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TRAINER’S MANUAL ON GENDER IN LOCAL COUNCILS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN


TRAINER’S MANUAL ON GENDER IN LOCAL COUNCILS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH SUDAN

August 2013


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

TABLE OF CONTENTS Acronyms/Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………............ About the manual……………………………………………………………………………………......

9 11

SECTION ONE FACILITATION METHODS AND LEARNING MANAGEMENT Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Setting training objectives................................................................................................................................................ Steps of planning a training event/session................................................................................................................. Analysis of participants/trainees..................................................................................................................................... Resource materials............................................................................................................................................................... Principles of adult Learning.............................................................................................................................................. Training methods.................................................................................................................................................................. Energizers and ice-breakers.............................................................................................................................................. Evaluation................................................................................................................................................................................

13 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16

SECTION TWO INTRODUCTION TO GENDER CONCEPTS Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Gender concepts................................................................................................................................................................... What is gender....................................................................................................................................................................... Gender blind........................................................................................................................................................................... Gender bias............................................................................................................................................................................ Gender perspective............................................................................................................................................................. Glass ceiling............................................................................................................................................................................ Gender equality..................................................................................................................................................................... Gender equity........................................................................................................................................................................ Affirmative action................................................................................................................................................................. Gender Based Discrimination........................................................................................................................................... Gender Based Violence....................................................................................................................................................... Gender analysis..................................................................................................................................................................... Gender roles........................................................................................................................................................................... Women’s empowerment...................................................................................................................................................

19 19 20 20 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 23

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

SECTION THREE LOCAL COUNCILS AND GENDER CONCEPTS Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Mandate of Local Governments..................................................................................................................................... Key terminologies in Local Councils..............................................................................................................................

25 25 26 27

SECTION FOUR WOMEN AND LEADERSHIP IN COMMUNITIES Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Qualities of a good leader................................................................................................................................................. Constraints to women’s participation in leadership................................................................................................ Suggested solutions to women’s constraints to leadership.................................................................................

29 29 30 30 31

SECTION FIVE OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL/REGIONAL/NATIONAL COMMITMENTS AND RESPONSES ON GENDER Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ 33 Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................... 34 International Responses to Promoting Gender Equality....................................................................................... 34 Regional Responses to promoting Gender Equality in Africa.............................................................................. 36 The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights................................................................................................ 36 New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development............................................................................................ 37 East African Community Initiative on Gender............................................................................................................ 37 The National Response to Gender by the South Sudan Government.............................................................. 37 Interim Constitution of South Sudan 2005................................................................................................................. 38 The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011............................................................... 38 SECTION SIX GENDER AND POLICY LINKAGES Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Background............................................................................................................................................................................

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

The National Policy framework for Gender Mainstreaming in the Republic of South Sudan.................. Government Institution framework for Gender........................................................................................................ Case Study: Uganda’s National Gender Policy 1997................................................................................................. Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................................

42 43 44 44

SECTION SEVEN GENDER MAINSTREAMING Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ What is gender mainstreaming? .................................................................................................................................... What is the mainstream? .................................................................................................................................................. Principles of gender mainstreaming............................................................................................................................. What is gender analysis? .................................................................................................................................................. Gender analysis tool............................................................................................................................................................ Advantages of gender analysis....................................................................................................................................... Gender mainstreaming strategies and what Councilors can do......................................................................... Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................................

45 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 48 48

SECTION EIGHT GENDER RESPONSIVE BUDGETING AND RELATED CONCEPTS Purpose..................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Key concepts in budgeting............................................................................................................................................... Framework and tools for gender budgeting.............................................................................................................. Steps in gender budgeting............................................................................................................................................... Why gender responsive budgets? ................................................................................................................................. National budgets and gender issues............................................................................................................................. Tools for gender budget analysis.................................................................................................................................... Gender responsive budget process............................................................................................................................... Framework for gender analysis of expenditures....................................................................................................... The of role of Councilors in gender responsive budgeting.................................................................................. Challenges and limitations to gender budgeting..................................................................................................... Strategies for mainstreaming gender responsive budgeting..............................................................................

49 49 50 50 51 52 53 53 55 56 56 57 58

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

SECTION NINE GENDER EMPOWERMENT Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Introduction.......................................................................................................................................................................... Economic empowerment................................................................................................................................................. Consumption and poverty............................................................................................................................................... Access and involvement in economic and productive activities....................................................................... Access to and control of productive resources......................................................................................................... Micro finance and access to credit institutions......................................................................................................... Education................................................................................................................................................................................ Recommended interventions for promoting gender equality in education................................................. Health.......................................................................................................................................................................................

59 60 60 61 62 62 63 63 65 65

SECTION TEN GENDER & HIV/AIDS Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................... What is HIV? ........................................................................................................................................................................... What is AIDS? ....................................................................................................................................................................... Gender and HIV/AIDS......................................................................................................................................................... The HIV/AIDS situation in sub-Saharan Africa........................................................................................................... Strategies of HIV/PMTCT....................................................................................................................................................

67 67 68 68 68 68 69 70

SECTION ELEVEN THE ROLE OF COUNCILS IN GENDER ACTION Purpose.................................................................................................................................................................................... Session objectives................................................................................................................................................................ Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................... Role of County Councilors................................................................................................................................................ Challenges of tackling gender issues by Local Councils........................................................................................ Strategies for mainstreaming gender by Councilors...............................................................................................

71 71 72 72 72 74


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Acronyms/Abbreviations AIDS APRM AU AWEPA CEDAW BPFA CPA CRC CSOs EAC EASSI EFA FHH GBV GRB HIV ICSS IPU MDGs MHH MPs NEPAD NGO NLA RSS TCRSS UPE UN UNDP UNSCR

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome African Peer Review Mechanism African Union Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Beijing Platform for Action Comprehensive Peace Agreement Convention on Rights of Children Civil Society Organizations East African Community East African Sub-regional Support Initiative for the Advancement of Women Education for All Female-Headed Households Gender Based Violence Gender Responsive Budgeting Human Immunodeficiency Virus Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan Inter-Parliamentary Union Millennium Development Goals Male-Headed Households Members of Parliament New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development Non-Governmental Organization National Legislative Assembly Republic of South Sudan Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan Universal Primary Education United Nations United Nations Development Programme United Nations Security Council Resolution

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

UN Women WBI SWAp PB MTEF GRB CSOs PEAP BFP PRSP DFID NDP MDAs STIs DP PFM ADB

: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :

United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women World Bank Institute Sector Working Groups Performance Budgeting Medium Term Expenditure Framework Gender Responsive Budgeting Civil Society Organizations Poverty Eradication Action Plan Budget Frameworks Paper Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers Department for International Development National Development Plan Ministries, Departments and Agencies Sexually Transmitted Diseases Development Partner Public Finance Management African Development Bank


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

ABOUT THE MANUAL Introduction to the manual This manual is intended for use to train Councilors drawn from 10 Councils of the Central Equatoria and Eastern Equatoria States of the Republic of South Sudan. It is among the several modules AWEPA South Sudan is delivering to build the capacity of the Councilors to realize their mandate. Funding The manual has been developed with support from the Association of European Parliamentarians with Africa (AWEPA), an international NGO with its Headquarters in Amsterdam. The objective of AWEPA is to support efforts aimed at the realization of human rights, democracy, combating of poverty and to promote sustainable development in Africa by supporting capacity development of African Parliaments and by promoting a better understanding of African development among European Parliamentarians. AWEPA has been implementing capacity building programmes for the National Legislative Assembly and the State Legislative Assemblies in South Sudan since 2007. The programmes have been delivered through a mix of approaches including trainings, consultancies, outreach programmes and publications. This module has now been developed to articulate a gender perspective to the development of the Republic of South Sudan from a local government point of view. The overall objective of AWEPA’s work in South Sudan has been to contribute to the sustainable socio-economic development and reconstruction in South Sudan, through strengthening the capacity of NLA and the State Legislative Assemblies and Local Councils. Support to the Local Councils AWEPA has embarked on the implementation of a new programme to strengthen the capacity of ten (10) Local Councils of Central and Western Equatoria States as well as the National Legislative Assembly. The programme, which is funded by the Royal Netherlands Government, seeks to strengthen the capacity of councilors and Members of Parliament, particularly women, through training, study visits and outreach activities. Rationale for preparing this training manual This gender module is developed to support gender training for local councils of the Republic of South Sudan (RSS). The purpose of the training is to facilitate a thorough understanding and discussions on the role of Local Councils in promoting and taking appropriate action on gender matters in the Republic of South Sudan. The manual provides a guide for any trainer AWEPA shall select to facilitate the Gender in Local Councils module. The manual is structured into sections covering the following areas: -

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Facilitation methods and learning management; Gender Concepts; Local Councils and Gender Concepts; Women and Leadership in Communities; International, regional and national commitments and responses on gender; Gender and policy linkages; Gender mainstreaming; Gender empowerment; Gender & HIV/AIDS; Gender Responsive Budgeting; and Oversight role of Councils in promoting gender action.

