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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

DISASTER ?

Landscape Planning and design for Natural Disaster Mitigation and Response from a design simulation of the Bluestone Dam failure

DESIGN WITH WATER - RETHINKING RIVER DESIGN WVU Master of Landscape Architecture Ayaka Matthews

1


CONTENTS Project Statement ------ 03 Upstream Project ------ 04 Downstream Project ----08 2

Conclusions ------------- 37


Landscape Planning and design for Natural Disaster Mitigation and Response from a design simulation of the Bluestone Dam failure DESIGN WITH WATER - RETHINKING RIVER DESIGN Issue Climate Change More severe storms

Bluestone Dam Risk of failure

Damage would be catastrophic

Flood risk to the captail of WV Charleston

If the dam failed?

$

Ne w

in Charleston 24-48 hours

709,230,000 670 acres

Riv er Bluestone Dam

4,980

Project Statement

The purpose of this project is to apply landscape architectural techniques into disaster management and propose planning and designs that focus on disaster management for communities. It will especially focus on mitigation and response to flood hazard to address the climate change issue for future generations. This project also will examine not only disaster management, but also the goal to enhance sustainability, economy, and environment for the communities.

Conventional Solutions Dam Reinforcement

Levee Construction

Planning for Response

$250 million

$

Goal of the Project

The goal of this project is to propose landscape planning and design focused on flood management based on a simulation of the Bluestone Dam failure. The Blueston Dam is located in located on the New River near Hinton, West Virginia, which is classified as one of the hazard potential dams in the United States . The project is composed of two parts. One is at the upper stream community to mitigate the risk of the dam failure, and the other one is at the downstream community of the Bluestone Dam to respond to the flood emergencies in case of dam failure.

Landscape Architectural Solutions

Downstream: Greenroofs

Raingarden/Bioretention

Bioswales

Ka n

aw h

Flexible Design with the Natural River Dynamics

Resistant Design against Bluestone Dam failure

Riverfront Development for People and River Ecosystem

Charleston

aR

ive

r

r ive

wR Ne

Bluestone Dam Blacksburg

Upper stream OBJECTIVE:

Mitigate the risk of dam failure by stormwater management planning in a community upstream of the Bluestone Dam --- Blacksburg,VA

OBJECTIVE: Propose planning & design to respond to the dam failure in a community downstream of the Bluestone Dam --- Charleston,WV

3


BLACKSBURG

UPSTREAM PROJECT

OBJECTIVE: Mitigate the risk of dam failure by stormwater management planning in a community upstream of the Bluestone Dam --- Blacksburg,VA

Commercial/Mixed Use /Professional Office

Low Density Residential

290 acre

2,648 acre

+141%

+14% Charleston

+ CURRENT LAND USE

3,028 acre

699 acre

Blueston Dam Blacksburgh

Medium Density Residential

Research/Light Industrial

Blacksburg,VA

Blacksburg is the largest town in Virginia by population(42,620, 201 census), and the 15th largest municipality overall. It is one of the fastest growing areas in Virginia, and the stormwater impact will increase through future development, which will increase the risk of the Bluestone Dam failure.

+85%

+124 + FUTURE LAND USE (in 2046)

1,319 acre

746 acre

High Density Residential

Land Use Change in the Future The area of the land use change from the current land use to the future in 2046 was identified from GIS maps. Using the Q/i from modified rational method formula(Q = CiA) as a parameter of stormwater amount, the amount of increasing stormwater in the future was calculated.

712 acre

333 acre

Heavy Industrial

547 acre

213 acre

+68%

+136%

LAND USE Very Low Density Residential / Agricultural,Undeveloped Low Density Residential Medium Density Residential High Density Residential Commercial/Mixed Use/Professional Office Research/Light Industrial Heavy Industrial University Civic Parks and Cemeteries

Stormwater Impact Change

357 acre

743 acre

MODEL

Stormwater Increase by the future development

10%

Current Total Q/i

4

+ 10%

Stormwater Reduction by LID

?%

Future Total Q/i

Senario x Total Q/i

GOAL : Propose a stormwater management guideline for new developments to achieve a goal of “No net gain, or Less� impact of stormwater with the LID(Low-Impact Development) strategy.


BLACKSBURG

Scenario Making Process

1

Scenario Making Process

2

Scenario Making Process

3

UPSTREAM PROJECT LID Practices Each major LID practices were evaluated by the rate of stormwater reduction, install cost, maintenance cost, life span, aesthetics, and also if it would enhance community engagement, and wildlife habitats.

