COMPUTING MATTER - WORKSHOP I - AADRL

Page 1

WORKSHOP 1: COMPUTING MATTER Tutor: Mustafa Al Sayed Apostolos Despotidis Morgan Graboski Andrius Laurinaitis Shimu Wang Aya Riad 2015



CONTENTS GENERATION 1: STITCHING METHODS GENERATION 2: PATTERN GENERATION 3: PULLING POINTS TOPOLOGICAL RESEARCH GENERATION 4: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #1 GENERATION 4.1: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #2 GENERATION 4.2: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #3 GENERATION 4.3: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #4


1


GENERATION 1:

STITCHING METHODS


FLAT FABRIC PATTERN

CAST IN FRAME

FLIPPED CAST, OUTSIDE OF FRAME

FABRIC STRETCHED IN FRAME


GENERATION 1: STITCHING METHODS For this cast we experimented with multiple stitch types: dots, lines, and pinches. We stretched the fabric from each of the four corners and used two opposing corners to pour into.

0.75m

0.50m

PULLING POINTS

FLOW BY GRAVITY FLOW BY PRESSURE 0.75m

0.75m

0.50m

PLASTER FLOW

Since we only poured into 2 of the 4 corners, the main flow of plaster was down from the corners into the center and bottom of the fabric pillow. Once the lower portion was sufficiently filled, the plaster flowed up into the other two corners.

0.50m

PLASTER POURING POINTS

1


GENERATION 1: STITCHING METHODS Analysis Due to the random placement of stitches, a high level of control was not achieved. The plaster bulged out in the areas with less stitching. Also, because we only poured into 2 corners, the two which were not used for pouring did not fill up completely. A more dense, uniform pattern approach will control the plaster more. The most effective stitches for controlling the flow are dots and lines through both layers of fabric.

LINE PINCH

POINT STITCH

STITCHES USED:


1


2


GENERATION 2: PATTERN


PATTERN: BEFORE SEWING

STRETCHED IN FRAME

AFTER CAST OUTSIDE OF FRAME

PATTERN: AFTER SEWING


GENERATION 2: PATTERN 0.50m

In contrast to the first cast, we used a dense pattern for the second cast. We used the pinch stitch in an inter-woven pattern. Each corner was used as a pulling and pouring point.

0.50m

FLOW BY GRAVITY

PULLING POINTS

FLOW BY PRESSURE 0.50m

0.50m

PLASTER FLOW

POURING POINTS

Analysis Although we poured from each corner, the stitches were too narrow and close together for the plaster to flow freely into the entire pattern. As a result, the flow of the plaster was impeded and most of the fabric was not filled with plaster at all. Scaling this pattern up would result in a more successful cast.

CROSS-STITCH

2


3


GENERATION 3: PULLING POINTS


STRETCHED IN FRAME

AFTER CAST, IN FRAME

AFTER CAST, OUTSIDE FRAME


GENERATION 3: PULLING POINTS

0.50m

The flat pattern for this cast was a simple pillow with three apertures cut out from it. The edges were sewn with openings at the corners. The rest of the stitching pattern was executed by hand while the fabric was stretched in the frame. A uniform dot pattern of stitches was applied after multiple pulling points had been established. As we learned with the previous casts, the pattern must be dense enough to control the flow of plaster but not so dense as to stop the flow completely.

0.50m

PULLING POINTS 0.50m

0.50m

0.50m

0.75m

POURING POINTS

PLASTER FLOW

FLOW BY GRAVITY FLOW BY PRESSURE

3


GENERATION 3: PULLING POINTS Analysis A good level of control resulted from the point pattern we used. There was no unwanted bulging of plaster. While the outcome was successful, the form created does not stand vertically (as it was cast,) on it’s own.

POINT STITCH

STITCHES USED:

PULLING EFFECTS


3


TOPOLOGICAL RESEARCH: SHELL STRUCTURES

We arrived at the shell typology early on and decided to pursue it further and in more complex ways. We decided on a three-pointed hyper-curved shell, which is composed of surfaces spanning in two directions resting on three vertices. The load distribution of this typology embeds it with an optical effect of “lightness and radiating.� (Moussavi,

Farshid, and Daniel Lopez. 2009. The Function Of Form. Barcelona: Actar. p.416)


TOPOLOGICAL RESEARCH: SPACE FRAMES

A space frame is a three-dimensional framework which behaves as one component to withstand loads from any direction. This concept would add lateral strength to our shell typology, as space frames can function in flat applications as well as curved.


