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Should poachers be shot on sight? The dilemma of conservation

The Maneating lions of Tsavo Unsuccessful Rhino Hunts

SURVIVAL HUNTING Variation on a theme

The

.30-’06 Springfield in Africa

The evolving argument

Thoughts on the .416 Rigby

A great caliber with a wide range

Make a Plan Bullet in the barrel?


contents 2 | Volume 6 Issue 5


10 Survival Hunting Variation on a theme

28 The .30-’06 Springfield in Africa The evolving argument

42 Thoughts on the .416 Rigby

A great caliber with a wide range

50 Should poachers be shot on sight? The dilemma of conservation

83 The Maneating lions of Tsavo Unsuccessful Rhino Hunts

106 Make a Plan Bullet in the barrel?

110 True North Dare you come alive?

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AFRICAN

Africa Expedition Magazine Editors United States of America Editor: Alan Bunn editorusa@africanxmag.com Editor: Galen Geer ggeer@africanxmag.com Europe Hans Jochen Wild editoreurope@africanxmag.com Africa Central Africa: Cam Crieg cam@africanxmag.com Financial Alan Bunn Layout & Design Xtasis Media and Digital Wind Advertising and Marketing USA: Alan Bunn adsusa@africanxmag.com (706) 2762608 African Expedition Magazine is an independent bimonthly publication promoting fair, sustainable hunting, a protected environment and adventure sports in Africa. Disclaimer While all precautions have been taken to ensure the accuracy of advice and information provided, the Proprietor, Publisher, Editor, or Writers cannot accept responsibility for any damages, inconvenience or injury whatsoever that may result from incorrect information. The views expressed in this publication are not necessarily those of the publisher or its agents. African Expedition Magazine assumes no responsibility to return graphics unsolicited editorial, or other material. All rights in unsolicited editorial, letters, emails, graphics and other material will be treated as unconditionally assigned for publication and copyright purposes and material will be subject to African Expedition Magazine’s unrestricted right to edit and editorial comment. All material and/or editorial in African Expedition is the property of African Expedition and/or the various contributors. No part of this magazine may be reproduced without the prior written consent of the Publisher.,

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Magazine Reading Tips Read Online: Go to www.africanxmag.com to page through the virtual magazine.

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1) In Adobe Acrobat, choose View>Read out Loud>Activate Read out Loud. 2) Choose View>Read out Loud and the option you want: Read This Page Only/Read To End of Document/Pause or Stop. 3) Choose View>Deactivate Read out Loud to deactivate the read out loud function This option is great for visually impaired outdoors enthusiasts Jump directly to articles On the contents, just click on the article to jump straight there. To jump to pages or articles, click on one of the icons on the right in Acrobat Reader. The green circle gives step-by-step instructions for common features.

About this magazine This magazine is a radical departure from normal magazines. Of course, it is a superb-quality printed magazine. But you can also get it on: • The web • PC • Laptop • PocketPC • PalmPilot and many others All you need to do is to copy the .pdf file to your PDA using the synchronisation software provided with the device. For more assistance, contact your supplier. You also get a scaleddown version on your mobile phone. Just point your internet-enabled mobile phone to mobile.africanxmag.com and select the issue you want to read or download animal call ringtones.

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You can click on: • author’s names to email them (when they allow it) • articles to comment about them on our blog Volume 6 Issue 5 | 7


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SURVIVAL HUNTING Variation on a theme

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Volume 6 Issue 5 | 11

Cleve Cheney

H

unting is becoming a highly debated issue as animal rights and anti-hunting groups become more vocal and in some instances, even militant. Whereas “sport” and “trophy” hunting is to them something reprehensible some (not all) will concede that subsistence hunting, where people are dependent on the animals they hunt or fish they catch for their very survival, is justifiable.


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A number of years ago this got me thinking and I did some “survival” hunting. This involved going out into the bush with only my bow, some basic survival tools and a little food to start off with, for an extended period of time (5-10 days). Once my food and water ran out I would then be forced to live off what nature provided. What I could successfully hunt I ate and my diet was supplemented by what I could find in the way of edible, plants and fruits. Water was at certain times of the year scarce and had to be carefully conserved. I would also have to go to great lengths to purify what water I could find before drinking it. Diarrhoea and vomiting caused by contaminated water is something you do not want to be subjected to in a wild bush environment – it can be fatal – and waiting for water to boil and then cool down enough when you are really thirsty is a great lesson in patience. It was a great opportunity to put bush and survival skills to the test and, although I would return sometimes leaner than when I departed, they were wonderful experiences – a type of hunting I would highly recommend and which should be more acceptable to anti-hunters as the hunter is exposed to greater challenges and risks and eats what is harvested because he is “living off the land” – subsistence hunting (well …sort of). It gives some insight into just how hard it is to “live off the land” and teaches one to savour and appreciate every mouthful of food and water. You must be out in the bush long enough to REALLY get hungry and to be REALLY exposed to the risk of becoming dehy-

drated for the exercise to be meaningful. I would recommend a minimum of 7 days and preferably 10-14 days. This may, in terms of time required, be a problem for some but if you only do it once in a lifetime it will be a never to be forgotten experience. It is not a type of hunting recommended for the novice who has little bush knowledge and survival skills as there are real risks involved. The experience can be made more challenging by: ●● Practicing making fire using primitive methods ●● Sleeping in the bush on the ground ●● Taking a bow and only 5 arrows or rifle and only 5 rounds of ammunition ●● Taking a minimum amount of equipment – bow/arrows or rifle/ammo, sleeping bag, knife, flint and steel and water bottle. That, apart from the sleeping bag and rifle, is about all a Kalahari bushman carries with him. He may carry a karos (blanket made of animal skin) in lieu of a sleeping bag. ●● Taking a minimum amount of food and water with you to begin with. The idea is that you MUST run out of supplies within a day or two which will force you into “subsistence” mode. Water and food must be found or hunted from that point onwards. ●● Do not carry any form of communication with you such as a cell phone or two way radio. “Cutting yourself off” from civilization and support structures is one of the “features” of survival hunting which Volume 6 Issue 5 | 13


Figure 1: Water is essential for survival. Finding and purifying it making it safe to drink is one of the most important tasks in survival hunting.

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Figure 3: In search of a meal. If you spook your quarry or miss a shot you go to bed hungry.

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Figure 2: Making fire using a primitive technique is a valuable skill to learn and practice.

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Figure 5: The rewards of a challenging hunt. A full stomach for a few days.

