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Mana Pools

The last wilderness area in Zimbabwe

Famars Leonardo The Pinnacle of Functional Art The Double Falling Block Rifle

Make a Plan

African trypanosomiasis the Sleep of death

Your vehicle is stuck and your battery is flat ...


Published by Safari Media Africa Editors

United States of America

Editor: Alan Bunn editorusa@africanxmag.com Associate editor: Galen Geer ggeer@africanxmag.com


Editor: Hans Jochen Wild editoreurope@africanxmag.com


Editor: Mitch Mitchell editorafrica@africanxmag.com

Financial Thea Mitchell Layout & Design Xtasis Media and Digital Wind Contributors & Photographers A. Bunn, C. Cheney, D. Edgcumbe, G. Geer, L. Grizzaffi (Reloading), Dr. K. Hugo (Medical) D. Hulme, C. Mitchell, Dr. G. Swart (Medical) Advertising and Marketing South Africa: T. Mitchell adssa@africanxmag.com Phone +27 13-7125246 Fax 0866104466 USA: Alan Bunn adsusa@africanxmag.com (706) 2762608 African Expedition Magazine is an independent bimonthly publication promoting fair, sustainable hunting, a protected environment and adventure sports in Africa. The African Expedition Magazine is published by Safari Media Africa

Disclaimer While all precautions have been taken to ensure the accuracy of advice and information provided, the Proprietor, Publisher, Editor, or Writers cannot accept responsibility for any damages, inconvenience or injury whatsoever that may result from incorrect information. The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher or its agents. African Expedition Magazine assumes no responsibility to return graphics unsolicited editorial, or other material. All rights in unsolicited editorial, letters, emails, graphics and other material will be treated as unconditionally assigned for publication and copyright purposes and material will be subject to African Expedition Magazine’s unrestricted right to edit and editorial comment. All material and/or editorial in African Expedition is the property of African Expedition and/or the various contributors. No part of this magazine may be reproduced without the prior written consent of the Publisher.


9 Mana Pools The last wilderness area in Zimba-


24 Famars Leonardo The Pinnacle of Functional Art

31 African trypanosomiasis the Sleep of death

38 African hunters of yesteryear Hunting Elephants in Africa Captain C. H. Stigand

62 The Double Falling Block Rifle 78 Africa - the good news The good news from Africa

94 Make a Plan

Your vehicle is stuck and your battery is flat ...

99 True North

The Worst of All Possible Reactions


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Mana Pools

Mitch Mitchell

The last wilderness area in Zimbabwe


he smell was overpowering. It was the sweet, rotten smell of old death. It coated the back of our throats and clung to our clothes. The crocodile was 5 meters of cold, reptilian instinct, grown powerful and fat from the unwary animals and humans that came to the Zambezi to drink and fish. The twin cockscomb of the thick, scaled tail was above our heads. Green algae grew on the scales, adding to the already formidable camouflage. It followed us with cold, yellow eyes The croc was sunning on the embankment and we were on eye level with the predatory dinosaur, nervously and slowly paddling a rented canoe only 3 meters away - and us in the water, his primary domain. If one of us splashed or fell into the water, our adventure would end in tragedy. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 9


We were on our 7th annual adventure, 12 men looking for their wild hearts in the last wild places of Africa. Our group consisted 3 Doctors (we were playing it safe), a chartered accountant to keep a tab on the expenses, a city management executive to manage the camp and other businessmen.

Preparations We went prepared: Bug suits from Cabelas, spears for toothed nighttime visitors, extreme cold weather (in the African sense) clothing, knives, high-power flashlights, tents, sleeping rolls and beanies and biltong. We had highlift jacks, tyre repair sets, spare fan belts. We had 12V pumps to pump water from the Zambezi to minimize our visit to the river to get water because of the crocs. We heard that tsetse flies (which cause sleeping sickness) were a problem, (see http://www.cdc.gov/ parasites/sleepingsickness/gen_info/faqs-east.html) so one of the doctors imported RID from Australia. http://www.rid.com.au/. It was supposedly the only product that kept the tsetse flies away. We found the tsetses - or rather, they found us. Their bites are like a wasp sting. Tsetse flies are extremely tough and difficult to kill. They close in on movement and prefer blue for some reason. See the article on African trypanosomiasis in this issue by one of the doctors who accompanied us on the trip.

Costs The budget for our whole trip was about R3,000 (US$ 450) per person for 10 days, everything included. Not bad at all - R300 per day in a pristine wilderness area.

Vehicles The Zimbabwe Government Gazette states that no person shall drive a vehicle in Zimbabwe unless: ●● it is considered roadworthy ●● equipped with a fire extinguisher ●● 2 x red warning triangles ●● a serviceable spare wheel ●● an efficient jack ●● a wheel spanner capable of undoing the vehicle’s wheel nuts ●● We also took a reflective jacket for each driver based on what we heard

Breakdown Triangles: Two reflective breakdown triangles per vehicle and with serial numbers, name of manufacturer and year of manufacture and conforming to Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ) standards will be mandatory. A pair is also required for each trailer. These must be placed one in front and one at the rear of a vehicle (30 to 50m) when it is stationery on any road at a place not designated for stopping. Fire Extinguishers: All vehicles to carry an appropriate and SAZ approved fire extinguisher in the CAB of the vehicle – Light vehicles (750g) and heavy vehicles (1,5kg). Every fire extinguisher shall be of a type and make approved by the Standards Association of Zimbabwe, which approval shall be visibly marked on the fire extinguisher, and secured at an easily accessible and visible position within the cab of such vehicle.” Reflectors: White reflectors in front, red reflectors at the rear. T-Stickers: If you are using a trailer, there seems to also be a requirement for T-stickers: a white T on black background for the front and a red T on black a background for the front.

Driving there Our three 4x4 vehicles met at Gateway (S25 27.252 E30 56.178) near Nelspruit in Mpumalanga in the chilly pre-dawn and started out for Beit Bridge500 kilometers away. We got there at about 12:00 and spent 2 hours trying to get through on the Zimbabwean side. Not fun. We reached our stopover at a Masvingo camping site (S20 04.014 E30 50.339) at about 8:00. Facilities were basic. We left just after 5 in the next morning. After getting lost in Harare and a $15 speed fine we were on our way at 9:48. We were stopped near Chinhoyi because of an army route march on the public road. All traffic was brought to a complete standstill and we waited until the surly recruits passed. The look in their eyes did not give me much hope for Zimbabwe. We booked in at Morongara (S16 13.370 E29 09.685) at 2:06 and were welcomed by friendly staff. At the turnoff to Mana Pools (S16 11.448 E29 09.724) we were warned about the bad roads, let our tires down to 1 bar and took the road to the second gate (S16 03.360 E29 24.550) which we reached at 4:14. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 11




Once through, we were in. We reached Mana Pools reception (S15 43.415 E29 21.657) at 5:28.

They began competing who could catch the smallest fish and records were broken daily.

We were one day early and pitched our temporary camp near the basic ablutions. Some of us even had warm water for a shower.

Which brings us to our standoff with the crocodile.

It was not long before we saw the first hyena.

The four pools We moved early the next day to BBC camp only to discover that the old BBC camp had been separated from the park by a new channel. We were directed to the new BBC camp 356 m above sea level at S15 43.667 E29 21.235. Both entries to new BBC camp had No Entry signs up and we were constantly reminded by officials that we were using an unauthorized road. Africa – you’ve got to love her.

Game The reports we had before we went was that Mana Pools was a game viewer’s paradise. It turned out to be true – to a certain extent. Chobe and Moremi have larger varieties of species and numbers - and of course Hwange is the king of elephant parks. Some of the exceptional sightings were an 80+ herd of eland and a cheetah catching a small warthog. Walking along the waters’ edge is allowed, and an afternoon stroll on the banks of the Zambezi is quite pleasant.

Fishing I could never get it. You put something on the line, chuck it into the water and wait and wait. The fish never seem to bite in fresh water with me. At Mana, the secret obsessions of our friends were revealed. It was tiger fever, and the avid fishermen got a fishing license each at $20 from reception. What followed was an embarrassing tale of unfounded optimism, reckless commitment and fruitless expense. While live earthworms were on sale next to the road as we approached Kariba and the river, it seemed to not be enough. Obscure references were made to various types of Rapalas and live bait - which us non-fishermen took to be Impala. It turned out to be a live small fish with a hook through the back and left to attract bigger predators. At every opportunity these incorrigible optimists had their hooks in the water – all to very little avail. The only sizable tiger was caught by Wynand, the youngest member of our party.

The fishermen wanted to improve their chances and fish on the islands in the river, for which purpose we rented canoes. Although doctors are normally reasonably intelligent people, they cannot grasp the fact that a vague understanding of the function of the human digestive system does not necessarily translate to knowledge of African animal behavior. So it was that we were in flimsy canoes right on top of hippos – who are the most prolific killer of humans in Africa – and next to man-eating crocodiles. It was dangerous and unwise.