4


GENERATION 4:

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #1


TRIANGLE A

Triangle A


GENERATION 4: TOPOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS The basis of our pattern is an isosceles triangle divided into parts. The veins become the flow of the plaster, and so the edge veins are the widest because the most compressive support will be needed in these areas. A smaller, proportionally similar triangle connects to the large triangle at the corners and at the midpoints of the main “arteries.�

TRIANGLE B

Triangle B

4


B over A, overlay scheme and connection points


TRIANGLE B OUSTIDE CONNECTION

INSIDE CONNECTIONS

CONNECTION POINTS

Side View Connection Scheme

TRIANGLE A OUSTIDE CONNECTION

4


FLAT FABRIC PATTERN

PULLING POINTS

STRETCHED IN FRAME


MAIN FLOW Pouring - Constructing the Skeleton POURING POINTS

SECONDARY FLOW COLLECTION POINTS

PLASTER FLOW

FLOW BY GRAVITY FLOW BY PRESSURE

MAIN FLOW MAIN FLOW SECONDARY SECONDARY FLOW FLOW COLLECTION POINTS POINTS COLLECTION

4


POST CAST IN FRAME

POST CAST OUTSIDE OF FRAME


POST CAST OUTSIDE OF FRAME

4


GENERATION 4: TOPOLOGICAL EXPLORATIONS Analysis No control points were used in the pattern and as a result the nodes created where arteries and veins met bulged with plaster. Because of the scale of the cast, this was not a serious problem, but scaling up requires more control in these areas. Because of this bulging, the intermediate members became folded. Again, because of the scale, this was not a serious problem but will need to be addressed later. The size of the veins was strong enough for this scale, and will likewise need to be increased for scaling up. Additionally, the three corners which became the “feet� of the object when it was flipped, were not strong enough and cracked.


4


4.1


1

GENERATION 4.1:

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #2


375

65

375

0 65 0

70

50

375

70

TRIANGULATION: Triangle A and B

1300


GENERATION 4.1: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #2

43

251

The pattern here is similar to the previous cast, but scaled up and an equilateral triangle. Each side of the big triangle measured 87 cm when laid flat. The same network of veins and arteries is used, with more attention paid to differences in the sizes of each. The main arteries and edge veins measured 7 cm, while secondary veins were 5 cm. We introduced control points at the nodes which occurred within the triangle in the form of point stitches. The smaller triangle, also equilateral, employs a scaled down version of the veins and arteries. The arteries are 5 cm and the veins are 3cm. The connections between the two layers occur at the three corners and at the midpoints of the arteries.

251

5 43 5

50

30

251

50

870

4.1


FLAT FABRIC PATTERN

STRETCHED IN FRAME


CORNER TO CORNER MEMBER TO MEMBER

4.1


DIGITAL CONSTRUCTION

MODELING P


PROCEDURE

4.1


DIGITAL SIMULATION


FAILURE POINTS

FAILURE POINTS

4.1


CONTROL POINTS

POST CAST IN FRAME


POURING POINTS

PULLING POINTS

PLASTER FLOW

FLOW BY GRAVITY FLOW BY PRESSURE

4.1


ANALYSIS

SIMULATION VS. PHYSICAL FOLDING


GENERATION 4.1: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #2 Analysis Due to their weight and lack of control, the boundary edges pulled inwards causing folding to occur in the intermediate members. These members needed to be pulled away from the center of the model. Additionally, they needed to have control points to prevent over-bulging of plaster. Since the cast failed and was not completely filled with plaster, the feet still need to be resolved at this scale.

FAILURE POINTS

4.1


4.2


2

GENERATION 4.2:

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #3


32

375

5 32

375

5 32 32 5

375

5

40

40

25

TRIANGLE A

1300


GENERATION 4.2: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #3

43

251

The pattern size is identical to the previous cast with alterations made to control the flow of plaster. The edge veins are 4 cm wide and the inner veins are 2.5 cm. For the smaller triangle, the edge veins are 3 cm and the inner veins are 2 cm. Due to the failure of the previous cast, control points and lines were added to the nodes at the edges of the triangle and the center nodes have an increased number of control points. Additionally, extra fabric has been added in the form of a sock over each of the three corners to add additional material at the feet of the object. To prevent folding in intermediate members, the edges were pulled during casting =.