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Figure 4: Sleeping out. Risky in areas where dangerous animals are found so it is selected with care. Volume 6 Issue 5 | 23


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makes it more challenging and, although riskier, more rewarding. ●● If possible conduct the survival hunt in big game country. This is not advisable for the inexperienced however. Survival hunting is not for the faint hearted – it can be pretty scary at night, on your own, in big game country – especially if you hear lions roaring or the “sawing” sound of a leopard wending its way up a dry riverbed. That is when you learn the value of fire and how important it is to have enough fuel on hand to quickly build it up so that it can be a predator deterrent. You select your nightly camping and sleeping spot with great circumspection and learn to sleep with one eye open. You hunt with greater care knowing that if you duff an opportunity to “bag” something you will be going to bed hungry. No fancy lodge with a 5 course meal waiting on your return! It makes you a better hunter. You also learn to be more attentive in the bush to potential danger and become more experienced in learning to find food and water. All in all it is the most rewarding and fulfilling type of hunting I have ever done and the “anti’s” will (hopefully) have less to gripe about because there are times when you may not successfully shoot anything and will return hungrier, thinner, grubbier, smellier but a whole lot wiser and a whole lot closer to your Creator. It is more than worth it and is highly recommended.

Cleve Cheney holds a bachelor of science degree in zoology and a master’s degree in animal physiology. He is a wilderness trail leader, rated field guide instructor and the author of many leading articles on the subjects of tracking, guiding, bowhunting and survival. Cleve has unrivalled experience in wildlife management, game capture and hunting, both with bow and rifle.

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The .30-’06 Springfield

in Africa The evolving argument

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Philip P. Massaro

T

he discussion regarding the best cartridge for use on African plains game has been a century-old affair; a heated debate that certainly has no end in sight, nor a definitive correct answer. Its only competition is the evolving argument about dangerous game cartridges. Volume 6 Issue 5 | 29


Norma case head and Swarovski binos

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Bore diameters between 6.5mm and .375” all have their champions, and all can be used on plains game with good effect. However, when it comes to a cartridge that is effective across a broad spectrum of game – from duikers to eland – the .30-’06 Springfield continues to hold one of the top positions. Why is that? What is it about a cartridge born for military use, more than 100 years ago, that consistently produces the results that hunters on the Dark Continent desire? Well, first of all, the .30-’06 Springfield case produces just about a perfect balance of powder capacity, velocity, striking energy and shootability. The recoil of the ’06 is mild enough for hunters of all statures and of either sex to use effectively. The bullet weights available in .308” caliber range from 100 grains all the way up to 250 grains, and all can be delivered at a sensible velocity. It is a case with enough volume to push that range of bullets so that the traditional cup-and-core bullets will perform well, yet can benefit from the advances in modern bullet construction.

by 1906 the Springfield cartridge we all know and love saw the light of day. Historically, the 150, 165, 180, 200 and 220-grain bullets have been the most common choices in the hunting fields, and I’d be willing to bet that the 165 and 180-grain slugs are the most popular today. For the open places in Africa, such as the Kalahari, Kafue, or the plains of the Orange Free State, the ’06 offers a trajectory flat enough to hit a distant gemsbok, springbok or lechwe, yet with a good 220-grain round nose bullet, it makes a fantastic bushveld gun, fully capable of taking even the biggest eland if the shot is placed properly. And, on that topic, the .30-’06 is one of those cartridges that delivers the kind of accuracy to place your shots well, without punishing the shoulder the way some of the .300 and .338 magnums will do. I’d much rather see a hunter use a .30-’06 that he or she can shoot well, placing their shots where needed than use a caliber that gives a recoil level above that which they can handle effectively.

The .30-’06 made its bones in Africa in The .30-’06 Springfield was designed as the hands of some very famous hunters. a result of the Spanish-American war; Theodore and Kermit Roosevelt used the U.S. Military was using the .30-40 it throughout East Africa on their 1909Krag as its cartridge du jour, and the 1910 safari (although TR carried the older 7x57 Mauser in the hands of the Span.30-’03 version), collecting hundreds of ish showed ballistic superiority. The Army specimens for various museums, and the kept the .308” bullet diameter, but in a effectiveness of the cartridge was well spitzer configuration for better downrange documented in the classic African Game performance (the Krag used 220-grain Trails. In 1933, Ernest Hemingway used round nose projectiles), but borrowed the his Griffin & Howe .30-’06 in Tanganyika, 7x57 case head, and elongated the case opting for the ’06 with 220-grain solids to 63.3mm (2.494”). Although the initial over the hard-kicking .470 NE double he development – the .30-’03 – featured a brought along. As Papa related in Green slightly longer case and the 220-grain Hills of Africa, he took Cape buffalo and bullet of the Krag era, it didn’t last long; rhino effectively. While this wouldn’t fly Volume 6 Issue 5 | 31


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30-’06 Springfield 165 Oryx

L-R .30-’06, .308 Win., .300 WSM, .300 Win. Mag.,.300 RUM

30-’06 Springfield 165 Oryx Volume 6 Issue 5 | 33


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Norma Oryx 165 grain 02

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The 30-06 bullet lineup

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in today’s Africa, it does demonstrate the killing power of the ’06. A 220-grain slug at the moderate muzzle velocity of 2,400 fps is tough to argue with, irrespective of species. While not the best choice for long-range work, the sectional density figure for that weight of bullet (0.331) certainly guarantees good penetration on the tougher antelope and plains game species like roan, eland, wildebeest, warthog and zebra. Robert Ruark used a .30-06 as his light rifle on his famous safari that yielded Horn of the Hunter, and with it he took many impressive trophies.

one of our most popular calibers, and I’ve rarely been in a hunting camp that doesn’t have at least one .30-’06 on the gun rack. I can also say that showing up to any hunt - not including the big beasties – armed with a good .30-’06 rifle, would make any Professional Hunter very happy.

Cartridges are constantly evolving, and the hunting and shooting industry seems to be enamored with developing as many ways to launch a .308” diameter bullet as possible. Early on, the ’06 had some serious competition in the form of the .300 The .30-’06 makes a great choice for any Savage and the .300 Holland & Holland visiting sportsman, and makes a great Magnum, and later the .300 Weatherby companion to the .375 H&H or one of the Magnum, .300 Winchester Magnum and .416s as your heavy rifle. Let your big the .308 Winchester. In recent years, the gun handle the dangerous game, and the .300 Remington Ultra Magnum and the ’06 will readily handle the rest. Where it is .300 Winchester Short Magnum have belegal to use the ’06 for leopard, it makes come increasingly popular. I’ve used the a solid choice, allowing the hunter to .300 Winchester in South Africa, cleanly properly place the shot after all the prepa- taking gemsbok and a very old ostrich ration and waiting that is required to hunt with 200-grain Swift A-Frame bullets, but the golden, spotted wraith. A good 165 either shots could’ve easy been made or 180-grain bullet – even the older cupwith a .30-’06. The playing field is conand-core favorites – will ruin a leopard’s gested, and the competition fierce, but day if put into the vitals. Many lions have the veteran of two World Wars and countbeen taken over the years with a .30-’06, less hunting expeditions on every conbut not unlike buffalo and elephant, I feel tinent that can be hunted still sits at the there are better tools for that job. top of the heap. The fact that the ’06 runs at moderate pressures, in comparison The .30-’06 Springfield is one of those to the faster magnum cartridges, makes cartridges that can be classified as ‘universal’; regardless of continent or country, extraction in the extreme heat of Africa a breeze. I’d be willing to bet that just about any gun shop in the world will have a few The modern developments in bullet boxes of .30-’06 Springfield ammunition technology, such as chemically bonding on its shelves. That helps to make it a the core to the jacket or the various hosensible choice for the hunter who travels mogenous metal bullets that simply will the globe. Being an American, who hunts not come apart, have only enhanced the in Africa far less than I would like to, I can already fantastic reputation that the ’06 attest to the fact that the ought-six is also has earned, making the venerable case Volume 6 Issue 5 | 37


