2021 Craig M. Berge Engineering Design Day

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CRAIG M. BERGE

ENGINEERING

DAY 2021


View the 2021 Virtual Design Day and project presentations at b.link/DesignDay2021.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 2 6 11 12 64 65 66 67 68

PROJECTS AWARDS LETTER FROM NANCY BERGE PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMS YEAR AT A GLANCE ACKNOWLEDGMENTS THANK YOU TO OUR SPONSORS THANK YOU, MENTORS & STAFF


Welcome to Craig M. Berge

Design Day!

Tradition of excellence center stage. Craig M. Berge Design Day is a story of remarkable student success and all the ways engineers improve lives. With 99 projects, more than 100 industry judges and $46,000 in prizes, there’s a lot to be excited about in 2021. COVID-19 didn’t stop design teams from safely collaborating on capstone projects involving space systems, local businesses and even helping end the pandemic. Like last year, per university guidelines, seniors are using videos to showcase their designs. The project videos will be available at b.link/DesignDay2021 prior to the virtual Design Day 2021 awards ceremony at 4 p.m. on May 6. Tune in at icap.engineering.arizona.edu/design-day/awards.

Integrating Four-Year Design Program

With last year’s launch of the Craig M. Berge Engineering Design Program, Design Day and the Interdisciplinary Capstone Course became part of a curriculum that provides undergraduates with real-world experience in areas like design, manufacturing and commercialization. Thank you to Nancy Berge and her family for helping make this a reality.

Thank You for Your Dedication

Design Day wouldn’t be possible without all the hard work behind the scenes, and we are grateful to each and every partner and supporter. We owe a special debt of gratitude to Ara Arabyan, associate professor of aerospace and mechanical engineering. He has led the college’s Interdisciplinary Capstone program since the beginning and will be starting a well-deserved sabbatical next academic year. Additionally, Don Newman, longtime driving force behind Design Day, and Gary Redford, dedicated program mentor, are retiring. Thank you all!

Passing the Leadership Baton

Systems and industrial engineering professor Larry Head is the inaugural director of the Craig M. Berge Engineering Design Program. He lends 30-plus years of academic, research and industry experience, and his record of supporting the design curriculum in the college is exemplary. Please extend a warm welcome to Larry. Bear Down!

David W. Hahn

Craig M. Berge Dean, College of Engineering

2021 FAST FACTS

99

DESIGN TEAMS

27

BIOMEDICAL PROJECTS

$46,000

559

74

101

11

19

CORPORATE & UA SPONSORS

TECHNICAL JUDGES

IN PRIZES

SPACE-RELATED PROJECTS

STUDENTS

MINING, ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS

CRAIG M. BERGE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROGRAM

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It [Interdisciplinary Capstone] was something I was looking for that I didn’t know existed.” – DANIEL WILLIAMSON, Arbo Scientific

PROJECTS 2

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TEAM #

PROJECT TITLE

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21002 21003 21004 21005

15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20

21006 21007 21008 21010 21011 21012 21013 21014 21015 21016 21017

20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29

21018 21019 21020 21021

Improved Instrument for Making Ultra-Sharp Glass Knives Motorizing an Ultramicrotome Stage with a Micromanipulator Lightning Protection Garment Test Mannequin Apparatus for Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Returned Samples From Asteroid Bennu Coaxial UAV Tier 2 Mosquito Surveillance Research Traps Design of Payload for Near-Space Deployment of IR optics Tonee Lift: A Folding Portable Walker with Lifting Function Automated Shaft Tip Preparation Small Aperture Daylight Star Tracker Improved Urinary Catheter Design Advanced Hospital Bed System Diagnostic System for Monitoring Patients on Ventilators for Secondary Infection Automated Refrigerant Charge Station for Portable Medical Refrigerators Remote-Controlled Automation for a Modular Vertical Farm Hydroponic Growing System Machine Learning Algorithms for Decluttering Aircraft Cockpit Traffic Displays Capacitive Volume Sensing Drop Volume Algorithm and Analysis System Real-Time Instrument Characterization Kit Grasshopper Harvester Phase III Writing Robot Motorized Attachment for a Manual Wheelchair Baja Race Car Electronic Continuous Variable Transmission Improved Knee Brace for Polio Patients Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Catheter Efficacy Test Setup Virtual Reality Optics Lab Robot Writing Machine Control and Font Generation Software Plant Nursery Management by Unmanned Aircraft via Supplemental Guidance Bistatic Imaging Using Signals of Opportunity Rapid Protoyping Shock Isolators Zoo Educational App Animal Enrichment Automation Software Defined Radio Boards Evaluation

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PROJECTS DISPLAYED

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PROJECT TITLE

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30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34

21038 21039 21040 21041 21042 21043 21044 21045 21046

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21047 21048 21049

36 37 37 38 38 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 52 52

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Short-Range Remote Drone Deployment Apparatus to Simulate Tumor Environment and Reproduce Organs Using an Interactive and Dynamic System (ASTEROIDS) Vertical Flow Immunoassay Platform for Low Resource Settings Public Outreach Radio Telescope Power Plant Evaporation Pond Level Measurement Method for Estimating Hydraulic Hose Sag Protection of Concrete Surfaces from Tracked Mining Equipment Dump Body Mounted High-Precision GPS System for Large Mining Trucks Smartphone App That Speeds Operating Room Turnovers Automated Media Exchange System For Dynamic Tissue Engineering Bioreactor Microfluidic System for Continuous Platelet Separation and Concentration for Analytic and Preparative Purposes Ventilator Improvement Systems Visual Natural Language Processing of Medical Images for Enhanced Value Component Sound Analysis for Extracting and Analyzing Medical Information from Patient Encounters Rapid Optical Imaging of Low Frequency Physiologic Processes Digital Solutions for the Evolution of Analog Manufacturing Resource Planning Systems

21052 21053 21054 21055 21056 21057 21058 21059 21060 21061 21062 21063 21064 21065 21066 21067 21068 21069 21070 21071 21072 21073 21074 21075 21076 21077 21078 21079 21080 21081 21082

Smart Weight Gloves Instrument Cryocooler Vibration Mitigation Ground-Based Optical Target Tracker 3D Printing of Variable Durometer Vibration Isolators Wind Turbine Farm Inspection Robot Short Wave Infrared Transmitting Optical Beacon Torque Robot Non-Balloon, Implantable Anchor for Gastrostomy/Enteral Feeding Devices Laser Diode-Based Metrology Module Steel-Polymer Protective Armor Plate Laser Communications Fine Tracker Distortion Metrology Test for Large Field Lens Optimization Model for a Space-Based Life Support Thermal Management System Bi-material Sealing Interface for Space-Based Life Support Systems Pressure Regulating System for a Mars Habitat On-Site Test Capability for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory Mine Vehicle On-Site Trolley Assist New Tunnel and Ramp Entrance for the San Xavier Mining Laboratory University of Arizona SME/NSSGA Student Design Competition Monoclonal Antibody Manufacturing Scaled-Up mRNA Vaccine Manufacturing Process Regulated Medical Waste Treatment Facility Space-Operated Lunar Surface Total Internal Contamination Elimination System Raw Sugar Production Byproduct Utilization Smart Silo for Safe Storage of Combustible Materials San Carlos Fish Pond Cost-Effective Helium Extraction From Natural Gas Compact-Catalytic Convertor Reactor System High-Throughput, Environmentally Friendly Hydrodesulfurization Unit Solvent Waste Recovery Separation of Resin

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Wastewater Treatment Lab Wastewater Treatment Process Lab Synthesis of Biofuel Additives from Ethanol Lunar Dust Filtration System COVID-19 Vaccine Production and Distribution Environmentally Friendly HVAC Filter The Aluminum-Air Battery Arizona Water Competition – New Gilbert Water Treatment Plant Energy Recovery From Food Waste Mars Ascent Vehicle Abort System Lunar Sample Return System Lunar Sample Return Vehicle Aggregation Design, Build, Fly Aircraft Design Competition Martian Ascent Vehicle Design East Valencia Road Improvements Improvements to East Valencia Road and the Atterbury Wash Crossing Valencia Road Improvements – Pantano Road to Atterbury Wash Automated Irrigation Water Distribution System Automated Flood Gate System

PROJECTS DISPLAYED

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I enjoy the perspective that a student team brings to a project. Students are generally more technically focused on what the outcome needs to be.” – JAY CROSSMAN, L3Harris Technologies innovation engineer and Interdisciplinary Capstone alum

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Craig M. Berge Dean’s Award for MOST OUTSTANDING PROJECT ($7,500)

This award recognizes the project that embodies the best attributes of engineering design and the engineering profession. The winning project shall have an outstanding design approach and implementation, excellent system modeling and/or analysis that support the design, comprehensive system testing that verifies system requirements, and a superior presentation of results to Design Day judges. Team members of the winning project shall present themselves professionally and clearly demonstrate engineering knowledge of the design. The winning project shall clearly be the best project at Design Day.

Raytheon Award for BEST OVERALL DESIGN ($5,000)

While several designs may meet the judging criteria, this award is given to the design that does so the most effectively. The project that receives this award excels in many ways. The design is well thought out and its implementation is of high quality. It accomplishes all key design requirements and is supported by rigorous analysis and testing. Its poster and presentation are professional and easy to understand.

Bly Family Award for INNOVATION IN ENERGY PRODUCTION, SUPPLY OR USE (1st prize $2,000; 2nd prize $1,000)

This award recognizes the best project related to sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly energy production, distribution or use. Winning projects could focus on developing new energy sources, reducing energy costs, improving efficiency or reducing cost of energy distribution, adapting existing energy distribution methods to better integrate new energy sources, and increasing efficiency of energy use.

ACSS, an L3Harris and Thales Joint Venture Award for MOST ROBUST SYSTEMS ENGINEERING ($2,500)

The systems engineering perspective is based on systems thinking. When a system is considered as a combination of elements, this thinking acknowledges the primacy of the whole in relation to those elements. This award goes to the team that most robustly addresses all aspects of the project from the systems perspective.

Ball Aerospace Award for BEST SYSTEM SOFTWARE DESIGN ($2,500)

Software has become a critical part of the operation, management and control of complex systems comprising mechanical, electrical, electronic and biomechanical elements and other components and subsystems. As a result, software has become an integral part of the design of complex systems. This award recognizes the best use of software in the process of designing systems for operation, management, control and usability. Teams will be judged on the reliability, robustness, maintainability, reusability, originality and testability of software embedded in their designs.

Don McDonald MANUFACTURING READINESS Award (1st prize $1,500; 2nd prize $750)

This award is given to the teams that design and build a system that goes beyond meeting sponsor requirements and best considers usability and manufacturing readiness. Teams will be judged on manufacturing readiness of the design using the following considerations: a) Design process considered alternative designs and selected the “best choice” that meets or exceeds all of the sponsor requirements and can be used immediately by the sponsor. b) Design considered producibility, ease of assembly, and cost. c) Design showed consideration for reliability and maintainability issues while in the design/model/prototype phases as well as build phases. d) Design considered user operation and included operator instructions. e) Design technical data package was complete.

RBC Sargent Aerospace & Defense VOLTAIRE DESIGN Award ($2,000)

The French philosopher Voltaire is credited with the saying “Le mieux est l’ennemi du bien,” which means “the best is the enemy of the good.” Similarly, Leonardo da Vinci is credited with the saying “Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.” This award recognizes the design team that best emulates these ideals and resists the temptation to overly complicate the design to yield a clean, simple, elegant, lowest-cost design that simply works well.

II-VI Aerospace & Defense Award for BEST OPTICAL SYSTEMS DESIGN ($1,500)

This award recognizes the most innovative use of optoelectronics and optomechanics in a design and is given to the team that demonstrates the most thorough approach to the design and engineering of its optical system. This award recognizes complete understanding of the optical design, system requirements, tolerance analysis and optical component usage. Important criteria are integration of optics into the overall system, novel use of optical components, creative use of commercial off-theshelf items, verification of optical components, meeting system requirements, use of standard optical design software, and manufacturability of optical design and components.

Rincon Research Award for BEST PRESENTATION ($1,500)

This award reflects the quality of the overall verbal and poster presentations. Verbal presentations should be well structured to describe efficiently the overall problem being solved and the specifics of how the team accomplished its design. Answers to questions should be direct and demonstrate mastery of the project. Presenters should speak in a clear and easily audible voice. The poster board should be visually interesting and graphically well organized to tell a standalone story of the project.

AWARDS

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Roche Tissue Diagnostics Award for MOST INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING DESIGN ($1,500)

Innovation may include the novel use of existing components or the creation of entirely new components to meet customer requirements. The most innovative design will not only be a creative solution to a problem, but also an effective solution that is well implemented. This award recognizes the team that has created or made use of components in the most innovative way, or demonstrated excellence in the implementation of innovative design in its project, or both.

W.L. Gore and Associates Award for LIFELONG INNOVATION ($1,500)

This award honors a student team that has improved or enhanced the quality of life for individuals with their project. It recognizes the improved standard of health, comfort, environment, community and happiness experienced by an individual or group. Projects are judged on the ability to promote the well-being of humans through togetherness and the practicality of the implementation. The team should be able to effectively communicate their design and how it will improve lives.

The Merrill Award for BEST IMPLEMENTATION OF AGILE METHODOLOGY

($1,500 - $750 each for Predominantly Hardware & Predominantly Software)

This award recognizes two teams that best use Agile methodology in their design process. An award will be given for projects that have predominantly hardware implementation and another award will be given for projects that have predominantly software implementation. Consideration will be given to projects where the design project is executed using a flexible and incremental approach to verify the system requirements agreed to by the sponsor. This will include the traditional Agile methodology of Scrums (periodic project planning sessions), Sprints (two week prioritized task completion periods), and at least three design iterations that are presented to the project sponsor.

Delta Development Team Award for SUSTAINABLE MANUFACTURING INNOVATION ($1,000)

This award is given to the team whose design incorporates the most innovative manufacturing method addressing reduced carbon emissions. Projects could include introducing a new technique for manufacturing or an innovative use of an existing technique that reduces the cost and improves the quality of a product while reducing carbon footprint.

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Garmin Award for BEST USE OF WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY ($1,000)

Wireless technology is ever present in our world today. This technology allows products to be used in a wide variety of applications, from streaming movies on the couch to receiving pictures from Mars. With so many wireless technology options available, it’s critical for engineers to understand the tradeoffs each provide, and how they might be used to expand the capabilities of a design. This award will be given to the team that demonstrates the best utilization of a wireless technology in it’s design.

Honeywell Award for EXCELLENCE IN AEROSPACE ELECTRONIC SYSTEM DESIGN ($1,000)

This award recognizes excellence in overall system design in a project with an aerospace emphasis. Verbal presentations should be well structured to describe effectively the overall system and the specifics of how the team implemented its design project. A key feature of the presentation must be representative data that demonstrate how the system was thoroughly tested. Answers to questions should be direct and demonstrate a high level of team competency about the details of the electronic system for the project. The presentation should demonstrate how all members have contributed to the project to exhibit the core values of teamwork and professionalism.

Honeywell Award for EXCELLENCE IN AEROSPACE MECHANICAL SYSTEM DESIGN ($1,000)

This award recognizes excellence in overall mechanical system design in a project with an aerospace emphasis. Verbal and written presentations should be well structured to describe effectively the overall system and the specifics of how the team implemented its design project. A key feature of the presentation must be representative data that demonstrate how requirements were analyzed, documented, designed against and tested. Answers to questions during the presentation should be direct and demonstrate a high level of team competency about the details of the mechanical system for the project. The presentation should demonstrate how all members have contributed to the project to exhibit the core values of teamwork and professionalism.

Mark Brazier Award for BEST BIOMEDICAL SYSTEM DESIGN ($1,000)

Biomedical engineering is a discipline that advances knowledge in engineering, biology and medicine, and improves human health by integrating the engineering sciences with biomedical sciences and clinical practice. This award recognizes the team that has demonstrated excellence and innovation in biomedical engineering design. It recognizes out-of-the-box thinking that pushes boundaries and hands-on approaches to creative solutions. Projects are judged on the elegance and creativity of the technical solutions and their implementation. Teams should be able to effectively communicate their design and creative processes.


Mensch Foundation Award for BEST USE OF EMBEDDED INTELLIGENCE ($1,000)

The Mensch Prize for Best Use of Embedded Intelligence recognizes the engineering innovation team that best integrates embedded intelligence into a potential commercial product. Specifically, the award will be granted to a student team that has built a smart connected prototype that may have a commercial market. Embedded Intelligence is characterized as the ability of a product to sense, process, communicate and actuate (SPCA) based upon information gained from an understanding of both itself and others and for the benefit of many. Preference will be given to designs with SPCA capabilities that can demonstrably surpass human abilities to perform the same function.

Sharon ONeal Award for BEST INTEGRATION, VERIFICATION & VALIDATION ($1,000)

Integration, Verification and Validation (IV&V) activities within the engineering life cycle are crucial to delivering products that meet the user’s requirements and are free from design and implementation flaws. This award recognizes the project that best documents and demonstrates a comprehensive mapping and execution of IV&V test plans, processes, procedures and results to the user’s requirements and product Concept of Operations (ConOps). To be eligible for consideration of this award, projects must be composed of at least three different types of subsystems, such as software, electronic, mechanical or optical. Comprehensive documentation of all integration and verification test activities must be included with the award nomination for further evaluation and selection. This documentation includes all project requirements, test plans, procedures and documented/verified results, signed off by the project sponsor or designee.

Technical Documentation Consultants of Arizona Award for BEST DESIGN DOCUMENTATION ($1,000)

Successful implementation of any innovative design requires that all members of the design and production team communicate effectively. Design intent must be communicated from the design activity to the rest of the team using design documentation with a clear map for others to reproduce the design based on documentation only. The mechanical portion of the design is evaluated on the use of drawings with geometric dimensioning and tolerancing, solids models, illustrations and presentations that can be used to manufacture and inspect design hardware. Software and other systems are evaluated on the use of documentation that clearly and fully describes the system and illustrates the approach to testing.

Steve Larimore Award for PERSEVERANCE AND RECOVERY ($1,000)

Issues and roadblocks always occur during the engineering design process. Although they cause panic and distress, they also represent great opportunities to learn and often lead to designs that would otherwise be impossible to conceive. This award recognizes a team’s ability to learn and to overcome issues or roadblocks encountered during the design process. The award is judged based on the ingenuity of solutions to problems caused by issues or roadblocks and the features in the final design that contribute to recovery from them.

II-VI Aerospace & Defense FISH OUT OF WATER Award ($750)

The Fish Out of Water award congratulates students for successfully accomplishing a task that was not in their realm of expertise. The projects for senior design require skills from many disciplines, and students must sometimes learn a new subject or skill in an area outside of their major to help the team succeed. A student who not only learns this new subject or skill, but also uses it to effectively help the team thrive, shows dedication and initiative, traits that will continue to help in an engineering career.

Phoenix Analysis & Design Technologies Award for BEST USE OF PROTOTYPING ($750)

This award goes to the team that best uses a physical prototype model to understand and study the fit, form and function of the device or system designed. Teams are judged on the appropriateness of the prototyping technology used, how effectively prototyping is used to improve design, and how effectively the use of prototyping is communicated. Prototypes can be made using rapid fabrication technology or traditional manufacturing or can be hand built.