Coming back We decided to come back to South Africa in one shot – a 24-hour drive broken into 2-hour shifts for each driver. The only incident on the way back was near Masvingo while it was my turn to drive. We were in convoy with my vehicle in front. I spotted a laden yellow pickup coming towards me when the sparks started to fly – literally. I saw the rear wheel and sideshaft separate from the axle. In a split second the 1.5 meter solid steel sideshaft, still attached to the wheel sped toward us at 200 kilometers per hour. I braced my hands on the steering wheel as it hit us. Had the sideshaft bounced more, it could have decapitated me or impaled one of us. If we went over it, the possibility of losing control of the vehicle and a head-on collision with oncoming traffic was possible. Instead, the tire hit and demolished the bumper while at the same time the shaft hit the right front magnesium rim and crushed it. The impact threw the wheel and shaft high into the air and safely into the bush. You had better believe it that this is how you are protected when you pray. In conclusion, it was a great trip. Even with the poor facilities, Mana Pools is one of the last great wilderness areas in Southern Africa and worth visiting.

History and overview Establishment ●● 1952: Much of the area protected as a nonhunting area; JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 15

The view from Vundu Point


●● 1963: Mana Pools Game Reserve established; ●● 1964: Chewore, Sapi and Urungwe Safari Areas designated; 1968: Dande Safari Area designated; ●● 1975: The National Park established and made public under the Parks and Wildlife Act.

Physical Features The Mana Pools lie in the wide floodplain of the Zambezi river under high escarpment cliffs. They are former channels of the Zambezi which lie in a broad sandy valley 110 km downstream from the Kariba Dam little modified by man. There are four main pools: Main, Chine, Long and Chisambuk. The Safari Areas lie along the lower Zambezi nearer the Mozambique border (except for Dande and Doma which are inland). Their hinterlands include large areas of the rugged Zambezi escarpment, which rises 1,000m from the valley floor. The geology of the region ranges from the ancient gneiss and paragneiss overlain by the lithosols of the basement complex of the escarpment to the Karoo sandstones and recent river alluvium of the valley. Much of Chewore is heavily dissected, with the 30 km long Mupata Gorge along its northern boundary. The soils are sandy except for the river bottom alluvium.

Climate The mean annual rainfall is 700mm, falling mainly in summer. The mean annual temperature is 25°C.

Vegetation Some 463 species have been recorded, including 106 grasses (DNPWM, 2000). Well-grassed Brachystegia communities dominate the mountainous escarpment and higher Chewore areas. The valley floor is dominated by mopane Colophospermum mopane woodlands or dry deciduous thickets known as jesse bush of a mixed species layered dry forest. Seasonal tributaries crossing the valley floor support extensive riparian communities differing in character from the floodplain vegetation. On the younger sandier alluvial deposits along the Zambezi are well-developed though dwindling tracts of winterthorn Faidherbia albida, a useful source of fodder with more diverse woodlands containing JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 17


sausage tree Kigelia africana and Natal mahogany Trichilia emetica on the higher levee deposits or old islands.

Cultural Heritage Iron Age sites have been investigated in the area and J. White (1971) has written on the history and customs of the Urungwe district. ‘Mana’ means four pools.

Local Population There is virtually no permanent human habitation because of the presence of an array of tropical diseases including sleeping sickness, bilharzia, and malaria, but the main road between Harare and Lusaka with its associated settlements passes near the area.

Visitors and Facilities Between 1995 and 2000 tourist numbers averaged 10,000 a year (DNPWM, 2000). but current conditions in the country have reduced tourism. Visitor movements are strictly confined and they are allowed to walk only in the Park’s riparian woodlands. During the wet season the area is virtually closed and the only effective way to see it is by canoe, and several canoe safaris are available. During the dry season visitors here experience some of the highest concentrations of game in Africa and the greatest of all seasonal aggregations of wild mammals along the Zambezi river. There is high quality recreational hunting, game fishing and exceptional wildlife viewing which are all managed so as not to impair these resources or the wilderness. Mana Pools is only partially developed as a tourist centre, but is so popular that the available facilities can become overcrowded. The number of cars allowed into the National Park at one time is limited. There are tourist lodges at Rukumeche in the west and at Chikwenya at the confluence of the Sapi and Zambezi Rivers and tourist and hunting camps, but no tarred roads. The nearest airport is at Kariba, 150 km southwest.

Conservation Value Escarpment cliffs overhanging an almost pristine riverine flood-plain and sandbanks harbour a remarkable density of wild animals including elephants, hippotamus, leopards, cheetahs, buffaloes and large numbers of Nile crocodiles and birds. The Parks lie within a WWF Global 200 Eco-region.

Conservation Management Fully protected, but strictly controlled recreational hunting is permitted in the safari areas by the draft management plan. Chewore and Sapi are eventually to become National Parks. The five areas are zoned into: one Special Conservation Area with no development and entry only for scientific purposes; two Wilderness Areas of sufficient size to contain the complete biota of the locality and with few signs of human occupation; four Wild Areas serviced by roads and tracks, but where the fauna and flora are paramount; and Development Areas for visitor, management and administrative facilities. Hunting rights in Sapi, Chewore and part of Urungwe Safari Areas are divided into lots which are sold by auction on an annual basis. In the rest of Urungwe they are sold to a local hunting association, and in Dande they are leased to a safari company. The Zambezi water level, fisheries, animal populations, birdlife, dwindling winterthorn forest and tourist numbers are monitored annually by the research staff of the DNPWM.

Management Constraints Natural seasonal flooding of low-lying areas was seriously curtailed by the completion of Kariba Dam in 1958. In 1989, oil exploration was proposed in the reserves using trace line roads which would result in erosion, industrial littering and improved access for poachers. International publicity temporarily averted this threat. The ecological heart of the area, the rich floodplain, has been further threatened by a hydroelectric scheme proposed for Mapata Gorge which would create an 85,000 hectare lake, obliterating much of the Zambezi valley and halving the carrying capacity of Mana Pools. An environmental assessment has been completed. When the property was listed in 1984, it contained about 500 black rhinoceros, the largest endemic population of these animals in Africa. But this was almost destroyed by well organised foreign poachers, chiefly from across the river in Zambia who killed many rangers. To help control the problem it was suggested in 1987 that the site be listed in danger and that Lower Zambezi National Park in Zambia be added to the World Heritage site. But at the end of 1994 the last ten rhino were captured and translocated to an intensive protection zone in another part of Zimbabwe.


The Parks map sold for $2 20 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011



Habitat destruction by elephants, poaching of elephants and fish are also problems, and conditions in the country have led to much destruction of wildlife during the past two years (David Shepherd Wildlife Foundation, 2003) The main road (gated) between Harare and Lusaka with associated settlements passes through the area and there is a private estate on the Zambezi near Chirundu. The land is sandy, of limited agricultural potential and has never been used extensively for livestock owing to tsetse fly infestation; Mana Pools have until recently been remote enough to be relatively unaffected except for the increasing numbers of tourists which create the need for more facilities, especially for litter control. However, a group of farmers, businessmen and companies recently publicised the Chirundu Project, a 100,000 ha agricultural development approximately 100 km long x 10 km wide, proposed for the World Heritage area in 2005. The area under immediate consideration totalled 67,660 sq,km, including the construction of 600 low-cost houses. According to the Zimbabwe Conservation Development Foundation, this would result in serious degradation and the loss of potential tourism revenue; and farming subject to malaria, sleeping sickness and bilharzia would prove unprofitable (ZCDF, 2005). A temporary stop was placed on the proposal in mid 2005 (Zimbabwe Watch, 2005). In 2008 prospecting for copper, gold and uranium on land in Zambia adjoining tributaries to the Zambezi became known, including a reported ‘world class’ open-pit copper mine. Eight national and international mining companies, among them Rio Tinto, are interested in developing the prospects. The resulting pollution by uranium and other mineral wastes could potentially contaminate the almost pristine valley, threatening its value as a World Heritage site. A proposal for hotel development on the same bank was made at the time but withdrawn (UNESCO,2010).

Mitch Mitchell is a hunter, outdoorsman and the author of several books on African wildlife and survival.


Famars Leon The Pinnacle of Functional Art




Patrick Jackson

t was a beautiful day on Saturday at the Southern Side by Side Classic in Raleigh, North Carolina. I had the pleasure of meeting Cristina Abbiatico and Paul Mihailides, the President and Chairman of FAMARS srl, the largest best gun maker in the world who was displaying at the event. She explained to me that they had just launched their newest expansion with a U.S.-based operation, FAMARS USA. The company was at the 5-stand offering trials of the Leonardo, the latest model released by this Italian best gun maker. My initial reaction was that the lines of this gun were elegant and its fit and finish were stunning in the light. The gun was quite balanced but the profile is noticeably more shallow than its competition Holland & Holland and Purdey. When I shouldered the gun and pointed, the sight plane was as if I was looking down a side-byside with a perfect field of view. While I only fired 8 rounds, the gun fired flawlessly and only dropped one target – hardly the gun’s fault. Upon my inspection of the barrels and receiver, I observed a most elegant lock up and perfect fit and finish. I decided to take the forearm and barrels off and observed that the shotgun uses a Boss woodward locking system. But this locking system is different than what I am used to seeing. It is Famars newest design addition. The barrel lock up is not only hinged like traditional systems but there are two interlocking lugs on the inside of the receiver seat. The Leonardo can also be fit with barrels up to 500 nitro. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 25


The Leonardo is familiar to a preceding Famars model called the Sovereign but with noticeable improvements that make this model quite special. The Leonardo is 1 mm wider and has a shallower receiver depth any other O/U I have seen. The armament lever is straight back and positive, instead of the trajectory being angled off. Because of its angulations, the recoil is manageable and this gun is a pleasure to shoot. The ejector system is modified for improved reliability and the triggers are a mechanical design, a wise improvement over the inertia triggers of the Sovereign. Overall, the Leonardo is a delightful, well-appointed gun that creates a new standard in the world of best guns. The model has been produced in 12 and 20 gauge and will be available in the fall in 28 and 410 gauge. A 12 gauge weighs in at 7 lb 7 oz.