Stormwater Reduction Cost(/Sq. ft) Maintenance Life Span Aesthetics Community Engagement Wildlife Habitats

Cost Analysis

Raingardens 40% $3-4 $0.09-0.24 25 yrs

Raingardens

This table shows the cost performance of each major LID practices. They were calculated by the comparison of the cost of construction and maintenance of each LID practice, and the cost comparison for the conventional stormwater management practices by using LID practices. The result of this evaluation showed that raingardens, bioswales, and permeable pavers have better cost performance than the other LID practices. This means that as these three LID practices are used, the city can save more money over using the conventional stormwater management practices.

Average size/ acre

Annual cost for LID / acre(construction&maintenance) Annual saving cost / acre replaced by LID Asphalt Pavement

Bioretentions 40% $10-40 $0.5-2.8 25 yrs

Bioswales Greenroof(Extensive) Permeable Pavers 40% 45% 45% $0.25 $10 $10-18 $0.01-0.02 $0.75–1.50 $0.005 25 yrs 50yrs 25 yrs

Bioretentions

Bioswales

Greenroof(Extensive)

43560 sqft. ( x a% of A)

200 sqft.

3050 sqft.

208’ x 5’ sqft.

$83

$9,608

$177

$0

$680

$232

Drainage System

43560 sqft. ( x a% of A)

$13,591

$9,932

$9,714

$138

Infiltration Trenches

208’ x 5’ sqft.

$1,430

$232 $138

Roof Replacement Landscaping

Permeable Pavers

Infiltration Trenches 50% $5-10 $0.25-1 10 yrs

$16,379 $51

$778

$265

$11,107

$265

COST PERFORMANCE

Suitability for each Land Use From the above evaluations, the suitability of LID practices for each land use were examined, Low Density Residential and three scenarios are made Medium Density Residential to mitigate the stormwater High Density Residential increase. SCENARIO 1

1

SCENARIO 2

1

2

SCENARIO 3

1

2

Raingardens

1 2 2 Commercial/Mixed Use/Professional Office Research/Light Industrial Heavy Industrial

3

Bioretentions

Bioswales

Greenroof(Extensive) Permeable Pavers

Infiltration Trenches

2 1 1 1 3 3

2 2

3 3 2 1 1

3

5


BLACKSBURG

UPSTREAM PROJECT

Scenario Analysis

4

Scenario Analysis

5

6

Evaluation of the Scenarios Q/i value and the total cost per acre of each scenario was calculated. Scenario 3 can reduce the stormwater impact the most, 7% less than the current land use, which means a total of 17% less than the prospective future land use. However, this scenario cost more than scenario 2. Scenario 2 will reduce the stormwater impact 3% from the current land use, and also save $1,213 per acre for the future development. Scenario 4 was created from scenario 2 & 3 to aim to be in the middle of these two scenarios with better cost performance.

Results The reason that scenario 3 cost more than scenario 2 is because of bioretentions. Although bioretentions are good in regards to aesthetics, community engagement, and wildlife habitats, the cost for the construction and maintenance is much more expensive than the other LID practices. Scenario 4 has the same LID practices as scenario 3 without bioretentions, and the result showed that Scenario 4 is the most feasible scenario among the four scenarios regarding to the suitability to each land use and cost performance.

Q/i

Current Land Use

Future Land Use

SCENARIO 1 1

SCENARIO 2 1 2

SCENARIO 3 1 2 3

6,275

6,904

6,407

6,058

5,836

+ 10% + 2% - 3% - 7%

Cost for LID/acre Saving by LID/acre Total Cost/acre

Low Density Residential

Raingardens

Medium Density Residential

Raingardens

Bioswales

High Density Residential

Raingardens

Bioswales

Commercial/Mixed Use /Professional Office

Permeable Pavers

Research/Light Industrial

Bioswales

Heavy Industrial

Bioswales

$ 3,149

$ 8,372

$ 316

$ 4,362

$ 7,447

$ 1,679

$ - 1,213

$ 925

RESULT

Permeable Pavers

Bioswales

$ 1,995

Greenroof(Extensive)

Greenroof(Extensive)

Greenroof(Extensive)

Greenroof(Extensive)

Greenroof(Extensive)

Q/i

Current Land Use

Future Land Use

6,275

6,904

Cost for LID/acre Saving by LID/acre Total Cost/acre

SCENARIO 4

5.982

+ 10% - 5%

$ 5,014 $ 6,173 $ -1,159

Scenario 4 will reduce the stormwater impact 5% from the current land use, which means 15% from the prospective future land use. It will also save $1,159 per acre for annual future development, which means $2,490,701 in savings every year for the whole city. These savings could be spent on creating more bioretentions or the improvement of public services.