251

5 43 5

30

20

251

30

TRIANGLE B

870

4.2


PRE-CASTING

B over A, overlay scheme and connection points CORNER TO CORNER MEMBER TO MEMBER


FLAT FABRIC PATTERN

4.2


CONTROL POINTS


STRETCHED IN FRAME

4.2


DIGITAL CONSTRUCTION


DIGITAL SIMULATIONS

4.2


POURING POINTS

POST CAST, IN FRAME

AFTER CAST, OUTSIDE OF FRAME


PULLING POINTS

STRETCHED IN FRAME

4.2


POST-CASTING

PLASTER FLOW

FLOW BY GRAVITY FLOW BY PRESSURE


4.2


PULLING POINTS: DURING CASTING


VIEW FROM UNDERNEATH

4.2


3D PATTERN CONSTRUCTION

LARGE TRIANGLE: EDGES

LARGE TRIANGLE: MAIN ARTERIES

SMALL TRIANGLE: EDGES

SMALL TRIANGLE: MAIN ARTERIES


LARGE TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS

LARGE TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

SMALL TRIANGLE: SECONDARY ARTERIES

SMALL TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

4.2


3D PATTERN CONSTRUCTION

LARGE TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS

LARGE TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

LARGE TRIANGLE: CONNECTION POINTS

INTERCONNECTIONS

SMALL TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

SMALL TRIANGLE: CONNECTION POINTS

SMALL TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS


INTERCONNECTIONS AND POINTS

4.2


ANALYSIS

FOLDED MEMBERS CRACKS

FAILURE POINTS


GENERATION 4.2: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #3 Analysis While there was a good level of control with the flow of plaster, the pulling points made during the casting process did not prevent folding in the intermediate veins. More pre-tensioning of the model is necessary to fix this. This should be done before casting and also sooner during the casting process to prevent cracking. The extensions we made at the feet of the model worked fairly well in creating sturdy feet, however, they are not a perfect solution. Additionally, cracks appeared in several members post-casting. We think this is due to the folded members. To prevent this, member to member connections between the two layers will be avoided.

WEAK MEMBERS While the model was poured it was hanging in tension, but when flipped it must function in compression. The members shown in red here are members which failed when put into compressionthese members “want� to be in tension when the model is upright, however plaster does not allow for it. This is why cracks appeared in these areas.

4.2



4.2


4.3


GENERATION 4.3:

TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #4


5

16

2 .5

16

2 .5

24

3 .7

5

24

3 .7

5

40

3 .7

15

24

281.5

281.5

5

187.5

3 .7

375

24

TRIANGLE A

1300

25

40


GENERATION 4.3: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #4

43

251

For this cast we used a different triangulation in the 2D patterning; we created more nodes for interconnections between the two shells/layers. In order to create more lateral strength, the two layers are interconnected by a series of intermediate tubes between nodes on each triangle and the midpoints of the main arteries on the large triangle. We also pre-tensioned the fabric before casting to prevent folding in the intermediate members. In an attempt to improve the feet of the model, rigid rings were used as the pouring and pulling points.

251

5 43 5

30

20

251

30

TRIANGLE B

870

4.3


PRE-CASTING

FLAT FABRIC PATTERN

CORNER TO CORNER MEMBER TO MEMBER

B over A, overlay scheme and connection points


FLAT INNER MEMBERS

SIMULATED INNER MEMBERS

NODE TO NODE

4.3


CONNECTIONS

A POINTS

A POINTS

A TO AB CONNECTIONS

A TO A CONNECTIONS

A AND AB POINTS

BC POINTS

BC POINTS

C TO BC CONNECTIONS

AB TO BC CONNECTIONS

C POINTS

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LAYERS


ALL CONNECTIONS A POINTS AB POINTS BC POINTS C POINTS

4.3


CROSS-SECTION THROUGH CONNECTIONS


PRECAST-CAST COMPARISON

4.3


PLASTER MOVEMENT IN THE CAST

POURING POINTS

PLASTE


ER DIVISION POINTS

COLLECTION POINTS

4.3


DIGITAL CONSTRUCTION

Second

Connec

main


ary Layer

ting layer

layer

4.3


DIGITAL SIMULATION


4.3


FLAT FABRIC PATTERN

STRETCHED IN FRAME

AFTER CAST


For this cast, we used rigid edges at the pouring points in order to control the feet of the model more.

PULLING POINTS

POURING POINTS

PULLING POINTS: DURING CASTING

4.3


PLASTER FLOW


FLOW BY GRAVITY FLOW BY PRESSURE

4.3


CONTROL POINTS


4.3


CONNECTIONS BETWEEN LAYERS


4.3


3D PATTERN CONSTRUCTION

LARGE TRIANGLE: EDGES

LARGE TRIANGLE: MAIN ARTERIES

SMALL TRIANGLE: EDGES

SMALL TRIANGLE: MAIN ARTERIES


LARGE TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS

LARGE TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

SMALL TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS

SMALL TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

4.3


3D PATTERN CONSTRUCTION

LARGE TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS

LARGE TRIANGLE: CONNECTION POINTS LARGE TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

INTERCONNECTIONS

SMALL TRIANGLE: CONNECTION POINTS SMALL TRIANGLE: COMPOSITE PATTERN

SMALL TRIANGLE: SECONDARY VEINS


INTERCONNECTIONS AND POINTS

4.3



4.3


ANALYSIS

TWISTED MEMBERS

SLANTED FEET


GENERATION 4.3: TOPOLOGICAL STUDY #4 Analysis While this cast was able to improve some of the issues with the previous model, there were still some problems. Some of the intermediate members became twisted, weakening them. Additionally, the rigid boundaries used for the feet in this cast were not held horizontally during pouring, causing them to become slanted. What we learned with this cast is that the upper layer filled up through the pressure of the bottom layer filling and pushing plaster up through the intermediate connections. In the previous cast we tried to fill this layer separately, but because the space-frame members introduced in this model became vertical with gravity, they filled the upper layer.

POSSIBLE PROPAGATIONS

4.3



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