Currently in production is a titanium model with 30” barrels and 15” LOP that will weigh 37% less than the steel model. The titanium model – with Titanium frame, sidelocks, and forend iron – could actually weigh as little as 5 lbs. in 20 gauge. The Leonardo is available in all gauges, with single or double triggers, and each model uses a pinless sidelock hand engraved by Il Bulino’s best engravers. The gun, if ever disassembled, is also engraved on the inside with every attention to detail internally as well. Every part of the Leonardo is best quality, no exception, from the locking mechanism to the chopper lump barrels to the exquisite exhibition grade Turkish walnut of the stock. The limited production of only 75 guns surely makes the Leonardo a must have for any serious gun collector. With a price tag of 95,000USD, this stunning limited edition model will surely hold its value through time. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 27



African trypa




Sleep of


Dr. Gerhard Swart Human African trypanosomiasis - also called sleeping sickness - is a parasitic disease of people and animals, caused by the microscopic parasite Trypanosoma brucei and transmitted by the tsetse fly. The disease is endemic in some regions of sub-Saharan Africa, covering about 37 countries and 60 million people. It is estimated that 50,000 to 70,000 people are currently infected. In 2009 the amount of reported cases was below 10,000 the first time in 50 years. Many cases go unreported and it is estimated that about 48,000 people died of it in 2008.Approximately 10 000 cases are reported to the World Health organisation every year In Recent history four major epidemics have occurred: one from 1896–1906 primarily in Uganda and the Congo Basin, two epidemics in 1920 and 1970 in several African countries, and a recent 2008 epidemic in Uganda. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 31


Tsetse have a distinct proboscis, a long thin structure attached to the bottom of the head and pointing forward.

Folded wings

When at rest, tsetse fold their wings completely one on top of the other

Hatchet cell

The discal medial (“middle�) cell of the wing has a characteristic hatchet shape resembling a meat cleaver or a hatchet

Branched arista hairs

The antennae have arista with hairs which are themselves branched


African trypanosomiasis should be distinguished from Chagas disease which is transmitted by the triatomine bug found in the Americas.

The Tsetse fly The word ‘tsetse’ comes from Tswana, a language of southern Africa, and, in that language, the word means fly. Tsetse flies are crudely similar to other large flies, such as the housefly, but can be distinguished by various characteristics of their anatomy, two of which are easy to observe. Tsetse flies fold their wings completely when they are resting so that one wing rests directly on top of the other over their abdomen. Tsetse’s also have a long proboscis, which extends directly forward and is attached by a distinct bulb to the bottom of their head. They are attracted to dark colors, especially blue and black and most tsetse flies are physically very tough. Houseflies are easily killed with a fly-swatter but it takes a great deal of effort to crush a tsetse fly. Four characteristics definitively separate adult tsetse from other kinds of flies:

Signs and symptoms There are two forms of African sleeping sickness, caused by two different parasites: ●● Trypanosoma brucei gambiense , which causes a chronic infection lasting years and affecting countries of western and central Africa (Gambian trypanosomiasis) ●● Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense , which causes acute illness lasting several weeks in countries of eastern and southern Africa (Rhodesian trypanosomiasis) In Gambian trypanosomiasis , Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is transmitted by tsetse flies of the riverine bush, mainly in focal areas of West and Central Africa. Man is the only important reservoir for T.b. gambiense, which cause a chronic lesion often lasting more than a year. In Rhodesian trypanosomiasis, T.b rhodesiense is transmitted by tsetse flies of the woodland savanna of East Africa. Antelope, other game animals and domestic cattle are natural reservoirs of T.b rhodesiense. Incidental infection of man is an occupational hazard of game wardens, fisherman and cattle herders. T.b rhodesiense causes a disabling, acute, fulminant infection in man, killing the patient in 3 to 6 months. After the bite of an infected Tsetse fly, a firm, tender,

reddened nodule may develop in a matter of a few days at the site of the bite. The ulcerated nodule, or “trypanosomal chancre”, is accompanied by swollen and painful glands that lasts 1or 2 weeks. This is followed within 1 to 5 weeks by the onset of fever, sweating, general malaise and a generalized lymphadenitis often involving primarily the glands at the back of the neck. Also called the Winterbottom’s sign, If left untreated, the disease overcomes the host’s defenses and can cause more extensive damage, broadening symptoms to include anemia, endocrine, cardiac, and kidney dysfunctions. Frequently there are transient skin eruptions characterized by erythema or edema. These symptoms and signs may progress to the 2nd stage called the neurological phase. This phase begins when the parasite invades the central nervous system by passing through the blood-brain barrier. The term ‘sleeping sickness’ comes from the symptoms of the neurological phase. The symptoms include confusion, reduced coordination, and disruption of the sleep cycle, with bouts of fatigue punctuated with manic periods leading to daytime slumber and night-time insomnia. Without treatment, the disease is invariably fatal, with progressive mental deterioration leading to coma and death. Damage caused in the neurological phase is irreversible. Although there is much overlap between the clinical manifestation of T. brucei gambiense (West African sleeping disease) and T. brucei rhodesiense (East African sleeping disease) infections , the latter usually follows a much more acute course. Untreated persons with T. brucei rhodesiense infection frequently die within 3 to 6 months after onset of the disease. Only rarely does the victim survive long enough for the trypanosome to invade the central nervous system and produce lesions characteristic of the third stage of T. brucei gambiense infection. The neurologic symptoms and signs, when present are similar to those of gambian trypanosomiasis. Gambian trypanosomiasis is characteristically a chronic disease. When untreated, trypanosomiasis gives no respite from suffering and ultimately ends in death. In addition to the bite of the tsetse fly, the disease can be transmitted in the following ways: ●● Mother to child infection: the trypanosome can sometimes cross the placenta and infect the fetus. ●● Laboratories: accidental infections, for exJUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 33

Life cycle of the Trypanosoma brucei parasites. Source: CDC


ample, through the handling of blood of an infected person and organ transplantation, although this is uncommon. ●● Blood transfusion ●● Sexual contact (This may be possible)

Life cycle The tsetse fly (genus Glossina) is a large, brown biting fly that serves as both a host and vector for the Trypanosome parasites. A tsetse fly becomes infected with bloodstream trypomastigotes when taking a blood meal on an infected animal or human host. In the fly’s midgut, the parasites transform into procyclic trypomastigotes, multiply, leave the midgut, and transform into epimastigotes. The epimastigotes reach the fly’s salivary glands and continue multiplication.. While taking blood from an animal or human host, an infected tsetse fly injects metacyclic trypomastigotes into skin tissue. From the bite, parasites first enter the lymphatic system and then pass into the bloodstream. Inside the host, they transform into bloodstream trypomastigotes, and are carried to other sites throughout the body, reach other blood fluids (e.g., lymph, spinal fluid), and continue to replicate. The entire life cycle in the fly takes approximately 3 weeks.

Diagnosis The simplest diagnostic test is the demonstration of the trypanosomes in the circulating blood during a febrile episode by microscopic examination of the blood. Lymph node aspirations may also be useful for the identification of the parasite. Examination of the cerebrospinal fluid reveals trypanosomes as the disease progresses and may serve as an index of the course of the disease. Serological testing can be used as a screening diagnostic test. This includes identification of antibodies directed against the parasite.

Treatment The key drugs used for therapy of African trypanosomiasis are ●● pentamidine, for chemoprophylaxis. ●● suramin, for the treatment of the early disease in which trypanosomes are found in the blood, lymph, and lymph nodes .

●● melarsoprol, for the later disease in which trypanosomes are located in the brain.