Guideline + Low Density Residential

Permeable Pavement Raigarden �E

0

0.4

0.8

1.6

Miles 3.2

2.4

+ Medium Density Residential Greenroof Raigarden

Bioswale �E

0

0.4

0.8

1.6

Miles 3.2

2.4

+ High Density Residential Greenroof Raigarden

Bioswale �E

0

0.4

0.8

1.6

Miles 3.2

2.4

+Commercial/Mixed Use/Professional Office

Bioswale

Greenroof

�E

0

0.4

0.8

1.6

2.4

Commercial

Miles 3.2

+ Research/Light Industrial Bioswale

Greenroof

High Density Residential

�E

0

0.4

0.8

1.6

2.4

Light Industrial

Miles 3.2

+ Heavy Industrial

Heavy Industrial

Greenroof Bioswale �E

0

0.4

0.8

1.6

2.4

Miles 3.2

7


DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

OBJECTIVE: Propose planning & design to respond to the dam failure in a community downstream of the Bluestone Dam --- Charleston,WV

Charleston Blueston Dam Blacksburgh

0

Charleston, WV

Flood Area Analysis

For the downstream community project, Charleston, the state capital of West Virginia,which is located 60 miles downstream of the Bluestone Dam, was selected because it is one of the most important cities in West Virginia(The population is 304,214 including its metropolitan area, 2010 Census), and the damage would be catastrophic if the Bluestone Dam failed.

The 10-100 year floodplains and the possible flood areas by Bluestone Dam failure were identified by GIS analysis. The areas covered with the 100 years flood plain and higher than the 10 feet flood area by Bluestone Dam failure were recognized as the serious flood risk area. The possible damage from the floods were also estimated.

0.5

1

+Floodplains by HAZUS

2

3

Miles 4

0

0.5

1

2

3

20 feet Flood Area

25 year Floodplain

15 feet Flood Area

50 year Floodplain

10 feet Flood Area

100 year Floodplain

5 feet Flood Are 5-0 feet Flood Area

100 year Floodplain

Serious Flood Risk Area

Miles 4

+Bluestone Dam failure simulation

10 year Floodplain

More than 10 feet Flood Area

High Flood Risk Area

CHARLESTON

+Overlaid Flood Area ESTIMATED DAMAGE $

709,230,000 670 acres 4,980

8

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4


High Damage Risk Area Analysis

The map of the serious flood risk areas were overlaid with the following GIS maps to identify the high damage risk areas. The risk of economic and cultural loss, loss of life, and vulnerability of the land by the flood risk areas were taken into account for this process. Total Assets per Sq.mi.

Total Assets by Census Blocks

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

Population Density

Land use

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

Poverty Rate

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

+ 0.5

1

2

0.5

1

2

3

0

0.5

1

2

3

0

0.5

1

2

3

+ 0

0

0

3

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

Miles 4

9 Miles


CHARLESTON

The high damage risk areas were identified from the overlaid maps. Visions for the solutions were set for the each area; One is the flexible waterfront design, which will attempt to create some flexible areas with temporary flooding to mitigate the damage from the floods as well as restore floodplain ecosystems. The second vision, the flood resistant design, will be assigned in the area that has buildings close to the river. The third vision, the planning for response, will focus on the safe areas outside of flood areas. These areas can provide safe shelters, temporary housings, and also emergency supplies such as energy, water, and food.

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

II. HIGH DAMAGE RISK AREA OVERLAID

I. HIGH DAMAGE RISK AREA

III. VISIONS FOR THE SOLUTIONS 1. Flexible Waterfront Design

+ 0

+

0.5

0

0.5

1

2

1

Miles 4

3

2

Miles 4

3

10 0

0.5

1

2

3

Miles 4

2. Flood Resistant Design

3. Planning for Response


IV.STRATEGIES Current

Improvement Park Temporary Cafe

Usually

Usually

Trails Flexible Design

100 yr-Flood

100 yr-Flood

Watersports Ecosystem Restoration (Floodplain Species)

Protection

Blueston Dam Failure

For the flexible waterfront design areas, the riverbank will be expanded with different levels by using stairs or terraces. It will allow people to be close to the water, as well as create attractive spaces for different uses along the river.

Blueston Dam Failure

? Current

Something else?

Improvement Art Wall Outdoor Movie Theater

Usually

Usually

Linear Park(cf. Highline) and Trails Protection

Blueston Dam Failure

Flood Tolerant Buildings (Offices, retails, appartments..)

