


Bartlett Lectures

The Donaldson Lecture The Donaldson Lecture is a major new annual lecture that aims to draw links between the built environment and the wider world. The lecture is named after Thomas Leverton Donaldson, who in 1841 became UCL’s first Chair in Architecture, one of the first in the UK, founding what later became The Bartlett School of Architecture.

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

The inaugural Donaldson Lecture was delivered by award-winning artist Grayson Perry CBE in January 2016 at Conway Hall. The Bartlett International Lecture Series The Bartlett International Lecture Series features speakers from across the world. Lectures in the series are open to the public and free to attend. This year’s speakers included: Fabrizio Barozzi + Alberta Veiga Caroline Bos Mario Carpo James Corner Sou Fujimoto Adam Greenfield Charles Jencks Mitchell Joachim Asif Khan Amanda Levete María Langarita + Víctor Navarro Níall McLaughlin Sheila O’Donnell + John Toumey Dave Pigram Peg Rawes Jenny Sabin Michael Silver Endo Shuhei Richard Wilson Pier Vittorio Aureli The Bartlett International Lecture Series is generously supported by the Fletcher Priest Trust

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A range of smaller lecture series attracted a wide range of speakers, including: Bartlett Plexus Isaïe Bloch, Shajay Bhooshan, Carlos Conceição, Alessio Erioli, Ruairi Glynn, Evan Greenberg, Hyunchul Kwon, Daniel Köhler, Alicia Nahmad, Filippo Nassetti, Raffael Petrovic, Sille Pihlak + Siim Tuksam, Davide Quayola, Gilles Retsin, Aleksandrina Rizova, Kristina Schinegger, David Sheldon-Hicks, Kibwe Tavares, Thomas Tvarijonas, Adam Vukmanov, Anouk Wipprecht Situating Architecture Adrian Forty, Hélène Frichot, Michelle Provoost, Peter Guillery, Colin Thom, Rodrigo Firmino, Daniel M Abramson


Sir Banister Fletcher Visiting Professorship

Joseph Grima is an architect, writer and researcher based between New York and Genoa. He is a partner at Space Caviar, an architecture and research studio based in Genoa, Italy, operating at the intersection of design, technology, politics and the public realm, and director of the Ideas City program at the New Museum of Contemporary Art in New York. He was previously the editor-in-chief of Domus magazine and director of Storefront for Art and Architecture. In 2014 he was appointed co-curator of the first Chicago Architecture Biennial, the largest exhibition of contemporary architecture in the history of North America. He has taught and lectured widely at universities in Europe, Asia and America, including Strelka Institute of Media, Architecture and Design in Moscow under the direction of Rem Koolhaas. He is currently a Unit Master at the Architectural Association. As part of their Visiting Professorship at The Bartlett School of Architecture Joseph Grima and Dan Hill will give two Sir Banister Fletcher Lectures and run two week-long studios with MArch Urban Design students, around the theme of ‘The Incomplete City’ with Marco Ferrari, exploring adaptive, iterative approaches to urban design, planning and development.

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Sir Banister ‘Flight’ Fletcher (1866–1953) was an English architect and architectural historian. He trained at King’s College London and University College London, and joined his father’s practice (also Sir Banister Fletcher) in 1884, also studying at the Royal Academy Schools, the Architectural Association, and the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris. Father and son co-authored the seminal textbook A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method. In his will, he left a bequest to The Bartlett School of Architecture inaugurating an annual student prize, the Sir Banister Fletcher Prize Medal, in memory of his father, brother and himself, and a bequest to provide funds for an academic chair, now inaugurated as a Visiting Professorship. This year’s Sir Banister Fletcher Visiting Professors are Joseph Grima and Dan Hill. Dan Hill is an Associate Director at Arup, where he is Head of Arup Digital Studio. A designer and urbanist, Hill has previously held leadership positions at Fabrica in Italy, SITRA in Finland, Arup in Australia, and Future Cities Catapult, Monocle and the BBC in the UK. Dan is also an adjunct professor in Design and Communication at RMIT University (Melbourne) and in Architecture at UTS (Sydney), and has taught at Goldsmiths, University of London, Politecnico di Milano, University of Sydney, Aalto University, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and many others. Published writing includes Dark Matter & Trojan Horses: A Strategic Design Vocabulary (Strelka Press, 2012), as well as numerous pieces for books, journals, magazines and websites, including Architectural Design journal, Volume, Domus, A+U and Dezeen. He has produced the groundbreaking and highly influential blog City of Sound since 2001.