Control The most effective approach for controlling sleeping sickness has three parts: ●● Mobile medical surveillance of the population at risk by specialized staff using the most effective diagnostic tools (serology and parasitology) available. Patients are sent to specific referral centres for determination of the stage of the disease and treatment, and for posttherapeutic follow-up ●● Fixed post medical surveillance delivered at dispensaries, health centres or hospitals where blood samples are taken and analyzed at reference centres. All patients or suspected cases are sent to special centres for confirmation of diagnosis, determination of the stage of the disease and treatment, and for post-therapeutic follow-up ●● Vector (Glossina ) control using screens and traps: simple, cheap and ecologically acceptable methods. ●● Slaughter of wild animals (Removing the host of the parasite) ●● Land clearing (Removing the habitat of the fly) ●● Pesticide campaigns ●● Trapping ●● Releases of irradiated males

History The earliest recorded account of sleeping sickness comes from upper Niger during the 14th century in the historical writings of Ibn Khaldoun, who wrote about the disease in his account of the history of North Africa . The next report came from Guinea in 1734 (Atkins, 1978). In 1803, the diseases that caused visible swollen lymph glands in West Africa came to be known as Winterbottom’s sign, after the description of the disease by Winterbottom. Such signs were readily

Sir David Bruce



recognized by slave traders who avoided trading and buying slaves who displayed those symptoms. The earliest detection of trypanosomes in human blood was in 1902, when R.M. Forde discovered what was then thought to be filiaria in the blood of a steamboat captain who had traveled extensively along the River Gambia. Similar discoveries of filiaria-like organisms in the blood were made by J.H. Cook in East Africa, but confusion arose as to how filiaria worms could cause such varying clinical symptoms. It was J.E. Dutton who, during a visit to Gambia, first correctly identified the parasite as a trypanosome and subsequently named it Trypanosoma gambiense . In 1902, A. Castellani observed the presence of trypanosomes in cerebrospinal fluid taken from a sleeping sickness patient, but it wasn’t until 1903 that D. Bruce correctly recognized that trypanosomes were the causative agents of sleeping sickness transmitted to humans by tsetse flies, and that “trypanosome fever” and “sleeping sickness” - both thought to be different diseases at the time were in fact the same. Morphologically indistinguishable from the West African species as well as the animal infecting

species Trypanosoma brucei brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodensiense was first discovered in Zambia by J.W.W. Stephens and H.B. Fantham in 1910. By 1926, T.b. rhodensiense could be found along the fly-belt between Tabora and Kigoma, Tanzania . The difficulties in identifying this virulent form of sleeping sickness lead to uncertainties today regarding the evolution and progression of T.b. rhodensiense through the continent, although it is generally agreed upon that it originated from the West African form. The earliest recorded major epidemics of sleeping sickness took place in Uganda and Congo between 1896 and 1908, where roughly 500,000 people were estimated to have died in the Congo Basin, and approximately 300,000 died in Busoga, Uganda . With the Rift Valley transecting the country, Uganda is in the precarious position of having foci of both forms of diseases which resulted in two other major epidemics of sleeping sickness - one in the late 1940’s and another in 1980. Throughout West Africa, smaller epidemics of sleeping sickness rapidly spread from Senegal to Cameroon during the 1920’s, and died down by the late 1940’s.

Dr. Swart has been involved in Communicable disease control since 2004 and is an authority on Malaria, tropical and infectious diseases in Africa. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 37

African hunters of yesteryear

The African hunters of days gone by have had experiences few hunters have today. In those days, the game was much more plentiful and regulations were non-existent. Hunting was more dangerous in those days - no chopper evacuation when clawed up by a wounded leopard and no protection against marauding tribesmen. We can learn something from them. In this series, we feature some of the writings of the hunters that came before us and who hunted in an era we think of with nostalgia. 38 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011

Hunting Elephants in Africa Captain C. H. Stigand T

here is something so fascinating and absorbing about elephant hunting that those who have done much of it can seldom take any interest again in any other form of sport. It seems so vastly superior to all other big game shooting that, once they have surrendered themselves to its charms, they cannot even treat any other form of hunting seriously. Everything else seems little and insignificant by comparison. The lot of the elephant hunter is now a hard one. Girt about on all sides with exorbitant and restrictive licenses, and with most of the elephant now driven into unhealthy and impenetrable country, he must needs be an enthusiast who would become a devotee of this sport. Sometimes when struggling waist deep through a swamp or forcing a way through tall grass and noxious vegetation reaching far above his head, with a blazing sun and in a fever-stricken locality, after having paid ÂŁ50 for a license to shoot two elephant, he must think bitterly on the accident of birth which brought him some fifty years too late into this world. He would hardly be human if he did not think with envy of those who had been able to shoot an unlimited numiber on no license in a gloriously healthy climate, and moreover in country so open that the piursuit could sometimes be carried out on horseback. There is one thing, however, for which the modem hunter has to be thankful, and that is the accuracy, lightness, and power of his weapon; in all others he is handicapped. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 39

In the early days in the East African Highlands things must have been much the same as in the old days in South Africa, except that the healthier parts were never so famed for elephant as the more tropical and unhealthier climes of Uganda and the low country to the north. The late A. H. Newmann must have had a glorious time in the Meru country and the Highlands north of Laikipia, the latter a place in which elephant are seldom met with now. The difficult and forbidding country about Lake Rudolf is at least open and absolutely devoid of vegetation. The accounts of how elephant were met with day after day in perfectly open country by Count Teleki in his discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stephanie, a country which is now almost elephantless, read almost like a fairy tale to modem hunters. I have never met elephant in such open country as this, but, coming as I do amongst latter-day hunters, I have perhaps little to grumble about, as I have often found them in quite favorable localities where it is possible to move about easily. In another forty or fifty years perhaps it will sound equally like a fairy tale, that elephant could ever offer a dear and open shot at a hundred yards’ range. The only place in which I have come across elephant in a cold and temperate climate is on the Aberdare range, and there it is often too cold to be pleasant. Owing to the thickness of the vegetation, the scarcity of shootable bulls, and other circumstances I was not successful. The first time I visited these hills was in 1906 in company with a brother officer, Captain Olivier. The elephant appeared to consist chiefly of herds of females and young and had a sufficiently bad reputation. Shortly before, a hunter had had his arm broken by being flung aside by an elephant, whilst others had spent unpleasant moments with them. We decided to be very careful and cautious; so when we located a herd on the lower slopes we spent some time investigating them, and trying to spot a bull from a safe distance. They were screaming and trumpeting, a sign that they were chiefly females and young. They moved along the lower slopes inside the bush belt rapidly, and where they had crossed the numerous watercourses coming down from the mountain they had pushed aside bushes and branches which had closed again over their path. In such places as these it was often necessary to crawl on hands and knees to pass the obstructions. Finally they moved up into the hills and started grazing, and we were not able to get a good look at them. The wind was bad, and we manoeuvred about for 40 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011

some time without seeing them, being only aware of their presence by the sounds of breaking branches. As they appeared to be slowly coming down the hill again, we decided to wait till they reached a spot in which the bushes were shorter and where we would have a better opportunity of being able to locate a bull if there was one with the herd. When one has a license only permitting the shooting of two elephants, one has to be very wary in approaching big herds in thick country, and cannot afford to run the risk of being charged by or shooting a female or small bull Whilst we were waiting, sleet began to fall, and we took refuge under a big shrub. The sleet presently turned to hail, and we cowered under our shelter. Meanwhile we heard the elephant breaking branches and feeding uninterruptedly a short distance away. During the storm an elephant with about 30 or 40 pound tusks appeared not 40 yards from us down wind and apparently quite unconcerned at the sleet. We tried to shoot him, but we could hardly see for hail, and it is a difficult matter shooting with another man when always accustomed to shoot by oneself. We each put a shot into him, but between us winged him. He turned and raced to the edge of a steep nullah about a hundred yards off, and appeared to fall over the edge. We ran out from our retreat, but at that moment the hail redoubled in intensity, and came down the size of small marbles, so that we were absolutely unable to stand up to it. With one accord we turned and fled to a tree dose by, and pressed our- selves against the trunk. The hail continued for about an hour, we were bitterly cold, the altitude was 8000 feet, and we were only dressed in the usual hunting shirt and shorts. I got a fit of ague and my teeth chattered so that I could not speak. While in this condition I peered round the trunk of our tree, and there, close to where the elephant had been I saw two rhino standing and calmly surveying the scene. The noise of the hail on the trees and ground, and the chattering of my teeth prevented my being able to tell Olivier of my discovery, but I nudged him and he peered round and saw what I was trying to tell him. I fired, and one of them dropped on his knees; when trying to reload, — I was shooting with a Mannlicher, — a big hailstone got into the breech and jammed it. Olivier finished him off with a shot, whilst the second one turned and ran off. Soon after this the hail stopped and we went to look at the place where we had last seen the elephant. We found that he had fallen, picked himself up again, and made off. The ground was so thickly carpeted with hail since he had