SciTech Institute Award for BEST ENGINEERING ANALYSIS ($750)

This award recognizes the team with the strongest strategy, implementation and documentation of analyses supporting its design. Analyses vary from project to project, but may include market research and analysis, analysis of prior solutions to the design problem posed, trade studies that justify the final design selected from alternatives considered, system modeling to demonstrate that the final design is sound and should perform as desired, analysis of potential reasons for failure and a mitigation plan, and economic or other analysis of the benefits of the final design in its intended application. Criteria for judging include the completeness of the project analysis based on the above categories, thoroughness of the analyses, application of sound engineering principles and practice, a demonstrated understanding by team members of any tools or models used, reasonableness of all assumptions, and the quality of the documentation of the analyses.

AWARDS

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Ergo Dave Award for BEST USE OF HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING ($500)

This award recognizes the team that makes the best use of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) design principles (Understand, Design, Evaluate) iteratively. The winning team will provide evidence that it collected and understood both tasks and users, and showed significant reduction of fatigue and workload to users.

Dataforth Corporation Award for BEST DESIGN USING A DATA ACQUISITION AND CONTROL SYSTEM ($500)

This award recognizes the design team that best implements a modern data acquisition and control system. Recognition is given for the use of the system to collect data that characterizes project performance and assists in project optimization and, ideally, uses the same data acquisition system to perform feedback and control operations.

L3 Latitude Engineering Award for BEST PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF ANALYTICALLY DRIVEN DESIGN ($500)

Some engineering problems are straightforward: Optimal solutions are found through the application of engineering best practices. Sometimes, however, the best design choices are not obvious, and only reveal themselves after a thorough analysis of the underlying physical principles. This award recognizes a design that could only have been arrived at after careful study and creative application of physics.

Simpson Family Award for BEST SIMULATION AND MODELING ($500)

This award recognizes the project that makes the best use of computer-based simulation or modeling. The simulation may be the project itself, or a design tool used to model the performance of the project design. Criteria for this award is based on scope of the simulation, the fidelity of the simulation compared to realworld performance, and the engineering judgement exercised in determining the complexity of the model.

Honeywell Award for TEAM LEADERSHIP (two individuals at $250 each)

This award recognizes students who best exemplify teamwork skills, including the ability to work cooperatively with others to produce high-quality work, to take the initiative, to support and respect the opinions of fellow team members, to give and receive feedback, to demonstrate effective leadership, to keep their teams focused, and to elevate the work of their fellow team members. Nominees for this award are selected by their teammates.

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F R O M

T H E

NA N C Y

D E S K

O F

B E RG E

Dear students,

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ch of markable things from ea re ct pe ex ld ou w d an sb My hu eativity and all you cr ur yo of d ou pr so be you, too. He would have accomplished. e am honored to support th I y, or em m s d’ an sb hu y In m ese Design Program and th g in er ne gi En ge er B . M Craig apters e you toward the next ch ov m at th es nc rie pe ex t studen s. in your lives and career All the Best, Nancy Berge

CRAIG M. BERGE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROGRAM

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It’s both literally and figuratively a lot of different parts. We’re taking a lot of different concepts we learn in class, like centrifugal force and centripetal force and acceleration, and applying them.” – EMILY BAUER, mechanical engineering student

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS 12

2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY


Improved Instrument for Making Ultra-Sharp Glass Knives Team 21002

PROJECT GOAL Redesign a Glass Knife Maker to be more user-friendly and aesthetically pleasing, while maintaining the quality of the glass knives produced by the existing design. Glass knives are widely used in universities and laboratories around the world as a viable and cost-effective alternative to diamond or tungsten knives. The Glass Knife Maker, or GKM, is an RMC Boeckeler product that breaks strips of glass at precise angles to produce ultra-sharp glass knives. The knives are used for ultramicrotomy and cryo-ultramicrotomy methods for cutting specimens into extremely thin slices. Boeckeler’s existing Glass Knife Maker is considered one of the best instruments in the world for producing ultra-sharp glass knives. However, design modifications will help maintain the GKM’s competitive pricing and performance. The team used SolidWorks to develop a new design then integrated commercial off-the-shelf parts and fabricated components to create a ready-for-testing prototype.

TEAM MEMBERS Robert Paul Acker, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Mohammed Taha Alkhalifah, Mechanical Engineering Saood Alsebeey, Industrial Engineering Zhipeng Dong, Materials Science & Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Benjamin Michael Heald, Mechanical Engineering Dror Sapir, Optical Sciences & Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Mike Nofziger PROJECT ADVISOR Peter Strucks

This project resulted in a simple, durable and mechanically sound design. Areas of improvement include aesthetics, user-friendliness, safety, compactness, production consistency and efficiency of the glass knife making process. Most importantly, the new instrument maintains the quality of the glass knives produced.

Motorizing an Ultramicrotome With a Micromanipulator Team 21003

PROJECT GOAL Design, build and verify a motorized ultramicrotome stage to replace the manual stage adjustments with higher precision movements through automation. An ultramicrotome uses a diamond knife to slice samples of various materials to nanoscale dimensions. The knife is located in a trough placed on the top of the upper stage. The existing design uses manual translation to align the knife with the sample at a specified distance. The purpose of this project was to motorize the lower stage, allowing users to move the diamond knife with at least as much, if not more, precision than the existing design. The changes are expected to make the ultramicrotome even more appealing to consumers. This new design uses stepper motors to accurately position and align the knife along both the x-axis and the y-axis. The steppers are controlled by command buttons. In addition, the controller digitally stores the specific position of the knife, making it easier for users to automatically adjust the stage to their preferred settings.

TEAM MEMBERS Othman Ali Alghannam, Industrial Engineering Sarah Alison Gilliam, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Ghazwan Muhebes, Industrial Engineering Nick Ramos, Electrical & Computer Engineering Diego Resendiz, Mechanical Engineering Avory Zhou, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Pat Caldwell PROJECT ADVISOR Peter Strucks

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Lightning Protection Garment Test Mannequin Team 21004

PROJECT GOAL Design a mannequin simulating human electrical properties that monitors current, temperature and voltage passing through the heart area. Zoltar has developed lightning protection garments that reduce the risk of lightningrelated deaths across the globe. For testing to verify performance, they require a mannequin that accurately measures the amount of current entering the heart area. The team designed a mannequin that replicates the properties of a human and measures electricity entering the heart. TEAM MEMBERS Sabrina Nicole Ahumada, Systems Engineering Kameron David Carmickle, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Katie Daily, Electrical & Computer Engineering Hussain Ali A A M J Hadi, Industrial Engineering Cristian Samuel Huerta, Mechanical Engineering Cassidy Marie Mannier, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bob Messenger

The plastic mannequin is wrapped in semi-conductive tape to simulate the electrical resistance of human skin. Inside the chest cavity, a ceramic rod imitates the electrical resistance of the heart. The rod sits in a current transformer with temperature and current sensors. The sensors are connected to a high-speed, high-bandwidth data acquisition system, or DAQ, that acquires data every 50 nanoseconds. The DAQ transfers and stores the data on a Raspberry Pi. Users can save the sampled data to a USB drive, as well as display the data on a graph on the user interface. This data is used to verify the effectiveness of the protection garments.

PROJECT ADVISOR Dan Schlager

Apparatus for Measuring the Thermal Conductivity of Returned Samples From Asteroid Bennu Team 21005

TEAM MEMBERS Shawn Koshy Cherian, Mechanical Engineering Zane Ansel Craddock, Systems Engineering Michael Nathaniel Gibson, Materials Science & Engineering Aaron Thomas McCommon, Systems Engineering Andrea Desiree Ochoa, Electrical & Computer Engineering Jinhua Ouyang, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Doug May PROJECT ADVISOR Andrew Ryan

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PROJECT GOAL Measure the thermal conductivity of irregularly shaped geologic samples without contaminating or altering them. Conventional thermal conductivity measurements require a sample that is cut and polished to a specific shape. The samples retrieved from the asteroid Bennu by OSIRIS-REx, once they arrive for analysis on Earth, cannot be altered or contaminated in any way, making it difficult to take conventional measurements. The team performed thermal conductivity experiments in a high vacuum environment to minimize sample contamination. Accordingly, they used radiation as the primary method of heat transfer to the sample. The design consists of a spherical-shaped, aluminum apparatus that holds a geological sample at the center. Heat flux was applied to the top hemisphere of the apparatus, while the bottom hemisphere was cooled to a known temperature. The heat would then flow through the sample to the bottom. Because the amount of heat transferred is determined by the sample’s thermal conductivity, the top hemisphere’s steady-state temperature was dependent on the thermal conductivity of the sample. The temperature measurements were taken on the top hemisphere, and the thermal conductivity of the sample was derived using Finite Element Analysis software.


Coaxial UAV Tier 2 Team 21006

PROJECT GOAL Design and manufacture a coaxial rotor head assembly that will integrate with a Tier-2 UAV. Few unmanned aerial vehicles, or UAVs, are designed with commercial or industrial applications in mind, and those that do serve a singular purpose, such as photography or lidar. The team designed and built a drivetrain for a UAV versatile enough to accept a myriad of sensors and equipment for use in commercial sectors. An additional concern was improving UAV safety. Tail rotors are one of the most common sources of failures. The Coaxial Tier-2 UAV rotor head had to fit the constraints of a Tier-2 UAV: weigh less than 55 pounds, operate at no higher than 400 feet above ground level, and fly no faster than 100 miles per hour. The design used a coaxial rotor system and a continuously variable transmission that varied the speed of the top and bottom rotors, allowing the UAV to yaw without a tail rotor. Lightweight 7075 aluminum alloy and nylon carbon fiber parts were used to increase payload potential and fuel efficiency.

TEAM MEMBERS Chris Angier, Mechanical Engineering Darynn Eggert, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Lauren McBeth, Systems Engineering Spencer Moore, Mechanical Engineering Josh Peters, Mechanical Engineering Shae Kathleen Sonderer, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Pat Caldwell PROJECT ADVISOR Chris Pelletier

The coaxial rotor head assembly offers greater performance and versatility compared to competitive designs.

Mosquito Surveillance Research Traps Team 21007

PROJECT GOAL Develop two commercial mosquito traps with optional data sensing and recording capabilities; and an affordable carbon dioxide dispersion system. One million people die every year from mosquito-borne diseases. Private researchers and government agencies collect and test mosquitoes to monitor and reduce disease transmission. However, current mosquito research traps lack data-sensing capabilities and have not seen substantial upgrades to the trapping processes. These leave researchers with inefficient means of collection, as well as excessive costs from carbon dioxide production. The team developed two prototypes: one for a professional-grade mosquito trap and another, more cost-effective, trap intended for widespread use in civilian communities. They designed the traps to include an array of data collecting sensors to automate and improve the quality of research. Additionally, many mosquito research agencies use expensive dry ice used to produce carbon dioxide to attract mosquitos. The team replaced this with a system that safely produces carbon dioxide by burning propane.

TEAM MEMBERS Ryan Thomas Bente, Biosystems Engineering Brandon Layne Duron, Mechanical Engineering Garrett Mitchell Evans, Biosystems Engineering Carly Michelle Golisch, Chemical Engineering Yonghan Luo, Engineering Management Jimmy Stanton, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Pat Caldwell PROJECT ADVISORS Daniel Williamson, Steve Young

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Design of Payload for Near-Space Deployment of IR Optics Team 21008

TEAM MEMBERS Eddie De Jesus Contreras, Information Science & Technology Jaclyn Amber John, Applied Physics Wassim Khawam, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Thor Neill, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Jeremy C Parkinson, Optical Sciences & Engineering Nayleth Guadalupe Ramirez Duarte, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Cat Merrill PROJECT ADVISORS Kira Shanks, Meredith Kupinski

PROJECT GOAL Develop and design an instrument enclosure that protects and maintains operational parameters for the Infrared Channeled Spectro-Polarimeter, or IRCSP, which will be deployed on a high-altitude balloon flight. Just recently, small and rapidly deployable instruments operating in long-wave infrared were not feasible due to costly and large cooling systems. In 2019, The University of Arizona Polarization Lab delivered the first Infrared Channeled Spectro-Polarimeter, or IRCSP, prototype to NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. It needed an enclosure that would protect the instrument and withstand conditions so that it could operate in long-wave infrared. The enclosure can withstand harsh high-altitude conditions found in balloon flights of diminutive dimensions. It has low power consumption. In addition, the team developed an inflight data acquisition and management system. The IRCSP will measure the optical properties of cirrus ice clouds, which are crucial to increasing understanding of atmospheric sciences as outlined in the Earth Science Decadal Survey. It will be deployed in a future NASA balloon flight at an altitude of 39 kilometers over the southeastern United States. Testing the enclosure in this launch will reveal how it could benefit future Landsat missions.

Tonee Lift: A Folding Portable Walker with Lifting Function Team 21010

PROJECT GOAL Design and build a market-ready walker featuring a mechanically lifting plate that the user can use to lift objects from the ground to waist height. Patients who experience bending mobility issues may be unable to bend to pick up objects from the ground. Commercially available grabber and reacher devices are often difficult to use or are too flimsy to lift heavy objects for everyday household tasks.

TEAM MEMBERS Feras Hussain Aldubaisy, Industrial Engineering Ben Callaghan, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Petra Emelia Gee, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Zahra Ali Hassan, Industrial Engineering Collin Dean Lewis, Mechanical Engineering Samson Tiburon Weisbrod, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Steve Larimore PROJECT ADVISOR Gaby Doyle

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2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY

The Tonee Lift is a patent-pending walker with a “vertical platform-type” plate that can lift various objects from the ground while the user is standing. The team created models using Arduino IDE and SolidWorks. They analyzed the design, size, weight and structural integrity for parts and subassemblies using SolidWorks. The algorithm for the lift was a hierarchy of checks from the system inputs and outputting the motor motion that controls the lift movement. The product can lift up to 25 pounds from ground level to waist height and can withstand at least 16,000 uses. The walker weighs less than 20 pounds and is rated for indoor use on solid level ground for up to 24 uses per charge.


Automated Shaft Tip Preparation Team 21011

PROJECT GOAL To automate the process of preparing golf shaft tips for club assembly through the use of robotics and complementary equipment. Sandblasting golf shaft tips in a high-volume manufacturing industrial environment is a menial task that could be improved and made less expensive through automation. Currently, shaft tip preparation involves a person unloading boxes of 50 shafts, inserting them into an automatic sandblaster and putting them back into boxes. This is time-consuming, tedious and costly. To automate this process, the team implemented an integrated KUKA robot arm and mechanical shaft dispenser, which operate in tandem through EtherCAT technology. The robot arm is equipped with a custom shaft gripping mechanism that operates robotic fingers. A microcontroller and sensors operate the motor-driven shaft dispenser, which employs a linear actuator to push shafts of different lengths into an optimal pick-up position. A user operates the system’s program with the KUKA Robot Language on a teach pendant. Two industrial grade t-slot aluminum extrusion carts are used to mount the robot arm and shaft dispenser, as well as house the controllers for both units.

TEAM MEMBERS Sam Atlas, Mechanical Engineering Josh Crest, Mechanical Engineering Trevor Wayne Galloway, Electrical & Computer Engineering Robert Charles Truman Louth, Systems Engineering Mohamed Ragheb Mohamed, Mechanical Engineering Travis Otto Nannen, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Steve Larimore PROJECT ADVISOR Oscar Mortera

The Automated Shaft Tip Preparation project team created a fully functional system that requires minimal user interaction and optimizes the shaft preparation process so that it is consistent, efficient and a positive return on investment.

Small Aperture Daylight Star Tracker Team 21012

PROJECT GOAL Develop an alternative to GPS that images and identifies star patterns during the day and night in order to determine orientation with respect to the celestial reference frame. The prevalence of GPS use in the defense and civilian sectors has made it the target of disruption efforts. An alternative to GPS for determining global positioning in celestial navigation via astrophotography must be able to operate day or night. The team used star imaging and star pattern recognition to create a custom-designed algorithm to locate global position. Daytime imaging can occur by combining the customdesigned optical system with image stacking to improve signal-to-noise ratio. They also developed a radiometric model to optimize design decisions and predict how the optical system would perform. A unique single, dual-axis gyroscope provided data to determine possible random changes in angle between successive images. These changes were used to calculate the necessary pixel adjustments during the image stacking process.

TEAM MEMBERS Alyssa Michelle Baller, Optical Sciences & Engineering Ian Louis Bell, Electrical & Computer Engineering Cameron James Carey, Industrial Engineering Michael Edgar Snow, Optical Sciences & Engineering Nathan Freeman Thomas, Mechanical Engineering Saraya Lynn Wallen, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Mike Nofziger PROJECT ADVISOR Michael Crowe

These additions made the system more robust, which allowed it to determine its orientation under shaky or unstable conditions during both day and night.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Improved Urinary Catheter Design Team 21013

TEAM MEMBERS Ahmad Saud M Alkhomri, Industrial Engineering Nushin Anwar, Electrical & Computer Engineering Kirsten Lynn Bassett, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Kaleb James Bowers, Biomedical Engineering Babak Safavinia, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Hector Rosendo Urena, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bob Messenger PROJECT ADVISOR Ian Jackson

PROJECT GOAL Improve upon current market-standard indwelling urinary catheters by using electric stimulus and attenuate bacteria to reduce infection risk. Attenuating bacteria and, in turn, reducing the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, or CAUTI, are the main focuses of the Bacteria Attenuating Catheter. Current catheters have sought to address CAUTI with strategies ranging from silver nanoparticle coatings to antibiotic coatings. However, these have drawbacks. Most significantly, current catheters lead to an increase in the antibiotic resistance of bacteria, which can ultimately result in CAUTI. A new system uses micro-amperage electrical stimulation to attenuate bacteria. Adding this to current market-standard catheters reduces the risk of CAUTI by halting the aggregation of planktonic bacteria into biofilm. Analysis and testing of bacterial accumulation on the surface of various test catheters and the media (human pooled urine) yielded the most effective design. The Bacteria Attenuating Catheter could decrease medical costs of treating CAUTI, which can cost up to $13,000 per incident, and reduce use of the 1.5 million single-use catheters used daily in the United States. It can also address the patient’s needs while functioning as expected.

Advanced Hospital Bed System Team 21014

TEAM MEMBERS Faris Saleh Alzahrani, Mechanical Engineering Ryan Lee Jarick, Electrical & Computer Engineering Franklin Kevin Licos, Mechanical Engineering Kyle Eric Linner, Electrical & Computer Engineering Simon Teweldemedhin Tecle, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bob Messenger PROJECT ADVISOR Ian Jackson

PROJECT GOAL Prevent the formation of pressure ulcers in patients via an autonomous sense and response system. Pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores, are a recurring problem for immobile patients and often lead to infection, necrosis and other complications, which are resource- and cost-intensive to address. This project aims to prevent the formation of bed sores. A dynamic air pressure mattress system has an embedded sensing device that sends pressure data to a central computer. This computer reads the pressure data, identifies potential areas of risk and determines the appropriate redistribution in pressure for the bladders in the mattress. The computer sends these commands to a microcontroller, which distributes the signals to specific solenoid valves that control and distribute the pressure as commanded. The system identifies high-pressure locations on the patient’s body and actively redistributes the pressure before these locations cause pressure ulcers. There is an LCD screen with user controls to manually adjust certain bed parameters, monitor the state of the system and reset the air mattress system.