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that much more potent. The worries about premature bullet breakup are a thing of the past if you carefully choose your projectile. Like modern bullets, the rifles chambered for .30-’06 have also come quite a long way. The first rifle ever commercially chambered for the Springfield was the Winchester Model 1895, a strong leveraction rifle that Theodore Roosevelt used with good effect in Africa, but the most popular were the sporterized U.S. Military bolt guns that made fine hunting rifles. Hemingway’s rifle was a Model 1903 Springfield, restocked by the New York

firm of Griffin & Howe, and served him very well. My own .30-’06 rifle is a World War II-era Model 03-A3, made by SmithCorona, and nestled in a beefy Bishop stock. It has a nice white bead front sight, and a Williams rear sight that began life as a buckhorn sight until I took a good set of files to it, and made it into a safaristyle shallow-V, which works much better for our early bear season here in Upstate New York, when the foliage is still thick. I wouldn’t hesitate to use that rifle in the bushveld, iron sights and all. Among the classic American bolt-action rifles, I feel the Winchester Model 70 Featherweight to be one of the finest choices.

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on the cover to buy Philip Massaro’s new book from Amazon

Federal Premium .30-’06 180 grain Trophy Bonded Tipped

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A Schnabel fore end makes a classy touch, and the .30-’06 will work just fine with a 22” or 24” barrel, making for a very well balanced package that will handle very well in the thick stuff, but still make a decent rifle for longer shots. The modern rifles have some very appreciable features that will compliment the .30’06 Springfield’s attributes. The Legendary Arms Works Company from Pennsylvania, USA has a model called the Professional, which comes with a highly ergonomic synthetic stock and a Cerakote metal finish that makes it impervious to weather. A 24” fluted barrel, with a finely crafted, removable muzzle-brake, which can be replaced with a cap for field use, prints some very accurate groups, and this lightweight little number would make a fine choice for the international hunter. Whether hunting the swamps of Bangweulu or the dunes of the Namib, The Professional in .30-‘06 will get the job done in a proper fashion. Being as popular as it is, ammunition for the .30-’06 is loaded with a wide array of different bullet types, so you can easily tailor the ammunition to the job at hand. If you’re after springbok at long distances, a 150-grain Hornady SST Superformance load, with a muzzle velocity of 3,080 fps will drop less than 7” at 300 yards, and 19” at 400 yards, when set to impact the bullseye at 200 yards. For a good general hunting choice, Federal’s Vital-Shok 180-grain Trophy Bonded Tipped load, the Nosler Custom ammunition line featuring the 180-grain Nosler Partition, or the Norma American PH line with the 165-grain Oryx bullet would serve just fine. For the heavyweights, a handloaded 220-grain North Fork semi-spitzer at 2,400 fps or so will handle just about anything short of buffalo. Is the .30-’06 Springfield a new, whiz-bang, state of the art cartridge? No, no it isn’t. Is it a washed-up has been, who only gets to see the light of day in the hands of the nostalgic? Nope, it’s not that either. It’s a cartridge that is so reliable that the results are almost boring, but that feature is what makes it so wonderful. For almost 110 years, hunters of all nationalities have learned to lean heavily on the Springfield, and unless I’m very wrong, they will continue to do so for another century, especially on safari. Safari njema!

Philip P. Massaro is the President of Massaro Ballistic Laboratories, LLC, a custom ammunition company, comfortably nestled in between the Hudson River and Catskill Mountains of Upstate New York. He has been a handloader for 20+ years, a veteran of three African Safaris and dozens of North American hunts. He is a Licensed Professional Land Surveyor by trade, a musician by choice, and usually reeks of Hoppes No. 9. His web site is at http://www.mblammo.com/ Volume 6 Issue 5 | 41


Thoughts on the .416 Rigby

A great caliber with a wide range 42 | Volume 6 Issue 5


Leo Grizzaffi

I

have a 416 Rigby built on a CZ 550 Safari rifle. I converted the bolt to a Winchester Model 70 style safety/bolt sleeve and spot polished the bolt and extractor. The magazine received a new floor plate assembly to hold another cartridge. The gun now will hold four in the magazine and one in the chamber. Volume 6 Issue 5 | 43


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The factory sights were milled so as to create a wide V notch on the solid rear leaf and the 200 and 300 sight notches were left with the narrow factory notch. The action was restocked in California walnut, with black ebony forearm cap and pistol grip cap, then checkered in a full Fleur de Leis pattern. The gun has an additional forearm screw because of the heavy recoil. I left this on the conversion and had an ebony diamond inleted around the screw hole. The stock was fitted with a red English recoil pad, which brought the whole package into a new world of Africa and the sound of big game in the early morning bush. I have to admit that the gun has a well fitting stock and really looks pretty. The .416 Rigby in this action can be loaded up to equal the .416 Weatherby. The only drawback is this cartridge can kick like an 18-wheel truck smashing into your shoulder. Shooters at the range laugh that with the heavy loads it will actually spin me on the shooting bench. I have fired less then 100 full loads in this gun. I have actually shot it a lot. I like to work with cast bullets and have a lead bullet that weights 418.5 grains average when cast with WW and 2% tin, and dropped into water from the mold. I size and lube with NRA Alox formula and a Hornady gas check. It is a round nose design with gas check. My load is 35 grains of 5744 with standard Winchester primers. This load will shot a five shot group just over one inch at 100 yards. The shooters in my club are amazed as to how well cast lead in a caliber of this size will consistently shoot. The recoil is actually pleasant and you can shoot this load all day long.