passed that it was almost impossible to follow his spoor, and we were so cold and miserable that we abandoned it, and returned to camp. Next day we went to take up the tracks; the hail had melted to a certain extent, although still lying thick in the shade. The whole herd of about 40 animals had, however, passed over the spoor of the bull whilst the ground was wet and slippery, and had cut it up to such an extent that the original spoor was effectually obliterated. We stopped a day or two longer in the vicinity and saw a herd again but could not find a shootable male in it. On another occasion we saw an elephant on an opposite hill. After marking down the position we spent an immense time pushing through a tangle of vegetation, and when we at last reached the spot we found that he had moved on, and we were not able to catch him up. A few months later I was surveying in the same neighbourhood, and after a fortnight’s work decided that I was due for two off days at the rate of one Simday per week. I got hold of two Kikuyu who knew the hills well, it being their trade to look for honey and take it down to sell in the villages on the east side of the range. I also took three porters to carry a waterproof sheet, a blanket, and a canteen for me. One of these porters was an old man, who, according to his own account, was so well fitted out with charms and spells that he could tackle any dangerous beast with impunity and move amongst them unharmed. I was told that if a lion was lying here and another there, two spots about five yards apart being indicated, he could come and sleep between them and continue on his way next day unmoved. The honey-hunters led us by elephant paths up the hills till we reached the bamboo forest. The whole mountain is covered with a network of these paths and the back of practically every spur, ridge, and col is crowned by an elephant road following its highest part. In places we met salt licks, either banks of red earth or old white ant-hills, on which could be seen the tusk marks of elephant who had come to break off lumps of the salt earth. All these marks, however, were of females or young and there were no impressions of big tuskers. We had just descended a steep bamboo-covered hillside, crossed a mountain torrent, and were slowly climbing the steep opposite side of the valley when we heard a noise from the slope behind us. On looking back we at first only saw the bamboo moving by some unseen agency. Every now and again there

would be a trembling in a clump of trees and the top of a stem would bend over and disappear with a cracking sound. On looking through my glasses I could distinguish here and there a black trunk soaring upwards to reach for a high branch, and occasionally a glimpse of part of a black body between the bamboo dumps. After watching for some time I made out what I took to be three bulls on the right of the herd. Knowing that I should not, in all probability, get another sight of them, once I left my vantage on the hillside, I took careful stock of their position and of any big trees on the way to serve as landmarks. Then I descended to the bottom of the valley again, crossed the stream, and began the steep toil up the slope. When I finally arrived at the spot at which I had seen them there was nothing but their spoor left; the whole herd had moved on and there was not even the noise pi cracking bamboo to be heard. I followed the spoor a little way, and, as I could see or hear nothing of them, I returned to the porters and arranged a site for our camp. Having done this I went after the elephant again, taking the Kikuyus with me, and we came up with them about sunset, busily feeding in a valley covered with bamboo forest. It was too late now to try and find where the males were, so we left them and returned to camp. The waterproof sheet was pitched on the side of the hill in the middle of the elephant path, there being no flat spot in which to put it and indeed no other place clear enough. I brewed myself some cocoa, which was very comforting, for the night was chilly, and we were at an altitude of about ten thousand feet. The rest of the repast consisted of cold meat, biscuits, and some honey the Kikuyu had found during the day. After rolling myself in my blanket and making myself as comfortable as I could on the very sloping pathway, I fell asleep, thinking how awkward it would be for us if the elephant wanted to pass by this same way during the night. However, they did not come our way, but next morning we found them still breaking bamboos in the valley in which we had left them the evening before. We could not see them, and, as the wind was blowing down the valley we followed along one side of the slope and descended below them. Here we found a network of fresh tracks, quantities of elephant having been feeding off the bamboo, which was greener in the valley bottoms, whilst the upper slopes and the backs of the ridges were covered with old bamboo forest. We had nearly reached the stream at the bottom of the valley, and we could still hear the herd JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 41

busily feeding up-stream on our right when there was a stampede to our left, and we could also hear another herd beyond them charging off, crashing and crackling through the bamboos. We waited till the sounds had passed away in the distance, and still we could hear the crack, crack of bamboo from our herd feeding undisturbed. We cautiously made our way up the valley towards them till we could locate them by the moving of the bamboos. As they were not to be seen we circled round to try and get a view and mark down a shootable bull from the hillside above them. As we did this we gave our wind to yet another herd who went crashing off with such a clatter and crackling of bamboo stems knocking against each other and breaking that we thought it must disturb our herd, but when we listened we again heard the reassuring crack, crack, showing them to be still grazing. Again we circled round, and this time stampeded a fifth herd. We then descended a gentle slope towards our herd. A few taU junipers were dotted about in the bamboo here. I was with one of the Kikuyu and the old porter; the others I had left behind on first hearing the elephant. The old porter climbed up a taU and conveniently sloping tree to reconnoitre. Whilst he 42 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011

was up the tree I could hear a herd coming towards us, having evidently become uneasy from hearing the other one stampeding. I took refuge behind a tree with the Kikuyu as they appeared. They passed at about fifteen yards’ distance, one female or sizable male after another. Now a tree is all right to stand behind when it is between you and the elephant, but when some are one side and some another, one begins to wish for a tree to grow up behind one as well as in front. So when about five had passed close by and were standing just behind me and the remainder of the herd began to come towards my tree with the intention of passing on both sides, I felt it incumbent on me to make some sort of demonstration. The next elephant was a young male who came swinging along straight towards our tree, and there were others on each side of him, so at about ten yards I planked him in the forehead and he dropped dead, whilst the herd turned and went back the way they had come. I was just looking at the fallen elephant and regretting the accuracy of my aim when another herd appeared on the scene, so I ran back to the shelter of my tree whilst they trooped past at thirty yards’ distance. In the middle of the herd was a sizable bull, but he was surrounded on all sides by females and young.

I got a momentary clear view of his head, and had a snap shot, and he fell. Instantly the rest dosed round him, heads inwards, to lift him up with their tusks, and there was nothing to see but a ring of stems. I ran out from my shelter to try and get another shot, but the next moment they had got him on to his feet and, surrounding him on all sides, so that it was impossible to get even a glimpse of him; the whole herd bore down on me. They were not charging, they were only stampeding, and I happened to be in the direction they had chosen. I did not wait, but turned to nm, and looking over my shoulder saw a perfect avalanche of flesh bearing down upon me. As often happens with elephant, they did not go far, but suddenly stopped dead and listened. I looked round and saw that they had stopped, but could not see the wounded male. Just by me was a small tree with sloping trunk and a fork about twelve feet up. I thought that they were unlikely to come my way again, but would go off another way now, and that if I could reach this fork I might be able to get a glimpse of the bull over the backs of the others. It was a ridiculous thing to do, because twelve feet is just about level with the elephant’s eye, and one would have been a very conspicuous object there. Anyhow, I commenced clambering up this tree as best I could with my rifle in my hand. There was another wild rush in my direction, and just as they reached within a few yards of my tree I caught hold of a rotten branch, which broke, and I fell heavily to the ground, not more than a few yards from the feet of the nearest elephant. This strange fruit dropping off the tree so startled them that they swerved away at right angles and crashed into the bamboo, pushing and jostling to get in front of each other. As they could only pass between the clumps and they all chose the same two clumps, it was almost half a minute before the last of the herd had passed. The hind view of them charging and pushing each other, all trying to get the same path, reminded me more than anything of a scrum in a Rugby football match. I saw my wounded bull again, reeling like a drunken man, but by the time I had picked myself up and got my rifle he had passed, and there were a number of small ones bringing up the rear who successfully blocked the view. The sleeper with lion during these events had taken himself to the top of his tree, from which safe eminence he directed operations. The Elikuyu, however, had remained close by me during the first part of these proceedings and only made himself scarce when we found ourselves in the road

of the herd. He shortly appeared, and we went back to the dead elephant, and the old man descended from his perch, but no sooner had he come down than a herd came rushing through the bamboos towards us and we ran again. They came up to the dead elephant and then returned. I began to wonder how many herds there were around us and climbed up a tall tree to investigate. Owing to the thickness of the bamboos I could see nothing from there, but heard what I took to be the wounded elephant staggering and stumbling about a little way down the slope of the hill. I decided to investigate, but the sleeper with lion preferred to remain up his tree, and he did not come down again during the rest of the morning. I crept towards the sounds down an elephant path in the bamboos and presently saw the back of the head and part of the body of what I took to be the wounded one. I tried for the back of the ear, but could not get a clear shot; however he dropped to the shot and then there was a wild screaming and breaking of bamboos as a herd came rushing towards me. I hurriedly put another shot into the fallen elephant, and then scrambled back up the slope to the top of the hill, where the ground was level and one could move about better. They appeared by the sounds to have reached the spot where the wounded elephant lay, and then moved off. I waited till all was quiet again and then returned to investigate. The wounded elephant was no longer there, but I heard bodies moving about in the bamboo but could not see more than a few yards, owing to its density. Close to where the elephant had been lying there was a sapling, and I clambered up this to try if I could see anything. When I reached a fork about ten feet up three female elephant appeared and passed and then returned, and stood about thirty yards below my tree with their trunks curling in the air, testing the wind. They moved backwards and forwards several times, and then passed out of sight, and I returned again to the dead elephant. I then called for the porters I had left behind to come and cut it up, and while doing this we went back a little way and heard other elephant unconcernedly feeding at the bottom of the valley. The porters arrived after making detour to avoid them, and I sat down and made some cocoa, thinking that I would give the elephant time to clear off before following the wounded one. After the operation of cutting up the elephant had JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 43