The details are contained in the tentative time table for delivering the Training of Trainers for the module marked as Appendix 1. Section one of the module is designed to enable the trainer appreciate the basic aspects of effective delivery of training activities in general. Each of the subsequent units contains detailed information from which the trainer will prepare for the training sessions. This manual outlines what is to be used by the trainer under each unit and the various methods and materials that may be used to facilitate the learning process. In addition, notes to enable an in-depth understanding of the various issues have been provided. The overall objective of delivering this module is that participants will be introduced to gender as a tool for achieving development in the country. The specific objectives are that participants will be able to: r Master how to deliver the training module r Explain key gender concepts and their applicability in their environments; r Understand the relationship between gender and Local Councils; r Explain the role women as leaders in communities; r Appreciate the various instruments, commitments and responses on gender at international, regional and national levels; r Explain gender mainstreaming and empowerment as development tools; r Discuss the effects of HIV/AIDS on gender in society; r Discuss gender budgeting as a tool for allocating public resources for the benefit of citizens; and r Apply the principles and practices of gender in executing their mandate as leaders.


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

FACILITATION METHODS AND LEARNING MANAGEMENT

SECTION

Purpose This section provides background information for the trainer to acquire knowledge, skills and methods in conducting trainings to enable them to effectively and consistently deliver the thematic training module. Objectives of this part are to highlight and explore: i. Key aspects of organizing a training programme; and ii. Methods of conducting training for adult learners.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Setting training objectives This is a process where the trainer determines what she/he wants the participants to learn. The major aim of setting objectives for any training is to facilitate communication among the designer of the training, the participant and the facilitator of the training. In addition, training objectives are useful because they define, determine terminal behavior, assist in evaluation of the training and break up the training and hence sequencing the instruction. In this case the trainer can establish the objectives from the participant’s view by soliciting for their expectations before delivering the training. Steps of planning a training event/session Planning is very essential for successful implementation of any training activity. The seven (7) steps of planning a training activity include: r Who; find out how many people will be participating in the training and get to know their needs, characteristics and expectations; r Why; understand the situation that calls for this training and the context within which the training will take place; r When; find out how urgent the training is and negotiate an appropriate time and length for the event; r Where; determine an appropriate training location and make arrangements to create as productive a learning environment as possible in that physical space; r What; decide what knowledge, skills and attitudes that should be conveyed through the training; r What for; Write achievement-based objectives that take the “who, why, when, where and what” into account; and r How; develop or adopt learning tasks and materials that will enable trainees to achieve the objectives. Analysis of participants/trainees It is important for trainers to analyze the characters of participants and environment of the training. To set clear modes of training, consideration must be given to the following; r Educational background r Work experience r Age r Sex/gender factor r Group size r Cultural/social considerations


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Resource Materials The choice of materials and resources used during training should be selected carefully. They will help to reinforce the message being delivered, clarify points, and create the necessary excitement when delivering the training. In turn, these aids will help to enhance the learning environment by adding different dimensions to the level of understanding of the content. Resources and materials include a wide variety of communication products, including flip charts, posters, PowerPoint presentations, hand-outs, case studies, media cut-outs and video clips. For instance, the use of any picture, concept or idea the trainer presents is no longer simply words - but words plus images. This is illustrated with the saying “a picture speaks a thousand words”. Attention should also be given to what message needs to be conveyed, what needs to be emphasized and equipment available. The idea is to keep it simple and straight (KISS). Principles of adult learning This manual has been specifically developed for training of local councilors who are obviously adults. It is imperative that the trainer is well conversant with adult learning principles. A list of the 10 principles of adult learning is provided in Appendix 2. Training methods There are a variety of training methods available to you as a trainer. In this section, emphasis is focused on those methods that have been suggested for use in this manual. The choice of the training method is important because it determines the degree to which participants will be able learn. A good training method ensures that the training objectives are achieved. The advantages and disadvantages of these methods are presented in Appendix 3. The methods include: (a) Case Study This is a training technique where participants are given information about a situation and are tasked to come up with their interpretation or solution to a problem concerning the situation. This technique is useful in giving participants a chance to practice a method of tackling difficult problems before they are personally involved in a “real” situation that may be difficult, confusing and frightening. (b) Demonstration Demonstration is a presentation method that involves doing something. By actual performance, the facilitator shows the learners what to do and how to do it. With his/her associated explanations, the facilitator indicates why, when, where and how something is done. This method is normally combined with other methods. The technique is mainly used for showing correct/incorrect actions, procedures, practices, teaching a specific skill or technique, modeling a step-by-step approach and giving participants a yardstick to aim at.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

(c) Role Plays Role play is where the participants are presented with a situation, which they are expected to explore by acting out the roles of those represented in this situation. The players should be carefully selected and should be properly prepared for their roles. The audience should be equally prepared for the role - play by debriefing them on how they are to behave during the presentation. The players should behave naturally in the course of the acting. The trainer facilitates discussions on the event that has been role-played. (d) Lecture or Exposition A lecture is a straight talk or exposition possibly using visual or other aids, but without active group participation. A lecture is very appropriate where the trainer knows more on the subject than the participants and where the size of the group is large. The lecture method is useful for transmission of information which may be classified as of interest or value only and which the participants are not expected to remember in full. The lecture method is about identifying issues, presentation of the information points and discussion of examples. (e) Brainstorming This is where participants suggest ideas on given issues, which are later discussed. The facilitator normally engages the participants in a brainstorming session by asking a general question to the participants. Brainstorming can be done as an entire group or by sub dividing participants into smaller groups. Energizers and Ice-breakers Energizers and icebreakers are means of making trainees at ease. The essence of icebreakers is to break ground and establish a commonality. By creating a warm, friendly, and personal learning environment, trainees will participate more and learn more. One way to do this is to incorporate group activities, such as icebreakers, team building activities, and energizers. Note: For more information on general facilitation skills, please refer to Appendix 4 Evaluation At the end of delivering the module, the facilitator will get the participants’ opinion on whether or not the objectives stated at the outset have been achieved. The participants will also indicate their reactions to different aspects of the learning process. Evaluation is often looked at from four different levels which include:r Reaction - What does the learner feel about the training? r Learning - What facts, knowledge, etc., did the learner gain? r Behaviors - What skills did the learner develop, that is, what new information is the learner using on the job?


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

r

Results or effectiveness - What results occurred, that is, did the learner apply the new skills to the necessary tasks in the organization and, if so, what results were achieved? Did the organization change behavior or processes as a result of training?

Although the level of evaluating results and effectiveness is the most desired result from training, it is usually the most difficult to accomplish. Evaluating effectiveness often involves the use of key performance measures - measures you can see, e.g. remembering key gender terms and concepts, developing gender action plans, modifying Bills to reflect gender issues, debating gender matters etc. Effective evaluation of a training program or course means continuous assessment of its progress and effectiveness. Evaluation improves the future planning and implementing of training. Evaluation helps determine the extent to which training objectives have been achieved. Evaluation gives insights for reviewing, adjusting, and revising goals, schedules and procedures. Normally evaluation of training is done in four stages: r Pre-Training Assessment/Evaluation; a method of judging the value of a program before the program activities begin. r Formative Evaluation; a method of judging the value of a program while the program activities are forming or happening. Formative evaluation focuses on the process r Summative Evaluation; a method of judging the value of a program at the end of the program activities. The focus is on the outcome r Post Training Evaluation; a method of judging the value / performance improvement in terms of effectiveness (quality/less mistakes/higher value) or efficiency (time/resources required to do the work)? A sample of a post evaluation format is attached as Appendix 5 for ease of reference.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