I have used this gun and load in Africa on plains game. I shot a cow buffalo right between the eyes at 50 yards on a line straight down the neck. It dropped in its tracks. The bullet traveled over 36 inches in the body of the animal and when recovered showed some riveting at the nose. There did not appear to be any weight lose on the projectile. On the same trip I also used the same load to shoot a male Nyala that was running away from me in heavy brush at about 40 yards. The bullet hit the tail just below the spine and traveled all the way through the animal. It went right down and never moved. The skinner commented that there was very little or no meat lose. It is a great caliber and with a wide range of loadings, you can use it to hunt anything in the world. A couple of years ago a doctor friend of mine called me to say he had a chance to pick up two Ruger African game rifles at a very reasonable price. They were very good looking rifles with some of Ruger’s better wood. He had a friend who also was in on the deal and they were each to take one of the rifles. One of the rifles was in .416 Rigby and the other was a 458 Lott. He wanted to know more about the gun and especially about the calibers. He also wanted my advice as to which caliber he should select. My comments were that the .458 Lott was a great caliber and would be all that he would ever need for an African Big Game rifle. Components were easy to come by at very reasonable prices, and he could load the cartridge to any level of performance that he desired. Also, he could fire Volume 6 Issue 5 | 45


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458 Winchester cartridges in the gun in the event of dire emergency. Bullets were available to load from a level of the .45 Colt, up into the .45-70 class, and then into the heavy magnum level. In short, there is a lot going for this cartridge, especially if you reload.

there was a chance that it would become a safe princess, to look at but never hold very much.

When asked as to which gun I would go for, I did not drop a heartbeat and told him that there wasn’t in my mind any question as to what caliber to chose. The .416 had all the pizazz you would ever Next was to do an overview of the .416 Rigby cartridge. I told him that compofind in any cartridge and that every time nents for the .416 were a lot more expen- you looked at the rifle or even the carsive and cases were harder to find. Bullet tridge you would find yourself blissfully sweating under the blazing sun of a Africa selection was mostly limited to heavy weights and heavy construction. The cost long past, but still carried in your heart. Even if you never get to go there, go for of factory ammunition was in a category, where if the recoil did not limit your shoot- the .416 and you will never look back and regret the choice. ing of the gun, the expense would do it. The factory loads would limit the type of I hope this gives you some load advice hunting you would do with the piece and and my thoughts on the cartridgesadcsdc

Leo Grizzaffi is a lifelong hunter and veteran of many African safaris. Author and reloading expert, his specialty is the care and feeding of big bore double rifles, however he also dabbles with the little calibers. Leo resides in California, where being a lawyer and judge in the City of Los Angeles sometimes interferes with his busy hunting and reloading schedule.

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Should poachers be

shot

on sight?

The dilemma of conservation

50 | Volume 6 Issue 5


Rory Young

T

his is a very hot topic in Africa right now. Not only are calls for shoot-on-sight policies becoming louder and more vociferous but countries have started implementing the policy, not only in Africa but Asia too. Is it morally justifiable? Is it legally acceptable? Volume 6 Issue 5 | 51


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Children butchering poached elephants at Dzanga Bai in Central African Republic.

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Does it effectively stop and/or deter poaching? I cannot think of any question that I have to consider more carefully, where my opinion, recommendation, advice or actions could have more tragic consequences if I am wrong. I have in the past had to make the decision during anti poaching operations of whether my actions would be legally and morally justifiable. However, I find myself now advising governments and other organizations and instructing men in the field, on when, how and if rangers, investigators and soldiers can or should shoot. I also undertake operations in the field with these men as part of the training, and am forced to make the same decisions alongside them. If I get any of this wrong, I am responsible for people’s deaths or the loss of rare rhinos, elephants and other animals at a time when their continued survival hangs in the balance. The pressure is intense and I cannot afford to be anything less than crystal clear about what can and cannot be done in any given situation. Recent events in the United States, where the country is torn apart by the question of when it is acceptable to pull the trigger, should remind everybody of the importance of considering such questions extremely carefully. Flippant answers are irresponsible at the very least. Whether or not you as an individual agree or disagree is not the only issue. It is very important that the wider general public, including political and community leaders and authorities on ethics and morality, agree or disagree with such policy.

The ongoing devastation of wildlife populations across Africa, in particular black and white rhinos, and African and forest elephants also means we desperately need the most effective policies and strategies for dealing with poaching. Those need to be both morally and legally justifiable as well as effective. They also need to be politically acceptable, something that is incredibly difficult to achieve. So, whom are we going to kill? On the left is a picture taken by a friend in Central African Republic last year. It shows three children removing meat from the carcass of a poached forest elephant. So, which poacher would you shoot first? The little girl sitting on the elephant carcass, or the boy doing the butchering? How about the little girl on the right? She is armed with a machete... These children were locals from the area of Bayanga in Central African Republic who accompanied a group of Sudanese poachers who had traveled from Sudan across the CAR, an area twice the size of Texas, to massacre an entire herd of thirty-six rare forest elephants. They were present at the killing and were given the meat by the Sudanese in return for showing them where to find the elephants. Therefore, according to the law, they are poachers. The same children will not hesitate to participate in killing animals if told to do so. They are hungry, desperate, and terrified of the men giving the orders. Such poaching groups rarely restrict their activities to killing elephants, and are frequently employed by the SĂŠlĂŠka, and other rebel groups, as mercenaries. They Volume 6 Issue 5 | 55


Sudanese SĂŠlĂŠka mercenaries, typically equipped. When not hired by rebel groups and certain pariah governments they spend their leisure time poaching and raiding in Eastern and North-Eastern CAR.

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also engage in large-scale banditry, blocking roads and then looting, raping, kidnapping, and murdering. They have taken part in the atrocities in Darfur and are recognized as terrorists. Obviously no one in their right mind is going to justify or approve of killing those children. However, how about the mercenaries? They are nothing less than land pirates, willing to use any means possible to enrich themselves, including recruiting and using children to do their dirty work. Are they “just poachers” or are they an enemy that needs to be destroyed? They often move in groups of up to one hundred and are mobile and well equipped, with vehicles and camels, and are armed with assault rifles, propelled grenades, heavy machine guns and even anti aircraft cannons and armoured vehicles at times. They are a small army. However, they are also poachers. When they encounter law enforcement officers or any perceived threat to their activities, they not only open fire, but also will also aggressively pursue the law enforcement officers/ Rangers/soldiers and will even direct revenge attacks against any nearby civilian settlements. They address the local people as “slave”, which gives a good idea of their mentality. A good friend, Jean-Baptiste MamangKanga fought these groups for 15 years in the CAR. It was warfare, plain and simple. But, can we or should we define such people as poachers? Should they fall into a different category? They will cer-

tainly not surrender if approached by Rangers. Once they begin shooting back in an area, should these groups not be classified as bandits or terrorists? Perhaps they should be defined by their worst crimes? Ethnic cleansing, murder, and slavery. They are enemies of the country and therefore should they not be treated as such and fought as military invaders? I do honestly believe that it is fully justifiable to wipe such groups off the face of the earth. Yet we also have to be aware that others who, although engaged in criminal activities, may be coerced or bullied will accompany them into participating. Any plans to deal with these groups have to have developed tactics for tackling the worst of these while protecting the innocents amongst them. That is a very difficult task and there are no clichés or blanket statements that will ever apply. We cannot lump all poachers into one bag and apply an extreme blanket policy to policing them as such “shoot on sight”. Who poaches, what they poach, why they poach and what they are prepared to do to attain their goal varies enormously. In anti-poaching and anti-trafficking operations that I have participated in West, Central, East and Southern Africa, it is always different from country to country, area to area, and it varies within each area. There are poachers of every ethnic and religious group poaching every species of animal, plant and tree and using every means imaginable, from assault rifles, to steel traps to traditional crossbows. Volume 6 Issue 5 | 57


Women and children apprehended as part of a large-scale poaching operation being carefully walked out of an area for release under guard after being apprehended amongst a group of armed poachers.