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2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY


Diagnostic System for Monitoring Patients on Ventilators for Secondary Infection Team 21015

PROJECT GOAL Create an interface for doctors to view and analyze metagenomic nextgeneration sequencing, or mNGS, data, allowing for rapid diagnosis and treatment of secondary infections for patients on ventilators. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many patients are being hospitalized and intubated. Intubation increases the risk of developing secondary infections, which can be fatal in patients who are already very ill. Currently, it takes several days to diagnose secondary infections in intubated patients. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing, or mNGS, can identify infections more quickly than current methods. However, it is not widely used in clinical settings, largely because clinicians are not yet comfortable with the technology. This project strives to push mNGS technology from “bench to bedside” by making the technology accessible and convenient within current infrastructure.

TEAM MEMBERS Khaled Albaloul, Industrial Engineering Jacob Thomas Durant, Biosystems Engineering Megan Ann Johnson, Biomedical Engineering Jacob Celso Padilla, Electrical & Computer Engineering Anna Marjorie Peckham, Mechanical Engineering Daniel Robert Wieland, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Heather Hilzendeger PROJECT ADVISORS Gary Wonacott, Bonnie Hurwitz

To make mNGS more accessible, the team created an interface for doctors to view and evaluate data. Lab personnel can upload data to the RShiny-based web interface, and doctors can choose how they’d like to view the data from among several formats. One option is to view the data in a format similar to existing reports, which the doctors are already familiar with. In addition, the app contains several unique analytical tools, including some to monitor the relative size of multiple infections over time, which is not currently possible.

Automated Refrigerant Charge Station for Portable Medical Refrigerators Team 21016

PROJECT GOAL Improve the precision refrigerant charging station used for a portable medical refrigerator through the design and manufacture of an automated recharging station. Refrigerant maintains the desired temperature of vaccines, food and living spaces. The less refrigerant a system requires, the more precision in refrigerant charging it requires. Providing an accurate quantity of refrigerant to any cooling system is critical. Most known methods of refrigerant delivery are done manually, introducing the potential for human error in the refrigerant delivery process. Improved methods of supplying refrigerant will ensure proper operation and efficiency. The team designed a refrigerant recharging process system using electronically controlled pumps, valves and sensors. The system minimizes human involvement and maintains an accuracy of 40g ±0.10g of refrigerant during delivery. The monitoring system consists of load-cell-based weighing stations that continuously collect data on the mass of the refrigerant tanks and medical refrigerator. The system alerts operators of events, such as the need to switch out empty refrigerant tanks or full recovery tanks of excess refrigerant that are ready to be recycled.

TEAM MEMBERS Abdulrahman Emad Al-Badawi, Mechanical Engineering Jose Andres Corrales, Mechanical Engineering McKenzie Danielle Jones, Systems Engineering Alyssa Rae Klix, Mechanical Engineering Kevin Reyna Zepeda, Mechanical Engineering Manny Valencia, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Doug May PROJECT ADVISORS Tim Gust, Robert Futch

This design improves refrigerant delivery accuracy by automating the refrigerant recharge process and monitoring refrigerant mass. PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Remote-Controlled Automation for a Modular Vertical Farm Hydroponic Growing System Team 21017

TEAM MEMBERS Alexis Marie Canez, Electrical & Computer Engineering Torin R Hodge, Biosystems Engineering Peter Kanaichi Joyce, Mechanical Engineering Emma Duvall Menden, Biosystems Engineering Zach Shellouff, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Kate Michelle Stalkfleet, Biosystems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Steve Larimore PROJECT ADVISOR Joel Cuello

PROJECT GOAL Create a remote-controlled vertical farm to optimize hydroponic leafy green production. Controlled environment agriculture aims to reduce inputs and increase outputs of food production to feed a rapidly increasing population. The V-Hive Greenbox is a modular and scalable vertical farming system designed to fill the volume of a shipping container. This project focuses on adding automated technology to the smallest fully functional scale to help reduce labor requirements. The system has a metal frame of lighting boards with horticultural LEDs and growing boards with hydroponic growing channels. The boards are alternated in the frame for optimal light distribution to the plants. Their orientation is remotely adjustable in two dimensions to accommodate the light and space requirements of different plant species and growing phases, as well as harvesting and maintenance. This is accomplished using a belt and pulley rail system above the main frame, allowing the user to extend and retract boards out of the frame and to change the lateral spacing between lights and plants. A Raspberry Pi can be accessed on-site using the mounted touch screen panel or remotely using Virtual Network Computing. The user can remotely control board movement, the nutrient pump, the air pump and lights. Data from environmental sensors and a camera feed can also be displayed and monitored from off-site.

Machine Learning Algorithms for Decluttering Aircraft Cockpit Traffic Displays Team 21018

TEAM MEMBERS Abraham Velazquez Arroyo, Systems Engineering Nicholas John Hammond, Electrical & Computer Engineering Ryan William Hammond, Electrical & Computer Engineering Stanford Royal Hurley, Industrial Engineering Tristan David Newbrey, Information Science & Technology Joshua Zion Reck, Electrical & Computer Engineering Brian Ralph Volpe, Systems Engineering

PROJECT GOAL Make the multifunctional displays, or MFDs, in a pilot’s cockpit easier to read using course predictive software. Commercial aircrafts are equipped with multifunctional displays, or MFDs, that use sensory equipment to collect the position of surrounding aircrafts and display them on a screen. The MFDs that pilots currently use are often cluttered with irrelevant aircraft information, making it difficult for the pilot to extract necessary traffic data. The team was tasked with developing machine learning algorithms to remove irrelevant traffic data, thereby improving pilots’ situational awareness.

COLLEGE MENTOR Cat Merrill

The team developed three Predictive Aircraft Navigation, or PAN, algorithms, each of which includes a unique method for predicting aircraft flight paths.

PROJECT ADVISOR Jay Crossman

Each of these models combine current and past flight data to predict future flight paths. The team then incorporated a comparison algorithm to rate the relevance of surrounding aircrafts according to their relation to the pilot. The results show a decluttered MFD so a pilot can extract critical information and make vital decisions in dense airspace.

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2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY


Capacitive Volume Sensing Team 21019

PROJECT GOAL Create a contactless liquid level sensor that can measure levels of tissue staining reagent with high accuracy, resolution and precision. The HE 600 machine automates tissue staining to diagnose diseases such as cancer. It dispenses reagents on top of tissue samples, which are fixed to microscope slides. The reagents are housed in 1-liter reservoirs, which use mechanical signal floats to determine liquid level. The floats are in direct contact with the reagents and so break down easily, putting excess strain on system pumps that need constant replacements. In addition, the floats also often get stuck or corroded, and thus do not accurately measure reagent levels. This design uses contactless capacitive sensing to constantly measure the liquid level inside the reservoir. The system has a flexible printed circuit board (the sensor) and a small metal box containing the capacitive sensor chip and microcontroller. The entire system is adhered to the outside of the reservoir so that none of the components are in contact with the reagents.

TEAM MEMBERS Ali Yousef Alqattan, Industrial Engineering Brian Clinch, Mechanical Engineering Kayleigh Ruberto, Biomedical Engineering Cooper Joseph Ryan, Electrical & Computer Engineering Ignacio Vazquez Lam, Electrical & Computer Engineering Craig Williams, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Pat Caldwell PROJECT ADVISOR Daniel O’Connor

The system provides real-time liquid volume levels via USB connection to a computer station with a graphical user interface. This design is meant to last the lifetime of the HE 600, creating a cost-effective and long-lasting volume measuring system.

Drop Volume Algorithm and Analysis System Team 21020

PROJECT GOAL Design, build and verify a system that uses light sensor data to store and calculate the volume of cancer-identifying reagents being dispensed onto a tissue sample, enabling technicians to confirm reagent volumes and avoid false diagnoses. Roche Tissue Diagnostics’ automated tissue staining systems dispense set amounts of dye, or reagent, onto patient tissue samples to diagnose conditions such as cancer. To deliver the most precise and accurate diagnoses, the system needs to dispense the proper quantity of reagent on every sample. The team developed a new system that uses a neural network to calculate an accurate volume for each drop. The system consists of a photoelectric sensor, which is set in the path of the reagent dropper and sends a stream of analog input to a microcontroller. When a drop is detected, the microcontroller isolates the drop instance and performs preprocessing on it to prepare the analog input for the algorithm. The microcontroller then uses a pre-trained recurrent neural network to calculate an accurate volume for the drop. The volume calculation is saved with other bookkeeping data, then converted to analog and output to the Roche tissue staining system to verify the drop volume.

TEAM MEMBERS Robert C Downs, Information Science and Technology Tyler Glen Gleesing, Electrical & Computer Engineering Carl Phillip Jones, Electrical & Computer Engineering Maggie Quiroz, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Engineering Management Jonathan Edward Rickel, Electrical & Computer Engineering Brandon Trung Truong, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Cat Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Frank Ventura

This system, built on advanced neural networks and made to integrate with the existing Roche Tissue Diagnostics tissue staining system, helps to verify the integrity of the tissue staining system at each drop, preventing patients from receiving false diagnoses. PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Real-Time Instrument Characterization Kit Team 21021

TEAM MEMBERS Miguel Angel Castro Gonzalez, Electrical & Computer Engineering Wei Deng, Electrical & Computer Engineering Alexus Nicole Hurtado, Industrial Engineering Mark William Omo, Electrical & Computer Engineering Duncan Kevin Joseph Weir, Electrical & Computer Engineering Haibei Xiong, Optical Sciences & Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Cat Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Vy Nguyen

PROJECT GOAL Develop a benchtop demonstration system to show the feasibility of measuring volume dispensed for tissue staining systems using a capacitive sensor. A key factor in tissue staining quality is the volume of reagent dispensed. A sensor platform that measures the volume dispensed allows the staining environment to be monitored, understood and controlled in real time throughout the staining process. This project presents a capacitive volume sensor to automate on-slide fluid volume measurements in real time. This design uses a carefully defined sensing pattern on a printed circuit board to detect fluid on the surface of an adhered glass slide. It does so by measuring the change in capacitance of the system. A custom printed circuit and a capacitance-to-digital converter communicate with a custom graphical user interface on a host computer to report the volume sensed. Using a curve fit of experimental data, the capacitance is converted to volume and displayed as a graph on the graphical user interface.

Grasshopper Harvester Phase III Team 21022

PROJECT GOAL Design and fabricate a remote-controlled mechanism for the removal of grasshoppers from agricultural fields.

TEAM MEMBERS Elena Ruth Ball, Biosystems Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Zepeng Cai, Electrical & Computer Engineering Anthony Hazou, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Engineering Management Emma Rose Huffman, Biosystems Engineering Cecilia Lauren Stoesser, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Jake William Vartanian, Mechanical Engineering J.R. Dodge, Pima Community College, Computer-Aided Design COLLEGE MENTOR Claude Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Goggy Davidowitz

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2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY

Arizona is home to more than 300 species of grasshoppers that feed on plants, putting crops – specifically organic crops – at risk. Grasshoppers naturally jump in the presence of danger. The Grasshopper Harvester III is a remote-controlled kart with a directive vacuum system that captures grasshoppers as they jump. As grasshoppers land in the capture mechanism, they are directed towards an air stream powered by the vacuum system, which pushes them into a removable storage bag. This storage bag can be easily removed and replaced by the operator. The kart utilizes remote-controlled motors to maneuver through crop fields and efficiently collects 70% of the grasshoppers it encounters.


Writing Robot Team 21023

PROJECT GOAL Update robotic writing technology that is capable of emulating human handwriting while emphasizing efficiency, scalability and reliability. The repetitive nature of hand-copying messages for diverse groups of recipients and addressing different envelopes is tedious. This project presents a new type of a robotic writing machine, or RWM, which produces an efficient handwriting process and prints large quantities reliably and consistently. The team updated the RWM technology, which has been used since the 1970s, by developing a new plotter that controls the movement of the pen and a paper. They also created a top-feeding method to replace the outdated bottom feed. The new feeder increased the loading capability from 200 envelopes to 500 with fewer paper jams. This reduces the time required to replenish the paper. Rollers move individual cards and envelopes from the stack to the writing surface. The message or address is then printed on the card or envelope, respectively. The upgrade provides more writing space and less movement during the print. The Raspberry Pi allows the user to remotely send work batches to the RWM in the form of a SVG file, a significant upgrade from the previous process, which involved tinkering with the robot and provided limited input options.

TEAM MEMBERS Cole Roy Chipman, Mechanical Engineering Mahmoud Aly Elkanany, Mechanical Engineering Michaela Irene Guardado, Mechanical Engineering Parker Riley Lawson, Electrical & Computer Engineering David Aaron Martinez, Industrial Engineering, Systems Engineering Yiwen Otsuki, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Claude Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Rick Elmore

Motorized Attachment for a Manual Wheelchair Team 21024

PROJECT GOAL Create a prototype of a detachable motorized assist for standard manual wheelchairs. Motorized wheelchairs provide users a labor-free way to move up to five miles per hour, but they can prohibitively cost up to $40,000. On the other hand, users of manual wheelchairs must continuously physically exert themselves to propel forward. The team developed Momentous, a prototype wheelchair accessory that provides a motorized assist to a standard-sized manual wheelchair. This device can be attached to the back of a manual wheelchair and has drive-wheels that control the wheelchair based on user inputs from a joystick. Momentous is meant to last longer than similar wheelchair accessory products on the market.

TEAM MEMBERS Marissa Alvarez, Systems Engineering Joselyn Renee Bock, Mechanical Engineering Austin Edward Fisher, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Jason Giovanni Gofandi, Mechanical Engineering David Mingus, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Ruben Miranda, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Heather Hilzendeger PROJECT ADVISOR Christopher Paillet, Thomas Jefferson

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Baja Race Car Electronic Continuous Variable Transmission Team 21025

PROJECT GOAL Design and build a prototype of an electronic continuously variable transmission, or E-CVT, to replace the current mechanical CVT on the Baja SAE race vehicle.

TEAM MEMBERS Emily Lauren Bauers, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Erik Edmon Knowles, Mechanical Engineering Jacob Simon Merki, Electrical & Computer Engineering Alexander Nikolas Moore, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering James Nguyen, Electrical & Computer Engineering Akshat Srivastava, Systems Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Doug May PROJECT ADVISOR Michael Marcellin

The Baja race car’s mechanical CVT had two major issues that served as the primary reasons for undertaking this project. The first issue was the tedious and error-prone process of tuning the CVT. The second issue was the mechanical CVT not being properly sealed, which put the components inside at risk for dirt and water damage. The team designed and built a prototype E-CVT to solve these issues for the Society of Automotive Engineers, or SAE, Baja Competition. The E-CVT design consists of two pulleys that connect the engine and gearbox and which change their diameter based on data collected from a telemetry system in the engine. The E-CVT uses electric motors in conjunction with sensors and microcontrollers to algorithmically change the gear ratio between the engine and gearbox. The E-CVT’s insulated wiring and protective casing at IP54 certification level ensures it is protected from water and dirt in the offroad racing environment. The new system offers greater adjustability and increased reliability. Acceptance tests showed the E-CVT system was capable of handling overvoltage and overcurrent, as well as collecting and sending data to the central data collection microcontroller. The bench test of the completed E-CVT displayed the changing gears at the engine’s peak power.

Improved Knee Brace for Polio Patients Team 21026

Robert Binnewies

TEAM MEMBERS Jihad Al-shirawi, Mechanical Engineering Edvania Lima, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Systems Engineering Jessica Lynn Crain, Mechanical Engineering Karam Samer Elali, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Brad Nunamaker, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Chase A Steeves, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Heather Hilzendeger PROJECT ADVISOR Robert Binnewies

PROJECT GOAL Develop an improved design for the dated polio leg brace. People who have poliomyelitis, a virus-induced disease that causes muscle atrophy, rely on orthotic devices such as knee braces to compensate for muscle weakness. The most common devices are passive and provide limited support to users. The team redesigned the passive knee brace by adding a mechanical system to assist users with motions such as sitting down and standing up from a chair, walking up a set of steps, and navigating inclines. The main goal behind this design is to support body weight and assist users with knee joint extension and flexion by reducing pressure on the joint. The new knee brace system consists of a spring housing assembly, compression springs, galvanized steel wire, a latching mechanism and a radial moment arm. The radial moment arm is connected to the spring housing through the galvanized steel wire and operates with the hinge on an existing brace. The latching mechanism houses a latch and a stopper that lock the spring, allowing the user to freely flex and extend the knee. The new brace weighs approximately 1.3 kg, offers an assistive moment of at least 480 poundsper-inch, can support a weight up to 180 pounds and allows a minimum of 90 degrees of flexion relative to the user’s thigh.

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2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY


Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) Catheter Efficacy Test Setup Team 21027

PROJECT GOAL Design and develop a high-efficacy test fixture that enables verification and validation activities of Chronic Total Occlusion, or CTO, catheters to target and treat peripheral arterial disease. Approximately 20,000 U.S. residents will be diagnosed with peripheral arterial disease chronic total occlusion in 2021, and about 15,000 patients will receive a thrombectomy procedure. Thrombectomy devices, used to clear clots and occlusions, need to be tested to make sure they work correctly. The team designed a Peripheral Arterial Disease Efficacy Test Setup, or PADTS, which enables verification and validation activities for medical device testing. It simulates an actual vascular system, including vascular tissue, occlusions formed during fluid flow and the ability to introduce IV catheters. The system allows the user to set, monitor and regulate the testing parameters for temperature, flow and pressure. The PADTS has three major subsystems. The circulation model assembly simulates human vasculature as a closed loop control system. The mechanical assembly has a modular design, which allows the system to test various anatomical models. The software assembly provides a user interface to set and monitor the system parameters.

TEAM MEMBERS Angie Guadalupe Covarrubias, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Alejandra Loreto, Mechanical Engineering Duzan Pavlovich, Mechanical Engineering Carlos Perez, Electrical & Computer Engineering Jocelyne Rivera, Biomedical Engineering James Manuel Rivera-Torres, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Don McDonald PROJECT ADVISOR Alex Lastovich

Virtual Reality Optics Lab Team 21028

PROJECT GOAL Create a user-defined optics laboratory to design and perform optical experiments and observe both geometrical and physical optics data within a 3D virtual reality environment. The cost of common optical equipment and the time required to design and test optical systems demand an improved model to analyze such systems. Using an established communication link between Polaris-M and the Unity game engine, the team developed a realistic laboratory simulation intended for optics students to model and manipulate custom optical experiments in virtual reality, or VR. The team members split the project into two components: Unity and Polaris-M development. Within Unity, the VR environment simulates an optics laboratory in which inputs are rendered and user-defined. Polaris-M retrieves data from these inputs to calculate and send optical results back to Unity, where these results are visually represented in 3D space. Polaris-M VR enables a user to conduct geometrical and physical optics experiments in an interactive 3D environment through intuitive user interface controls. The user can construct experiments using emitters, mirrors, polarizers, retarders, lenses and detectors, each with characteristics that can be user-defined. Rendered results include ray tracing, polarization ellipses and spot size diagrams.