INTRODUCTION TO GENDER CONCEPTS

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module aims to explain and discuss gender concepts and terms. It provides explanations and discusses the definition of gender by making a distinction between the biological differences which determine sex, and the social construct which makes use of biological differences to justify the assignment of different roles to men and women. Session objectives At the end of this session, participants should be able to: i. Explain with examples and illustrations what the term gender means; ii. Describe the difference between “sex” and “gender”; iii. Define key gender terms; and iv. Demonstrate the meaning of gender in their societies.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Gender Concepts This sub-section of the module provides definitions, explanations and discussions on key terms on gender. The trainer is expected to lead discussions and to illustrate the various definitions and concepts on gender to the participants. What is gender This session should take at least one and a half hours. Step 1 The trainer asks participants to define gender on a piece of paper or cut flip charts which can be pasted on the wall or read out. Step 2 The trainer identifies the common words that define gender and summarizes them and finally giving them the definition below: Gender is the social attribute associated with being male or female and the relationships between women, men, girls and boys. These attributes and relationships are socially constructed and are learned through socialization. The concept of gender also includes expectations about the characteristics, aptitudes and likely behaviors of both women and men, and when applied to social analysis, reveals socially constructed roles. Sex and gender do not mean the same thing. While sex refers to biological differences, gender refers to social differences, which can be modified since gender identity, roles and relations are determined by society. Distinctions between Sex and Gender In a brainstorm, the trainees are asked to differentiate between gender and sex. The trainer takes note of all different opinions on a piece of paper. The trainer then summarizes in the table below; Table 1. Difference between Gender and Sex Gender

Sex

A social construct or a set of socially given attributes

A fact of human biology/Determined by birth

It is society-specific and varies between and within Does not vary within and between different societies societies It changes over time

Fixed and unchanging over time

Differentiates roles, responsibilities and obligations

Same for all women. Same for all men.

Is influenced by many factors including education, Not influenced by economic and social factor income level, religion, age, social class and others


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Gender blind Gender blind means failing to take account of, or recognize the different roles, capabilities and needs of women and men. It is often assumed for instance that a national budget will, in its functions, benefit women and men, boys and girls equally. A gender blind budget fails to acknowledge that there are different roles, capabilities and needs of men and women which need to be taken into account in national budgets. Gender bias Gender bias means failure to take account of or recognize the different roles, capabilities and needs of women and men which often result in favoring men over women. Gender perspective A gender perspective means recognizing the different roles, capabilities and needs of women and men and taking account of them before embarking on an intervention, activity, project and programme. In terms of governance, using a gender perspective involves incorporating an understanding of how being a man or a woman defines capacities such as taking up positions as parliamentarians and Assembly women. Glass ceiling The concept refers to the disproportionately large presence of groups of people, such as women, at lower levels in the workforce and their absence at higher levels. The nursing and teaching professions are often examples of where the glass ceiling occurs. Women are employed in large numbers at the lower levels, but they are often noticeably absent at the decision-making level. This is in part a reflection of the family socialization and conditioning process, which defers the decision-making responsibility to the man in the family. In other words, the glass ceiling refers to the limitations that are placed on women with regard to certain professions or promotion to certain positions across professions. Gender equality Gender equality refers to equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities between women and men and girls and boys. Equality does not imply that women and men will become the same but that women’s and men’s rights, responsibilities and opportunities, will not depend on whether they are born male or female. Gender equality implies that the interests, needs and priorities of both women and men are taken into consideration, recognizing the diversity of different groups of women and men. Gender equality refers to equal opportunities for all people and equally valued work done by all, irrespective of their sex. Gender equity Gender equity relates to the exercise of rights and entitlements that lead to outcomes which are fair and just

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

for women and men. This includes fairness and justice in the distribution of responsibilities, access to resources, control over resources and access to benefits between men and women. Affirmative action Are measures targeted at a particular group, and intended to offset disadvantages, or eliminate and prevent discrimination arising from socially defined roles and responsibilities assigned to men and women. Gender based discrimination This is the unequal treatment applied to people on basis of age, sex etc. For instance, gender based discrimination in the workplace is illustrated by such practices as the division of labor, which denies some people the opportunity to perform certain tasks they are capable of purely on the basis of the roles assigned by society. Access to and control over resources, which many women are denied, is a good indicator of gender based discrimination and exacerbates the numbers of women who are poorer than men. Gender Based Violence Gender Based Violence (GBV) is any act of violence, which is committed against a person on the basis of their gender. While it is often taken to be synonymous with violence against women and girls, who are most often the targets of GBV, women, men, boys and girls can all be both the victims and the perpetrators of GBV. Gender analysis Gender analysis entails a process of studying information to ensure that benefits of policies are equally distributed to all target groups. The study requires an understanding of the meaning of gender and the availability of gender disaggregated statistics. It does not necessarily mean equal numbers of men and women in all activities, nor does it necessarily mean treating men and women exactly the same. It is about recognizing that men and women often have different needs, aspirations and priorities, face different and unequal constraints and contribute to development in different ways. Gender analysis is therefore about recognizing these differences and designing interventions with those differences in mind. For example, policies or policy documents such as budgets and poverty reduction strategies may be examined to see how they recognize and address the different needs and priorities of women and men. Gender roles Gender roles are learned behaviors in a given society which condition the type of activities, tasks and responsibilities that are perceived as male or female. Gender roles can be identified as productive, reproductive, and community roles.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Women’s empowerment Empowerment is about people, both men and women. It is about building the capacity of people to participate in all aspects of the economy and social life and be able to control their own destinies. Women’s empowerment implies that women must not only have equal capabilities such as in health and education; but also equal access to resources and opportunities such as land and employment. It also implies that they should be able to use these rights, capabilities, resources and opportunities to make strategic choices and decisions such as through leadership and participation in political institutions. They must also be able to live without fear of compulsion and violence. Exercise 1: Gender roles at household and community level. Break participants into groups and let them brainstorm and debate these roles (For details refer to Appendix 6)

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

LOCAL COUNCILS AND GENDER CONCEPTS

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module is tailored to create awareness of the role/ mandate of Local Councils and highlight the importance of Gender in Local Councils. The session provides comparative studies or the mandate of Local Councils and further highlights key terminologies used in Local Council mandate. Session objectives i. To expose trainers and trainees to the mandate of Local Councils ii. To provide a comparative study on the mandate of Local Councils in Uganda and Nigeria as case studies iii. To highlight key gender principles in the running of Local Councils and how they relate to gender matters iv. To identify challenges to gender empowerment in local councils

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Mandate of Local Governments The existence of Local Government in the Republic of South Sudan is derived from Article 47(c) of the country’s Transitional Constitution. The Local Governments shall be created within the states, which shall be the closest level to the people. Article 166 (5) of the Transitional Constitution further states that the Local Government tiers shall consist of County, Payam and Boma in the rural areas, and of City, Municipality and Town Council in the urban areas. In most jurisdictions, Local Governments are established as machinery for implementation of Government policy, delivery of public services and enactment of regulatory guidelines for society within their areas of operation. They also conduct monitoring of government policies, plans, programmes, projects and key interventions. In the implementation process, Local Governments ought to ensure they receive proposals for reviews of all policies which are being implemented. Generally speaking, the laws that create Local Governments set out to achieve the following objectives: (a) Give full effect to the decentralization of functions, powers, responsibilities and services at all levels of local Government; (b) Ensure democratic participation and control of decision making by people concerned; (c) To establish affirmative action on behalf of groups marginalized on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of addressing imbalances which exist against them; (d) To establish sources of revenue and financial accountability; (e) To provide for the election of local councils; (f ) To establish and provide for the composition of interim councils for newly created Local Government units pending elections; and (g) To provide for formation of interim executive committees Box 1: Objects of Local Government in South Sudan r Promote self-governance and enhance the participation of the people and communities in maintaining law and order and promoting democratic, transparent and accountable Local Government; r Establish the Local Government institutions as close as possible to the people; r Encourage involvement of communities and community based organizations in the matters of local government, and promote dialogue among them on matters of local interest; r Promote and facilitate civic education; r Promote social and economic development; r Promote self-reliance amongst the people through mobilization of local resources to ensure the provision of health and education services to communities in a sustainable manner;


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Promote peace, reconciliation and peaceful coexistence among various communities; Ensure gender mainstreaming in Local Government; Acknowledge and incorporate the role of traditional authority and customary local government systems; Involve communities in decisions relating to the exploitation of natural resources in their areas and promote a safe and healthy environment; and r Promote and support training local cadres. r r r r