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What they kill where and how also differs. In Malawi there is currently a problem with elephant being poached with home made steel gin traps, whilst in Guinea I have worked in an area where warthogs are hunted with AK47s. How do we differentiate? The poacher in Malawi killing elephants with gin traps will usually be moving about unarmed, whilst the Guinean poacher will be armed with an AK47, yet not hunting an endangered species. Who are we supposed to shoot on sight? How can we recognise who deserves shooting? There are certain obvious constants. Most important of which is the clear difference between poaching for commercial gain and subsistence poaching. All too often the poachers themselves are from similar backgrounds and very often motivated by poverty. The great difference though is that in the case of commercial poaching, whether for ivory or meat, there is always someone behind the scenes making buckets of cash out of the trade and it is these people who are the most culpable. When the poaching is an organized criminal activity the whole syndicate needs to be dismantled and broken up. Killing the poacher in the field is just cutting off one of the Hydra’s heads. The beast itself must be destroyed. Subsistence poachers in poverty stricken areas just cannot be dealt with in the same way as commercial poaching gang members. A subsistence poacher is often both more desperate, driven by hunger, and less culpable, as he has limited choices. If we are truly going to stop poaching, then we need to look

as seriously at helping these people find other means of survival, as at apprehending and punishing them. These people are also the most likely to be deterred by a shoot on sight policy. To shoot starving people would be an appalling crime. Here is another picture showing women and children we apprehended early this year being escorted out of the protected area. They were part of a group of over forty people poaching buffaloes by shooting into the air and shouting so as to herd them into long lines cable snares. All those who were unarmed were released immediately after interviewing them and taking statements. Sadly, there were both armed women and children in the group. This was a mixture of commercial and subsistence poachers. Commercial poachers came into the area and offered a share of the meat to villagers in return for participating. Should we have shot those women and children on sight? Here is another scenario. I was prepared to shoot the man in the picture below. He was armed and was located in a position close to where we had just pursued a group of poachers. As you can see, he is not in any way dressed as a Ranger. He is wearing a red T-shirt and shorts and is barefoot. My team and I were convinced that we had one of the poachers in our sights. The man was actually a Ranger. He was part of a team in a boat positioned to cut off any attempt by the gang we were trying to outmaneuver, by cutting off any attempted retreat across a large river. The boat team had encountered Volume 6 Issue 5 | 59


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the vessels used by the poachers to access the park. These poachers had laid fishnets before moving inland to poach big game. Their intention and past MO was to sell ivory, meat and illegal fish. They had large boats and were well equipped by a backer who expected to make good profit on all the different contraband. If they didn’t get lucky with ivory or meat, they would at least return with four boats full of illegal fish. Our Ranger had changed his shirt on encountering the nets, as it is dangerous to have buttons when working with nets. He had swapped his uniform bush shirt and trouser for the soccer shirt and shorts and because he didn’t want to get caught in a net and drown and he needed to wade through the water and mud to get to the bank where he and his comrades hoped to intercept the team we were driving towards. He had also removed his boots. The Rangers are not equipped with radios and instead use their personal cell phones to communicate (and pay for the air time out of their own meager salaries). Unfortunately this was a spot without cell coverage and he was unable to advise that he had changed clothing and position. We spotted him behind a large termite mound from a distance and prepared to shoot him if he raised his weapon to shoot at us. He had made a mistake. If there were a shoot on sight policy in place, he would have been history as soon as our team had seen him. We shouted at him to drop his weapon. The Ranger in question believed we were shouting at a poacher on our side of the termite mound that he could not

see. Fortunately he did not raise his weapon and instead, realizing that we might not recognize him, backed away, raising his weapon above his head with two hands. We immediately saw from its outline that it was an M16, something the poachers do not have access to in that area, and lowered our own weapons. There is absolutely no doubt that Ranger would have been riddled with bullets from the team if a shoot on sight policy existed. He would be dead, dead, dead. His children would be fatherless. The rangers would be demoralized. The poachers win. Their activities become easier. So aside from the extremes such as Sudanese mercenary/bandit/poacher type militarized units, where there is little other choice but to declare war on them, is a shoot on sight policy generally effective? The reality is that when you shoot dead a poacher you shoot dead your most important source of information. Any opportunity to find out who is behind the business is gone. Crucial information such as where he came from, how he traveled to and entered the area, who supplied the weapons and ammunition, who the other members of the gang are, where the contraband will be transported to, and, most importantly, who sent him, paid him or who will be buying from him. Enthusiastic armchair generals regularly berated me for writing anti-poaching doctrine, which teaches apprehension and only shooting in self-defense. I have Volume 6 Issue 5 | 61


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yet to be berated by any anti-poaching Ranger for this, once they understand and experience for themselves how many more links in the chain can be broken through professional, legal, and intelligent interviewing and reactive investigation. To really stop poaching in an area, it is necessary to cripple the whole illegal operation and take down the whole syndicate. Killing the poacher instead of questioning him destroys any chance of that. Poaching is a complex crime, requiring many participants and numerous steps. People have to fund the expedition. Someone has to supply weapons and ammunition. The poachers need to be transported, with all their kit to the area, sometimes guided in. Porters, as well as poachers/shooters, are needed to carry the ivory and meat. Officials, such as police officers, customs agents and even Rangers, have to be paid off. Different steps require different specialists, including shooters, buyers, smugglers, financiers and so on. To effectively cripple the whole industry, pressure has to be applied at all steps and to all the different individuals involved. A poacher is not going to poach if he has no ammunition for his weapon, cannot pay porters, has no one to supply, and has his own ass in a jail. The only way to really shut down the poaching is to shut down the whole business. If no one in Asia and America (the second largest market for illegal ivory) purchases ivory, then the poachers are not going to bother going after elephants. If it is very difficult to kill, transport and sell bush meat, then it will become a too expensive and difficult an undertaking.