TEAM MEMBERS Carter Conway, Electrical & Computer Engineering Tia Skye Hunt, Electrical & Computer Engineering Ariel Lamdan, Optical Sciences & Engineering Tingting Thompson, Information Science & Technology Mason Richard Westmoreland, Mechanical Engineering Celeste Mae Williams, Industrial Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Cat Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Momoka Sugimura PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Robot Writing Machine Control and Font Generation Software Team 21029

TEAM MEMBERS Ryan Mitchell Grimes, Information Science & Technology Fernando Gutierrez, Electrical & Computer Engineering Braden Abel Means, Electrical & Computer Engineering Cody Austin Miller, Industrial Engineering Noas M Shaalan, Electrical & Computer Engineering Ethan Edward Winkler, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Claude Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Rick Elmore

PROJECT GOAL Provide the capability of designing and creating custom handwriting fonts that can be merged into a personalized message and written by a Robotic Writing Machine while updating current operating systems. Handwritten communication has been proven to provide a powerful personal touch to a message, but providing this touch at scale can be a challenge. To address this, the team created a software application capable of font generation, font customization, message production, order delivery and pen control. The Robotic Writing Machine, or RWM, system uses open source machine learning software to recognize characters from an individual’s handwriting and compile them into an OpenType font. The system then allows the operator to customize each glyph in the font library. Once the customized font has been completed, the operator uses a desktop application to access it and create a personalized message with embedded variables where consumer information can be mail-merged and parsed into work batches. These work batches are converted into a scalable vector graphic file to be delivered to and written by the RWM.

Plant Nursery Management By Unmanned Aircraft via Supplemental Guidance Team 21030

PROJECT GOAL Develop an autonomous unmanned aircraft system, or UAS, that can precisely navigate a greenhouse facility without the use of GPS navigation. TEAM MEMBERS Ali Salem Aldossary, Systems Engineering Kris Diego Brown, Optical Sciences & Engineering Sofia Isabela Gamez, Electrical & Computer Engineering Dionna Isabel Sheer, Systems Engineering

An autonomous unmanned aircraft system that does not rely on GPS could provide an effective way to assess the health of the plants in a commercial greenhouse. The team performed engineering research into such a device and developed a guidance and navigation system for autonomous, non-GPS indoor use.

COLLEGE MENTOR Bob Messenger

The team selected two wireless indoor positioning systems for further integration and testing: one from Pozyx and the other from Marvelmind Robotics. The final system navigates autonomously, avoids obstacles, takes clear pictures of plants along a preprogrammed flight path and sends image data to the analytics team for further analysis.

PROJECT ADVISOR Danny Williams

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2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY


Bistatic Imaging Using Signals of Opportunity Team 21031

RINCON RESEARCH A N E M P LOY E E - O W N E D C O M PA N Y

PROJECT GOAL Create a portable system that can use existing radio frequency signals from local television stations, or signals of opportunity, to generate a twodimensional map of the surrounding reflectors and transmitters. Various airwave signals and transmissions radiate outward in every direction, bouncing off surfaces until they are either received and interpreted by an antenna or until they dissipate. The team used this property to image direct path and multipath radio frequency reflections from an opportunistic emitter. By determining the directions of incoming reflected signals, the system constructs a two-dimensional, bird’s-eye view image of the large reflectors in the surrounding area. A coherent software defined radio and a four-element antenna array mounted atop a vehicle are used to receive these radio frequency signals. Data are then transmitted to a singleboard computer where a beamforming algorithm determines the angle of signal arrival. This information is combined with GPS and inertial measurement unit sensor data to determine the estimated latitude and longitude of the signal’s origin. The system then transmits this data to a laptop ground station that displays a two-dimensional image on a graphical user interface.

TEAM MEMBERS Jo Arai, Industrial Engineering Jeremiah Layton Cunningham, Electrical & Computer Engineering Cole Josef Galloway, Electrical & Computer Engineering Jake Daniel Livermore, Mechanical Engineering Kevin Christopher Thompson, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Mike Nofziger PROJECT ADVISOR Mike Garcia

Rapid Protoyping Shock Isolators Team 21032

PROJECT GOAL Design and manufacture 3D-printed shock isolators that mitigate high dynamic loads associated with the launch and flight of various launch vehicles. The sensitive subsystems and electrical components within launch vehicles are at risk of damage during the vehicles’ launch and flight. Shock isolators protect the components by storing shock energy and releasing it over a longer duration, reducing the shock to a nondamaging level. The team developed three variations of shock isolator designs: a solid infill design, a hollow/ patterned infill design and casted design. They used a Formlabs Form3 Stereolithography 3D printer to print the isolators and casts. They used a proprietary resin material to create the solid and hollow infill isolators and room temperature vulcanizing compounds for the casted isolators. Each of the designs was attached to machined aluminum plates and cores. The team built a vibration and shock table with accelerometers and a concrete shaker motor to test that the isolator met the damping requirements.

TEAM MEMBERS Savannah Rae Armstrong, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Daniel Kotlyar, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Cameron Michael Lippon, Mechanical Engineering Ian Michael Lisk, Industrial Engineering Trey Saari, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Christian Luis Tagle, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Claude Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Scott Rowland

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Zoo Educational App Team 21033

PROJECT GOAL Design and create an application for the Reid Park Zoo that provides educational information for their visitors about its Chilean flamingos. The typical zoo experience involves people walking up to each exhibit and reading a small snippet of information about the animal. The Reid Park Zoo tasked the team with creating an interactive application for guests to see information about the Chilean flamingo and its care and conservation efforts through text, photo, video and a 3D augmented reality model.

TEAM MEMBERS Nujud Saud M Alharbi, Biosystems Engineering Joseph Emmanuel Chamul, Information Science & Technology Bennett Bradley Estrada, Electrical & Computer Engineering Lexi Hayden, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Celeste Hannah Maher, Electrical & Computer Engineering Rohan Rasiklal Patel, Electrical & Computer Engineering

The team’s solution combines different software to make one cohesive application. They used reactNative to develop the use interface and informational pages. They used Blender 2.9 to build the 3D augmented reality model, which allows guests to view a realistic model of the Chilean flamingo in front of them using their smartphone camera. The application can be accessed via a QR code, which will be posted outside of the exhibit.

COLLEGE MENTOR Claude Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Stephanie Norton

Animal Enrichment Automation Team 21034

TEAM MEMBERS Jianna Aleyse Auditore, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Kristine Hope Jones, Biosystems Engineering Sarah Labat, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Tiffany Tinyee Ma, Electrical & Computer Engineering Dustin Nguyen, Mechanical Engineering Anthony James Sanchez, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Heather Hilzendeger PROJECT ADVISOR Stephanie Norton

PROJECT GOAL Develop a system for zoos that uses an animal’s motion within a habitat to trigger various animal enrichment activities, with the goal of simplifying animal care and improving animal well-being and visitor experience. To provide improved care for animals, many zoos have environmental enrichment programs, in which staff members activate various activities or objects to stimulate the animal. The team was tasked with improving this concept by automating the enrichment system for Reid Park Zoo’s jaguar habitat. The system is composed of four identical units, each containing electronic components within a weatherproof case with a mounting bracket. The units use interchangeable passive infrared sensors that detect changes of infrared light within their field of view and use a radio frequency mesh network to determine if another unit is active. If no other units are active, then the unit that detected motion will switch a relay, enabling power to an enrichment device. The enrichment device remains powered for a set time that the user can adjust. This system gives the animal freedom to choose which enrichment activity is activated by its motion. This could potentially be integrated into other animal enclosures and at other zoos.

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Software Defined Radio Boards Evaluation Team 21035

PROJECT GOAL Conduct a trade study on commercially available software defined radio, or SDR, circuit card assemblies to replace a system that is approaching obsolescence, and to develop a prototype of the selected SDR. The team performed a comprehensive trade study on commercially available software defined radio, or SDR, circuit card assemblies to replace an outdated system. The sponsor company provided more than 30 very stringent performance and form-factor requirements. After canvassing the market of SDR circuit card assemblies, or CCAs, the team identified four options as contenders for the trade study. They ultimately selected Rincon’s Raptor SDR and mezzanine board after completing a detailed trade analysis of four variants. After the trade study was completed, the team procured and performed a comprehensive verification and validation, or V&V, test of the selected SDR. To appropriately verify that the specifications were met and evaluate the capabilities of the board, the team researched and developed more than 25 SDR CCA 25 tests. After the V&V testing confirmed that the assembly met requirements, the team developed a prototype to demonstrate the SDR’s functional capability. The prototype takes FM frequency inputs and transmits the audio to a family radio service system. The prototype simultaneously received and transmitted two signals demodulated into the correct frequency with the Raptor SDR assembly.

TEAM MEMBERS Joseph Christian Emnett, Electrical & Computer Engineering Robert Daniel Gauthier, Electrical & Computer Engineering Justin Chadol Kim, Electrical and Computer Engineering Franklin N Lam, Systems Engineering Jennifer Nadolski, Electrical & Computer Engineering Michael David Ong, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sharon ONeal PROJECT ADVISOR Randy Derr

Short-Range Remote Drone Deployment Team 21036

PROJECT GOAL Conduct video surveillance of an area of interest from two miles away by using a relay to remotely control a drone. Police departments have a critical need to safely conduct remote aerial drone reconnaissance of an area of interest. The team formed a communication chain from the user to the drone by integrating various commercial products. A Raspberry Pi 4 was mounted to a DJI drone using a 3D-printed adapter plate. A remote computer accesses the Raspberry Pi 4, which is connected to the internet by a commercial 4G module. The user taps into the DJI GO 4 Wi-Fi program to control the drone. Two sets of data are captured and recorded in the event of a drone failure. A high-resolution data set is recorded on the drone’s SD card, while a lower resolution version is recorded on the host computer.

TEAM MEMBERS Abdullah Alwasmi, Industrial Engineering Caleb Robert Henry, Electrical & Computer Engineering Doug Moss, Mechanical Engineering Kurt Ballesteros Nacionales, Electrical & Computer Engineering Adam Emmanuel Skora, Mechanical Engineering Ben Stelter, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sharon ONeal PROJECT ADVISOR Aaron Childers

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Apparatus to Simulate Tumor Environment and Reproduce Organs Using an Interactive and Dynamic System (ASTEROIDS) Team 21037

TEAM MEMBERS Hameeda Muneer Al Saif, Biomedical Engineering Nick Bai, Biomedical Engineering Tyler Donald Hertenstein, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Connor Joe Wynn Nemetz, Systems Engineering Erik Scott Tollefson, Biomedical Engineering Nicholas Owen Watson, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sharon ONeal PROJECT ADVISORS Jerome Lacombe, Alan Nordquist

PROJECT GOAL Design a user-friendly, time-efficient platform that uses a culture of up to six individual three-dimensional cellular structures for drug screening, personalized medicine or disease modeling. Accurate 3D cell culturing for drug screening, personalized medicine or disease modeling can be tedious and biologically complex. The Apparatus to Simulate Tumor Environment and Reproduce Organs Using an Interactive and Dynamic System, or ASTEROIDS, platform aims to simplify this process using two perfused chambers separated by two membranes on which cells can be seeded and mimic vascular and connective compartments. While the currently used ASTEROIDS platform is effective for singular experimental trials, it must fit within an incubator with several pumps and tubing/connectors attached to other laboratory equipment. This new design accommodates up to six ASTEROIDS chips in a single experiment. This platform uses a custom chip holder, growth media heater and heating element to ensure the optimum thermodynamic environment of 37 ± 0.5 degrees Celsius.

Vertical Flow Immunoassay Platform for Low Resource Settings Team 21038

TEAM MEMBERS Abdulrahman Saud Alkhamri, Industrial Engineering Juan Guerrero, Mechanical Engineering Alexandra Marie Heald, Biomedical Engineering Monique Martinez, Biomedical Engineering Federico Peralta Pederson, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Joshua Thomas Somerville-Shull, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sharon ONeal PROJECT ADVISORS Jian Gu, Alan Nordquist

PROJECT GOAL Redesign an existing laboratory-based vertical flow immunoassay platform capable of providing real-time disease diagnoses in a variety of low resource settings. The Center for Applied Nanobioscience and Medicine developed a novel, paper-based vertical flow immunoassay, or VFI, capable of detecting targeted disease biomarkers. The developed system only functioned in a laboratory setting. Replacing the electronic syringe pump for sample testing and a desktop scanner for diagnostic imaging would allow the VFI to be used in real-world situations. The team redesigned components of the vertical flow immunoassay platform, or VFP, to be powerless, portable and ergonomic. The user activates a mechanical device to depress a syringe, allowing sample liquid to flow through the augmented paper membrane of the VFI at a desired, constant rate. The VFI, updated with a more ergonomic housing for easy handling by users with personal protective gear, is then removed from the actuator and placed on a cellphone adaptable lens. Finally, the use of colorimetric signal detection of biomarkers on a paper membrane provides a diagnosis. The redesigned VFP efficiently and effectively identifies disease biomarkers on-site in low resource settings.

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Public Outreach Radio Telescope Team 21039

PROJECT GOAL Design an off-axis radio telescope, controlled with a graphical user interface, that allows operators to pinpoint large objects in the solar system. The Steward Observatory sought a radio telescope that can be operated by students, faculty and the general public. The team designed a 2.4-meter off-axis dish with a graphical user interface to control and operate the dish in a user-friendly manner. The telescope uses serial communication to activate the servo motors, which control the rotation of the dish antenna. A Python-configured GUI allows the user to simply input altitudinal and azimuthal coordinates to move the radio telescope. The dish panels were designed with Zemax to limit diffraction at the observation wavelength of 21 centimeters. The observatory’s new metal panel forming technology was used to meet curvature specifications across the aperture. A spider-arm truss structure holds the dish panels.

TEAM MEMBERS Lizbeth Martinez, Mechanical Engineering Bridget Ann Norman, Systems Engineering Jared Everett Northrup, Mechanical Engineering Carrie Lynn Stoll, Electrical and Computer Engineering Mason Richard Varuso, Materials Science & Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Shengrui Zhang, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Gary Redford PROJECT ADVISOR Justin Hyatt

Numerous analyses on the dish and truss structure confirmed the radio telescope will not deform or collapse due to wind or gravity when located on the roof of the observatory.

Power Plant Evaporation Pond Level Measurement Team 21040

PROJECT GOAL Precisely measure the depth of the water at a given point in an evaporation pond and transfer the data approximately three miles to a facility to be stored and tracked over time. Current methods use manual measurement to gauge the depth of wastewater in an evaporation pond at a natural gas powerplant. The Depth Measuring System, or DMS, is a lowcost, low-maintenance, self-powered, easily accessible alternative that is accurate within 1.0 foot. Depth data can be wirelessly transmitted to a remote server for retrieval or read by an operator from an analog system. Trigonometric analysis found the angle of water depth related to the orientation of the DMS. The team enabled wireless data transmission by integrating the system with existing infrastructure, using a combined microcontroller/GSM transmitter. Power analysis ensured that the system could operate using solely a solar panel.

TEAM MEMBERS Vanessa Caroline Friedman, Industrial Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Marc Adam Kragnes, Electrical & Computer Engineering Jenna Nicole Livingston, Chemical Engineering, Environmental Engineering Gabriel Lopez, Mechanical Engineering Nathan Lam Ngo, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Gary Redford PROJECT ADVISORS Matt Kosednar, Karston Lee, Mohammed Saleh

Testing proved the system could measure the depth of water in an evaporation pond with a high degree of accuracy, transmit the information for later use, function under its own power and operate easily.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Method for Estimating Hydraulic Hose Sag Team 21041

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammed Alkhalaf, Mechanical Engineering Farah Alowaid, Industrial Engineering Ross Maxwell Felton, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Rebeca Maria Garcia, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Matthew Alexander Jakubowski, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Josiah Wagner, Mechanical Engineering Mark Sauer, Pima Community College, Computer-Aided Design COLLEGE MENTOR Gary Redford PROJECT ADVISOR Eddie Baba

PROJECT GOAL Design a program that estimates a hose sag depending on the hose characteristics, and create a test center to prove the program’s accuracy. Caterpillar wanted a program to estimate the sagging that a hydraulic hose produces when under certain environments. This can help the company better plan construction of its machine designs. The test center will provide data from the program and be available for further experiments The team designed a digital program that mathematically predicts sag by using a modified catenary equation to analyze hose characteristics such as identification type, diameter and span length. In the testing center, six hoses of three different hose types and varying diameters are suspended across two points of a galvanized steel structure, and hydraulic fluid is pumped through them to simulate their environment. Optical sensors and Arduino computing determine the sag. The test structure can be extended and shortened to accommodate hoses of differing lengths. The structure can be broken down so that an average person could carry it, and its steel construction combats long-term effects like rust.

Protection of Concrete Surfaces from Tracked Mining Equipment Team 21042

PROJECT GOAL Design a way to move, dispense and reel in conveyor belt material used to protect concrete pads around the Caterpillar facility.

TEAM MEMBERS Hassan Ahmad Alzain, Electrical & Computer Engineering Axel Andrey De La Paz, Systems Engineering Haylee Dawn Howe, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Ruby Francesca O’Brien-Metzger, Mechanical Engineering Jongkwang Park, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Jonah Daniel Stiffey, Mechanical Engineering Mark Sauer, Pima Community College, Computer-Aided Design COLLEGE MENTOR Pat Caldwell PROJECT ADVISORS Gil Wondrak, Ethan Bambauer

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There are many concrete surfaces at the Caterpillar Tucson Proving Ground that crack easily when heavy machinery moves on them, leading to expensive maintenance costs. Currently, Caterpillar mechanics use a forklift to lay thick and heavy mining conveyor belts on top of the concrete surfaces to protect them. It is a time-consuming process that puts mechanics at risk of injuries. The team’s spooler design provides a safer and more efficient method to lay down and move conveyor belts around the facility, while also improving belt storage. The design uses a spool that can be connected and disconnected from the spooler and the conveyor belt. The spool is connected to two wheels that rotate when a forklift pushes the spooler forward. As the wheels rotate, the conveyor belt is rolled up on the spool. Since the conveyor belt remains on the spool, it can be moved around safely and easily.


Dump Body Mounted High-Precision GPS System for Large Mining Trucks Team 21043

PROJECT GOAL Develop a cost-effective, rugged and simplified antenna mounting design that allows for unhindered driver visibility and uninterrupted GPS signal acquisition and data transfer. Caterpillar sought to modify the current GPS antenna mounting system on its autonomous trucks and move it from the chassis to the dump body. This would maximize satellites’ visibility, minimize positional error, maintain optimal signal quality, protect electronics, and ease servicing. This design provides a new auto-leveling system that ensures the GPS antennas stay parallel to the horizon when the dump body is in motion. It also improves driver visibility by eliminating obstructions and provides easy access to facilitate maintenance. The design eliminates the currently inconvenient mounting location while allowing for increased productivity and safety during mining operations.

TEAM MEMBERS Kohl Alan Anderson, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Juan Abraham Correa, Systems Engineering Richard Robert Gospodarek, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Aziz Sayyar, Industrial Engineering Ryan Svedberg, Electrical & Computer Engineering Morgan C Wheeler, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bob Messenger PROJECT ADVISORS Adam Hales, Han-Jay Huynh,Troy Shawgo

Smartphone App That Speeds Operating Room Turnovers Team 21044

PROJECT GOAL Design and build a cloud-based medical efficiency system that alerts users to upcoming operating room turnover tasks. Preparation time is valuable in a hospital operating room, or OR, but communication and coordination issues between personnel can lead to unplanned downtime between patient procedures. This mobile application notification system, built with Flutter, Svelte and Firebase, incorporates real-time user feedback to improve the organization of OR turnover. A cloud-based server communicates with mobile and desktop browser applications to assign tasks, deliver notifications and update the overall room status. Staff members receive assignments through their mobile application, while the desktop browser application determines the work required for a given OR turnover workflow. Real-time updates of task completion status are used to coordinate the deployment of notifications.