Source: The Transitional Constitution of South Sudan, 2011 It is important to note that gender mainstreaming is explicitly one of the objects of Local Government created by the Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan. However, the implementation of all the other objects should be executed with a gender perspective in mind. Key terminologies in Local Councils A discussion of Local Councils and gender can never be satisfactory unless some definitions are clarified. These include:Decentralization of functions and powers Means the mandate given to Local Councils to originate work plans for the county, prioritize expenditure, identify areas of implementation and carry out actual implementation, identification of target groups/beneficiaries and formulation of by-laws and ordinances. Councils perform these tasks through formulation of annual work plans, council resolutions and passing of county budgets. Democratic participation This involves the processes that lead to election of Local Government representatives and leaders through regular free and fair election. Affirmative action This is special remedy that may be embedded in the Constitution or any other law or policy meant to address gender, regional or historic imbalances affecting a specific group of people or community, including those with gender orientation. Gender / tradition / historic imbalances This refers to any gaps, real, perceived or assigned between men and women as a result of gender discriminative polices, cultures, bad laws or historical events etc.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Participation This implies the active involvement of women in the decision making structure of Local Councils. The women should be part of the district council, executive, technical staff and be actively involved at community level structures and meetings. Active participation requires skills and knowledge. Exercise 2 (to be conducted in groups and report to plenary) 15 minutes Using case studies provided in Appendix 7, brainstorm using the following questions: a. From the case studies, identify areas where the roles and functions of Local Government directly affect women. b. Suggest ways in which Local Governments can ensure that they effectively benefit women in the services they offer. c. What challenges are women likely to meet in accessing services provided by Local Governments and how should this be addressed? d. Suggest practical ways in which your Local Government can best meet the needs of women.


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

WOMEN AND LEADERSHIP IN COMMUNITIES

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module discusses the context of women involvement in leadership in a community. It helps the participants to identify and understand the qualities of a good and a bad leader. It also examines what can be done to help women take up leadership positions in their communities and society in general. Session objectives (i) To expose trainers and trainees to discuss women and leadership in communities; (ii) To discuss the qualities of good and bad leaders; and (iii) To discuss what should be done to help women take up leadership positions.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Qualities of a good leader Leadership is a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of common objectives or tasks. A good leader should be:Honest; a good leader should be accountable to the people by informing them about decisions taken during the meetings of the councils. He/she conveys information received from the State or Government of South Sudan. Well informed; they should not show a sense of ignorance about what is happening in his/her area of jurisdiction. A good leader should consult people about their needs and problems. Not use his/her privileged position for personal gains; they should not be corrupt and take decisions which have a bearing to personal gains as opposed to the entire community. In addition, they should never use their privileged positions to harass women into sexual relationships. Development oriented; leaders should encourage people to start income generating activities or mobilize them to undertake development programmes in their communities. A good leader is one who educates or sensitizes those he or she is leading so that they can improve their well being and that of their communities. A leader should plan for his/her area and advise the people on all aspects of development. He/she should stimulate people’s initiatives; cooperate with them and coordinate development activities. Constraints to women’s participation in leadership In most jurisdictions and countries, women’s participation in leadership is hampered by the following:r Some men do not allow their wives to attend meetings, even when they themselves already hold such positions, as they fear that women are being lured into relationships with other male leaders; r Women’s workload causes poor time-keeping and prohibits their effective participation; r Lack of respect for women as leaders by both women and men; r Lack of transport (meetings are usually far and most women do not own bicycles); r Low educational levels among women; r Culturally determined factors: women are shy, lack confidence, have a low self-esteem; r Separation or divorce - when it occurs a woman has to go away from a given locality. This creates a problem if she is a leader; r Marriage (girls cannot hold positions of leadership in a community because they sooner or later get married and go to another community, so they are not elected to leadership positions). r Women are normally not considered eligible for leadership.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Suggested solutions to women’s constraints to leadership The following solutions were proposed to these constraints: r Men should learn to trust their wives. Women should also behave well so that their husbands can trust them; r Men should take up household work. When women go for meetings for example, men should assist in collecting firewood, water, cooking and taking care of the children; r Change of attitude by men and women towards women’s leadership. Women need to learn to support each other more; r Sensitization of men so that they can allow their wives to participate in leadership; r Family planning; having fewer children will create more time for women; r Education of girls as future leaders; r Organizing adult literacy classes for women; and r Sensitization regarding the negative cultural attitudes towards women. Exercise: Discuss time management as an attribute of leadership. (For details refer to Appendix 8)

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

OVERVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL/REGIONAL/ NATIONAL COMMITMENTS AND RESPONSES ON GENDER

SECTION

Purpose The awareness and understanding of these instruments is intended to provide information that helps decision makers appreciate the international, regional and local contexts in which gender as a development tool is applied. Session objectives i. To generate awareness among participants of the international, regional and national responses for the promotion of gender equality; ii. To highlight a number of commitments on gender equality that have been made by the Government of South Sudan; iii. To discuss challenges to the implementation of these obligations.

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Introduction Nations under the framework of the United Nations are duty bound to their citizens and other nations to honor commitments made at the international level. There exist powerful international, regional (Africa) and national frameworks for the pursuit of gender equality and women’s rights. This understanding is also crucial for advocacy in policy, legislation and resource allocation. The Government will also be held accountable for its actions locally by its nationals and civil society groups and internationally by Agencies, UN bodies, through established reporting mechanisms and through peer reviews by other Governments. International responses to promoting gender equality The United Nations Commission on Women Until 1946, when the United Nations set up the Commission on the Status of Women to monitor the situation of women and promote women’s rights, women’s issues were debated only in bodies specifically concerned with human rights. When it was set up, the Commission on the Status of Women observed that all over the world, the most severe forms of discrimination against women were in the areas of political, legal and economic rights (both as individuals and family members), access of girls and women to education and training (including vocational training) and working life. The Universal Declaration on Human Rights In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex and embodies the most important human rights principles in relation to the promotion of gender equality. International conferences In 1975, the first international conference on women was held in Mexico City, and 1975-1985 was declared the decade of women. The three main objectives of the decade were Equality, Development and Peace. The major aim of the declaration was to work towards the eradication of all kinds of discrimination against women. The international covenants Following from the UDHR, international human rights standards have been enshrined in other international covenants, most notably the International Covenants on Civil and Political Rights and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966).


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

The Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women-CEDAW The CEDAW was adopted by the United Nations in 1979 and came into force in 1981. Most importantly, the CEDAW was structured to address all forms of discrimination against women and guarantee women and girls equal opportunity in all areas of life. The CEDAW also recognized the invaluable contribution of women to family and society. (More on the highlights of the CEDAW can be found in Appendix 9.) The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, 1989) articulates a clear concept of gender equality and recognizes that women’s rights require the realization of both civil and political rights as well as access to basic needs such as health, nutrition, education and shelter. The Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action: The fourth World Conference on Women, held in Beijing in 1995, was built on issues raised by previous meetings/conferences, and emphasized the need for gender equality, equity and the empowerment of women in all aspects of development. There was consensus on the need to put people at the heart of development. The 2000 Beijing + 5 conferences and its political declaration and outcome document served to build further on the need to pursue gender equality issues. The 2005 Beijing + 10 Summit which was held in New York was devoted to a review of the Beijing Platform for Action. The meeting reaffirmed that the full implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action is essential to achieving the internationally agreed development goals including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The UN Security Council Resolution 1325 On 31st October 2000, the UN Security Council at its 4213th meeting adopted the UNSCR 1325 which called for gender mainstreaming and greater participation of women in national and international peace and conflict resolution. The Republic of South Sudan, now a sovereign state and a member of the UN, is bound to implement the contents of this resolution. Moreover, the implementation of UN Resolution 1325 is particularly of importance to South Sudan given its historical background and its proximity to rather volatile Great Lakes Region. The key features of this resolution are in Appendix 10. The UN Security Council Resolution 1820 UNSCR 1820 recognizes sexual violence as a “weapon of war” and underpins its centrality in the maintenance of international peace and security. The resolution notes that sexual violence can constitute a war crime, a crime against humanity or a constitutive act with respect to genocide and stresses the need to increase women’s participation in conflict prevention and resolution processes.