been proceeding for about an hour, there was suddenly a wild rush, and trumpetings in the bamboo close at hand. We turned and fled, I leaving my cocoa on the ground. A herd rushed up close to the dead elephant and then returned back into the thicker bamboo. After all was quiet again we came back, all of us very jumpy by this time. After finishing my cocoa I thought I would have another try to find the wounded elephant. My men tried to persuade me not to, and stood by the dead elephant howling to me to come back all the time, but it seemed a pity not to have another try. So I returned to the place at which the elephant had fallen, picked up the blood spoor, and began following it. Every now and then I heard some big body moving in the bamboos, and, when after going a little way, I heard elephant moving on both sides and in front at the same time, I got an attack of cold feet and returned to the dead elephant, where my men were shouting lustily for me. Taking the fat and some meat we then started to make our way back, but on all sides we heard the cracking of bamboo from different herds grazing unconcernedly, as if nothing had occurred to disturb them. When we finally got through the ring of elephant and left the sounds behind us, we all breathed freely, as they had got on our nerves. We had run into elephant at about 6.30 or 7 o’clock in the morning, and they had been close round us on all sides from that time till we left at about 1 o’clock, although several shots had been fired, one elephant killed and another wounded, and they must have had our wind often enough. I have never experienced or even heard of anything like it before or since, and, if a stranger had told me that anything of the kind had happened to him before this occurrence, I should have most certainly doubted his veracity. As a rule, one shot or one whiff of a human being is enough to stampede a herd or group of herds right out of a neighbourhood.


We made our way down the hill and back to my camp at the foot of the mountains. On the way one of the porters got lost, and after shouting for him for about half an hour we went on. Suddenly there was a loud clatter and rustling amongst the bamboo which made us all start, and the old sleeper with lions nearly jumped out of his skin. Someone said “Baboon,” and we all laughed except the old man, who asked indignantly, “Who is afraid?” We got back to camp just after sunset, and I sent a search party out along the foot of the hills with a lantern to look for the missing porter. They returned with him shortly ; he had dropped his load, and his clothes were torn to ribbons. He said that he had missed us about an hour or so after we started back and had taken a lower path down the side of the hill, where he had come into another lot of elephant, and had run away from them, hence the loss of his load and his torn clothes. It is difficult to combine the absorbing task of hunting elephant with a conscientious performance of one’s work, and, if one tries to, the chances are one does both badly. In this case I was unable to devote another day to the following of the wounded elephant. “It was the two paths which defeated the old hyaena,” said one of the Swahilis to console me for my disappointment, referring to a folk-lore story in which a hyaena came to the fork of two paths and could not make up his mind which to take. Finally his right legs tried to take the right-hand path and his left legs the left- hand one, and he split in two. My survey work subsequently took me to the highest peak of this part of the range, and I was camped for two days at an altitude of about twelve thousand feet. I also crossed the high road back at the other end of the range, but I came across no more elephant, and I was too occupied with my work to be able to leave it and go off to hunt. Moreover, as we had just come to an end of the porters’ food I had to hurry on to the Kikuyu villages at the foot of the range.




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The BorderLine Walk is in support of antipoaching efforts for Black Rhino in the Savè Valley. Initiated by Hunters for Zimbabwe, the walk will be 3066 kilometers long: 813 kilometers along the Botswana border, 797 km. along Zambia, 225 km. along South Africa, and finally 1231 km. along the Mozambique border. The BorderLine Walk will be widely covered by the media and progress will be published on the African Expedition Magazine and tracked on Google Earth.

The BorderLine walk will support anti-poaching efforts to prevent this from happening again: a young black rhino caught in a poacher’s snare. This baby died a few days after this photograph was taken. 48 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011


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David Hulme is a Zimbabwean writer and professional wanderer who spends most of his time searching for new stories and country, never staying too long in any one place.’












Support Hunters for Zimbabwe by buying David Hulme’s great new book, Shangaan Song. Proceeds from the sale of this book will be used to support the BorderLine Walk – a foot journey of approximately three thousand kilometers along Zimbabwe’s border. The BorderLine Walk is an initiative aimed at raising awareness for Hunters for Zimbabwe, an organization whose primary objective is the advancement of Zimbabwean people and wildlife.

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JimmyJimmy and Anne Whittall on the day I found him 58 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011



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The Double Falling Block Rifle


Don Hooker


ailey Bradshaw is one of the best new rifle builders to come along in a long time. He has been a master metal smith as well as a very good artist for many years. When you combine the two with a mind that thinks a little out of the box. He actualy thinks way out of the box - in fact he’s so far out of the box he has his own zip code. I am honored to call Bailey a friend and I hope after you read this article you will see why. I first got a look at one of Bailey’s rifles on line. My first though was “why didn’t someone thing of this before now!” I talked to Bailey on line a few time and discovered we where both going to be at DSC the next January 2011. This would give me the chance to get my hands on Bailey’s new rifle and see if it felt as good as it looked. I was not disappointed. Baileys design has a lot of inherent features that make it one if the best balanced and point able rifles I have ever had my hands on. One of the things you will notice when you pick up the double falling block it the balance is centered more over the triggers. This enhancement in balance is due to the shortness of the over all action and the general configuration of the falling block rifle The second thing you will notice about the rifle it the short lever and how fast and easy if functions. This is going to be a great improvement for those who purchase this rifle. I believe that with a little practice the owner of one of these will be able to shot two rounds and then load two more in less than two seconds. At this point, some of you are shaking your heads and rolling your eyes. For those nay sayers I will explain: if you are in a dangerous situation you can have both barrels ready to go and have two rounds in your left hand JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 63


holding to fore stock. As soon as you fire both barrels you lever the action without moving the rifle from your shoulder as you lever to the open position you hold the lever, now you slid the two waiting rounds into the breach of the rifle with a foreword motion and as your grasp the fore stock you close the lever. With practice this becomes one fluid motion. So two rounds fired and two fresh rounds loaded and you are ready to go without removing your rifle from your shoulder. And as an added bonus you don’t lost your sight picture either. (If I’m given the opportunity to write another article on this rifle I will demonstrate the load technique with pictures.)

round. It has a more natural feel and is in a more natural position - for me at least. A word on the thumb safety: the shape and size of the thumb safety look prefect to me. But not Bailey. He is still losing sleep over what he can do to improve the look of the safety.


With skill and precision, using a method he developed and refined in his shop - and after shooting his 6.5 at 230 yards and having it hit dead on I figure he knows how and what he is doing. Sean and I where at Baileys a few weeks ago and we where shooting a target 230 yards away, and dinging it with a double. A week later Sean’s still smiling and I am too. I have been shooting since I was seven and out of all the rifles I have handled over 50 years I do believe this falling block double handles and shoots better than any of the others and that includes some of the finest double made in Europe.

The action works as smooth as spreading warm butter on toast. Bailey has redesigned and improved the spring system in his double. I have been around his shop and we have talked enough that I know this was a hair puller for Bailey (did I mention he is absolutely a sticker for perfection). I for one want that in a rifle builder! He worked and re worked the spring in his prototype rifle more time than he likes to think about before he came up with the perfect combination. Once he achieved his goal it was well worth everything he had put into it. The action is tough as a Marine Colonels heart! And as smooth as ... well, smooth. Now for the best part: this double is an extractor model that thinks it’s an ejector model - and at no extra cost. This puppy will throw brass over your shoulder if you get heavy handed with the lever work. Another great point to mention if you are in a dangerous position you do not have to think about your brass. Throw the level and it disappears into the bush never to be seen again.

Triggers The triggers also have a slight design difference to them on this prototype. On the action Bailey discovered that if you angle the back trigger just a little it is more comfortable and easier to acquire than with traditional double triggers. I have always been a little uncomfortable with standard double triggers because I can not get from the front trigger to the rear trigger as quickly and smoothly as I would like. Bailey demonstrated to me the difference in finger position and the angle of your finger joints with a traditional set of triggers and then with his slightly angled triggers. I was surprised at how easy it was for me to acquire the rear trigger on the range after I fired the first

Barrels The barrels are built to specification, and Baily has spent untold hours figuring out just the right way to regulate his barrels with out using high-pressure, dremal tools, high heat and grinder or a hammer. In other words he does it the old fashioned way.

Sights As with most rifles of this quality you can order it with most anything you can imagine Baileys standard sights are of course express sight for big bore rifles. But he will add anything the customer wants even a scope (if you want to uglyfy your rifle) I’m sorry but putting a scope on one of Bailey Bradshaw’s double falling block rifles is like putting a beautiful woman in coveralls. It just does not look right. That being said, it still shoots great even after uglyification. The quarter rib and express sight look great and for use old guys he can add a ghost ring aperture that looks good and folds down out of the way if you want your express sights.