TEAM MEMBERS Abdulwahab Khaled Alkhateeb, Industrial Engineering Jakob Adam Olof Bakall Loewgren, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Christopher Clark, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Jalea Adrienne Dashiell, Electrical & Computer Engineering Rafael Romero, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Thomas Avery Telles, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Cat Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Dr. Dan Latt

The system centralizes the structure to initiate, track and complete OR turnover tasks.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Automated Media Exchange System For Dynamic Tissue Engineering Bioreactor Team 21045

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammed Alboori, Industrial Engineering Carmela Compuesto, Biomedical Engineering Gerardo Figueroa, Biomedical Engineering Hannah Rose Johnson, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Kendall Elaine Staring, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Brian Lu Zhang, Biomedical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Don McDonald PROJECT ADVISOR Dr. David Margolis

PROJECT GOAL Incorporate an automated media exchange system into a tissue engineering bioreactor for longer experiments and contamination detection. A university bioreactor built in 2019 for complex cartilage tissue engineering worked efficiently and effectively to deliver the needed mechanical loading to engineered cartilage cells, simulating the physiological conditions of the human body. However, the overall design to reproduce the loads from humans’ natural gait onto stem cell-seeded scaffolds compromised the sterility of the growth environment, since the user had to open the bioreactor every time cell feeding needed to occur. This new media exchange system automatically switches media within the enclosed bioreactor, removing the old medium and depositing a fresh medium in a sterile and closed reactor environment at user-dictated intervals. An added photodiode-based pH monitor, in conjunction with phenol red in the medium, detects contamination in real time.

Microfluidic System for Continuous Platelet Separation and Concentration for Analytic and Preparative Purposes Team 21046

TEAM MEMBERS Grace Marie Heffernon, Biomedical Engineering Destiny Starr Hodges, Biomedical Engineering Nick Murachanian, Electrical & Computer Engineering Natalie Michelle Sampson, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Natalie Kay Shultz, Materials Science & Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Bethany Tolsma, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Don McDonald PROJECT ADVISOR Dr. Marvin Slepian

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PROJECT GOAL Develop a point-of-care system for portable, cost-effective and rapid platelet separation and concentration for analytic and preparative purposes. ThromboSpiral is a portable and rapid microfluidic system for platelet separation and concentration in a clinical setting. It provides point-of-care analysis of platelet health in patients at risk of blood clots due to cardiac devices. The system consists of three distinct modules. The first component separates platelets from whole blood using a compact centrifuge constructed from a disk drive, 3D-printed rotor and siphoning cap. The siphoning cap automatically removes the separated platelet-rich plasma from the other blood components and deposits it into 10mL chromatography columns for the gel filtration of platelets. Once separated, the platelets are passed through shear-simulating microfluidic channels, which activate the platelets within predefined ranges of shear to simulate conditions found in common cardiac devices. Finally, these activated platelets pass through a second microfluidic chip that immobilizes fluorescently tagged platelets to be identified using a custom fluorescence detection device.


Ventilator Improvement Systems Team 21047

PROJECT GOAL Improve the performance of current low-cost ventilators by designing a mechanical ventilator from readily available materials and implementing an advanced control system to adjust and monitor clinical data. Healthcare professionals and medical facilities are overrun with an increasing number of COVID-19 patients who needed sophisticated, extremely costly mechanical ventilators. Makeshift, low-cost ventilators designed by engineers around the world did not meet the demand due to expense and the short supply of medical-grade components. This design mitigates those issues by using everyday household materials, such as a ball for an air reservoir and a rolling toolbox as a mode of portability. An advanced control system monitors air flow and pressure to the patient during the breathing cycle, which can be read on the graphical display. The ventilator also features a two-arm design that operates as the squeezing mechanism to deliver air to the patient. A motor and a set of adjustable clinical parameters control the device.

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammed Alyousef, Electrical & Computer Engineering Shubhangi Awasthi, Biomedical Engineering Abdulaziz Abdulrahman Bawazir, Industrial Engineering Casey Michael Broker, Mechanical Engineering Amanda Lynn Heald, Biomedical Engineering Marco Elias Lacson Jacob, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Steve Larimore PROJECT ADVISOR Dr. Marvin Slepian

Visual Natural Language Processing of Medical Images for Enhanced Value Team 21048

PROJECT GOAL Develop an image analysis tool to assist in the qualitative analysis of platelets and platelet activation. Improvements in qualitative analysis of medical images, platelets in particular, are needed to reduce overhead and remove human bias, error and inefficiency, Fractal Eyes V2.0 serves as a preliminary, neural-network-based platform that classifies platelets in different stages of activation, while it also extracts feature data for further analysis. Developed in Python, the tool captures the area of the platelet, the perimeter, color density differences, light intensity and approximate pixel length and width as it maps the image. A graphical user interface application loads platelet images, view feature data and access log data for image analysis and feature extraction subsystems.

TEAM MEMBERS Madellyn Alexandra Brown, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Shaun Michael Brown, Biomedical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Sondos Kullab, Industrial Engineering Andrew Phillip Masciola, Biomedical Engineering Khoa Truong, Biosystems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Don McDonald PROJECT ADVISOR Dr. Marvin Slepian

This system will aid the University of Arizona Center for Accelerated Biomedical Innovation’s current work on platelets and associated technologies, programs and goals. It serves as foundational work for expansion to other subjects of medical image analysis.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Component Sound Analysis for Extracting and Analyzing Medical Information from Patient Encounters Team 21049

PROJECT GOAL Design a system that detects, processes and stores heart, breath and speech sound signals for doctors to use as a tool for diagnosing patients. Subtle Sounds is a holistic system that takes in arbitrary sound data and computationally analyzes the signals with a natural language processing, or NLP, interface.

TEAM MEMBERS Reeshad Arian, Electrical & Computer Engineering Logan James Morales, Biomedical Engineering Julia Elizabeth Ritz, Optical Sciences & Engineering Nate Smith, Biomedical Engineering Oanh Tran, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Gary Redford PROJECT ADVISORS Fuad Rahman, Dr. Marvin Slepian

An electronic stethoscope collects heart and breath sound signals, and it transmits data to a computer via Bluetooth. Four large diaphragm cardioid condenser microphones, mounted on individual tripods strategically positioned to surround the patient, capture speech sound signals. Parselmouth, a Python library for Praat software, determines the acoustic properties of input signals, including harmonic-to-noise ratio, jitter, shimmer, short-time energy, energy entropy and zero-crossing rate. The software also creates reports that depict relevant data and tables that are useful for a doctor’s diagnosis. The software-generated reports are saved in a small onboard database. Newly written software compatible with Google’s API NLP provides transcription of the patient consultation. The software runs on a PC mounted on a mobile cart. The cart also holds the microphones, mounts, cables and stethoscope when the system is disassembled. A doctor or medical professional can easily transport the system and set it up in five minutes or less.

Rapid Optical Imaging of Low Frequency Physiologic Processes Team 21050

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammed A H M R Alazemi, Industrial Engineering Mohammad A A KH Alhaddad, Industrial Engineering Benjamin Henry Carpenter, Biomedical Engineering Dominique Galvez, Optical Sciences & Engineering Shannon Marie McCoy, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Don McDonald PROJECT ADVISOR Urs Utzinger

PROJECT GOAL Develop a portable, non-invasive skin-imaging system that captures at least 250 frames per second to observe physiological processes in a time frame varying from a few seconds to one minute. The market lacks products that can track biomarkers, such as hemoglobin, hemosiderin and bilirubin, over long periods of time. Such a product will assist in biomedical research on skinlevel processes and may lend itself to improving patient care if integrated into medical devices for non-invasive imaging of the skin. The Rapid Optical Imaging of Low Frequency Physiologic Processes observes physiological processes that occur between one second and one minute, using 13 types of LEDs to illuminate tissue with specific wavelengths chosen to target particular biomarkers. A custom electronic design operates the LED array. A heat sink dissipates the heat from the power generated by the electronic system and safely prevents thermal damage. The ROIPP rapidly cycles through the 13 biomarker wavelengths, displays a live video feed and efficiently saves the images onto the user’s computer. With this device, the concentration and movement of multiple biomarkers within the human skin can be recorded simultaneously, allowing researchers to recognize patterns in activity.

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Digital Solutions for the Evolution of Analog Manufacturing Resource Planning Systems Team 21051

PROJECT GOAL Create and integrate an automated management system to support a greater production volume. Ruda-Cardinal Inc. is increasing its mass production of custom optics projects. To handle this growing demand, the company wanted to replace its manual system with a new automated process. The Manufacturing Resource Planning system is primarily cloud-based, logging components of a product with process controls that prevent human error. Users can track serializations, locations and overall status of a product throughout its life cycle. Scanning and manual functions update the information. An encoded template for each manufactured product creates documents that are curated to record product status, location and other necessary information.

TEAM MEMBERS Fatmah Alabdullah, Industrial Engineering Mohmed Othman Albalbisi, Electrical & Computer Engineering Angelica Maria Gutierrez, Industrial Engineering Ellen Dianna Hales, Industrial Engineering Harrison Macke Sommerkamp, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Riley Faye Wagner, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Claude Merrill PROJECT ADVISOR Bianka Camacho

Scanning technology tags inventory and its transportation hardware with unique barcodes. Items are cataloged by barcode or manual entry. A custom SharePoint site stores all relevant inventory and contractual data for each product and allows intercommunication through shared updates regarding product status.

Smart Weight Gloves Team 21052

PROJECT GOAL Design gloves that measure and display the amount of mass a user is holding and provide time-under-tension calculations during exercise activities. The Mass Gauntlet gloves allow users to assess their exercises when the force exerted may not be known, such as in assisted pull ups. They display the real-time force a user is exerting in metric or English units. The gloves can also calculate and display the time-under-tension for each workout set. Embedded pressure sensors and wireless capabilities integrated into the gloves measure the total force exerted on them. Rechargeable batteries allow the gloves to be repeatedly reused. Added calibration functions allow for improved accuracy and repeatability. The device has several preprogrammed capabilities that users select as desired.

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammed Hadi Alawami, Industrial Engineering Jael Jael Alonso, Electrical & Computer Engineering Edselmo Biondi, Mechanical Engineering Francisco Garcia, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Thomas Christopher LaMantia, Biomedical Engineering Brendan Duy Pham, Electrical & Computer Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bob Messenger PROJECT ADVISOR Paul Efron

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Instrument Cryocooler Vibration Mitigation Team 21053

PROJECT GOAL Create a functioning lab mockup of the cryocooler and mounting system currently installed on the spectrograph LUCI instruments of the University of Arizona Large Binocular Telescope Observatory.

TEAM MEMBERS Shay Ababtain, Industrial Engineering Kevin Denst, Mechanical Engineering Leslie K Ibarra Borboa, Electrical & Computer Engineering Alex Jin, Electrical & Computer Engineering Valeria Guadalupe Rascon, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Kingsley So, Mechanical Engineering JR Dodge, Pima Community College, Computer-Aided Design COLLEGE MENTOR Doug May PROJECT ADVISORS Peter Gray, Juan Haddad

The Large Binocular Telescope Observatory, or LBTO, is affected by vibrations from the cryocoolers on the spectrograph LBT Utility Camera in Infrared instruments, or LUCI. A test bed consisting of a working analogue of the cryocooler and the surrounding spring system would help reveal possible improvements that can be made to reduce the vibrations. The Vibration Mitigation System has several subsystems that imitate the conditions of the actual LUCI design by supporting a cryocooler with a spring holding system and mounting it to an optical breadboard that is connected to an artificial loading system. The current LBTO structure was slightly modified to fit the test device and to compensate for the lack of force caused from the vacuum of the LUCI instruments. The vibration spectrum of the mockup was measured and modified until it was as close to the spectrum of the cryocoolers in the LBTO as possible. Experiments with this lab mockup can test improvements to the springs and cryocooler to reduce transmitted vibrations to the telescope.

Ground-Based Optical Target Tracker Team 21054

PROJECT GOAL Develop an easily transportable real-time optical tracking system to investigate suspicious vehicles at domestic critical infrastructure sites. TEAM MEMBERS Hawraa Abdullah Bahzad, Engineering Management, Industrial Engineering Tevin R Broadhead, Mechanical Engineering Jack Andrew Kerr, Electrical & Computer Engineering Walker Stallard Lewis, Mechanical Engineering Itay Ozer, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Rantaj Singh, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sharon ONeal PROJECT ADVISOR Jim Bakarich

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The Ground-Based Optical Target Tracking, or GOTT, an autonomous image processing tracking system, tracks a full-size vehicle moving approximately 28 kilometers per hour from 50 to 300 meters away. A camera mounted on a motion control tripod closes the loop around the camera image/target tracking algorithms. A pan-tilt motion control assembly, made of 6061 aluminum, is mounted directly to the tripod for image stabilization and target designation. After the image processing algorithms designate a target, a low-power green laser is used to designate the target for the system operator. The object detection algorithm uses a neural network to locate a user-selected vehicle within the field of view. The target detection algorithm communicates with an optimized target tracking algorithm and sends commands to the pan/tilt assembly to keep the moving target in view. The camera is boresight-aligned and mounted directly under the laser designator. The pantilt assembly consists of a pulley and gear system that allows for more precise movements from the stepper motor.


3D Printing of Variable Durometer Vibration Isolators Team 21055

PROJECT GOAL Develop a process that produces continuously variable hardness of material during the 3D printing of a vibration isolator. Printing plastic with continuously varying hardness has potential applications in the design of vibration isolators. Current designs involve rubber isolators and metal mounts, but the bonding seams between metal and rubber tend to separate after prolonged use, increasing the failure rate of the isolator. A new process makes it possible to create a single-piece vibration isolator that has a lower failure rate than those currently produced. Also, isolators printed with adjustable hardness allow for fine-tuning the isolator to be more effective at specific frequencies. The printhead of the MakerGear M3-SE 3D was modified to include a three-inlet nozzle with one outlet and supporting hardware that allows simultaneous mixing of high-, mediumand low-hardness filaments. In the custom design, the filaments are fed into the hotend at different rates to vary the mixture, and therefore the hardness, of the extruded material. In the printing process, the user creates a G-code file using slicer software. The file is run through a custom post-processor, and then this code is sent to the printer. The custom G-code contains commands that change printed plastic hardness depending on print-head coordinates throughout the process.

TEAM MEMBERS Dillon Michael Allen, Mechanical Engineering Sean Michael Brannon, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Maksim Dmitrievich Gusev, Electrical & Computer Engineering Christopher James Mastrangelo, Applied Physics, Mechanical Engineering Daniel Rey Olea, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Systems Engineering David Joseph Simmons, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Mike Nofziger PROJECT ADVISORS Jim Bakarich, Michael Futch

The combination of the modified printer and the custom software enables printing parts with continuously variable plastic hardness.

Wind Turbine Farm Inspection Robot Team 21056

PROJECT GOAL Design and build a rover prototype that can autonomously navigate a wind farm to collect and extract data from wind turbine footage. Wind farms are often situated in remote locations with turbines spread across a large land area. As the world shifts to renewable energy, demand for autonomous surveyor robots will grow to help monitor and improve efficiency of wind farms. This rover, based on an electric all-terrain vehicle, includes a gimbal-mounted camera to record wind turbines, weather instrumentation to measure wind speed and direction, a GPS module attached to a Raspberry Pi 4 to generate a rover navigation, and a TFMini Plus LiDAR module for obstacle avoidance. The rover is powered by two 12V 50Ah lithium batteries, a monocrystalline 120-Watt solar panel and a solar charge controller. This equipment was assembled and integrated onto the ATV frame with software that allows the rover to traverse along a navigational way-point path to collect turbine video and weather conditions autonomously.

TEAM MEMBERS Juliusz Jakobowski, Electrical & Computer Engineering Susannah Victoria Kohn, Mechanical Engineering Daniel Alan Lansdown, Mechanical Engineering Torrey Alexander Petersen, Industrial Engineering Peter Joseph Gosan Vollmer, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Steve Larimore PROJECT ADVISOR Christopher Lynn

An external software package was created to process the collected footage to determine the rotational speed of the turbine’s blades. The processed data are used to monitor acceptable turbine performance and improve wind turbine efficiency.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Short Wave Infrared Transmitting Optical Beacon Team 21057

TEAM MEMBERS Kaetlin Marie Archibald, Engineering Management, Mechanical Engineering Jeremy Daniel Dauer, Optical Sciences & Engineering Kayla Faith Filipek, Electrical and Computer Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Garrett Gregory Hartung, Mechanical Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Lewis William Koplon, Electrical & Computer Engineering Adnan Maitham Taleb, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Mike Nofziger PROJECT ADVISOR Matthias Whitney

PROJECT GOAL Design and develop a small, portable infrared beacon (STrOBe) that can be deployed by drone and used to mark targets in the field. Short-wave infrared, or SWIR, beacons are used by the military to mark targets for destruction, for landing zones and for locating allied troops to prevent friendly fire. The team designed a device to mark a target in the field by emitting a laser at 1550nm, which would be detectable to those equipped with SWIR vision technology. The STrOBe beacon is small, portable, remotely programmable, rugged and bright enough to be seen from a distance. The device is controlled remotely via Bluetooth connectivity to a customdesigned app that powers the beacon and changes the pulse repetition rate. The app can control up to three individual STrOBe devices. The STrOBe pulses at 1550nm at a rate that can be adjusted from continuous wave to 100 Hz. The beacon’s Bluetooth-enabled module connects to the microcontroller that interfaces with the app to control the operational modes of the SWIR emitters. The custom-designed housing can withstand a 6-foot drop onto different types of terrain and land upright on a 45-degree slope. The curved architecture allows for an optical assembly that provides uniform intensity over a near-hemispherical field of view.

Torque Robot Team 21058

TEAM MEMBERS Mustafa M Aljassim, Mechanical Engineering Forrest Forrest Ernst, Optical Sciences & Engineering James William Greiner, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Richelle Igcasenza Javier, Electrical & Computer Engineering Lupita Moreno, Industrial Engineering, Systems Engineering Mark Robert Piazza, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Pat Caldwell PROJECT ADVISOR Andy Harris

PROJECT GOAL Design and build an autonomous machine that can systematically torque large quantities of fasteners, and provide a user interface that allows the system to be programmed to operate a wide range of assembly configurations. At Raytheon, installing fasteners is a manual process. A typical assembly has 90-200 fasteners, each needing to be sequentially torqued to a specific value and commonly requiring a team of operators two to six hours to complete. Existing automatic torque tools lack the required control and accuracy. Although robots are good at automating repetitive tasks, they run into trouble when the context of the application lacks consistency. A different type of robot could solve these key challenges. In this design, the graphical user interface allows input and editing of assembly parameters, generates a pre-run simulation/graphic, provides troubleshooting capabilities, generates documentation and has other advanced functions. A gantry system moves the custom-built torque appliance in the x, y and z directions. Cameras employ machine vision algorithms‚ allowing the system to localize and adjust to the fasteners’ true position in real time. The modular design and robust control software provide a reliable autonomous torque system that can be scaled to larger and more complex applications.