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By agreeing to undertake the obligation of these international and regional instruments and declarations, the government committed itself to protecting and ensuring women’s and children’s rights and in so doing, it subscribes to being held accountable for this commitment before the international and regional community. Regional responses to promoting gender equality in Africa In July 2004, Heads of States in Africa adopted a Declaration of Gender Equality in Africa. This affirmed their commitment to the various international instruments, as well as committing to address areas of concern to women on the continent. These include:r Women’s access to land; r Inheritance and property rights and how they affect women; r Exclusion of women from decision making in conflict resolution while conflicts disproportionately impact them; r The recruitment of girl children as soldiers and sex slaves; r The strengthening of gender programmes at the national level with more human and financial resources; r The high incidence of HIV/AIDS among women, and the lack of support from governments and non-governmental organizations, given that the burden of care for AIDS-affected people falls on women r The adverse impact of gender inequality on economic growth in Africa. Indeed, the African Union (AU), in its constitutive Act itself, provides that the organization functions in accordance with the principle of the promotion of gender equality. The African Union has established a global precedent for gender equality by adopting the principle of gender parity in decision making and electing an equal number of men and women commissioners to lead the AU. There is a commitment to extend the principle of equal representation to all levels of the AU Commission and to other AU organs and programmes, including the New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). Within the organs of the AU, there is a dedicated Directorate of Women, Gender and Development charged with the responsibility of coordinating gender efforts and actions in member states. The Directorate organizes trainings; post publications and documents; hosts discussion forums; builds partnerships; and communicates and implements key decisions on gender by the African Union. In addition to the above mentioned commitments, significant regional processes that African countries have embarked upon as mechanisms for the eradication of gender discrimination include adoption of the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, and the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights The African Charter on Human and People’s Rights was adopted in 1981 and entered into full force in 1986. The


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

protocol to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, the first protocol to be developed by Africans for African women, applies CEDAW and the Beijing Platform for Action in the African context. It builds on and strengthens other regionally negotiated issues that have been detrimental to women’s human rights. It challenges cultural behavior and traditions such as widowhood and inheritance rights that often violate the fundamental rights of women in Africa. With regard to the rights of women, the charter provides that ‘The State shall ensure the elimination of every kind of discrimination against women and also ensure the protection of the rights of the woman and the child as stipulated in international declarations and conventions’ New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development The New Economic Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) was adopted in 2001 by the heads of governments represented in the African Union. NEPAD is Africa’s strategy for eradicating poverty. There are eight priority areas that constitute the focus of NEPAD’s sustainable development strategy. These are: r Peace and security r Infrastructure development r Human-resource development r Poverty alleviation r HIV/AIDS and health r Agriculture r Science and technology; and r Arts and culture. The NEPAD secretariat has gone a step further to institute a Gender and Civil Society Organization’s unit at the secretariat to spearhead the raising of gender awareness in the deliberations of NEPAD and the mobilization of Civil Society Organization’s participation in the NEPAD process. East African Community Initiative on Gender The Republic of South Sudan has applied to be a member of the East African Community (EAC) and subsequently the EAC is considering this application. The treaty for the establishment of the EAC in Article 121 and 122 recognizes the significant contribution that women make towards the process of socio-economic transformation and sustainable growth, and the importance of full participation of women and men in the economic and social development of the partner states. It is therefore paramount that the NLA understands the gender perspectives of the EAC and its member states. More on key gender issues in the East African region is in Appendix 11. The National Response to Gender by the South Sudan Government There is demonstrable commitment by the founding fathers, the leadership and the interim institutional arrangements that the Republic of South Sudan is aware of the importance and the need to pursue development, which is holistic and gender focused.

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Interim Constitution of South Sudan, 2005 r The Interim Constitution of South Sudan, 2005 was formulated following the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). By and large, this Constitution had gender sensitive provisions. r Article 29(3)(a) provided that no association shall function as a political party unless its membership was open to citizens irrespective of gender among other considerations; and Article 33(1) recognized the right to education to all citizens of South Sudan without any form of discrimination including gender. r Further, Article 112(1) and 117(3) of the ICSS, 2005 provided that the establishment of the Council of Ministers of the Government of Southern Sudan and selection of ministers was inclusive with due regard to gender among other considerations. r Similarly, Article 126(5)(a) implored the Judiciary of Southern Sudan to adjudicate justice to all citizens irrespective of their gender status among other factors. r On the other hand, Article 142(1)(d) of the ICSS, 2005 directed the Civil Service to provide all services to all persons impartially, fairly and without bias or discrimination on the basis of gender and other factors such as ethnicity, religion, region or disability. r It also under Article 148(1)(c) directed the Anti-Corruption Commission to combat administrative malpractices in public institutions including gender and sexual harassment. r The ICSS, 2005 under Article 179(6) provided that resources and common wealth of Southern Sudan was to be allocated in a manner that each level of government discharges its legal and constitutional responsibilities and ensures that the quality of life and dignity of citizens are promoted without any form of discrimination including gender. r Similarly, Schedule (d) of the Interim Constitution identified gender policy as one of the competencies that the National and State Governments of the Republic of Southern Sudan had to have. r The ICSS, 2005 was definitely a good gender sensitive Constitution. However, it would be paramount to evaluate the extent to which these provisions were implemented during the period 2005 to 2011. Such lessons would inform the constitutional review process being undertaken in the Republic of South Sudan. The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011 The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan (TCRSS), 2011 was formulated as a result of amending the ICSS. Article 14 of the TCRSS, 2011 directs that all persons are equal before the law and are entitled to protection by the law without any form of discrimination including by sex. Similarly, Article 15 entitles every person of marriageable age a right to found a family with free and full consent of man and woman involved. Article 16 of the TCRSS, 2011 clearly spells out the rights of women. They include the right to be accorded full and equal dignity of the person with men; equal pay for work and other related benefits with men; participate


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

equally with men in public life; and to own property and to have a share of the estates of their deceased husbands. Further, Article 16(4) specifically directs that all levels of government in South Sudan to: promote women participation in public life and their representation in legislative and administrative organs by at least 25 percent as affirmative action to redress imbalances created by history, customs and traditions; enact laws to combat harmful customs and traditions which undermine the dignity and status of women; and provide maternity and childcare for pregnant and lactating women. Under Article 25(3) (a) of TCRSS, 2011 it provides that no association shall function as a political party unless its membership is open to citizens irrespective of gender among other considerations. Article 29(1) recognizes the right to education by every citizen at all levels of government without any form of discrimination, including gender, as well as ethnicity, religion, race disability or health including HIV/AIDS. Article 122(5) (a) of the TCRSS implores the Judiciary of Southern Sudan to adjudicate justice to all citizens irrespective of their gender status among other factors. Article 139(1) (d) directs the Civil Service to provide all services to all persons impartially, fairly and without bias or discrimination on the basis of gender and other factors such as ethnicity, religion, region or disability. The TCRSS under Article 169(6) provides that resources and common wealth of Southern Sudan is to be allocated in a manner that each level of government discharges its legal and constitutional responsibilities and ensures that the quality of life and dignity of citizens are promoted without any form of discrimination including gender. Schedule (c) (19) identifies gender policy as one of the concurrent powers in which both the National and State Governments shall have legislative and executive competences. Finally, Article 203 (1) (c) of the TCRSS recognizes women organizations as part of categories of stakeholders expected to participate in the National Constitutional Conference that will discuss the draft constitutional text and explanatory report produced by the National Constitutional Review Commission. It is paramount that all stakeholders, including NLA participates in ensuring that the National Constitution that will be formulated is gender sensitive. Exercise: What would the Councilors like to be included in the constitutions and laws to strengthen gender as a development tool in the RSS?

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

GENDER AND POLICY LINKAGES

SECTION

Purpose To review the policy framework within which gender budgeting and development is derived Session objectives i. To highlight the importance of the National policy framework to the attainment of gender equality ii. To explain the importance of a National Gender Policy