22 Gordon Street

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

This year, The Bartlett School of Architecture will return to 22 Gordon Street (formerly Wates House) on UCL’s Bloomsbury Campus. The £30 million refurbishment and extension, carried out as part of UCL’s Bloomsbury Campus Refurbishments project, will provide additional space and a completely new environment and home for the School. The new building will have additional floors, an expansion to the south side of the building, brand new studios, new social and cafe areas, a contemporary exhibition space and expanded workshops. Architect: Hawkins\Brown Contractor: Gilbert Ash

Image: 22 Gordon Street. Photo by Paul Smoothy 120

An official Opening Party is planned for December 2016 as part of the School’s Bartlett 175 celebrations. For more information about the 22 Gordon Street refurbishment, visit the Bartlett Space website. bit.ly/bartlettspace #Bartlettspace


Here East

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

At 1.2 million square foot in London’s Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, Here East is one of London’s most exciting new developments. A home for individuals and companies that range from start-ups to some of the most well-known organisations both in the UK and globally, Here East offers unparalleled new infrastructure for both innovation and excellence. In 2016, UCL took over 4,000 square metres of studio space at Here East, which will be used to undertake groundbreaking research in areas including architecture, infrastructure, transport, robotics, healthcare, manufacturing and environmental measurement. The Bartlett, UCL’s Faculty of the Built Environment, and UCL Engineering will be expanding into these premises in mid-2017.

Here East will be the base for four exciting new programmes: MArch Design for Manufacture MArch Design for Performance & Interaction MA Situated Practice MEng Engineering & Architectural Design The scale of The Bartlett at Here East will enable UCL to strengthen its interdisciplinary research and teaching, as well as promote greater engagement with the local community, in advance of the opening of UCL East at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park in 2019.

Image: Here East at Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. CGI by Hawkins\Brown 121


New Programme

MEng Engineering & Architectural Design

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Affiliated practices and institutes AKT II, Arup, BuroHappold, CIBSE (Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers), EI (Energy Institute), Feilden Clegg Bradley Studios, Foster + Partners, Hoare Lea Consulting Engineers, ICE (Institution of Civil Engineers), IStructE (Institution of Structural Engineers), Laing O’Rourke, Price & Myers, the RIBA

Image: 3D Model Making in the B-made workshop. Photo by Stonehouse Photographic 122

This new four-year integrated Masters in Engineering & Architectural Design aims to challenge students to develop a critical, independent, experimental and technically rigorous approach to architectural, environmental and structural design and engineering in buildings. The programme is delivered by experts drawn from The Bartlett School of Architecture, the UCL Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering and UCL Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering. Placing creativity and design at the centre of engineering education, the programme challenges conventional models, providing students with the opportunity to understand and develop advanced design methodologies whilst acquiring expertise on how they are augmented and resolved through engineering knowledge. Students will learn how to imagine, design and deliver resilient buildings that incorporate lifelong environmental and social responsibility. Graduates will be armed with the knowledge and expertise to undertake a project from inception to brief development through to design, and to advocate for their designs whilst engaging in robust, informed interdisciplinary discussion. Our MEng Engineering & Architectural Design graduates will be the future leaders of a collaborative and organisationally complex industry.


MA Situated Practice

New Programme

Affiliated practices and institutes The Slade School of Fine Art, UCL Urban Laboratory

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

This new 15-month Masters provides knowledge and training in the principles and skills of situated practice in relation to conceptual spatial theories in art, architecture, performativity, urbanism and writing. On this programme, students will develop a strong understanding of appropriate research methodologies in art and design practice-led research, specifically relating to approaches to criticality, performativity and textuality. They will also make ‘situated practice’ projects that are site-related, from physical installations to digital interventions to site writings. This pioneering course examines the fertile territories where the discipline of architecture cross-pollinates with the other creative arts. Students will make work that is situated physically and engages with contemporary social, cultural and political conditions. Outcomes will combine media – comprising site-specific and performative installations, interventions, designs and events – that engage with their contexts and particular publics. Graduates from the MA Situated Practice will be highly equipped to pioneer new forms of hybrid practice between art and architecture in the domains of urban design, spatial design, event design, critical and theoretical writing, performance and craft.