By shooting dead all the poachers instead of professionally and legally questioning them to find out details of who is doing what, where and when, the authorities play into the hands of the brains and money behind these crimes. A dead poacher means nothing to the people who sent him other than they may have to pay a few nickels out of their millions of profits to send another one. Killing poachers, rather than arresting them, benefits one group more than any other and that is the people who send them to poach. It also benefits the people who supply the weapons and the ammunition, and the equipment, the transport and so on. Instead of the whole criminal enterprise being brought down, the poorest and usually least educated of the criminals is silenced. He is easily replaced. There is also the question of whether shooting poachers in protected areas actually acts as a deterrent. Killing professional rhino and elephant poachers will certainly deter some. However, will it deter enough to drop the levels of those willing to take on the job enough to reduce poaching activity at all in an area? I’m afraid not. The people who really need to be deterred are the kingpins and they are not the ones who get killed. It may temporarily deter gangs from a particular area, in favour of easier pickings, but it has not worked as an effective deterrent against rhino poachers. They will keep coming because the kingpins have an inexhaustible supply of desperate ex-soldiers, rebel fighters, professional criminals and even unemployed rangers. Volume 6 Issue 5 | 63


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In one small district in Zimbabwe where we were trying to put an end to the elephant poaching, we discovered that there were at the time 52 unemployed former Rangers and Game Scouts with firearms and anti-poaching training. They had been laid off when the tourism that funded the conservation efforts in Zimbabwe dried up. It was only inevitable that we found that most of the poaching in the area was by men from those ranks. That said, many others volunteered to assist in anti-poaching operations for no pay, even though they had no income to feed their families.

It is popular to call this a war. Yet, has a war ever been won by just killing the soldiers on the ground? No country fights a war purely tactically; a war is first planned and fought for strategic reasons. In this war, the greatest enemy is not the poacher, it is the crime lords and to win this war pressure needs to be applied to every link in the poaching, trafficking and selling process, from source to market, disrupting the trade at every step and making it simply too costly to undertake and the rewards to too low.

Most importantly, once a shoot on sight policy is implemented the stakes are raised dramatically and thereafter the poachers will also begin to use more aggressive tactics to ensure they are on the winning end of any encounter. More Rangers are killed and wounded than before. Shooting dead subsistence poachers on sight is also completely unjustifiable and counterproductive. The community will take their revenge on both the wildlife and the Rangers. And we can’t even differentiate between subsistence and commercial poacher much of the time!

whether it is even possible to capture poachers. Yes, it is. The tactics necessary to shoot a poacher without putting the Ranger’s life at unnecessary risk are virtually the same as those necessary to apprehend a poacher. Poachers cannot be apprehended in pursuit, they have to be ambushed or surrounded and surprised. Rangers killed by poachers have usually invariably been trying to catch them or attack them in pursuit from the rear and have themselves been ambushed.

Shooting in defense of human life is unquestionably justified. In the case of the The first country to issue order to shoot Sudanese brutes I mentioned earlier, they on sight and to indemnify Rangers need to be defeated militarily to protect against prosecution or civil suits in the the population and resources of the councourts was Zimbabwe in 1989. Rangers try. That is clearly justified warfare, in had already killed 89 poachers in just one defense of the whole population’s lives in area of the country, in just a few years, the area they operate, as well as the lives before the shoot on sight order was givof the Rangers sent to stop them. That en. After the go ahead was given, more situation does not apply to a poacher poachers died but more and more came. working for a criminal organization. Both It failed. It was clear that for every poach- ethically and objectively it is important to er who was killed another ten were ready capture him. to take his place. The obvious question that follows is

In order to win, departments need to develop doctrine, methods, skills, tactics Volume 6 Issue 5 | 65


Rangers arresting a syndicate leader. This man was arrested after three levels of arrests and interrogations. He led a large network in three countries, yet to all appearances was a moderately wealthy man by local standards. He was popular in his hometown for being very giving to others.

Officers learning how to age tracks so as to ensure no approaching poachers are too close from the rear

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and strategies for safely investigating, locating and apprehending poachers and traffickers in the field. Officers need to be trained to use these methods as safely as possible and to use the information gathered from proactive and reactive investigation to then bring down whole syndicates. We have been successfully doing that. It is not a new concept and it works.

The key is the adoption and use of a complete and comprehensive doctrine, including all the strategies, methods and skills necessary to investigate, analyze, plan and execute effective operations at all parts of the illegal process so as to put pressure on all parts of the networks.

structors, investigators, unit leaders and rangers in the last year and have successfully taken down whole syndicates and entire networks as part of the inoperations part of our training. We have worked with organizations this year such as UNOPS, The European Union, and different national wildlife and forest departments, military special forces and law enforcement units all over Africa. Feedback from the field pours in constantly.

During in-operations training officers visit villages surrounding the protected areas and meet with community and religious leaders, hunting brotherhoods, political groups, officers from other authorities and many more.

We teach those involved not only how to coordinate tracking, observation and Reducing demand and taking down the ambush teams to apprehend poaching whole syndicates or networks driving the gangs in the field, (and if necessary how industry is the only way to bring the levels to correctly and effectively return fire), of poaching down. but also how to positively engage with the community to educate and sensitize Whilst it is crucial to bring down the dethem and build up relationships that evmand and fight the illegal retailing and eryone benefits from, and which provides wholesaling of wildlife products, such as the necessary information to go after the ivory in Asia and the US, and the sale of bush meat in the cities of West and Cen- people behind the commercial poaching. tral Africa, someone still needs to hold The most important asset in the fight the fort in and around the protected areas against commercial poaching is the asand follow up on information from arrests sistance of the community. They provide made there. information on movements into and out of the area and other illegal activities. We have trained over 100 directors, in-

Where occasional arrests or contacts were had in the past, the men we have trained now regularly report whole syndicates including foreign nationals being arrested. The system works to effectively halt poaching and that is our goal.

Not only are the meetings invariably successful in terms of teaching the communities why the protected areas are important and how they can benefit from protecting them, but also the same communities provide the information on all the commercial poaching operations in the area and allow us to plan arrest operations. The interviews of those arrested, along with information from other sources, Volume 6 Issue 5 | 67


Officers meeting with community elders in Guinea.

Officers in Malawi applying information from interviews and other sources to determine poacher movements and especially choke points so as to be able to mount effective apprehensions.

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give us all the vital information needed to apprehend the criminals those suspects work with. Further arrests lead to even more arrests and so on and on. The same applies to arrests of poachers in the protected areas. One arrest leads to more arrests, which lead to more arrests and so on up the food chain.

them from discovery.