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Background National policies are a general framework in which governments plan to address national priorities particularly the key issue of poverty eradication and national development. To move the nation forward on this front, both the lower and national governments must adopt an all-inclusive – gender approach to development. It should be noted that while budgets are a presentation of policy in figures and facts, policies are the compass that give general direction to budgeting. So, if a policy has not explicitly provided that it intends to empower women and men equally, there will certainly be a challenge in attempting to allocate money during budgeting for such purposes. Policies therefore ought to be analyzed for gender awareness and inclusiveness prior to their expression in monetary terms. The National Policy framework for Gender Mainstreaming in the Republic of South Sudan In order to realize the aspiration of the TCRSS, 2011 on gender policy as enshrined in schedule (c)(19), the government and stakeholders must formulate, implement and evaluate a comprehensive gender policy. However, even without a documented and well-bound gender policy, Government pronouncements by the Head of State and actions by Government Ministries, Departments and Agencies constitute a framework for Government engagement on gender matters. At the policy level, the social protection institutional framework and overall gender policy is expected to address major disparities in vulnerability between women and men. In education, where discrimination against girls and women is a major issue, a specific gender policy was to be formulated by the Government. Simultaneously, special programs will be implemented to increase girls’ enrolment and retention in both primary and secondary schools including the expansion of community classrooms for girls within selected government programs and the introduction of bursaries for girls. In addition, the intensive teacher-training program will focus on female teachers while curriculum revision will enhance gender sensitivity. Health interventions will aim to reduce malnutrition, which is prevalent among pregnant and lactating women in high-risk states and counties. Female-Headed Households (FHHs), 57 percent of which are poor compared with 48 percent of Male-Headed Households (MHHs), will receive special attention during the design of livelihood opportunity projects. The Female-Headed Households make up a significant number of both the urban and rural poor. It is especially important that activities are designed to promote equal opportunity or access for men and women. For example, in the natural resources sector, it will be important to ensure that women are not disadvantaged when seeds and tools are distributed as part of community development activities, or in terms of access to extension services.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Similarly, measures in economic functions related to the enabling environment should be gender sensitive, such as clarification of property rights and land tenure which could be discriminatory between men and women as well as access to credit. Enhancing women’s access to microfinance should be a crucial consideration in financial sector development. Gender-specific programming with young people that builds on reliable information could create opportunities for skills development and growth. Investments in adolescent girls to delay marriage and childbirth can reduce one of the world’s highest maternal mortality rates we witness in the country. With 36 percent of girls entering marriage before the age of 18 and only 8 percent contraceptive prevalence, increased knowledge on how to engage this crucial population is necessary to reducing fertility rates and raising labour market productivity levels. Generating productive employment for youth – in particular young men - is also crucial to a nation’s stability. Considering that South Sudan is a very young nation and that women fair much worse than men in many development indicators, it was noted that any development strategy that does not prioritize the concerns of women and the youth will not be effective in addressing development concerns. This therefore calls for special consideration in favour of women and in particular girls in cases such as access to education. Such measures as offering more financial support to girls to enable them access education and the establishment of vocational training centres for women could be a good starting point. Short of these measures, the prospects of reaching the MDG goal of gender equality by 2015 could become even harder for the new nation. Government Institutional framework for Gender The Government’s institutional framework for gender can be traced to the Chukudum Declaration of 1994 in which the SPLM created the Secretariat of Women and Child Welfare. Today, the gender function in South Sudan is coordinated and spearheaded by the Ministry of Gender, Social Welfare and Religious Affairs. Among other functions and duties, the Ministry is charged with articulating and executing government policy on gender; developing policies and programmes in regard to women affairs; supervising all organizations, societies and unions that are concerned with women and women affairs; and advising and supporting State and Local Governments in their responsibilities on gender matters. It is clear that the Ministry cannot achieve some of these functions on its own and could require sector-specific institutional arrangements embedded within line Ministries to enable sector specific concrete actions. These actions include initiating plans, strategies and the allocation of resources to strengthen the line Ministry’s role, performance and effectiveness in implementing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the Beijing Platform for Action 1995 and the CEDAW for the advancement of gender equality within their specific sector

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such as education, health, water and agriculture. The Ministry has identified strategic areas that should be addressed by the Government to include: the development of gender policy; promotion of women’s rights; promotion of women’s education; advocacy and support women’s participation in all aspects of life including social, political and economic matters; training and raising awareness on gender and promotion of gender equality. On gender-based violence and reproductive health rights, areas of concern are: high prevalence of genderbased violence and abuse including sexual violence, domestic violence, emotional and psychological abuse, early (forced) marriages, prostitution, and sexual exploitation among others; rape is still very common but hardly reported; domestic violence even in pregnancy are significant causes of abortion and maternal morbidity and mortality; Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), though not a general problem in South Sudan, is common in the Nuba Mountains with a prevalence of about 73 percent; and absence of effective legislation to address genderbased issues. Case Study: Uganda’s National Gender Policy, 1997 The goal of the National Gender Policy is to mainstream gender concerns in national development in order to improve the social, cultural, political and economic conditions of women. The objectives of the National Gender Policy of Uganda include; r Provide policy makers and other key actors in the development field reference guidelines for identifying and addressing gender concerns r Identify and establish an institutional framework with the mandate to initiate, coordinate, implement, monitor and evaluate gender responsive development plans. r Redress imbalances arising from gender inequalities r Ensure the participation of women in all stages of the development process r Promote equal access to resources and benefits r Promote recognition and value for women’s roles and contribution as agents of change and beneficiaries in the development process Conclusion The existence of a National Gender Policy facilitates monitoring, coordination and general guidance for all stakeholders. With a National Gender Policy, other sectors can develop related sectoral gender and workplace policies. The Local Councils will certainly be better guided if a National Gender Policy is put in place. Exercise: Compare and contrast gender policies of Uganda with those of the Republic of South Sudan.


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

GENDER MAINSTREAMING

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module introduces gender mainstreaming. Case studies and practical exercises are included to enhance understanding and skills for gender analysis and gender mainstreaming. It discusses gender mainstreaming strategies and what parliamentarians can do to promote gender equality. In addition, benefits of mainstreaming gender into Parliament are addressed. Session objectives By the end of the session, the participants should be able to: i. Conduct a gender analysis as a step in gender mainstreaming ii. Demonstrate knowledge and skills on gender mainstreaming iii. Explain the importance of mainstreaming gender equality in policy and programmes iv. Highlight the role of Local Councils in the promotion of gender equality

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What is Gender Mainstreaming? Gender mainstreaming is a strategy for making women’s as well as men’s concerns and experiences an integral dimension of any planned action including legislation, policies or programmes, in all political, economic, and societal spheres so that women and men benefit equally, and inequality is not perpetuated. The ultimate goal is to achieve gender equality. Mainstreaming includes gender-specific activities and affirmative action whenever women or men are particularly in disadvantageous positions. Gender-specific interventions can target women exclusively, men and women together, or only men, to enable them to participate in and benefit equally from development efforts. These are necessary temporary measures designed to combat the direct and indirect consequences of past discrimination. What is the Mainstream? The mainstream refers to the inter-related set of dominant ideas and development directions, and decisions or actions taken in accordance with them. The assumptions, ideas and practices of the mainstream affect the decisions taken by policy makers and guide resource allocation. This approach calls for empowering people so that they can participate in and benefit from development processes. It is this shift in understanding of the problem of gender inequality, the realization that previous approaches to development were not resulting in real change in the position of women and gender equality, as well as the recognition that gender equality is integral to development, that has paved way for gender mainstreaming as an approach to addressing gender inequality and the empowerment of women. Principles of Gender Mainstreaming Gender mainstreaming should be guided by principles as outlined below: r Responsibility for implementing gender equality is system-wide, and rests on actors at the highest levels within agencies and their departments or units. r Mainstreaming requires clear political will from senior management who should ensure allocation of adequate resources and competent leadership for mainstreaming. Additional financial and human resources, if necessary, are important for translating the concept into practice. r Adequate accountability mechanism for monitoring progress needs to be established within each and every area of work including collaboration with partners/stakeholders. r Analysis/understanding of the history, context, rationale, ideology, and implications of gender equality is necessary. Also necessary is the initial identification of issues and problems across all areas such that gender differences and disparities can be diagnosed. As such, the commissioning of specific gender studies and surveys and a systematic use of gender analysis and sex disaggregated data, are requirements.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

r Mainstreaming requires programmatic, organizational, personal introspection, and transformation. r Gender analysis should always be carried out. This implies taking gender relations into account at all ` stages of policy and programme cycle, and legislature, in order to achieve gender equality. r Mainstreaming does not replace the need for targeted, women specific policies and programmes and positive legislation. As women are under-represented in politics and public life, for instance, gender mainstreaming in this area requires that efforts be made to broaden women’s participation in governance at all levels. r Mainstreaming requires a correct perception that gender inequality is not a women’s issue that should be addressed by women; rather, it is a societal issue that must be addressed by society. Having explained gender mainstreaming and the principles for mainstreaming gender, the next section exposes readers to gender analysis tools and skills for doing gender analysis, which is a step in gender mainstreaming. What is Gender Analysis? Gender analysis provides a basis for vigorous scrutiny of the differences between women’s and men’s lives as this removes the possibility of decisions being based on incorrect assumptions and stereotypes. Analysis involves addressing questions such as the differences in impacts of policy/programme on men and women, the advantages and disadvantages, roles and responsibilities, who does what, who has what, who needs what, strategies and approaches in closing the gap between what men and women need. Gender analysis is used in a variety of settings, such as, to examine different forms of social, political and economic organizations like the household, the state, markets, civil society and community-based networks. To this effect, there are frameworks that serve to assess the situations of women and men on a step-by-step basis in order to arrive at proper understanding of their respective situations and needs. There is no one best way to conduct gender analysis. Gender Analysis Tool The 10 Key Questions Tool (UNFPA 2003) that may be used in different situations such as the family, the community, institutions and society at large. Details in Appendix 12. Advantages of Gender Analysis Gender analysis has the following advantages: r Gender analysis provides an understanding of gender and its implications for policy development and implementation. r It aids in the generation of scientific/objective information for planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation. r It helps to establish benchmarks for tracking progress on gender equality issues.