Blueston Dam Failure

Safe Shelter Area

Possible Temporary housing Area

For the flood resistant design, floodwalls or some structure will be installed to protect the community from the flooding, and also design the structure not only as protective structures from flooding, but also as design elements to create attractive spaces to improve the city.

Sustainable Energy, Water, Food System

For the planning for response area, important facilities such as hospitals, possible shelters and temporary housing area will be identified in the safe area outside of flooding areas, in case the floodwalls also failed. Shelter?

11


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT V.CITY PLANNING

The possible flood area, important elements for response such as shelters, hospitals, and parks for temporary housings, and also circulations, were overlaid, and a schematic master plan was made with the three strategies for each vision.

Possible Flood Area 10 year Floodplain 25 year Floodplain 50 year Floodplain 100 year Floodplain 20 feet Flood Area by Bluestone Dam failure 15 feet Flood Area by Bluestone Dam failure 10 feet Flood Area by Bluestone Dam failure 5 feet Flood Are by Bluestone Dam failure 0-5 feet Flood Area by Bluestone Dam failure

Important Elements for Response Hospitals Schools Parks

Circulation Interstate Highways US Highways Railroad Major Roads Trails

Schematic Master Plan Floodwall structure Floodplain ecosystem restoration area Safe area Hospitals Possible Shelters

12

Possible Temporary housing area


1. Flexible Waterfront Design Floodplain Ecosystem Restoration Area

2. Flood Resistant Design Floodwall structure

3. Planning for Response Safe area from flooding( sustainable energy, water, food system) Hospitals Possible Shelters Possible Temporary housing area

13


CHARLESTON

The flood analysis recognized the downtown area of Charleston as one of the most high damage risk area from flooding. The downtown area is political, economical, and cultural centers of Charleston. It is important to protect this area from flooding as well as create a new riverfront which will become one of the landmarks of the city, and create a harmonious relationship between the city and the river.

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

14

Capital Market

Downtown Area

Riverside Haddard Riverfront Park

Town Center Mall

Civic Center

River Bank and Trail

Elk River

Vacant Space

Estuary of Elk River

Magic Island Park

Residential Area

Kanawha Boulevard

Downtown Area Context


Interstate highway

Two way road

Circulation

One way road

ML king Jr community center and recreation center Magic island park

Greenspace

Haddard riverfront park

Industrial Residential Civic Commercial Church/temples Restaurants Parking Accomodations Business Residential area Civic center Capital market Town center mall Downtown area Clay center for the arts and Sciences of West Virginia

Land use

Key opportunities

Figure ground 10 year

25 year 50 year 10’

5’

10 year Floodplain 25 year Floodplain

100 year

50 year Floodplain 100 year Floodplain

Floodplain

20’ 15’ 20 feet Flood Area 15 feet Flood Area 10 feet Flood Area

Flood area of Bluestone dam failure

5 feet Flood Are Possible Floodplain Ecosystem Restoration Area

5-0 feet Flood Area

Possible Floodwall Structure Line Possible Floodwall Structure Line Possible Floodplain Ecosystem Restoration Area

Flood wall structure Restoration Area

Circulation, green spaces, land use , and key opportunities in the downtown area were mapped. The streets in this area are mostly wider than two lanes, and the Kanawha Boulevard, the road going through from the east to the west along the Kanawha River, has four - five lanes. While they have these wide streets, the traffic is not so busy on the road. There are two parks along the Kanawha River, but both parks have few attractive facilities. Haddard Riverfront Park has nothing but a big amphitheater, and the Magic Island park has a few amenities such as beach volley ball courts. One of the most remarkable facilities in this area is Charleston Town Center Mall. It is an enclosed shopping mall with more than 130 tenants on two levels, as well as a food court on a partial third level. Also, Capital Street preserves the historic and beautiful buildings. Figure ground, floodplains, and the possible flood area by Bluestone Dam failure simulation were identified and overlaid on GIS maps. From these maps, high potential areas for floodplain ecosystem restoration and the areas that need floodwalls or some structures to protect the downtown area were identified.

15


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

Concept Charleston, which has a high damage risk from the possible Bluestone Dam failure, will be redesigned in harmony with the river dynamics(Chaos and Fractal) to be flexible and resistant against the flood risks. The city will become a bridge to the better future as well as a gateway to introduce a green economy and sustainable development into the region which has relied on natural resources industries.

Flexible Resistant

River Dynamics

Forms bridge

chaos

fractal

flexible gateway

River Dynamics

16

resistant

CHARACTERISTICS & MATERIALS


Design Issues & Solutions

Bridge = Connection to the river

Wall = Disconnecting the river & People?