Stock The wood Bailey uses on his rifle wither double or a single is far superior to any of the off the shelf rifles that are available - but in most case’s it is superior to most of the high dollar rifles out there at three to five times the price. And if you want to go even farther, Bailey can get wood that is amazing in beauty and price. For those of use on a budget Bailey’s standard wood is better than we could hope to ask for. His talJUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 65


ent’s as a stock maker is above anyone I have ever met personally and his checkering is flawless. When he inlays the butt plate it looks like it has grown into the wood

The maker When you meet Bailey you are surprised that some one as young (young being and subjective term) as he is has the talents that he has. He is a master metal smith, an engraver, a wood carver, a machinist, and an artist to boot. When you put all these together with a high IQ and a semi reclusive personality you get one Bailey Bradshaw who sat around and for kicks and giggles decided to build and amazing rifle. Bailey will build you a rifle to your specs. Color case hardened, blued, stainless, I even heard mention of one out of Damascus. I can only imagine how great a falling block double rifle built out of Damascus with engraving would look. For one of his normal lightly engraved standard model rifles the base price is US$ 9,500. I’m going to spill the beans on how strong the double falling block is. Bailey made what could have been a

devastating mistake one day in the shop. He inadvertently loaded some ammo with the wrong powder. (In his defense he is new at reloading - something I will help to cure him of in the future) he went to the range with a new dead soft (not heat treated) rifle to check the calibration. When he fired the rifle he thought it had doubled when actually it had so much pressure it bulged the barrel. No harm to Bailey and the only problem with the rifle was a bulged barrel. With some work back at the shop he extracted the case. On inspection the rifle which as it turned out had only minor damage to the frame. By minor I mean the frame was a few thousands out of shape - no stress fractures, crystallization nothing!! With an afternoon’s work and new barrels the rifle preformed flawlessly. It is without a doubt it is the best feeling rifle I have had the opportunity to shot. Bailey produces an extraordinarily beautiful rifle with great European lines and the fit, finish and feel you can only get with a fine handcrafted rifle. The rifle has a natural point ability and balance that I have not felt in any other double rifle I have handled. If you enjoy a fine rifle you owe it to yourself to check out Bailey’s rifles. You will not be disappointed.




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Africa - the good news

The good news from Africa

The New Normal of Foreign Direct Investment in Africa Foreign direct investments play a major role in Africa’s economic development. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has figured out that sub-Saharan African countries have seen flows increase six fold since 2000. FDI into Africa grew steadily through to 2008. It declined in 2009 and 2010 because of global economic crisis, but remained relatively strong. Over the coming years, we will see FDI rising again. IMF Chief Economist Olivier Blanchard distinguishes between “good flows” that help economic growth and “bad” short-term flows that can cause volatility. Investments heavily focus on the extractive sectors. However, an overall trend toward greater diversification can be observed, i.e. into the manufacturing sector. This is especially true for investors from the developed markets. They still bring the bulk of investments into Africa, although the proportional share of investment from emerging countries has grown steadily over the last years. According to the World Bank, Africa could be on the brink of an economic takeoff, much like China was 30 years ago, and India 20 years ago.[1] More and more companies and consultancy firms begin to realize the 78 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011

outstanding opportunities that can be found in Africa. Last year, the McKinsey report, “Lions on the Move,” marked the beginning of a move towards Africa at the Big Five (global consulting firms). This year, Ernst & Young followed suit with their “Africa Attractiveness Survey 2011”. Some investors have started to re-think their perception of Africa since there are more opportunities at higher yields than they expected. However, widespread risk aversion among Western investors, which is correlating with price developments at major international stock markets, hamper capital inflows into African stock markets as well as direct investments into private sector projects. Antoinette Sayeh, Head of Africa Region, International Monetary Fund. Copyright held by IMF.

However, as the debt crises in the United States, some European countries, and Japan are becoming more apparent, risk of doing business and making investments in the developed world is increasing. Consequently, risk/ reward profiles of investments in Africa are improving – relatively spoken. According to the Africa Competitiveness Report 2011[2], competitiveness in African firms (both producers and suppliers) is positively influenced by FDI, mainly through advancing their managerial skills and technological capacities, strengthening the capital stock, and improving total factor productivity. Only through FDI, the productivity gap between African

countries and more advanced economies can be reduced. An important trend that can be observed is the encouragement of regional integration and trade in Africa. It is most likely that this will attract more FDI into rapidly integrating regions like the East African Community (EAC). Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi have a combined market size of close to 140 million people. The top five FDI destinations in Africa (South Africa, Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia) account for more than 50% of all foreign investment projects in Africa. Another 20 % of FDI flows into the next five countries: Nigeria, Angola, Kenya, Libya, and Ghana. The top 10 countries are attracting more than 70% of new FDI. All other sub-Saharan countries share the remaining FDI.

Some FDI Players China, India, and Brazil are already very active in Africa. China is following a strategic long-term master plan. Wholly, or partially, state-owned companies play the major role concerning investments in Africa. Brazilian companies are focusing on Lusophone Africa, mainly Angola and Mozambique, while big Indian companies like Bharti and Tata Steel and familyrun enterprises are mainly active in Eastern Africa. Lebanese business people are spread all over Africa, and they control big parts of trading businesses, i.e. more than 50% of trading in Côte d’Ivoire. However, they are not big investors. More recently, Japan appears on the scene. Yoshikatsu Nakayama, Vice Minister of Economy, Trade, and Industry, said that Japan is keen to invest “billions of dollars” in minerals and infrastructure in Africa. According to Reuters, Japan is scouting for projects in which to invest, either via its state-owned oil and mining company JOGMEC or via joint ventures between local and Japanese companies. The average size of investments into African projects might be a few hundred million dollars. Although the Japanese are trying to catch up to China, they are lagging far behind. And yet another region is starting to explore opportunities in sub-Saharan Africa. Companies and investors from the Middle East have already begun to acquire vast areas of agricultural land in the Sudan, Ethiopia, and other East African countries. Portfolio investors want to diversify their holdings, as they fear increasing political risk in the MENA region. Egyptian investors start to look to stock markets south of the

Sahara. Qatar wants to position herself as major air hub and connecting link between Asia and Africa. The Kuwait Investment Authority is planning to invest $1 billion in Egypt’s stock market. Intra-African FDI is clearly on the rise, reflecting a growing sense of self-confidence and belief in the potential of the continent. For example, the Egyptian company, ElSewedy Cables, has heavily invested into a joint venture in Zambia to produce copper cables locally. Also, Nigerian oil companies are looking for new opportunities in Ghana. Nigerian banks are expanding their businesses in West Africa, as well as Kenyan banks in East Africa. Many South African companies like MTN, Shoprite, and Massmart are heading north, playing a dominant role in sub-Saharan markets.

Conclusions How sustainable are these surging FDI inflows into Africa? Is it just a temporary phenomenon driven by excess liquidity because of exploding activities of the printing press of paper money, aka quantitative easing? According to Joyce Chang, Global Head of Emerging Markets and Credit Research at JP Morgan, this is not a temporary state of affairs. It has become the new normal. Although it could be a cycle, this cycle could last for 25 to 50 years.[3] Investors from the developed world are still vastly underexposed to emerging markets, despite their attractiveness in terms of growth perspectives, yields offered, and low correlations to the world stock markets. Although developing economies make up nearly 50% of global GDP, big institutional investors have allocated only very small portions of their funds under management to emerging markets. In the case of U.S. defined contribution pension plans, the figure is just 2.1%, according to JP Morgan.

A Floating Clinic for Malawi Villages The historic Chauncy Maples, Malawi’s oldest ship, is being turned into a floating clinic to bring much-needed healthcare services to fishing villages along the shores of the country’s massive lake.Currently, it can take up to 16 hours for Malawians living in remote lakeside villages to reach their nearest medical care facilities, which could be as far as 80km away. The historic Chauncy Maples, Malawi’s oldest ship, is being turned into a floating clinic to bring much-needed healthcare services to fishing villages along the shores of the country’s massive lake.Currently, it can JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 79

take up to 16 hours for Malawians living in remote lakeside villages to reach their nearest medical care facilities, which could be as far as 80km away.

The Bishop Behind the Ship

Their means of travel is usually a dug-out canoe, which offers little protection against crocodiles and hippos, and paddling during high tide means drowning is also a threat. These risks have prompted the decision to turn the ship into a floating clinic.

The ship is the namesake of Bishop Chauncy Maples, an Anglican missionary who set up the Anglican Mission on Likoma Island on Lake Malawi in 1886. The cleric was consecrated as the sixth Bishop of Nyasaland in 1895 and on his way to take up his duties, his ship capsized in a storm on the extensive lake. He was the only fatality.

Dr Charles Mwansambo, Malawi’s principal health secretary, said: “Districts that are part of Lake Malawi still have an average of more than 25% of their populations unable to access healthcare. This presents a real challenge as people have to use any available water transportation to access healthcare, although that option may be risky at times. Water transport is also not available all the time.”

The Chauncy Maples was commissioned in 1898 and was designed by Henry Brunel and Sir John Barry. It was built in Glasgow, Scotland, for $22 000 (R148 000) and was then taken piece by piece to Lake Malawi. It was assembled by 1901 and its initial purpose was to act as a floating missionary school, an emergency refuge from Arab slave traders and a hospital ship.