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r It provides the justification and rationalization for interventions. r It breaks down the division between the private and the public domains, and brings the private into the public sphere. r It looks at how the dynamics within the household interrelate with dynamics at international, state, market, and economy level. Gender Mainstreaming Strategies and What Councillors Can Do? What is the role of Councilors in mainstreaming gender into their work and/or in the work of the Local Government? It is a known fact that every policy, programme or project has an impact on society and therefore, on women, men, boys and girls. Equitable policies for men and women benefit society as a whole. On the other hand, inequitable policies result in resources such as development funds that are not well spent. In order to ensure that policies and plans have a gender perspective, Councilors should take the needs, interests and special circumstances of men and women, as well as boys and girls into consideration. For this to happen, the Council should play a leading role to ensure gender mainstreaming as a critical activity of their work. This implies introducing organizational transformation, and, as is required of every change process, this change must be managed. The creation of an enabling environment for gender mainstreaming should therefore be seen as critical to institutionalizing gender equality. Conclusion Facilitation of access to power or control over resources and addressing strategic gender interests assists women and men to achieve greater equality and change existing gender roles and stereotypes. Gender interests generally involve issues of position, control and power. Exercise: What are the benefits of mainstreaming gender into Local Councils? (Brainstorming exercise – 10 minutes) Benefits of mainstreaming gender into Local Councils in Appendix 13.


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

GENDER RESPONSIVE BUDGETING AND RELATED CONCEPTS

SECTION

Purpose To help participants appreciate the budget making process and what a gender budget is. Session objectives i. To explain/clarify key concepts used in gender budgeting ii. To equip participants with requisite tools/skills for gender budgeting iii. To highlight the importance of gender budgeting to community empowerment and national development

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Key concepts in budgeting r Budget: simply put is the most comprehensive statement of government’s planned revenue and expenditure plan within a given financial year. It specifies the resources as will be allocated to various sectors/ministries, Local Governments, statutory authorities and institutions to meet policy objectives. r The budget process: is a stakeholder decision-making cycle on how to prioritize the available resources among competing priorities. Normally, this happens before the end of a financial year and concludes with the passing of the budget of the next financial year. r The budget cycle: is a series of activities intended to formulate, enact, execute – implement the budget. It also extends technically to post budget scrutiny, auditing and monitoring and evaluation of planned activities. Understanding the budget cycle is critical in influencing resource allocation. Active participation by all stakeholders and a transparent and accountable process is highly recommended. r Gender budgeting: is a process involving an analysis of the mainstream government budget so as to ensure that the budget priorities, expenditures and revenue projections address the different needs of women and men. The process involves three main stages: Understanding the situation of men, women, boys and girls to identify their different needs – the gender needs. Analyzing the policy objectives to determine whether they are gender sensitive and in line with the real situation of women and men, boys and girls and other marginalized groups. Analyzing the expenditures and revenue to see whether they are allocated to areas of maximum impact to women and men. The gender budgeting process may be extended to budget implementation; monitoring and evaluation to make sure that needs of women, men, boys and girls are not left out along the way. Framework and tools for gender budgeting These are skills and interventions used to analyze differences in public spending on sectors and interventions as they impact on men and women? Gender budgeting examines funding priorities to various ministries e.g. how much money is allocated to the Ministry of Health compared to the Ministry of Transport and within the various sectors in given ministries. For example, how much money has been allocated to the Ministry of Health for capacity building compared to maternal health. Gender budgeting is the single most important tool for the creation of significant impact on the lives of women. (a) Gender blind budget: is the opposite of gender responsive budgets. They replicate the status quo and do not substantively transform or empower women significantly. This approach to budgeting presupposes that both men and women have the same needs and are affected by the same problems or by the same problem


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

in the same way. This approach is dangerous, is generalized and does not create the desired empowerment to communities. (b) Gender disaggregated data. The budget process uses data for making decisions. To allocate resources among competing priorities requires data which clearly portrays the gender gap in a sex disaggregated way. For instance, in analyzing school retention, one would need to know by disaggregated data how many boys dropped out of school in a given year compared to girls. Assuming the girls are more, most resources ought to be deployed to interventions that are geared to keeping the girl-child at school. All Government planning units must keep their data in a gender disaggregated manner for ease of utilization by decision makers. Gender aware policy appraisal; is a deliberate scrutiny of any given policy to assess the extent to which it benefits equally or disadvantages either women or men. This could be by policy design, which in turn translates to its outcome. It is imperative to analyze every proposed policy to address issues of equality, access, before attempting to implement it. With a good monitoring and evaluation plan, defects may be remedied in the course of implementation but this is normally hard. Gender disaggregated beneficiary needs assessment; Every planned project is normally preceded by assessment. This participatory tool allows for perspectives of both women and men as intended beneficiaries to be obtained. It must however be structured to allow for women participation. What time is the said meeting? Who is allowed to speak? What is the venue? How is the focus group discussion structured? This tool is useful for creating a sense of programme ownership as well as setting the stage for evaluation. Steps in gender budgeting 1. An analysis of the situation needs assessment for women and men, boys and girls and people with disability; 2. Assessment of the proposed sector interventions including policies, programs, legislation and other initiatives. The key question is to find out if this existing and proposed interventions meet the needs of women; 3. Review the available resources and allocate it to address the issues or gender gaps raised in two above; 4. Monitor to see whether planned interventions are being implemented as agreed; 5. Assess the impact to see if the problem /gender gaps were addressed.

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Exercise. This Table is not necessarily looking for “correct” answers. Please respond by answering true or false to the statements in table 2 below. The response and questions should be discussed with a trainer for clarity. Statement 1

A Gender Budget is entirely a women’s budget

2

A Gender Budget addresses the needs of women and men

3

Gender Budgeting causes chaos in sub-county, municipality budget

4

Gender Budgeting involves preparing a separate budget for women

5

Gender Budgeting puts money in the hands of women that makes them “big headed”

6

Gender Budgeting promotes accountability in LLGs

7

Gender Budgeting promotes domestic Violence

8

Gender Budgeting promotes girls at the expenses of boys

9

Conducting gender budgeting is a question of justice

10

Gender Budgeting means taking away from men and giving to women

11

Gender Budgeting does not consider the unique local conditions

12

Gender Budgeting promotes faster growth

13

Gender Budgeting can reduce gender gaps

True

False

Why gender responsive budgets? Analyzing the budget from a gender perspective provides a useful mechanism to assess the effects of government policies on men and women, girls and boys, and the real contributions all individuals make to the economy. In this way, government can evolve and implement policies that ensure equity. Gender responsive budgets are therefore important in many ways: r Gender responsive budgets meet the needs of all sectors of society and therefore increase efficiency; r Gender responsive budgets increase economic efficiency and social welfare; r Gender responsive budgets seek to reduce gender gaps and inequalities as they address the needs of the less privileged; r Gender responsive budgets address poverty more effectively by way of implementing poverty reduction programmes that benefit the poor and marginalized in society more; r Gender responsive budgets help governments to honor their commitments to achieve equality, as set out, for instance, in the Beijing Platform for Action, the Convention on Elimination of All forms of