One of the biggest issues for designing is that floodwalls or some kind of structures will be needed to protect the city from the 15-20’flood by Bluestone Dam failure, and there is a concern that the structures would create disconnection rather than creating connection between the city and the river. To break through this design issue, the three ideas below are proposed.

Temporary floodwall

Deck = Open space along the river

Not Wall = Bridge

Temporary floodwall

Idea 1

Gate = Access to the river

Not Wall = Deck = Open Space along the River

Temporary floodwall

Idea 2

Not Wall = Gate to the River

Idea 3

17


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

Conceptual Diagram

Greenways & Design Area

The greenways and the design area were identified based on the conceptual diagram. The greenways will connect each important elements in the downtown area with the riverside as the center. It will enhance the connection between the city and the river. DESIGN SPACES

Clay Center

M RESTORAT STE ION SY

GREENWAYS

Clay center

Capital market Hospital

Downtown area

Hospital

ML king Jr community center

Residential area

Town center mall

Hospital Civic center

Residential area

Greenways

Hospital

EC O

Downtown Area

Kanawha county court house

RIVER

GR

PACE NS EE

Civic

RECREATION

TI-USE MUL

Total 21.7 acres

Magic island park

Capitol Market

Parks

Design Area

8.0 acres

Residential area

FLOOD RESISTANT STRUCTURE

Residential Area

13.7 acres

FUNCTIONAL DIAGRAM Passive Use

Active Use River View Floodplain Ecosystem Restoration Area Floodwall Structure

Greenways

18


PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

FROM GENERAL INVENTORY&ANALYSYS OF THE CITY

ISSUE High damage risk from Bluestone Dam failure

• Economic growth by industries such as salt, coal, oil, natural gas, timber, chemical, glass, steel industy, and also as a transportation hub and the capital of West Virginia • Depopulation by declination of coal industry • Downtown redevelopment project

GOAL Propose a planning & designs of Charleston to respond to the dam failure as well as enhance the environment, economy, and sustainabiltiy of the city

CONCEPT Charleston, which has a high damage risk from the possible Blueston dam failure, will be redesigned in harmony with the river dynamics to be flexible and resistant against the flood risks. The city will become a bridge to the better future as well as a gateway to introduce a green economy and sustainable development into the region, which has been relied on natural resources industries.

• • • • •

The state capital and the county seat of Kanawha county Linear shaped city along the Kanawha River Transportation hub Historic architectures from 1900-1950’s Dynamic landscapes from mountain to city, and city to the river

• • • • • • •

Prospect of future economic growth Transportation hub Existance of 5 universites Diverse economy Preserved historic architecture Events and Festivals High walkability in downtown area

• • • • •

Disconnection to the river and water visually, physically, and mentally Degradation of the river and wetland ecosystem and biodiversity Depopulation and Urban decay Dependence on natural resources industries Less bikable

Community Enhancement

PROGRAMS

Social&Economic Vitalization

River Ecosystem Restoration Cultural Enhancement

FLEXIBLE

RESISTANT

River

19


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

Sketches for Designs

chaos River Dynamics

fractal flexible bridge

Not Wall = Bridge

Flood Resistant Bridge Image

resistant Wall

20

Idea 1

Temporary Cafe

Bridge

Food Vendors

Temporary Floodwall

Free Market , Performance


Not Wall = Deck = Open Space along the River Flexible

River Dynamics

Resistant

Greenwall

Promenade

Museum

Not Wall = Gate to the River Art

Buildings

Idea 2

Community Library

Idea 3

21


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

MASTER PLAN with Flexible Waterfront Designs

KA

NA

Idea 3

Idea 1

Idea 3

ELK RIVER

W

HA

RI

VE

res i

de

R

Idea 2

n eni

St.

d len

C

nC

r Cou

Idea 3

ent

er

al a

rea

Ma

ll

.

t St

tal api

St.

C

Idea 2

Idea 1

Tow

nti

Not Wall = Bridge Idea 1

Idea 2

Idea 3 22

Not Wall = Deck = Open Space along the River Not Wall = Gate to the River

500’

1000’

1500’


AR EA

nC ent

rt Cou

er

1 de

ita Cap

nti community gathering space

n nde

Tow res i

community garden

t. inS natureplayground

Cle

ELK RIVER

greenway

watergarden

new energy

venture buissiness and local retail complex

R

ampatheater

VE

linear museum

RI

community library & Wifi Spot

HA

2

riverlook cafe

EA

floating garden boardwalks

AR

floating garden

W

beach volley/recreation

NA

floodplain ecosystem restoration

KA

riverside walk

MASTER PLAN with Programs

al a rea

Ma ll

St.

l St .