Image: Polly Gould, ‘Berg off Cape Evans’. 2013 (hand-blown coloured and mirrored glass, watercolour on sand-blasted glass, 40 x 40 x D.18 cm) 123


New Programme

MArch Design for Performance & Interaction

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Affiliated practices and institutes Arup, Bompas & Parr, Ciminod Studio, Jason Bruges Studio, Intel, Marshmallow Laser Feast, onedotzero, Rose Bruford College of Theatre and Performance, Royal Central School of Speech and Drama, ScanLAB Projects, Shobana Jeyasingh Dance Company, Stufish, Troika, Twitter, Soundform, Umbrellium

Image: William Victor Camilleri and Danilo Sampaio, ‘Hortum Machina B’, Interactive Architecture Lab 124

This new 15-month Masters teaches design in four dimensions. Students will design the performance and interaction of objects, environments and people using the latest fabrication, sensing, computation, networked and responsive technologies. Emphasis is placed on prototyping, from interactive objects and installations to staged events and performance architecture. The MArch Design for Performance & Interaction is a new programme which attracts students from a wide range of artistic and technical backgrounds. There are very few UK institutions that offer anything similar, and none have the access to cross-disciplinary expertise provided by both The Bartlett and UCL. The core of the programme is the belief that the creation of spaces for performance, and the creation of performances within them, are symbiotic activities. Design using interactive technologies enables us to consider objects, space, people and systems as potential performers. Design for performance and interaction has relevance across spatial and urban design, interface and systems design, auditoria and scenographic design, lighting and sound installation, physical and virtual environments and performance and event design. At The Bartlett School of Architecture, we believe this provides an unprecedented opportunity for informed, skilled and multi-disciplinary designers to define – and also deliver – spaces and systems for performance and interaction in the 21st century. Our new studio facilities at Here East offer unprecedented opportunities and resources for groundbreaking design work.


MArch Design for Manufacture

New Programme

Affiliated practices and institutes Arup, BuroHappold, Foster + Partners, Laing O’Rourke, Price & Myers, ScanLAB Projects, UCL Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering (CEGE), UCL Institute for Environmental Design and Engineering (IEDE)

The Bartlett School of Architecture 2016

Starting in September 2017, this new 15-month Masters will teach students how to place their design skills in the context of pioneering developments in construction, fabrication, assembly, and automation, including robotics. There is an abundance of advanced design and engineering tools in the UK that an elite workforce develop and deploy to export their expertise worldwide. Yet there is a shortage of skilled workers at the point of production, tasked with delivering increasingly sophisticated and challenging projects by clients in line with rising expectations on quality and regulation. The Design for Manufacture Masters course aims to prepare a new professional workforce of highly skilled, creative and adaptable experts, with knowledge in design, engineering, material behaviour, analogue and digital craft, and advanced systems operations. This course will expose students to new forms of advanced design and engineering methodologies – such as robotics and 3D scanning – that are currently reinventing core approaches to shaping, making and refitting the built and manufactured environment.

Image: Tim Lucas, Price & Myers and Bartlett School of Architecture Lecturer in Structural Design. Photo by Maarten Kleinhout. 125


Image: B-Pro Show 2015


bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/architecture

Publisher The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL Editors Eli Lee, Michelle Lukins Segerström Graphic Design Patrick Morrissey, Unlimited weareunlimited.co.uk Executive Editors Frédéric Migayrou, Andrew Porter Photography Stonehouse Photographic Copyright 2016 The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. ISBN 978-0-9954819-1-6

For more information on all the programmes and modules at The Bartlett Faculty of the Built Environment, UCL, visit bartlett.ucl.ac.uk The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL 140 Hampstead Road London NW1 2BX +44 (0)20 3108 9646 architecture@ucl.ac.uk Twitter: @BartlettArchUCL Facebook: facebook.com/BartlettArchitectureUCL Instagram: bartlettarchucl Vimeo: vimeo.com/bartlettarchucl


bartlett.ucl.ac.uk/architecture

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