The devastation of Africa’s wildlife can be stopped and stopped a lot more easily and for a lot less cost than most people imagine. Chengeta Wildlife is one organization that is proving that on the ground in the front line and in the communities in West, Central and East Africa. It can be In conclusion, shooting someone dead done and we are showing the world how. creates a very final “dead end� and, if the Our in-operations training and advice to aim is to gather information so as to bring anti poaching units and National wildlife down the whole network, it is therefore and forestry departments as a whole, is not only a tragic but also a stupid action. having an impact far beyond the small donations we have received in order to Only in exceptional circumstances and with a clear legal mandate, can a shoot to do our work. Every penny has gone into the field. We are proud of our achievekill policy ever be used. ments so far and are confident and deterTo stop and deter poaching the syndimined to escalate our work exponentially. cates and networks need to be torn apart. If you would like to see videos of our antiThat requires an intelligent, necessarpoaching program in action, please visit ily complex and thorough doctrine that our YouTube channel at https://www.youaddresses the problem in its entirety. tube.com/channel/UC863KxbyP1IzU43Shooting poachers in the field does not tear apart the networks; it simply protects RkcB7Tg?view_as=public

Based in Zambia, Rory Young has spent almost 25 years working in Central and Southern Africa in wildlife and forestry management as a professional safari guide, ranger, manager and owner. He now alternates between guiding, training safari and wildlife personnel and writing from home, which also allows him time with his Dutch wife Marjet and their two young children. He has done a lot of problem animal control of African dangerous game and passed the tough Zimbabwean Professional Hunter proficiency. He now only hunts problem animals or for the pot. He is a strong proponent of ethical hunting. Rory writes a regular blog at http:// youngrory.wordpress.com/ Volume 6 Issue 5 | 69


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African hunters of yesteryear

The African hunters of days gone by have had experiences few hunters have today. In those days, the game was much more plentiful and regulations were non-existent. Hunting was more dangerous in those days - no chopper evacuation when clawed up by a wounded leopard and no protection against marauding tribesmen. We can learn something from them. 82 | Volume 6 Issue 5


The Maneating lions of

Tsavo

UNSUCCESSFUL RHINO HUNTS

by Lieut.-Col. J. H. Patterson, D.S.O.

A

lthough the jungle round Tsavo was a network of rhino paths I had never so far been successful in my efforts to obtain one of these animals, nor was my ambition yet to be realised. One day I was out exploring in the dense bush some six or seven miles away from camp, and found my progress more than usually slow, owing to the fact that I had to spend most of my time crawling on all-fours through the jungle. Volume 6 Issue 5 | 83


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I was very pleased, therefore, to emerge suddenly on a broad and well-beaten track along which I could walk comfortably in an upright position. In this were some fresh rhino footprints which seemed barely an hour old, so I determined to follow them up. The roadway was beaten in places into a fine white dust by the passage of many heavy animals; and as I pushed cautiously forward I fully expected to come face to face with a rhino at every corner I turned. After having gone a little way I fancied that I really did see one lying at the foot of a tree some distance ahead of me, but on approaching cautiously found that it was nothing more than a great brown heap of loose earth which one of the huge beasts had raised by rolling about on the soft ground. This, however, was evidently a resting-place which was regularly used, so I made up my mind to spend a night in the overhanging branches of the tree.

from us towards the rhino, who scented us immediately, gave a mighty snort and then dived madly away through the jungle. For some considerable time we could hear him crashing ponderously through everything that came in his way, and he must have gone a long distance before he recovered from his fright and slowed down to his usual pace. At any rate we neither heard nor saw anything more of him, and spent a wakeful and uncomfortable night for nothing.

My next attempt to bag a rhino took place some months later, on the banks of the Sabaki, and was scarcely more successful. I had come down from Tsavo in the afternoon, accompanied by Mahina, and finding a likely tree, within a few yards of the river and with fresh footprints under it, I at once decided to take up my position for the night in its branches. Mahina preferred to sit where he could take a comfortable nap, and wedged himself in The next afternoon, accordingly, Mahina a fork of the tree some little way below and I made our way back to the place, me, but still some eight or ten feet from and by dusk we were safely but uncomthe ground. It was a calm and perfect fortably perched among the branches night, such as can be seen only in the directly over the path. We had scarcely tropics; everything looked mysteriously been there an hour when to our delight beautiful in the glorious moonlight, and we heard a great rhino plodding along stood out like a picture looked at through the track in our direction. Unfortunately a stereoscope. From my perch among the moon had not yet risen, so I was unthe branches I watched first a water-buck able to catch sight of the monster as he come to drink in the river; then a bushapproached; I knew, however, that there buck; later, a tiny paa emerged from the was light enough for me to see him when bushes and paused at every step with he emerged from the bushes into the little one graceful forefoot poised in the air -clearing round the foot of our tree. Nearer thoroughly on the alert and looking round and nearer we heard him coming steadily carefully and nervously for any trace of a on, and I had my rifle ready, pointing it in possible enemy. At length it reached the the direction in which I expected his head brink of the river in safety, and stooped to appear. But, alas, just at that moment to drink. Just then I saw a jackal come the wind veered round and blew straight up on its trail and begin carefully to stalk Volume 6 Issue 5 | 85


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it, not even rustling a fallen leaf in its stealthy advance on the poor little antelope. All of a sudden, however, the jackal stopped dead for a second, and then made off out of sight as fast as ever he could go. I looked round to discover the cause of this hurried exit, and to my surprise saw a large and very beautiful leopard crouching down and moving noiselessly in the direction of our tree. At first I thought it must be stalking some animal on the ground below us, but I soon realised that it was Mahina that the brute was intent on. Whether, if left to himself, the leopard would actually have made a spring at my sleeping gun-bearer, I do not know; but I had no intention of letting him have a chance of even attempting this, so I cautiously raised my rifle and levelled it at him. Absolutely noiseless as I was in doing this, he noticed it -- possibly a glint of moonlight on the barrel caught his eye -- and immediately disappeared into the bush before I could get in a shot. I at once woke Mahina and made him come up to more secure quarters beside me. For a long time after this nothing disturbed our peace, but at last the quarry I had hoped for made his appearance on the scene. Just below us there was an opening in the elephant grass which lined the river’s edge, and through this the broad stream shone like silver in the moonlight. Without warning this gap was suddenly filled by a huge black mass -- a rhino making his way, very leisurely, out of the shallow water. On he came with a slow, ponderous tread, combining a certain stateliness with his awkward strides. Almost directly beneath us he halted and stood for an instant clearly exposed to our view. This was my opportunity; I

took careful aim at his shoulder and fired. Instantly, and with extraordinary rapidity, the huge beast whirled round like a peg-top, whereupon I fired again. This time I expected him to fall; but instead of that I had the mortification of seeing him rush off into the jungle and of hearing him crash through it like a great steam-roller for several minutes. I consoled myself by thinking that he could not go far, as he was hard hit, and that I should easily find him when daylight arrived. Mahina, who was in a wild state of excitement over the burra janwar (great animal), was also of this opinion, and as there was no longer any reason for silence, he chatted to me about many strange and curious things until the grey dawn appeared. When we got down from our perch, we found the track of the wounded rhino clearly marked by great splashes of blood, and for a couple of miles the spoor could thus be easily followed. At length, however, it got fainter and fainter, and finally ceased altogether, so that we had to abandon the search; the ground round about was rocky, and there was no possibility of telling which way our quarry had gone. I was exceedingly sorry for this, as I did not like to leave him wounded; but there was no help for it, so we struck out for home and arrived at Tsavo in the afternoon very tired, hungry and disappointed. Rhinos are extraordinary animals, and not in any way to be depended upon. One day they will sheer off on meeting a human being and make no attempt to attack; the next day, for no apparent reason, they may execute a most determined charge. I was told for a fact by an official who had been long in the country that on one occasion while a gang of Volume 6 Issue 5 | 87