500’ 1000’ 1500’

23


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

clendenin st. GREENWAY

GREENWAY

Elevator

Stairs

B

A

Elevator

Stairs

Stairs

capital st.

1

2

Elevator

Kanawha Boulevard

Magic Island park

Haddard Riverfront Park

A’

Stairs

GREENWAY

ELK RIVER

3

4

5

court st. GREENWAY

Area 1

Area 1 is the closest area to the center of the city, and it also has the Haddad Riverfront Park where concerts and events are being held annually. This area will be designed as the most active and attractive areas to bring people from the city as well as the outside of the city to the riverside. It will not only protect the city at a flooding emergency, but also enhance the city culturally and economically.

B’

amphitheater

seating space

river view bar&cafe

urban beach

green chimneys

linear museum

playground / swing mini arts & crafts scenter

community library & Wifi spot temporary spaces for muti-use

community garden green waterfall wind turbine river gate cafe

rental spaces for retail or offices

venture business & local retail complex

floating garden

KANAWHA RIVER

FLOOD RESISTANT STRUCTURE

3% 605’ 590’ 564’

24

0.48 Miles

500 feet


Existing Section A-A’

600’

12’

12’

12’ 4’ 8’

21’

4’

33’

sidewalk

road

road

road

road

river bank

trail

river bank

vege baffer sidewalk

12’

600’

590’

590’

580’

580’

564’ 8’

Flood line

cess

kan

ccess

River A

awh

Bluestone Dam Failure Simulation

aB

oul

564’

eva

605’

605’ 600’

Flood line

Bluestone dam flood line

590’

4’ 15’

10’

trail

elevated path

deck

baffer

road

vege baffer bike lane

road

sidewalk bike lane

15’

floodwall structure

564’ 15’

15’

600’

Flood

590’

Bluestone Dam Failure Simulation

564’

ccess

8’

River A

ccess

ccess

River A

615’

615’

590’

580’

580’

15’

4’

sidewalk

deck

trail

Bluestone Dam Failure Simulation

564’

Flood

elevated playground

5’

flood wall structure

road

vege baffer bike lane sidewalk

road

sidewalk bike lane

20’

600’

590’

564’

spiral staircase & elevator

Flood line

Bluestone dam flood line

15’ clearance

Bluestone Dam Failure Simulation

605’

605’ 600’

11’ 5’ 5’ 5’

Proposed Design River A

Proposed Section B-B’

5’ 5’ 11’

ccess

River A

580’

580’

11’ 5’ 5’ 2’

rd

Bluestone Dam Failure Simulation

Proposed Section A-A’

5’ 5’ 11’

Existing Condition

c River A

While the traffic is not so heavy on Kanawha Boulevard, it has 4 to 5 lanes now, and it is one of the big elements creating disconnection between the downtown area and the river. Reducing Kanawha Boulevard into two lanes will mitigate this disconnection as well as create more space for the open space along the river.

If the Bluestone Dam failed, the downtown area would be flooded with 15’ of water, and it would cause catastrophic damage to the city. To protect the downtown area from the flood, floodwalls or some kind of structures will be needed along the river. These structures could be opened to the river like gates under normal conditions, and closed and work as floodwalls at a flood emergency.

The floodwall structures will be opened and flexible as much as possible, and create visual and physical connection to the river from the downtown area. The elevated path will create more open space along the river with dynamic views. The floodwall structure will be closed and turn into the temporary floodwalls when the Bluestone Dam fails.

25


Elements

1

26 Urban Beach

Green chimneys will catch people’s eye from far away, and also become one of the symbols for Charleston’s riverfront. The design was inspired by the factories along the Kanawha River, which is one of the characteristics of Charleston. It represents that Charleston will become a gateway to introduce a green economy and sustainable development into the region, which relies on natural resources industries. Also this big stairs opened up to the river and the arch shaped structure will bring people’s eyes to the river. A shallow pool, and urban beach will attract people and kids, and let them enjoy spending time close to the river.


2

The outdoor museum, which could be also covered with a temporary roof, has a winding path surrounding the existing pin oaks. It brings people’s eye’s to four different directions, and create different feelings and spaces with the sunshine and shades, trees, and views surrounding users. Also, there are windows open to the river that look like paintings, and the surrounding landscape will be a piece of art. It will get people’s attention to the river. This museum attracts people from the Haddard Riverfront Park into the whole riverside park, as well as provide a good cultural connection from music to art.