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Non-Balloon, Implantable Anchor for Gastrostomy/Enteral Feeding Devices Team 21059

PROJECT GOAL Design and build a sturdier, more reliable and longer-lasting anchor for lowprofile gastrostomy tubes. Patients unable to orally ingest food or medications use gastrostomy tubes to receive the necessary nutrients and treatment to survive. Currently, a silicone balloon is used to secure the device in the stomach. Unfortunately, the balloon requires regular inflation checks for safety due to the permeability of the material in an acidic environment. This redesigned g-tube anchor employs a hollow silicone disk to prevent premature or undesired removal of the tube. An insertion rod stretches the silicone disk for easy insertion and removal. Once the tube is inserted, the rod is removed, and the silicone anchor returns to its original disk shape. The anchor retains integrity throughout its indicated time of use without requiring adjustments or inflation checks. This design ensures that the g-tube stays in place and remains functional for its full lifespan, and it can be molded for low-cost, high-volume manufacturing.

TEAM MEMBERS Abdullah Mohammedmadani Ibrahim, Mechanical Engineering Kelly Flynn McCarthy, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Alexis Algeria Silver, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Adam Anthony Tejada, Mechanical Engineering Nicholas David Terranova, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Gabriela Ohlmaier Thornton, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Steve Larimore PROJECT ADVISOR Paul Melnychuck

Laser Diode-Based Metrology Module Team 21060

PROJECT GOAL Design, build and bench test a compact laser diode-based metrology module that can illuminate a stream of water droplets and record the reflected signal from each droplet (or group of droplets) over a given time interval using a suitable solid-state detector. The current metrology solution to precisely locate tin droplets in the primary chamber is bulky and difficult to service, which reduces the use of lithography machines. This new laser diode-based metrology module, or LDMM, creates a stream of submillimeter water droplets and then detects the position of these droplets using a laser diode-based optical metrology system. A fast, solid-state detector analyzes the reflection of visible laser light from the surface of the droplet. Once the system detects a droplet, it sends a timing signal to an external source, such as an LED or laser, that could theoretically intercept the position of the droplet. New software provides a graphical user interface, and a host computer allows the user to operate the LDMM’s droplet generation characteristics.

TEAM MEMBERS Chang Ge, Optical Sciences and Engineering Harrison Lane Gentner, Material Science & Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering Nathan Ian Joslin, Optical Sciences & Engineering Amarjiit Vikkas Pandde, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Luis Solorio, Mechanical Engineering, Systems Engineering Joseph Zoucha, Optical Sciences & Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Don McDonald PROJECT ADVISORS Paul McKenzie, Erik Huerta, Joe Bendik

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Steel-Polymer Protective Armor Plate Team 21061

TEAM MEMBERS Abdulrahman Mohammed Alabdullah, Industrial Engineering Eveke Calixtro, Mechanical Engineering Braedon L Hansen, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Armando-Ruben Corrales Montano, Mechanical Engineering Rina Maria Romero, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Tom George Subiti, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Doug May PROJECT ADVISOR Mike Menakuru

PROJECT GOAL Design and fabricate a steel-polyethylene composite armor plate that balances performance, weight, cost, durability and comfort. Spartan Armor Systems wanted a level III body armor that would stand out among the competition in a growing market. Traditional steel armor is cost-effective and simple to manufacture, but its heavy weight can cause user fatigue and other prolonged physical problems. The hybrid armor plate weighs less than five pounds and measures just over one-half-inch thick. The HAP is the first composite plate to combine ballistic-rated steel and polyethylene to create a stronger and lighter body armor. HAP was tested against the performance standards established by the National Institute of Justice for level III protection: NIJ-Standard-0101.06. Level III offers protection against basic rifle threats and is certified to stop a 7.62x51mm M80 Ball NATO round, which has a mass of 9.6g and a velocity of 847 meters per second. The test determined the optimal configuration of the HAP, balancing spall (fragmentation) mitigation and impact resistance.

Laser Communications Fine Tracker Team 21062

PROJECT GOAL Remove the error from an emulated satellite laser communication so that 90% or more of the maximum power of the signal is received. TEAM MEMBERS Nick Brar, Optical Sciences and Engineering Patrick J Eschenfelder, Mechanical Engineering Clay Kingsley, Optical Sciences & Engineering Susana Jade Mar, Electrical & Computer Engineering Emily Jordan Rodriguez, Optical Sciences & Engineering Mary Jayne Yazzie-Umberger, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Gary Redford PROJECT ADVISOR Lisa Bennett

Satellites communicate through ultra-high and super-high radio frequencies, which are between 10 and 100 times slower than laser communications. However, calibration systems for laser communications are slow and time consuming, so they cannot accurately track low earth orbiting satellites. A faster system that can better catch the beam would make significantly more data available from each stream. This design has two subsystems, mounted to a standard optical table. An error emulator, which replicates the real-error in a satellite communication signal, uses a piezoelectric mirror to induce jitter in an F/6.8 1550nm continuous-wave laser signal replicating a 0.5m telescope. The second subsystem, a laser tracker, which stabilizes the beam and removes error from the signal, focuses it onto an optical fiber that feeds to a power detector. A fast-steering mirror in a closed-loop configuration with a position sensing detector maintains the beam’s position on the optical fiber. With this system, 90% of the maximum incident beam power on the optical fiber is autonomously maintained.

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Distortion Metrology Test for Large Field Lens Team 21063

PROJECT GOAL Research and develop a prototype metrology test for distortion and field curvature that will enable ASML to accurately test a specific large field-ofview lens used in their lithography systems. It is important to minimize aberrations when designing and assembling an optical system. Finding the main source of each aberration in an assembled system requires physically measuring the aberrations contributed by each optical element within the system. This prototype metrology test uses moiré fringes to accurately measure the distortion and field curvature of a wide field-of-view test lens. The lens images an object’s space grating under test and projects it onto an image space grating, which creates a moiré fringe pattern. A camera then captures the distorted pattern, which is analyzed by custom-developed MATLAB code. The result is the amount of distortion and field curvature produced by the lens.

TEAM MEMBERS Krystal Escarcega-Medina, Optical Sciences & Engineering Christer Everly, Electrical & Computer Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering John Garrett Partin, Optical Sciences & Engineering Paige Laurel Sawyers, Optical Sciences & Engineering DeErick Jerome Smith Jr, Optical Sciences & Engineering Jaclyn Noelle Wycoff, Optical Sciences & Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Mike Nofziger PROJECT ADVISOR Lirong Wang

Optimization Model for a Space-Based Life Support Thermal Management System Team 21064

PROJECT GOAL Develop an optimization model for a space-based thermal management system for a methane pyrolysis reactor. Oxygen recovery rate for life support systems is currently limited to 50%, in part because modern systems vent waste methane. However, developments with methane pyrolysis mean that 100% oxygen recovery is feasible. The process requires extremely high temperatures, which must be properly managed for a space-based environment. This model implements heat transfer and thermodynamic processes to calculate thermal properties of a theoretical thermal management system. It considers the constraints and limitations on the system, then calculates a range of potential dimensions and materials, giving the user a variety of options. The system converts the thermal and physical properties calculated to an equivalent system mass, which is used as a metric to choose an optimal design. As a result, the most optimal design for the reactor is chosen from any set of provided information.

TEAM MEMBERS Cameron M Abril, Mechanical Engineering Logan Fenn, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Conor McCarthy, Mechanical Engineering Abraham Muasher, Mechanical Engineering Carter Matthew Ruff, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Ryan Jay Huellas Visico, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Heather Hilzendeger PROJECT ADVISOR Amanda Childers

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Bi-material Sealing Interface for Space-Based Life Support Systems Team 21065

PROJECT GOAL Design a serviceable high-temperature metal-to-ceramic seal for Honeywell’s life support system aboard the International Space Station. Long-distance space travel is possible with a closed-loop oxygen regeneration system that restores CO2 into breathable air. While this can be achieved using methane pyrolysis, conventional sealing designs cannot handle the required elevated temperatures of approximately 500 degrees Celsius. A better seal would improve this process.

TEAM MEMBERS Trace Tilman Hay, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering David Elliott Lundberg, Mechanical Engineering Atom Roy Mingle, Mechanical Engineering Brandon Scott Mishler, Materials Science & Engineering Randy Nguyen, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Dominick Rosato, Mechanical Engineering

The team designed a mechanical seal for the ceramic cylinder in the methane pyrolysis reactor. It uses Inconel and silicon nitride materials, capable of handling temperatures well above the requirement. Parametric modeling software facilitated the design, which was then verified with finite element analysis tools. To minimize leakage due to thermal expansion, the metal interface uses a specific locking geometry and an Inconel 718 gasket. This provides an interface that is easy to service, resistant to changes in temperature and ensures a long and reliable service life.

COLLEGE MENTOR Heather Hilzendeger PROJECT ADVISORS Amanda Childers, Kevin Schwab

Pressure Regulating System for a Mars Habitat Team 21066

PROJECT GOAL Design a system that maintains a positive pressure in a closed Moon and Mars habitat to prevent the introduction of foreign contaminants. Maintaining a pressurized vessel is paramount to human survival in the hostile environments of the Moon or Mars. The Automated Pressure Regulation System will ultimately be attached to a high-fidelity Mars habitat analogue at Biosphere 2 as part of research into off-world habitation. TEAM MEMBERS Gustavo Aguilar Velez, Biosystems Engineering Ahmed Abdulkarim Alraeesi, Electrical & Computer Engineering James Monroe Marlar, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Meghan Lauren Marlowe, Biosystems Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Coby Albert Scheidemantel, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Arfan Khairul Wibisono, Mechanical Engineering Nate Moeller, Pima Community College, Welding COLLEGE MENTOR Doug May PROJECT ADVISORS John Adams, Kai Staats

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The APRS prototype is attached to a one-tenth-scale model of the analogue crew quarters. An array of sensors and a Raspberry Pi computer detect the internal pressure of the living quarters. Based on these readings, the system uses a compressor and solenoid valve to either store air in tanks or release air into the system to maintain a steady pressure. A user interface enables the crew to monitor real-time internal and ambient pressures. The system can be operated in either automatic or manual mode. The scale model properly maintains the required positive pressure differential, thus validating the design. With testing concluded, the APRS is ready for full-scale implementation.


On-Site Test Capability for the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory Team 21067

PROJECT GOAL Create a small, portable microcontroller-based device for on-site testing of the Large Binocular Telescope. A problem with the actuator in the Large Binocular Telescope Observatory has resulted in replacement of the entire assembly. This tool will enable workers to isolate actuator problems and target parts for replacement. The test mechanism, fabricated with a portable, durable and reliable casing, focuses exclusively on the actuator board electronics. Novel hardware and software integrate with existing hardware and software on the M1 boards. The actuator boards’ Price Intelligent Controllers issue force commands that are read as a digital signal and sent with feedback to the actuator boards as an analog signal. A USB exchanges data with a command-and-control host computer, creating a simple communication procedure and allowing for controlled manipulation of test procedures to clearly define faulty controller routines.

TEAM MEMBERS Massimo Biella, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Bob Bradford, Electrical & Computer Engineering Ezra James Carnes, Electrical & Computer Engineering Nicholas Matthew Ortega, Civil Engineering, Engineering Management Austin Tyler Pierson, Electrical & Computer Engineering Michael Douglas Ziska, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Gary Redford PROJECT ADVISOR Daniel H. Cox

With this tool, operating staff can determine the root cause of the problem, and the observatory has the option of replacing a problematic actuator board rather than the entire actuator assembly.

Mine Vehicle On-Site Trolley Assist Team 21068

PROJECT GOAL Determine the effect of an electric trolley assist system on cycle times, productivity and overall unit cost of an example mine. Diesel fuel and engine maintenance is a significant expense at many mining sites. An electric trolley assist device can reduce unit cost of a mine. To save on fuel and maintenance expenses, this type of system enables haul trucks to run off external electric power, usually provided via an overhaul wire, instead of their internal engines. This project used the example of Sunrise Dam Gold Mine in Western Australia, which has a permanent road infrastructure, to assess performance of three orientations of various trolley assists. Adapting the trolley assist model to Komatsu Ltd. equipment allowed for a mirror of the original non-trolley output for control purposes.

TEAM MEMBERS Jake Cramer, Mining Engineering Abraham Estopellan, Mining Engineering Wilson Manuel Hengombe, Mining Engineering Raul Antonio Padilla, Mining Engineering Philip Evan Sommitz, Mining Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bradley J. Ross PROJECT ADVISOR Kristina Miles

Analysis of Google Earth Pro data considered factors such as travel distance, slope grade and equipment speed relative to grade. Microsoft Excel was used to calculate and determine cycle times. Queuing theory factored in efficiency considerations. And, power available to the electric drive system affected limits on the number of vehicles the trolley could handle.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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New Tunnel and Ramp Entrance for the San Xavier Mining Laboratory Team 21069

TEAM MEMBERS Mitchell Scott Fullenwider, Mining Engineering Conor Patrick Heathershaw, Mining Engineering Luis Fernando Soto, Mining Engineering Garrett Reid Szura, Mining Engineering Bryan Michael Zormeier, Mining Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bradley J. Ross PROJECT ADVISOR James Werner

PROJECT GOAL Determine and calculate the resources, skills and techniques needed for constructing an additional tunnel and ramp entrance for the San Xavier Mining Laboratory. The San Xavier Mining Laboratory, run by the University of Arizona as a hands-on educational resource for students, also is available for companies to test equipment and practices. Expansions of the underground mine are underway to accommodate all of its uses. With an eye toward an environmentally friendly operation, this team worked on finding the most efficient design for a new mine entrance. This design for a new adit, or horizontal mine entrance, factors in scale and schematics. It integrates analysis of source, amount and cost of electricity as well as construction equipment and labor costs. Calculations of ground support needs and appropriate blasting and drilling techniques also informed the design. Additionally, the planned waste pile location lent itself to an environmentally sound design.

University of Arizona SME/NSSGA Student Design Competition Team 21070

PROJECT GOAL Develop an efficient and systematic mine plan for the annual student design competition put on by the Society of Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration and the National Stone, Sand and Gravel Association. This competition called for an optimum design of the Greenback Quarry in Loudon County, Tennessee. The company ordered an extensive Request for Proposal, including operational and reclamation plans, market analysis and a financial overview.

TEAM MEMBERS Ryan Scott Amos, Mining Engineering Alexandra Jazzeline Contreras, Mining Engineering Sarah Huggins-Hubbard, Engineering Management Nick Overleas, Mining Engineering Will Peterson, Mining Engineering Nathan Aaron Syers, Mining Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Bradley J. Ross PROJECT ADVISOR Bradley J. Ross

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A minerology analysis of core logs taken from the site showed primarily dolomite and limestone, indicating that the quarry operation would be successful. Hexagon’s MinePlan-3D software calculated the feasible resources and reserves. With this information and a production requirement of 380,000 tons per year, the team developed multiple pit designs and an operational plan that limited unnecessary haulage routes to an aggregate processing facility. The pit design consisted of 26 million tons of minable reserves, resulting in a scheduled quarry life of 62 years. The shutdown plan focused on reclaiming the site as a butterfly sanctuary to help boost local tourism. The quarry design plan had net present value of $3.1 million and a 21% internal rate of return. The team of University of Arizona seniors placed first in the annual international contest.


Monoclonal Antibody Manufacturing Team 21071

PROJECT GOAL Create a continuous process to manufacture monoclonal antibodies for metastatic breast cancer. Treatment for certain breast cancers includes the combination of oral chemotherapy and HER-2 trastuzumab, which is a recombinant humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody. Antibody manufacturing is processed as a batch system, which results in product inconsistency and requires charging and discharging between reactor batches. A continuous manufacturing simulation for monoclonal breast cancer antibodies addresses some of these issues. This project modeled the behavior of a continuous stirred bioreactor and subsequent purification steps. The design takes into account eight processing steps – centrifugation, capture chromatography, low pH virus inactivation mixer, depth filtration, anion and cation exchange chromatography, small virus filtration, and ultrafiltration. The process results in a mixture dried to a powder and stored for distribution.

TEAM MEMBERS Tiffani Nicole Hamilton, Chemical Engineering Cody Justin Liebeskind, Chemical Engineering Julia Ann Moore, Chemical Engineering Kayla Marina Scaramella, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

High-performance liquid chromatography verified the final samples meet the desired concentration.

Scaled-Up mRNA Vaccine Manufacturing Process Team 21072

PROJECT GOAL Develop and scale up an mRNA vaccine production process for the SARSCoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19. mRNA technology has become a novel way to protect individuals against biological threats, including viruses. This model shows a way to produce 600 million vaccine doses annually. Based on the mRNA vaccine production of Moderna’s COVID-19 vaccine formulation, the process design involves a combination of bioreactors and filtration systems in parallel and series to safely scale up the high throughput mRNA vaccine formulation. Safety mechanisms on two major reactions ensure quality control and consistency between batches. T7 RNA polymerase reaction and DNAse 1 reaction yield the mRNA product and are closely monitored using process control techniques. The filtration sequence maximizes purification of mRNA while minimizing product loss. An analysis of material and energy considerations for the overall system seeks to reduce operating costs and maximize the purified mRNA product.

TEAM MEMBERS Marissa Conn Minister, Chemical Engineering Cameron Scott Malloy, Chemical Engineering Mary Paris, Chemical Engineering Abby Severance, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Regulated Medical Waste Treatment Facility Team 21073

PROJECT GOAL Design the first regulated medical waste recycling and disposal operation in southern Arizona.

TEAM MEMBERS Siria Camacho, Environmental Engineering Justin Christopher Koehler, Chemical Engineering Jonathan Manuel Romero, Environmental Engineering Aaron Royce Wolford, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Harry Patton

Medical waste, which needs to be managed properly to prevent public health and environmental issues, has valuable materials that, after treatment, are safe to recycle and reuse. Typical treatment methods involve separating medical waste into color-coded bags that are sent to landfills and incineration facilities. There are few facilities nationwide, and none in Arizona, that extract recyclable materials before waste disposal. A regulated recycling and disposal operation involves charging waste-generating sites to collect, transport and process their medical waste. Equipment would store, sterilize, shred, dry and separate the waste. Designed equipment includes an autoclave to sterilize the waste, a rotary drum dryer to remove moisture, an air jet separator to extract paper and plastic, and an electromagnetic separator to extract metal. After separation, end products would be sent to recycling facilities, landfills and incinerators. Income from charging medical facilities for pickup, along with selling reclaimed recyclable materials, more than offsets initial maintenance and utility costs of the operation.

Space-Operated Lunar Surface Total Internal Contamination Elimination System Team 21074

PROJECT GOAL Successfully filter out 99.97% of dust particles from a lunar surface habitat airlock as part of the NASA 2021 Big Idea Challenge. TEAM MEMBERS Cameron Bradley, Chemical Engineering Colin Andrew Kelly, Chemical Engineering Krysta Vida Kramer, Chemical Engineering Jodi Elizabeth Kreiner, Chemical Engineering, Optical Sciences & Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

Lunar dust accumulation limits extended-stay missions. NASA’s Artemis program aims to establish a lunar base to test new systems and designs, ultimately for visiting other astral bodies with more challenging environments. The Space Operated Lunar Surface Total Internal Contamination Elimination system, or SOLSTICE, effectively mitigates lunar dust accumulation in the habitat airlock via an intricate permanent magnet filtration system. Directed airflow during repressurization and a vacuum pump creating a pressure differential rapidly force dust to the bottom of the airlock. There, the stream of dust and air is sucked through a large particle filter then across an array of precisely designed magnets, which rely on the charged nature of lunar regolith to pull the dust from the air. Multiple passes through the filtration system ensure highly efficient purification of at least 99.97%. The clean air is recycled back to the main habitat cabin, while the dust is returned to the lunar surface. A compact, lightweight design with minimal power requirements and negligible need for maintenance or upgrades deem this filtration system suited for space applications.