The Malawi government had already started renovating the ship in 2009 when UK journalist and author Janie Hampton visited the lake area on a holiday and resolved to raise funds to complete the project. Hampton initiated the Chauncy Maples Malawi Trust in the same year. So far US$1.6-million (R11.4-million) has been raised, although $1.5-million (R10million) is still needed to complete the renovation process. Hampton said: “Everyone I met along the lakeside was very keen for this to happen.” Referring to the ship, Hampton added: “We want to make sure she will last at least another 30 years.” According to the trust, half of the Malawian population lives in abject poverty, earning less than a $1 (R7) a day. The death rate among children under five is 111 in every 1 000, and a single doctor has to provide services to 52 000 people. The project to revive the historic ship will boost health-service delivery, preserve Malawi’s shipping heritage, promote eco-friendly engineering by recycling old parts of the ship, and teach locals about engineering principles and marine life. It will also become Malawi’s national symbol of pride. The public can help the Chauncy Maples Malawi Trust by making financial contributions online or donating marine parts and medical equipment. Major sponsors of the project are Thomas Miller, an insurance conglomerate which donated $400 000 (R2.7-million) and the Ana Leaf Foundation, a charity organisation that donated $161 000 (R1-million). Other smaller donors of the project each donated $40 000 (R270 000), $16 000 (R108 000) and $4000 (R27 000) respectively. 80 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011

The Third Largest Lake in Africa Lake Malawi is situated between Malawi, Mozambique, and Tanzania. It is the third largest lake in Africa and is 580km long and 75km wide. The biggest body of freshwater in Africa is Lake Victoria, and the second biggest is Lake Tanganyika. Lake Malawi is one of the country’s major tourist attractions, boasting stretches of unspoilt beaches and luxurious resorts.The lake is rich in cichlid fish, which is the basic staple food for people living in the villages along its shores. Written by Ray Maota Source: Media Club South Africa

Government allays land grab fears Government has used a one-day consultative meeting with commercial farmers to help allay their fears about land grabs. The consultative gathering was initiated by Rural Development and Land Reform Minister, Gugile Nkwinti, with farmers’ organisations, TAU SA, AgriSA and the Agricultural Business Chamber on Tuesday in Pretoria. Speaking to reporters after their consultative meeting, Deputy President of AgriSA, Dr Theo de Jager, said: “From the farming community, there are always fears that there might be Zimbabwean-style land grabs by the civil society. We are glad that today we’ve come a long way to bridge the gap between commercial farmers and government on issues of insecurity. We are grateful and it is refreshing that from now onwards, we will be working together with government and other stakeholders on all issues af-

fecting us.” TAU SA chairperson of the central Gauteng region, Wannie Scribante, said: “It is true that some farmers are leaving the country because of the so-called land grab fears. However, as the farmer’s organisation, we don’t want to jeopardise everything in the industry, which is economically viable. We don’t want to see the farming industry going down the drain.” Scribante said following their consultative meeting with the minister, though there is still more to be done, they are looking forward to working with government and other stakeholders in finding reasonable solutions regarding land reform in the country. It was Nkwinti who announced that together with the farmers’ unions, they would be drafting legislation on an Office Valuer-General (OVG), Land Management Commission (LMC) and Land Rights Management Board, which would support land reform. “We’ve all agreed to work together, but we will continue to engage each other. This is a tremendous achievement since we are now moving in the same direction,” he said. SA - the Good News via BuaNews

IDC approves R8.4bn funding for SA investment The Industrial Developmental Corporation (IDC) approved the most funding ever for South African investments in its financial year ending March, it said on Thursday.

The IDC approved R8.4 billion in funding for South African investment. “This is the highest level ever for South African-based investments,” the IDC said in a statement. The funding was expected to create 19,650 full-time jobs and save an additional 11,650 jobs. Another 8100 jobs could be created through links to activities in the informal economy. “We have retained our focus both on preserving and growing high impact manufacturing capacity and have succeeded in improving our impact on job creation,” said IDC CEO Geoffrey Qhena. The IDC made a profit of R2.7 billion during the year under review. 97% of the projects it approved funding for were in priority sectors identified in government’s new growth path economic strategy. These include manufacturing, mining value chain and infrastructure and agriculture. Minister of Economic Development Ebrahim Patel welcomed the results, which he said showed “solid performance and industrial recovery. The IDC has a strong, healthy balance-sheet, which will now be used more actively to drive the New Growth Path and job creation,” he said in a statement. “We are now working with the IDC to significantly expand the level of investment, reduce the cost to industrial borrowers and shift more investment to projects with a large labour-absorbing capacity,” he said. SA - the Good News via SAPA JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 81



Hardwear for the bush





If you run after two hares you will catch neither. It is not what you are called, but what you answer to. Send a boy where he wants to go and you see his best pace. JUNE 2011 AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE | 87








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Make a Plan

Hints and advice are given in good faith to be of help in emergencies. The writer as well as the publisher, personnel and agents concerned does not accept any responsibility for any injury, accident or damages that might arise from the use of any of the hints. 94 | AFRICAN EXPEDITION MAGAZINE JUNE 2011


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Your vehicle is stuck and your battery is flat ... First of all, do not tap the power of the battery any more than is necessary because you urgently need the last bit of power that is left in the cells. Don’t keep on trying to start it if the self-starter stopped turning and only produces that horrible clicking sound.. Switch off all the electrical equipment in the vehicle. If a second vehicle is available but cannot get close: • Take the flat battery out of your vehicle and carry it over to the other vehicle. • Exchange the live battery of that vehicle with the flat battery, but only connect the negative earth cable onto the flat battery and leave the positive cable disconnected. • Connect the negative terminals of the two batteries with a jumper lead and then also with the other. • Jumper lead the positive terminal of the fully loaded battery with the loose positive cable of the vehicle. Clamp it in such a position so that the clamping nut can still be pressed over the positive terminal of the flat battery. • Now, switch on the vehicle and let it idle for a few minutes. Care- Dr Wallace Vosloo fully take the loose positive cable, without disturbing the jumper is an Engineer and lead connection, and shift it over posi- tive terminal of the flat Scientist by profession. His family has battery and fasten it. Let the vehicle idle at a higher speed to lived in Africa since charge the battery. 1696 and he has • Disconnect the jumper leads one at a time, when the flat battery a deep love for the continent. He is a is fairly charged. practical outdoors• Let the vehicle idle at a higher rate to charge the flat battery furman and loves ther. The fully loaded battery can now be taken to your vehicle. traditional hunting, axe and knife throwAnd see you have battery power. ing, longbow shooting, black powder rifle- and cannon shooting, salt and fresh • The process sounds cumbersome but this way ensures that you water fly fishing and tracking. The art of are not stuck with two vehicles with flat batteries. survival is Wallace’s main field of interest and his passion is to transfer these old forgotten skills to young hunters.


Your African safari is a unique experience. Now you can document your hunt day by day and revisit those exciting times for years to come. 31 Full days of journaling space with vital information: ●● safari clothing ●● personal item checklists ●● health and first aid ●● mammal identification information with photographs, tracks, dung and SCI and Rowland Ward qualification minimums.


Know how to administer CPR. Deal with dangerous animals up close. Identify and treat bites from snakes, spiders and scorpions. Know the right emergency numbers to dial in an emergency – it’s all there. A must-have item for every serious hunter. Sturdy PlastiCoil binding for durability and easy opening, 110 pages, 6.0 x 9.0 in. Full color covers and cream interior printed in black and white.



True North The Worst of All Possible Reactions

“The heart,” Blaise Pascal said, “has its reasons which reason knows nothing of.” Something in us longs, hopes, maybe even at times believes that this is not the way things were supposed to be. Our desire fights the assault of death upon life. And so people with terminal illnesses get married. Prisoners in a concentration camp plant flowers. Lovers long divorced still reach out in the night to embrace one who is no longer there. It’s like the phantom pain experienced by those who have lost a limb. Feelings still emanate from that region where once was a crucial part of them. Our hearts know a similar reality. At some deep level, we refuse to accept the fact that this is the way things are, or must be, or always will be. Simone Weil was right; there are only two things that pierce the human heart: beauty and affliction. Moments we wish would last forever and moments we wish had never begun. The playwright Christopher Fry wrote, The inescapable dramatic situation for us all is that we have no idea what our situation is. We may be mortal. What then? We may be immortal. What then? We are plunged into an existence fantastic to the point of nightmare, and however hard we rationalize, or however firm our religious faith, however closely we dog the heels of science or wheel among the starts of mysticism, we can not really make head or tail of it. (“A Playwright Speaks: How Lost, How Amazed, How Miraculous We Are”)

John Eldredge

And what does Fry say we do with our dilemma? The worst of all possible reactions: We get used to it. We get broken into it so gradually we scarcely notice it. (Desire , 8-9)

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African Expedition Magazine Volume 3 Issue 6  

Mana Pools: The last wilderness area in Zimbabwe Famars Leonardo: The Pinnacle of Functional Art African trypanosomiasis: the Sleep of death...

African Expedition Magazine Volume 3 Issue 6  

Mana Pools: The last wilderness area in Zimbabwe Famars Leonardo: The Pinnacle of Functional Art African trypanosomiasis: the Sleep of death...

Profile for axmag