5ʼ 5ʼ

10ʼ

27 Public Linear Museum


3

This area has more community uses such as an art craft center, playground, and an outdoor community library and Wifi spot area. Users can enjoy the river views through some playground equipment such as swings and slides. It will create visual and mental connection to the river. On the ground level, there are river view terraces with table and chairs along the riverside walk. These terraces could be closed at the flood emergency.

Elements

28

Playground and Riverside Walk


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Spiral Staircase

4

Elements

River Gate Cafe

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The elements of the river gate cafe area are outdoor eating spaces, counter seating spaces with the dynamic river view, and cafe shops made of steel, which is one of the characteristics of this area. Also wind turbines and trees will provide shade for people. The generated electricity made through the wind turbines will bring water from the river to the top containers. The water will drip like a waterfall from there to the river through the containers with wetland plants, and the water will be filtrated through the system. There is also a small water feature with glass windows next to the cafe, and it will allow people to feel water and the river closer on the top of the floodwall structure.

Water Feature


Kanawha Boulevard

Greenway to the River

Kanawha Boulevard will be reduced to two lanes, and it will have sidewalks and bike lanes on each side. Bioswales will be also installed to collect the water from the downtown area and remove the pollution from the stormwater before it reaches to the river. These streetscape enhancement will create a better connection from the downtown area to the river. The floodwall structure along the street are open to the river with arches shapes, which represent a bridge or gate to the river. These arch will be temporarily closed at the flood emergency situation temporarily.

Greenways will create visual, physical and also environmental connections from the downtown area to the river. The greenway will have bioswales along the street as well as vegetation strips with native species, which will manage stormwater and enhance the environment in the city. 31


Floating Garden

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After the river gate cafe area, there is a business and commercial use area, and a floating garden area. These areas will be the core for revitalizing the economy, culture, and ecosystem of the city. The boardwalks are going through the floating gardens, which are small manmade wetland structures. these can provide habitat to wildlife as well as become good design features for the wetland boardwalks. Each floating unit comes in different sizes, which will create different micro climates on each unit and allow them to have different kind of plant species on them. It also has nets under the top soil part, and there would be aquatic plants which will provide habitat for fish or other wildlife. Also, it will contribute to cleaning the water of the river as well as preventing the temperature of the water from getting high by providing shade on the surface of the water.

Elements

5


Wetland Terrace

586’: 50yrs floodplain 582’: 25yrs floodplain 580’: 10yrs floodplain 575’ 570’

Centella asiatica

upland buffer

upland buffer

forested wetland

scrub/shrub wetland

emergent vegetation

564 ’

floating vegetation

The wetland terrace has strong straight lines which will bring people’s eyes direct to the river, and also emphasize the diversity of the wetland ecosystem. These terraces are elevated by every 4 or 5’ and also by the elevation of natural floodplain levels such as 10 years, 25 years, and 50 years floodplain levels. These different levels will have different plant communities by natural flooding events.

Polygonum pensylvanicum L.

Nymphaea odorata Ait.

Pontederia cordata L.

Vaccinium corymbosum

Cephalanthus occidentalis L.

Acer rubrum

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Pinus strobus


CHARLESTON

DOWNSTREAM PROJECT

Area 2

Highway Interstae

vania S GREENW AY

Pennsy l

Delawa

ey St.

Downtown, Haddard Riverfront Park

vard oule

aB

awh

Kan

Tennessee Ave. GREENW AY

Ohaio A ve. GREEN WAY

Berkel

ELK RIVER

re Ave.

Area 2, Magic Island Park, was redesigned as a major destination for recreational activities and ecosystem restoration in Charleston. The park itself will work as a filtration plant for stormwater from the city and water from the Kanawha River. The bioswale and large floodplain restoration areas across the park will absorb and filter water and remove pollutants. The park will provide some recreational activities such as hike and bike trails, beach volleyball courts, a dog park, a playground, an outdoor movie theater, and a gym and a cafe.

34

floating garden

parking

gym & cafe

volleyball courts grand staircase

marina

beach beach

outdoor movie theater great lawn

floating garden

floating garden

oxbow-shaped wetland

temporary floodwall decks

KANAWHA RIVER

FLOOD RESISTANT STRUCTURE TEMPORARY FLOODWALL DECKS


The park is sloped gradually from the Kanawha Boulevard towards the Kanawha River, and the half of the park is occasionally flooded as the water level increases naturally. The natural flood will help the floodplain ecosystem recover. However, the floodwall decks will come up and become a temporary floodwall in the event of the Bluestone dam failure.