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Raw Sugar Production Byproduct Utilization Team 21075

PROJECT GOAL Design an environmentally and economically friendly process for using sugarcane waste. Sugar is among the most valuable commodities and traded agricultural products worldwide. The two common forms are white (refined) and brown (unrefined or raw), which can be granulated or ungranulated. The raw sugar crystallization process produces a large amount of solid waste from the cane stalks. The proposed process recycles the waste as a renewable energy source and synthesizes a biofuel from the molasses byproduct. The cane stalks are crushed and milled to extract the cane juice, with the solid waste burned as an energy source. Suspended solids are removed from the juice. The resulting clarified juice continues through a series of evaporators to a crystallizer, attaining the optimal sugar crystals. The molasses byproduct goes to a fermentation reactor, where ethanol is produced to be sold as a fuel. During the process, steam is recycled to ensure sustainability. The process minimizes energy cost and creates economic stability for the processor.

TEAM MEMBERS Cory Lance Baracaldo, Chemical Engineering Jane Leigh Fairchild, Chemical Engineering Efe-Oghene Ogbaudu, Chemical Engineering Madison Leigh Reum, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Kimberly Ogden PROJECT ADVISOR Kimberly Ogden

Smart Silo for Safe Storage of Combustible Materials Team 21076

PROJECT GOAL Regulate temperatures inside the silo to a safe and noncombustible range. Silos store a variety of materials. However, unexpected heat sources can cause materials to combust and sometimes explode. Combustion can be prevented by monitoring silo temperatures and integrating a cooling system. In this design, an automated system monitors the temperature throughout the silo and deploys dehumidified purge air to ensure that heat dissipation is greater than heat generation. Additionally, a nitrogen tank provides an emergency purge if the temperature reaches dangerous levels. This project aims for a system that uses minimal power and operates at low cost.

TEAM MEMBERS Abdul Abdul Alqahtani, Chemical Engineering Ghassan Flimban, Chemical Engineering Andy William Kamrowski, Chemical Engineering Francisco Eduardo Martinez, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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San Carlos Fish Pond Team 21077

PROJECT GOAL Design a sustainable fish pond in San Carlos, Arizona. TEAM MEMBERS Sky Emil Benitez-Triner, Chemical Engineering Connor Alan Casey, Chemical Engineering Alexander Gomez, Chemical Engineering Anthony Xavier Holman, Chemical Engineering Chase Hunter Wiles, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISORS Vicky Karanikola, Patrick Mette

Officials in San Carlos, Arizona, are planning a sustainable fish pond to provide a community recreational area as well as help educate youth and connect them to their culture. This project assesses the design and installment plans. The location rests on an accessible water well that has a high arsenic concentration. The team considered mass transfer balance, water and soil quality, livestock, cost, and life cycle, among other factors. The project applied fluid flow, evaporation, process design and process control to determine the success of the pond based on the level of human intervention, livestock and use of the resource.

Cost-Effective Helium Extraction From Natural Gas Team 21078

PROJECT GOAL While minimizing power input, design a system to recover helium from crude natural gas at the nitrogen removal stage of gas refinement.

TEAM MEMBERS Emily Larsen Cosgriff, Chemical Engineering Joshua Fleetwood, Chemical Engineering Dylan Koch, Chemical Engineering, Electrical & Computer Engineering Jessica Lauren Unwin, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

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Helium, a nonrenewable resource, is used in magnetic resonance imaging, gas-leak detection, welding and many other systems. Helium typically is extracted from crude natural gas, but the separation process to purify helium has high energy requirements and is costly, leading to steep annual increases in its price. This design uses a double separation column cycle and cryogenic distillation techniques to extract helium from natural gas. The process produces three product streams containing nitrogen, helium and methane. To reduce production costs, the system uses vapor-liquid equilibrium within the process streams to mitigate the need for additional external refrigeration cycles. The team verified efficiency using hand calculations and simulations in ASPEN modeling software. The design achieves recovery of 96% of helium, and the purified natural gas contains less than 2% nitrogen.


Compact Catalytic Convertor Reactor System Team 21079

PROJECT GOAL Design an optimized compact catalytic reactor system for diesel powered vehicles to capture and remove carbonaceous particles. Because of incomplete combustion, diesel-powered vehicles emit carbonaceous particles. The carbonaceous particles, also known as particulate matter, or PM, contain microscopic solids and liquids less than 10 micrometers in diameter. The particles can go deep into the lungs and bloodstream and cause serious health problems. They also are a major environmental concern. A diesel particulate filter, or DPF, can be installed in the exhaust system to reduce PM emissions to a level that meets U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations. In this design, the DPF has a cordierite substrate in a monolith channel configuration to capture 95% of PM. A monolayer catalyst, which combines a transition metal and a noble metal, is applied to the substrate using an impregnation method to aid the regeneration process that oxidizes the PM and controls the thickness of the carbon deposit layer. System pressure and temperature sensors monitor the engine and filtration to prevent failure.

TEAM MEMBERS Ayman Mohammed Alhaji, Chemical Engineering, Engineering Management Mohamed Abdulatif Almusabbeh, Chemical Engineering Anas Abdulkarim Sharafi, Chemical Engineering Lenny Alanson Wong, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

DPF simulations used mathematical models that imitate the flow of exhaust gases through the wall and carbon deposit layer.

High-Throughput, Environmentally Friendly Hydrodesulfurization Unit Team 21080

PROJECT GOAL Design a hydrodesulfurization unit that can process 30,000 barrels of diesel per stream day and reduce the sulfur content to at most 15 parts per million to meet EPA standards. The unit’s design consists of a high-temperature, pressure-packed bed reactor that catalyzes the removal of sulfur compounds from diesel oil. Integration of heat exchangers and a single cold high-pressure separator reduces energy consumption. An amine contactor recycles unspent hydrogen to ensure large amounts of reactive hydrogen are present in the reactor’s cycle. The catalytic reaction creates other unwanted side products that are removed further down the design. The design factored in reactor sizing, separation of liquids and vapors, mass and energy balances, and modeling of various chemical reactions. ASPEN PLUS simulated the process to ensure the goal of 15 ppm sulfur.

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammed Nabil Al-Hashim, Chemical Engineering Faisal Abdulaziz Algannass, Chemical Engineering Eashley Kevin Lozano, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Solvent Waste Recovery Team 21081

PROJECT GOAL Recover solvent waste from a polymer processing facility. In polymer processing facilities, solvent waste contributes to profit loss and environmental damage. A process to recover wasted solvents can mitigate financial loss and reduce environmental impact. TEAM MEMBERS Zach Aaron Bosley, Chemical Engineering Seth Andrew Miller, Chemical Engineering Jake Stevens, Chemical Engineering Thomas Villescas, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

This design uses various separation techniques to recover solvent from plant waste streams. Flash distillation, column distillation and air scrubbing remove and separate waste stream components. Flash drums remove excess water to use for air scrubbing of vented solvents. After the excess water is removed, column distillation separates remaining components for plant reuse. Trace amounts of unrecovered solvent are sent to a bio pond for biodegradation. Facility expansion can handle a wide range of flow and concentration fluctuations downstream from the polymer processing facility.

Separation of Resin Team 21082

PROJECT GOAL Separate the components of guayule resin into high-value products, and evaluate their market potential.

TEAM MEMBERS Jose Eduardo Montanez, Chemical Engineering Shivali Naran, Chemical Engineering Pablo Quero, Chemical Engineering Chris Rodriguez, Chemical Engineering

Guayule is a desert plant that contains 5% to 7% rubber, primarily in the stalk. It is extracted to make tires. The guayule plant also contains 5% to 9% resin, which can be turned into products to keep the guayule industry economically feasible. Thus, this project explores the separation of the guayule to make marketable products.

COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush

The team used ASPEN software to simulate the separation process, including flash and distillation to fraction the resin into terpenes, terpenoids, sesquiterpenes and fatty acids. Resin content varies depending on the environmental conditions under which guayule is grown, and this simulation can be used to predict the required operating conditions depending on the feed composition.

PROJECT ADVISOR Kimberly Ogden

The expected outcome is production of natural products, such as terpenes and terpenoids, which can be sold at approximately $1 a pound.

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Wastewater Treatment Lab Team 21083

PROJECT GOAL Design and build a wastewater treatment laboratory for the University of Arizona Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department to use in a novel hands-on course. The UA Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering is developing a wastewater treatment laboratory. It will combine several unit operations to purify artificial wastewater for demonstrating classic techniques. The feed streams are modeled after raw water concentrations seen as runoff from common industries in southern Arizona. The project addresses coagulation, flocculation, gravity filtration and advanced oxidative treatment processes as well as design of the three chemical broths for separation. These were incorporated into a previous team design that uses reverse osmosis and a membrane bioreactor. An interchangeable valve setup varied the order of flow through the subsystems. Separation was characterized by monitoring pH, density, turbidity and electric conductivity throughout the process.

TEAM MEMBERS Mohammad Abdulla Almarhoun, Chemical Engineering Sahil Luke Mallavarapu, Chemical Engineering Tanner Alan Palomarez, Chemical Engineering Mirella Paulette Vindiola, Chemical Engineering, Mining Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Gregory E. Ogden PROJECT ADVISOR Gregory E. Ogden

The design included researching, sizing, selecting and building each unit operation and associated equipment so the laboratory can feasibly operate in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally responsible manner.

Wastewater Treatment Process Lab Team 21084

PROJECT GOAL Design a process that treats three different types of wastewater for a chemical engineering integration lab at the University of Arizona. This design will be used in labs to teach UA undergraduate students about wastewater treatment processes. Wastewater treatment removes contaminants from wastewater through physical, chemical and biological processes and converts the water into an effluent, which is safely returned to the environment. The centralized U.S. waste treatment industry handles about 75% of the commercial wastewater and industrial process byproducts. This lab treatment system is expected to purify wastewater found in three industries: mining, agriculture and semiconductor. Each type of waste goes through a designated path that includes treatment processes such as reverse osmosis, coagulation/flocculation, filtration and membrane bioreactor technology. The product must comply with EPA and local regulations for potable water.

TEAM MEMBERS Nurfazrina Abdul Muin, Chemical Engineering Mohmmed Ali Alish, Chemical Engineering Kareem Fayez Alsenan, Chemical Engineering Jarrett Robert Dutton, Chemical Engineering Elijah Kartchner Rallison, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Synthesis of Biofuel Additives from Ethanol Team 21085

PROJECT GOAL Design a process for an environmentally beneficial fuel additive that can be added easily onto an existing ethanol plant to improve its profitability.

TEAM MEMBERS Ramon Castrejon Miranda, Chemical Engineering Elizabeth Lauren Major, Chemical Engineering Dane Alizair Santana, Chemical Engineering Nicole Van Overmeiren, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Christopher Dahl

Biofuels come from renewable biological materials, such as ethanol from corn and diesel from soybeans. Replacing fossil fuels with biofuels or blends can cut down on some aspects of fossil fuel production and use, resulting in decreased conventional and greenhouse gas emissions, exhaustible resource depletion, and dependence on foreign suppliers. The EPA’s Renewable Fuel Standard, or RFS, encourages ethanol manufacturers to produce biofuel additives cost effectively. Using an existing corn-based, dry mill ethanol plant, this design synthesizes diethyl ether, or DEE, a highly rated biofuel additive. The catalyzed synthesis process requires minimal equipment and energy, reducing initial costs and making it a viable option for an ethanol plant. The project further evaluated profitability based on DEE’s market value and RFS incentives.

Lunar Dust Filtration System Team 21086

PROJECT GOAL Design technology to mitigate lunar dust in astronauts’ cabin environment. Since NASA’s first lunar landing by humans, it has tried to address the damage to technology caused by the moon’s abrasive electrostatically charged dust. This project focuses on solutions and technologies to mitigate the dust. TEAM MEMBERS Paul Alojado Feliciano, Chemical Engineering Estefania Camacho Garcia, Chemical Engineering Abdel Madina, Chemical Engineering Isabel Ceara Murphy, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

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The filtration system design uses suction to clean the dust out of the air then pass it through an aerogel-packed bed with a series of high-efficiency particulate air filters. A pump recycles the air through the system to trap more dust particulates. The bottom of the system creates an electrostatic field that attracts the charged lunar dust particles. As the air recycles through the system, the dust that does not get trapped by the packed bed and filters is drawn to the electrostatic field at the bottom of the system. The design is compact and can be used inside the cabin.


COVID-19 Vaccine Production and Distribution Team 21087

PROJECT GOAL Simulate on an industrial scale the manufacturing and distribution of a COVID-19 vaccine. Producing and distributing as many vaccine doses as possible is critical to ending the spread of the coronavirus. This project simulates the chemical engineering process for production and distribution of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine BNT162b2, which is produced by Pfizer and BioNTech, and suggests the best model for production configuration. To determine the best configuration in terms of cost, safety and environmental impact, the project analyzed manufacturing information released by Pfizer. This resulted in a model for scaled-up industrial equipment such as bioreactors, filtration systems, storage tanks and freezers. The team carefully considered benefits and drawbacks of multiple configurations and found that the optimal model involved fitting disposable bioreactors to the manufacturing process and having one centrally located plant.

TEAM MEMBERS Salim Jalaleddine, Chemical Engineering Gahl L. Shuster, Chemical Engineering Andrew Jacob Stafford, Chemical Engineering Jalen Anthony Volz, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

Environmentally Friendly HVAC Filter Team 21088

PROJECT GOAL Develop a process to manufacture a recyclable heating, ventilation and air conditioning filter capable of filtering out dust and allergens with a stretch goal of filtering out the COVID-19-causing coronavirus and other viruses. An HVAC filter is the first line of defense against dust and other allergens that enter a home. Modern HVAC filters are disposable, and millions end up in landfills then take decades to decompose. This environmentally friendly filter design uses a decomposable biopolymer, poly butyric acid, instead of a synthetic polymer as the main component in the fibers of an HVAC filter. The fibers are thermoplastic polymers molded and set with a melt blower, a non-woven technology. The polymer is then delivered to a conveyor belt at an extremely high velocity, which collects the polymer and prepares it for use in an HVAC system. In developing the process, the team accounted for manufacturing differences between a biopolymer and synthetic polymer. The use of biodegradable HVAC filters reduces plastic buildup in landfills.

TEAM MEMBERS Robert Anthony Ancheta, Chemical Engineering Adrian Taylor Cabalfin, Chemical Engineering Aaron Antone Deschner, Chemical Engineering Jack Russell, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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The Aluminum-Air Battery Team 21089

PROJECT GOAL Explore the viability of aluminum-air batteries as an alternative to lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles.

TEAM MEMBERS Abbass Bah, Chemical Engineering Nick Deak, Chemical Engineering Alyza Muzaffar Khan, Chemical Engineering Richard David Pepel, Chemical Engineering

Electric vehicles are a promising alternative to gasoline-powered cars because their operation results in reduced fossil fuel emissions. However, producing the vehicles causes more pollution than producing gasoline-powered cars. This is mainly because of the high environmental cost of mining lithium and producing lithium-ion batteries.

COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush

One potential solution is the aluminum-air battery, which has a life cycle that generates fewer emissions. The aluminum ore is much more abundant than lithium and is closer to the earth’s surface. A limiting factor for widespread use of aluminum-air batteries is that they typically are not rechargeable.

PROJECT ADVISOR Dominic Gervasio

To examine its viability in terms of operating voltage and power density, this team developed a primary aluminum-air battery with a nonaqueous AlCl4-/KCl ionic liquid electrolyte.

Arizona Water Competition – New Gilbert Water Treatment Plant Team 21090

PROJECT GOAL Without altering its main functionality, restructure the Gilbert North Water Treatment Plant to improve operation so it accommodates the plant’s emerging issues from population growth. TEAM MEMBERS Mohamed Almheiri, Chemical Engineering Mustafa Mohammed Almuallim, Chemical Engineering Arielle Makaila Brooksher, Environmental Engineering Gabriela Maris Diaz, Environmental Engineering

The city of Gilbert’s water treatment plant recently experienced an increase in total organic content, which results in disinfection byproducts in the clean-water reservoirs. This project assesses four water treatment techniques to determine which consistently reduces high contaminant levels to EPA standards.

COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush

The assessment looked at enhanced coagulation, a combination of ozone/UV and biological activated carbon filters, microsand filtration and nano filtration. These treatment techniques can reduce and sustain the water’s total organic content, or TOC, levels to less than 2 mg/L.

PROJECT ADVISOR Adrianna Brush

A decision matrix considered economics, as well as social and environmental factors, to determine the most cost-effective and reliable method.

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Energy Recovery From Food Waste Team 21091

PROJECT GOAL Using environmentally friendly options, design, produce and recover energy from food waste in Denver, Colorado. Fossil fuel-generated electric power leads to increases in greenhouse emissions. Anaerobic digestion is an environmentally friendly process that produces methane, which can be used as fuel to help decrease greenhouse emissions. In this design, food waste is purified in a separation process and combined with manure to enrich the organic matter. Then the anaerobic digestion process uses two reactors to maintain stability, one that handles the hydrolysis and acidogenic reactions and the other to handle acetogenic and methanogenesis. The resulting main products are methane and carbon dioxide in biogas and liquid forms. The biogas, which has a ratio of 60 methane to 40 carbon dioxide, can be used as a power source. Liquid materials can be used in other ways. Such an operation can process up to 36 tons of food waste per day to produce 1.3 million cubic meters of methane per day.

TEAM MEMBERS Muath Ali Alzahrani, Chemical Engineering Abdulrahman Sami Batyour, Chemical Engineering Omar Mustafa Najdi, Chemical Engineering Jemael Nzihou, Chemical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Adrianna Brush PROJECT ADVISOR Suchol Savagatrup

Mars Ascent Vehicle Abort System Team 21092

PROJECT GOAL Safely deliver a crew of two astronauts from the surface of Mars into low Mars orbit. NASA deems entry, descent and landing technology for reliable transportation to and from low-mass celestial bodies a high priority in space exploration. In an abort scenario, the vehicle must be adept at rising into orbit or landing on the surface, even at very high altitudes. Thus, this projects investigates deployable systems that produce high drag and reduce speeds during the abort sequence. After taking into account the atmosphere of Mars, this team designed an abort system that uses a balloon-parachute technology known as a ballute, which can be more effective than standard parachute technology in the thin atmosphere. Ballute storage, deployment and inflation technology are used to employ atmospheric airflow alongside high tensile materials to create enough drag for a landing.