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twenty-one slaves, chained neck to neck as was the custom, was being smuggled down to the coast and was proceeding in Indian file along a narrow path, a rhinoceros suddenly charged out at right angles to them, impaled the centre man on its horns and broke the necks of the remainder of the party by the suddenness of his rush. These huge beasts have a very keen sense of smell, but equally indifferent eyesight, and it is said that if a hunter will only stand perfectly still on meeting a rhino, it will pass him by without attempting to molest him. I feel bound to add, however, that I have so far failed to come across anybody who has actually tried the experiment. On the other hand, I have met one or two men who have been tossed on the horns of these animals, and they described it as a very painful proceeding. It generally means being a cripple for life, if one even succeeds in escaping death. Mr. B. Eastwood, the chief accountant of the Uganda Railway, once gave me a graphic description of his marvellous escape from an infuriated rhino. He was on leave at the time on a

hunting expedition in the neighbourhood of Lake Baringo, about eighty miles north of the railway from Nakuru, and had shot and apparently killed a rhino. On walking up to it, however, the brute rose to its feet and literally fell on him, breaking four ribs and his right arm. Not content with this, it then stuck its horn through his thigh and tossed him over its back, repeating this operation once or twice. Finally, it lumbered off, leaving poor Eastwood helpless and fainting in the long grass where he had fallen. He was alone at the time, and it was not for some hours that he was found by his porters, who were only attracted to the spot by the numbers of vultures hovering about, waiting in their ghoulish manner for life to be extinct before beginning their meal. How he managed to live for the eight days after this which elapsed before a doctor could be got to him I cannot imagine; but in the end he fortunately made a good recovery, the only sign of his terrible experience being the absence of his right arm, which had to be amputated.

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If you’re going home, you don’t get wet. Seeing is better than hearing We start as fools and become wise through experience.

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We are the green revolution. We do not print many thousands of copies and have hundreds stay on the shelves or come back to us. We distribute digitally and print on demand only. This is negates the necessity of the cutting down of trees to make paper - which will never be used.

Viva la Revolution!

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Make a Plan

Dr Wallace Vosloo is an Engineer and Scientist by profession. His family has lived in Africa since 1696 and he has a deep love for the continent. He is a practical outdoorsman and loves traditional hunting, axe and knife throwing, longbow shooting, black powder rifle- and cannon shooting, salt and fresh water fly fishing and tracking. The art of survival is Wallace’s main field of interest and his passion is to transfer these old forgotten skills to young hunters.

Hints and advice are given in good faith to be of help in emergencies. The writer as well as the publisher, personnel and agents concerned does not accept any responsibility for any injury, accident or damages that might arise from the use of any of the hints. 106 | Volume 6 Issue 5


Bullet in the barrel? CLICK HERE to buy your copy of Make a Plan now for only $8.50

You aim, press the trigger, and a weak puff informs you that it is only the percussion cap or a very small blast that ignited. The lock withdraws an empty cartridge but as you look into the dark barrel you see the bullet stuck inside. Dang! Something went wrong with the reloading and now your rifle is out of action, with no available tools, Here are a couple of ways to get the bullet out. Just remember that the rifle barrel, espe- cially the front must not be damaged. Rather use softer materials like wood, fibre glass or brass to remove the bullet. You must work extremely carefully if you must use hard metal. Also take note where the bullet is stuck – that will determine if you are going to take it out from the front or the back. The shortest way is usually easier ●● If you have a cleaning rod at hand that is of course the easiest solution. Take a piece of wood, wrap a or piece of cloth around it, and use it as a hammer to flip the bullet out ●● The aerial of a vehicle can sometimes be used successfully to get out the bullet. This metal is hard, so put enough adhesive tape or other protection around the aerial. Wind thicker covering around the point so that it can stay in the middle of the barrel and then a thinner layer further. It is very important that you work carefully and not damage the barrel ●● Sometimes a bullet can be removed by using pneumatic pressure. I have been able to blow an old 0.54 bore bullet out of a gunpowder rifle with one of these new soda tube bicycle pumps - but be careful, the bullet comes out at a speed! Rather try using the spare wheel for spare air ●● •A hydraulic hammer can also be used. Pour water carefully in the longer open side of the barrel . Then take a stick and cut it nice and round so that about 5cm of it -with a thin piece of rag around it - fits snugly in the barrel. This now is your piston. Place it on top of the water and hit on it with something heavy. The bullet ought to move a bit. Withdraw the piston and fill the barrel up with water again. Repeat this process until the bullet is out. Remember to dry the barrel before you shoot again and also to oil it afterwards.

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Your African safari is a unique experience. Now you can document your hunt day by day and revisit those exciting times for years to come. 31 Full days of journaling space with vital information: ●● safari clothing ●● personal item checklists ●● health and first aid ●● mammal identification information with photographs, tracks, dung and SCI and Rowland Ward qualification minimums.

CPR. Deal with dangerous animals up close. Identify and treat bites from snakes, spiders and scorpions. Know the right emergency numbers to dial in an emergency – it’s all there. A must-have item for every serious hunter. Sturdy PlastiCoil binding for durability and easy opening, 110 pages, 6.0 x 9.0 in. Full color covers and cream interior printed in black and white.

Know how to administer

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True North

John Eldredge

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Dare you come alive? The reason we don’t know what we want is that we’re so unacquainted with our desire. We try to keep a safe distance between our daily lives and our heart’s desire because it causes us so much trouble. We’re surprised by our anger and threatened by what feels like a ravenous bear within us. Do we really want to open Pandora’s box? If you remember the Greek myth, Pandora was the wife of Epimetheus, given to him by Zeus. The gods provided many gifts to her, including a mysterious box, which she was warned never to open. Eventually, her curiosity got the better of her, and she lifted the lid. Immediately, a host of evils flew out, plagues against the mind and body of mankind. She tried to close the box, but to no avail; the troubles had been loosed. Dare we awaken our hearts to their true desires? Dare we come alive? Is it better, as the saying goes, to have loved and lost than never to have loved at all? We’re not so sure. After his divorce, a friend’s father decided to remain single the rest of his life. As he told his son, “It’s easier to stay out than to get out.” Our dilemma is this: we can’t seem to live with desire, and we can’t live without it. In the face of this quandary most people decide to bury the whole question and put as much distance as they can between themselves and their desires. It is a logical and tragic act. The tragedy is increased tenfold when this suicide of soul is committed under the conviction that this is precisely what Christianity recommends. We have never been more mistaken.


African XMag Vol6issue5  

Survival Hunting: Variation on a theme ● The .30-’06 Springfield in Africa: The evolving argument ● Thoughts on the .416 Rigby: A great cali...

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