Section C-C’ : Normal water level C Bluestone dam failure flood level 600’

590’ 580’

10’

40’

10-15’

30’

10’

70’

5’

35’

hike & bike trail

turf

bio stream

beach

hike & bike trail

floodplain

riverside walk

floodplain

kanawha river

30’ grand staircases

road

road vege baffer bike lane

sidewalk bike lane

20’ temporary floodwall decks

564’ 5’ 5’ 11’ 11’ 5’ 5’

C’

Section C-C’ : Frequent flood level C Bluestone dam failure flood level 600’

590’ 580’

10’

40’

10-15’

30’

10’

70’

5’

35’

hike & bike trail

turf

bio stream

beach(sand)

hike & bike trail

floodplain

riverside walk

floodplain

kanawha river

30’ grand staircases

road vege baffer bike lane

road

sidewalk bike lane

20’ temporary floodwall decks

564’ 5’ 5’ 11’ 11’ 5’ 5’

C’

Section C-C’ : Bluestone Dam failure flood level C Bluestone dam failure flood lelvel 600’

590’ 580’

10’

40’

10-15’

30’

10’

70’

5’

35’

hike & bike trail

turf

bio stream

beach(sand)

hike & bike trail

floodplain

riverside walk

floodplain

kanawha river

30’ grand staircases

road vege baffer bike lane

road

sidewalk bike lane

20’ temporary floodwall decks

564’ 5’ 5’ 11’ 11’ 5’ 5’

C’

35


ECOTONE

rt w e e d

ma

h)

(Buttonb u is tal

alder) oth

edbud)

nR er

st

ea

g e) ed

s is ( E a

e family(S on

er

kerelwee

en ad

ic (P

reed) ur-

m spp.(B niu

ta ( rula Smo er

martwee (S

spp.( S um

s occid en thu an

ia cordata

um spp.

yle

w o rt)

Polygon

Sparga

.(Bulrus

)

Scirpus

s

Polyg

ny

) sh

Ceph al

Alnus

d

spp.(Pe n

36

Hydrocot

Frequent flood level

d)

Cypera c

Ponte

580’

d)

Cercis ca n

590’

p sp

600’ Bluestone dam failure flood level

564’ KANAWHA RIVER

floodplain ecosystem restoration area riverside walk

floodplain ecosystem restoration area

hike &


le) ap .(Burr spp

er

relweed)

s p p. ( A ria

nR

a) ican )

d)

ee

o re m

entalis (syca cid

data (Pic or

w w h ea d llo

(Ulmus am

ke

elm

en ad

er

(suger m um

lawn

American

a

bioswale

P la t a n u s o c

Sagitt

beach

arganium Sp

tederia c )

hike & bike trail

r saccha r ce

P on

s is ( E a

st

& bike trail

Cercis ca n

edbud)

A

grand staircases

temporary floodwall decks bike lane

Kanawha Boulevard

37


CONCLUSIONS

38


MITIGATE THE RISKS OF THE HAZARD Upper stream Community: Blacksburg, VA

The part of the project in Blacksburg, upstream of the Bluestone Dam, could propose a practical stormwater management plan to mitigate the risk of the Dam failure. The guideline for stormwater management in Blacksburg will be able to reduce the impact of the future development to the environment and the risk of the Bluestone dam failure. This guideline also enables the city to save the cost for the development of new infrastructure, as well as enhance aesthetics, community engagement, and wildlife habitat, which will improve the sustainability of the city. This project also proved that LID strategy is a practical tool for flood management for the downstream community, and it is recommended to be applied to city planning more in the future.

RESPONSE TO THE HAZARD

Downstream Community: Charleston The part of the project in Charleston, downstream of the Bluestone Dam, could propose a planning and design to be able to respond to a Bluestone dam failure. It suggested that the flood resistant riverfront design from landscape architectural view will bring various benefits to the community. It would not only protect the community from flooding, but also enhance the environment, culture, economic, and quality of life as a river friendly city. However, the cost for the development, especially for the floodwall structure, will be one of the issues in this project. The cost would be less expensive than the total cost from the possible dam failure, and the benefits brought by the development will enhance the sustainability of the city. This project suggested the potential of landscape architecture that could play a great role to enhance the planning and designs in the field of disaster management, and it is recommended landscape architects to take part in the process of the disaster management more in the future.

39


40

Final Project - Landscape Architecture + Disaster?  

Landscape Planning and design for Natural Disaster Mitigation and Response from a design simulation of the Bluestone Dam failure

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