TEAM MEMBERS Robert Andrew Asman, Aerospace Engineering Jake Thomas Brazelton, Aerospace Engineering Rickayla Ferguson, Aerospace Engineering Amanda Jae Fordyce, Aerospace Engineering Kailie Szewczyk, Aerospace Engineering Cody B Watson, Aerospace Engineering, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sergey V. Shkarayev PROJECT ADVISOR Sergey V. Shkarayev

The system can stand alone or be coupled with a powered landing system.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Lunar Sample Return System Team 21093

PROJECT GOAL Design a repeatable mission architecture for collecting physical and sensor samples from lunar lava tubes and delivering them to the International Space Station. TEAM MEMBERS Andrew Bradley, Aerospace Engineering Daniel Thomas Fuehrer, Aerospace Engineering Matt Gillies, Aerospace Engineering Lindsey Rose Koelbel, Aerospace Engineering Dashiel Pudwill, Aerospace Engineering Phil Sjoquist, Aerospace Engineering Paxton T. Tomooka, Aerospace Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Jekan Thangavelauthum PROJECT ADVISOR Jekan Thangavelauthum

The Lunar Acquisition Vehicle and Analysis, or LAVA, mission to study the geohistory of the moon plans to send an assembly of vehicles from Earth to explore lunar lava tubes located on the near side. Physical samples and sensor measurements are to be collected and taken to the International Space Station. For this design, an orbiter and lander pair orbits the moon before the lander reaches the surface and deploys a modified version of the JPL DuAxel rover. The tethered rover uses a zipline to lower itself into the lava tube through a skylight and take samples that have been preserved for at least 3 billion years. The rover hands off the samples to the lander, which transfers them to the orbiter for delivery to the space station, where the orbiter also refuels. To develop proof of concept, the team prototyped the zipline mechanism that Axel lowers into the lava tube. The assembly successfully demonstrates the design’s feasibility.

Lunar Sample Return Vehicle Aggregation Team 21094

TEAM MEMBERS Eric Aguilar, Aerospace Engineering Shelby Mackenzie Carl, Aerospace Engineering Isaac Bonrostro Charcos, Aerospace Engineering Sarah Ann Giroux, Aerospace Engineering Matthew Richard Johnson, Aerospace Engineering Victor Roty, Aerospace Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Jekan Thangavelauthum PROJECT ADVISOR Jekan Thangavelauthum

PROJECT GOAL Collect, analyze and return samples from multiple locations on the lunar surface to the International Space Station. Studying lunar composition provides valuable data about the formation of the moon, Earth and solar system. While much is still unknown, a method to collect samples and characterize surface magnetic anomalies of Reiner Gamma, a lunar swirl region containing high magnetic field strengths of unknown origin, would add to that knowledge. This mission concept of operations features an orbiter from which a lander and rover make multiple descents to collect and store samples from various lunar surface locations and ascents to deliver the samples to the International Space Station. The rover is designed with two robotic arms for rapid sample collection, in-situ analysis of the samples, and expansive magnetic field measurements. An onboard computer controls immediate movements and data collections, while allowing scientists to plan and control its destinations and actions at the macro-level. Once in lunar orbit, the lander, which contains the rover and sample return craft, lands and deploys the rover. The rover gathers samples and measurements, transfers them to the sample return craft and parks itself in the lander. The lander returns to the orbiter to refuel, and the sample return craft travels to the space station with its payload.

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Design, Build, Fly Aircraft Design Competition Team 21095

PROJECT GOAL Design and manufacture an uncrewed, electric-powered aircraft with a towed sensor – to represent the University of Arizona at the 2021 Design, Build, Fly Competition. In this competition, engineering students construct an aircraft with specific design constraints. The aircraft entry emphasizes speed, cargo-carrying capabilities and the ability during flight to fully deploy and retract a sensor with lights. The design includes a high wing spanning 58 inches, conventional tail and tricycle landing gear. The fuselage carries four cargo shipping containers and an additional container for the sensor. Mechanisms allow for fully deploying and retracting the sensor during flight. A singleengine propulsion system executes different mission types, enables aircraft maneuverability with the full payload and overcomes the drag from the towed sensor.

TEAM MEMBERS Matt Banko, Aerospace Engineering Michael Debbins, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Roman Alexander Gonzalez, Aerospace Engineering Davis Anthony Goolsby, Aerospace Engineering Sydney Magrit Kilen, Aerospace Engineering George Stancu, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sergey V. Shkarayev PROJECT ADVISOR Sergey V. Shkarayev

Preliminary prototyping and flight testing verify that the design is aerodynamically feasible and stable. With the results of the flight tests, initial design parameters have been adjusted and refined for in-flight stability and control.

Martian Ascent Vehicle Design Team 21096

PROJECT GOAL For a mission to Mars, develop an ascent vehicle with mass constraints half that of typical proposals. NASA is planning for an ascent vehicle to transport two astronauts and a payload of samples from the Mars surface back to a rendezvous spacecraft in low Mars orbit. The primary goal of the MARV-N project is to develop a minimum Mars Ascent Vehicle, or MAV, and identify key technologies and interfaces for meeting mission objectives. The MAV is scheduled to fly at the end of 2035, and it has a projected development budget of $2 billion per year for 10 years, totaling $20 billion. A MAV design with a wet mass of less than 20,000 kg and a dry mass of less than 5,000 kg equates to half of what has been previously proposed. Development of critical systems and structural testing have advanced enough to allow a full proposal, including CAD designs for major structural components, propulsion system design, ascent planning and trajectory design, rendezvous and docking.

TEAM MEMBERS Scott Ladd Omo, Aerospace Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Jessica Lynn Peebles, Chemical Engineering Felipe Martin Rodriguez Fuentes, Aerospace Engineering Javier Ruiz, Engineering Joshua Kristopher Smith, Aerospace Engineering Alexa McKenna Wilder, Aerospace Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Sergey V. Shkarayev PROJECT ADVISOR Sergey V. Shkarayev

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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East Valencia Road Improvements Team 21097

PROJECT GOAL Design improvements of Valencia Road from Pantano Road to Atterbury Wash. TEAM MEMBERS Raymond Phillip Barrales, Civil Engineering Imraan Bokhari, Civil Engineering Spencer Ulysses Browne, Civil Engineering Kyle Ethan Calaguas, Civil Engineering Chao Luo, Civil Engineering Akash Jay Mehta, Civil Engineering Elyce Relleve Pimentel, Civil Engineering Alex Pulido, Civil Engineering Gunnar Hoertz Stahmer, Civil Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Salvatore Caccavale PROJECT ADVISOR Salvatore Caccavale

The proposal will turn East Valencia Road in Tucson, Arizona, into a modern, four-lane, urban collector roadway with a center median. The plan includes the same improvements at the Atterbury Wash east of Houghton Road. These tie into improvements at the Pantano Road alignment and transition into existing conditions east of Nexus Road and at the signalized intersections at Old Vail Road and Nexus Road. The plan includes enhancements to horizontal and vertical geometry, intersection realignments, traffic control elements, drainage conveyance, public safety improvements, reduced traffic congestions, bicycle accessible shoulders and ADA-accessible pedestrian pathways. Concept recommendations adhere to the city’s standards for roadway design, traffic analysis, hydrology and channel hydraulics, geotechnical analysis, pavement design, culvert and bridge design, utility relocation, environmental requirements, cost estimating and scheduling. Also identified were potential project impacts to existing residential neighborhoods, businesses and other facilities. The project provided recommendations for additional improvements as needed.

Improvements to East Valencia Road and the Atterbury Wash Crossing Team 21098

PROJECT GOAL Create a design concept report for the Valencia Road corridor from Pantano Road to Nexus Road, including improvements at the Atterbury Wash structure. TEAM MEMBERS Dominique Paul Abella, Civil Engineering Christopher Alan Ackerman, Civil Engineering Adam Bruce Bishop, Civil Engineering Ahmed Diaaeldin Mohamed M. Elkasaby, Civil Engineering Jorge Andres Iga Cesar, Civil Engineering Marco Antonio Lastra, Civil Engineering Emma Jo Lenarz, Civil Engineering Ro Lee Martinez, Civil Engineering Josh Swain, Civil Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Salvatore Caccavale PROJECT ADVISOR Salvatore Caccavale

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This design concept proposes sustainable, solutions-oriented improvements to the two-lane Valencia Road. It calls for changing it to a fully functional, four-lane, urban collector roadway with a center median, paved shoulders and an ADA-accessible multiuse pathway. Other improvements include horizontal and vertical roadway geometry, intersection realignments, traffic control elements, improved drainage along the entire corridor and adjustments to the Atterbury Wash intersection structure. Engineering work includes roadway design, traffic analysis, hydrology and channel hydraulics, geotechnical analysis, pavement design, bridge and culvert design and analysis of alternative structures, utility relocation, environmental requirements, construction considerations, cost estimation and project scheduling. The team consulted more than 20 industry mentors to finalize the design concept report. The increased capacity for this collector road benefits travel demand for the businesses along Valencia Road and for Mesquite Elementary School near Harrison Greenway.


Valencia Road Improvements – Pantano Road to Atterbury Wash Team 21099

PROJECT GOAL Produce a design concept report for improving Valencia Road from Old Vail Road to Nexus Road and at the Atterbury Wash. The design concept improves the existing two-lane sections of Valencia Road to comply with modern standards for a four-lane, urban collector roadway with a center median and paved shoulders. The improvements also include intersection realignment, signalization, better drainage conveyance, vertical and horizontal geometry, and a new bridge over a major regional wash. More transportation accessibility and options that increase public safety for the community are provided by adding ADA-compliant, bicycle-accessible paved shoulders and a continuous center turn lane for easier access and reduced traffic density. Topographic maps and hydraulic flows reveal the right design for the right lay of the land. The team used roadway design, traffic analysis, geotechnical analysis and pavement design, structural design, utility coordination and relocation, while considering environmental and sustainability factors, cost estimation and scheduling. Balancing project cost, public needs and environmental protection results in a sustainable solution.

TEAM MEMBERS Ryan Beseke, Civil Engineering Valery Ivette Gonzalez, Civil Engineering Ethan James Harper, Civil Engineering Eugene Younghun Ju, Civil Engineering Cesar Maldonado, Civil Engineering Alex Martin Martinez, Civil Engineering Marwan Sami, Civil Engineering Jose Luis Verdugo Jasso, Civil Engineering Ruiwen Zhang, Civil Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Salvatore Caccavale PROJECT ADVISOR Salvatore Caccavale

Automated Irrigation Water Distribution System Team 21100

PROJECT GOAL Automate the irrigation water distribution system used across 14,000 acres of agricultural land in southern California. To help prevent hazards and losses, this project developed an interactive website to depict and monitor the Yuma water area owned by Bard Water District After conducting trade studies of interactive exhibits, the team selected a remote terminal unit, or RTU, as the microprocessor. The configuration integrates simple, easy-to-use, RTUcompiling software. A position sensor and water-level sensor measure and predict gate position and cubic feet per second, or CFS, flow.

TEAM MEMBERS Colton James Bilky, Industrial Engineering Fabiola Nohemi Garcia, Systems Engineering Misael Marquez, Computer Science Jessie Urbano Pena, Systems Engineering Kevin Michael Spannaus, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Samuel Peffers PROJECT ADVISOR Nicholas Bahr

In real time, the microprocessor retrieves the output signal generated from the position and water level sensors at each of 10 gates and sends the information to a database. The resulting website enables designated Bard Water users to interact directly with the display. They can edit the amount of CFS at any gate as well as monitor gate position, on-off signal status, and open or closed gate status.

PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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Automated Flood Gate System Team 21101

PROJECT GOAL Develop an automated irrigation gate system for Bard Water District that adjusts irrigation flood gates remotely via a website and hardware components, providing the ability to cover more than 14,000 acres in crops and millions of dollars in product generation. TEAM MEMBERS Alfredo Enrique Aispuro, Systems Engineering Selene Almaguer, Industrial Engineering Timothy John Colvert, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Esteban Miguel Hernandez Quintero, Engineering Management, Systems Engineering Gildardo G Hernandez, Systems Engineering COLLEGE MENTOR Samuel Peffers PROJECT ADVISOR Nick Bahr

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Bard Water District employees operate flood gates by hand, by either using an electric motor or cranking the floodgate open with a lever. Furthermore, when irrigators close and open their turnout gates without notifying the Bard Water District, it can cause spillage into suburban areas and a lack of water for other irrigators. In this design, an automated system adjusts floodgates and sends live data to Bard Water District. A group of encoder sensors delivers water-level and gate-position information via a tape, weight and float mechanism. The gate position is adjusted based on processor input with a DC electric motor wired through a series of motor starters. Remote terminal unit processors and VHF radio modems allow the control and transmission of system data. All of the system’s components are powered with solar energy.


The capstone team has shown that they are on par with professionals.” – JUSTIN JAMES HYATT, senior research associate for Steward Observatory

“ PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS

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15 ENGINEERING DEGREE PROGRAMS AEROSPACE ENGINEERING ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING BIOSYSTEMS ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING CIVIL ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL & COMPUTER ENGINEERING ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING MATERIALS SCIENCE & ENGINEERING MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MINING ENGINEERING OPTICAL SCIENCES & ENGINEERING SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

It definitely feels more meaningful than

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anything else I’ve done in school.” – EMMA HUFFMAN, biosystems engineering student

2021 CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY


CRAIG M. BERGE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROGRAM

Interdisciplinary Capstone Course and Senior Design Projects

YEAR AT A GLANCE

ENGINEERING DESIGN OPEN HOUSE

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 4 weeks

After students are assigned to projects, teams work with their sponsors to generate structured lists of system requirements and metrics for evaluating final designs and prototypes.

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS MEMO

PRELIMINARY DESIGN 4 weeks

Following approval of the Systems Requirements Memo, teams conduct research and brainstorm to produce preliminary or conceptual designs.

In this structured document, against which all designs, tests and prototypes are gauged, students define requirements for completed projects in consultation with sponsors.

PRELIMINARY DESIGN REVIEW

DETAILED DESIGN 6 weeks

Based on feedback from sponsors and mentors at the Preliminary Design Review, teams modify their preliminary designs and create detailed manufacturable designs to create prototypes for Craig M. Berge Engineering Design Day.

In this formal review, sponsors and mentors critique conceptual designs – for which sponsor approval is required – challenge assumptions and help teams refine their plans.

CRITICAL DESIGN REVIEW At this milestone, sponsors and mentors ensure their teams are meeting all requirements and have feasible plans to manufacture and test prototypes within budget.

WINTER BREAK

DESIGN CHANGES/ BEGIN BUILD 7 weeks

Following the Critical Design Review and approval of the Critical Design Report, teams begin purchasing parts and manufacturing custom components to produce their prototypes.

FINAL DESIGN PRESENTATION In this formal exchange, sponsors and mentors provide project feedback as teams address any last-minute changes.

FINALIZE BUILD/ ACCEPTANCE TESTING 9 weeks

During the last phase of the program, teams collaborate closely with sponsors to assemble and test their prototypes. They also prepare their presentations and demonstrations for Craig M. Berge Design Day.

CRAIG M. BERGE DESIGN DAY CRAIG M. BERGE ENGINEERING DESIGN PROGRAM

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS STUDENTS

Capstone projects are the culmination of a year’s worth of work. Students have applied knowledge from the breadth of their undergraduate education, exercised out-of-the-box thinking and spent hundreds of hours producing the best solutions for their sponsors. We applaud your dedication and professionalism and congratulate you on your achievements.

MENTORS

Project mentors apply hundreds of years of collective engineering experience to guide students in the completion of their projects. They ensure the implementation of industry standards in the design process. Their expertise in devising solutions to challenging problems adds a critical dimension to students’ engineering knowledge. Thank you for your hard work, your commitment to excellence in engineering design and your role in the education of our students.

SPONSORS

Sponsors provide students with real-world questions and allocate funds to the program. They designate technical staff and mentors to steer students through the intricacies and requirements of their projects. Sponsors are a big part of what makes the Engineering Design Program (which encompasses Interdisciplinary Capstone and other capstone courses) what it is today: one of the largest and best-quality programs of its kind in the nation. Thank you immensely for your continued support.

JUDGES

The external judges who participate in Craig M. Berge Design Day supply independent professional assessments of the quality of students’ work. They help maintain the accreditation of undergraduate University of Arizona Engineering degree programs by providing insight and suggestions for improving the Engineering Design Program. Thank you for volunteering your time and applying your knowledge to evaluate students’ capstone projects.

STAFF

Dedicated professionals in the College of Engineering ensure the program’s smooth operation. They spend thousands of hours each year organizing events, communicating with sponsors, operating manufacturing areas, generating marketing materials and news, maintaining budgets and purchasing records, and performing a myriad of other tasks. Thank you all for your invaluable contributions and the excellence you bring to the program.

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THANK YOU TO OUR SPONSORS CORPORATE, GOVERNMENT & PRIVATE II-VI Aerospace & Defense ACSS, An L3Harris and Thales Joint Venture Airy Optics ASML US Inc. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. Bard Water District Bayer Crop Science BD The Bly Family Bridgestone Robert Binnewies Mark Brazier Caterpillar Inc. Dataforth Corporation Delta Development Team Elbit Systems Engineered Medical Group Ergo Dave Exorium Group Garmin General Dynamics GEOST Honeywell Aerospace Idea2Success.biz Collaboratory Jackson Medical Komatsu Ltd. L3 Latitude Engineering Steve Larimore Don McDonald

Mensch Foundation Merrill NASA Northrop Grumman Sharon ONeal Paragon Space Development Corp. Phoenix Analysis & Design Technologies PING Raytheon Technologies RBC Sargent Aerospace & Defense Reid Park Zoo Rincon Research Corporation RMC Boeckeler Roche Tissue Diagnostics Ruda-Cardinal Inc. Salt River Project Sandia National Laboratories SciTech Institute Simply Noted The Simpson Family Spartan Armor Systems Technical Documentation Consultants Tonee Lift Tucson Electric Power W.L. Gore and Associates Williamson-Young Xeridiem Medical Devices, a part of Spectrum Plastics Group Zoltar Technology

THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA

American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics Student Chapter Biosphere 2 Center for Accelerated Biomedical Innovation Craig M. Berge Dean’s Chair College of Optical Sciences Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering Department of Astronomy & Steward Observatory Department of Biomedical Engineering Department of Biosystems Engineering Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering and Mechanics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of Entomology Department of Mining & Geological Engineering Large Binocular Telescope Observatory Lunar and Planetary Laboratory San Xavier Mining Laboratory

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THANK YOU, MENTORS & STAFF MENTORS

Adrianna Brush Salvatore Caccavale Pat Caldwell Heather Hilzendeger Steve Larimore Doug May Don McDonald Cat Merrill Claude Merrill Bob Messenger Mike Nofziger Gregory Ogden Kimberly Ogden Sharon ONeal Samuel Peffers Gary Redford Brad Ross Sergey Shkarayev Jekan Thangavelauthum

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STAFF

Ara Arabyan - Interdisciplinary Capstone Director Debbie Claggett - Interdisciplinary Capstone Coordinator Don Newman - Event Logistics Coordinator Cecilia Lopez - Business Manager



JOIN THE TEAM TODAY! SPONSOR A CAPSTONE PROJECT From startups to Fortune 500 companies, more than 100 projects benefit from this outstanding interdisciplinary academic program each year. Try out potential employees Explore new technologies Move products to market Support engineering education Boost company profile on campus

TRANSFERRING SKILLS TO THE WORKFORCE Teams of four to six seniors, mentored by industry liaisons

and University of Arizona Engineering faculty, spend an entire academic year taking your design projects – many of which become patented technologies and commercial projects – from start to finish.

View the 2021 Virtual Design Day and project presentations at b.link/DesignDay2021.

I C A P. E N G I N E E R I N G . A R I Z O N A . E D U