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Governments will often be reminded by gender budget analysis that they are not meeting their commitments, compelling them to sit up and address the gaps; and r The purpose of a gender perspective on the budget is to ensure that budgets and economic policies address the needs of women and men, girls and boys, equitably. The budget is simply an instrument and no more than that. The instrument is there to translate a policy and strategy. Unless those policies and strategies are right, the instrument translates wrong things that run against the interest of gender equality. National budgets and gender issues National budgets encompass all issues of national priority and concern, and there is no separate budget statement devoted to gender or to women issues. Budgets are not neutral instruments. The strategic and policy orientations underpinning them do not reflect interests and concerns of people, men and women, boys and girls. Engendering the budget is the best means of meeting the aspirations and needs of the majority of men and women, boys and girls. The following gender issues are critical areas to address in any national budget: (a) Ensuring allocation of sufficient funds to programmes addressing gender equality issues; (b) Gender dis-aggregation of statistics to assess impacts; (c) Expenditure on items such as education and health that have direct benefits to marginalized groups like women and children; (d) Analyze whether resource allocation to particular sectors undertaken in line with macro-economic policies benefits women and other disadvantaged groups; and (e) Impact of sector analysis of expenditure line items on different groups and formulation of programmes that allow participation by grassroots based organization such as women’s groups. Tools for gender budget analysis There are a variety of tools available for doing gender analysis of national budgets: Gender responsive budget statement A commonly used tool is the gender responsive budget statement, which can be applied to the whole budget or to a number of sectors. Expenditures and revenues are analyzed using various tools for their likely impacts on different groups of women and men, girls and boys. It can be used to disaggregate projected expenditure into gender-relevant categories. This involves stating the expected gender implications of the total national budget (public expenditure and taxation) and also the gender implications of expenditure by sector ministries. For

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example, increased cost of health services may negatively impact poor women than men; and single mothers are likely to benefit more when costs of education are reduced. Gender-aware policy appraisal This is an analytical approach that involves examining the policies of different ministries and programmes by paying attention to the implicit and explicit gender issues involved. It questions the assumption that policies are ‘gender neutral’ in their effects and asks: ‘In what ways are the policies and their associated resource allocations likely to reduce or increase gender inequalities?’ One can say this is carrying out a policy analysis with a special focus on gender issues or from a gender perspective. Gender-aware medium-term economic policy framework This is an approach to incorporate gender issues into macro-economic models with a medium term perspective. This is important as many policies take a long time to yield the desired results. This requires measuring the different gender impacts of states and people’s economic actions; introducing new measures to assess economic activity with a gender perspective; incorporating unpaid work; and changing underlying assumptions about the social and institutional set-up for economic planning in the medium-term to long-term. Gender-disaggregated beneficiary assessment of public service delivery and budget priorities This is developed on the basis of opinion polls and attitude surveys asking actual or potential beneficiaries the extent to which government policies and programmes reflect their priorities and meet their needs. The essence is to provide data that shows who and how many benefit from public service delivery such as health care. It helps the government to determine which expenditures are likely to ensure better lives for women and other marginalized groups. Gender-disaggregated public expenditure incidence analysis This is based on statistical analysis, usually with data from household surveys to examine the nature of expenditure from publicly provided services in order to determine the distribution of expenditure between men and women, boys and girls. This analysis can be done for any sector or programme. This seeks to assess the impacts of public expenditure on the various categories of citizens. Gender-disaggregated analysis of the budget on time use This tool identifies the relationship between the national budget and the way time is used in households. This ensures that the time spent on unpaid work is accounted for in policy analysis. If the cost of childcare and care for sick family members are taken into consideration in arriving at the Gross Domestic Product (GDP); then women’s contribution would be bigger and can be used to justify more resource allocation through the budget.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Gender-disaggregated public revenue incidence analysis This examines both direct and indirect forms of taxation in order to calculate how much taxation is paid by different categories of individuals or households. User charges on government services will also be considered. The analysis also looks at the impact of such taxes on the different categories of citizens, so as to address any negative impacts of tax policies and, hence, reduce inequalities. Gender Responsive Budget Process The gender budgeting model provides a five-step approach to carrying out gender budgeting:Step 1: Situational analysis This first stage involves analyzing the situation of women, men, boys and girls. At the sectorial level, this will involve analyzing the situation of the different sub groups in each sector as well. For example, this may mean looking at statistics on the status of maternal mortality, infant mortality; and literacy rates, as well as opinion surveys on gender targeted service delivery. This makes it possible to identify the key issues that need to be addressed, such as access to services and quality of services. Step 2: Gender analysis In the second stage, an analysis is done to assess the gender responsiveness of policies. Does the policy address gender issues described in the situational analysis? Are there any policies to address the key issues? If so, are they adequate to address the issues satisfactorily and ensure the desired results? Step 3: Budget allocation An assessment is made of budget allocations. If there are adequate gender sensitive policies, resources must be allocated for their implementation. Are resources allocated for these gender-sensitive policies? Are these resource allocations adequate? Step 4: Monitoring spending and service delivery It is not enough to design policies to address gender inequalities. Resources must be allocated through the budget for their implementation. However, it is still not enough to allocate resources. The resources must be disbursed and the programmes carried out by the various Ministries Departments and Agencies (MDAs). It is therefore important to carry out checks to verify that funds are being disbursed and spent as planned and approved by Parliament. It is also important to monitor the physical deliverables. Step 5: Assessing outcomes Money must be spent for the intended purpose and must have the intended effects. Therefore, an examination is made of the impact of the policy and expenditures to assess whether it has promoted the gender equality

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commitments. For example, did increased resource allocation for health delivery result in reduced maternal mortality and infant mortality? In other words, have the desired impacts on the targeted groups been achieved? Framework for Gender Analysis of Expenditures Rhonda Sharp’s framework is often used to break down expenditures into three categories: Gender-specific allocations; these are allocations specifically targeting women and girls or men and boys. Examples are school bursaries for girls, or domestic violence counseling for men. Many governments have allocated special funds for women’s programmes, such as providing loans to women-dominated productive sectors or for training women entrepreneurs. It is important to analyze their impact on women’s lives and ensure that such programmes give value for money. However, experience shows that gender-specific allocations are very small compared to the rest of the budget, usually less than one per cent. Mainstream allocations; mainstream allocations need to be examined for their gendered impacts. Most expenditures fall in this category and the real challenge of gender analysis budgets is to examine whether such allocations address the needs of women and men, girls and boys of different social and economic backgrounds equitably. For example, will increased resource allocations to public educational and health facilities benefit more disadvantaged women and children than it will benefit rich and privileged men and women? Equal opportunity employment allocations; such allocations are intended to promote gender equality in the public service. For example, day-care facilities for employee’s children, paid parental leave, or special training for women, middle-level managers. Particular attention is paid to the decision making levels because public service delivery systems make important decisions, which impact on the lives of poor women and men. If they are not gender balanced, their decisions are likely to be gender-insensitive. However, increased resource allocation to areas, which tend to employ women and disadvantaged groups can narrow the gap in employment rates and increase incomes of these groups, hence reduce gender inequalities. Gender Perspective of National Budgets; the purpose of bringing a gender perspective to the budget is to ensure that budgets and economic policies address equitably the needs of women and men, girls and boys of different backgrounds, and attempt to close any social and economic gaps that exist between them. All over the world, both women and men play important roles in society. However, their positions in the economy and the remunerations they earn are different. The of Role of Councilors in Gender Responsive Budgeting Success in reducing inequality and poverty must involve the following actions by Councilors: r Ensure the allocation of sufficient funds to departments, programmes and projects addressing gender equality issues and ensure that resources allocated are gender informed;


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

r Insist on transparency in the formulation of poverty reduction programmes and the budget in order to allow participation of grassroots-based organizations, such as women’s groups; r Request gender disaggregated statistics to assess the impact of proposed resource allocation on all groups of society; r Review the performance of gender allocations of the previous year; r Recommend reallocation of resources to expenditure items such as education and health that have a direct benefit to marginalized groups like women and children; r Insist on the use of language that affirms the political leadership’s commitment to gender equality; r Analyse revenue measures, such as sales and fuel taxes, for its impact on vulnerable groups, such as women; r Monitor the utilization of allocated resources and whether the stated objectives were met; r Collaborate with civil society groups to collect information on the impact of the resource allocation on different groups; r Commission and demand regular gender audit report on key government poverty reduction interventions. r Formulate by-laws to protect women and children. Challenges and limitations to gender budgeting There are many challenges and limiting factors relating to implementing gender budgeting and accepting the analysis generated by these processes. Some of the challenges may include: Inadequate sex-disaggregated data Inadequate sex-disaggregated data is often a problem. In most countries, there is some sex-disaggregated data within and outside government, which can be useful. However, there is a need to generate more information in order to shed more light on the differences between women and men, girls and boys, particularly in access to resources, opportunities, and security. Without accurate and relevant data, it is not possible to integrate a gender perspective in the budget process. For example, high maternal mortality ratios will justify demands for more resource allocation to maternal health care, while illiteracy rates among women can be used to justify increased resource allocation to adult literacy classes targeted at women. From analysis to changes in policy and budgets Most gender budget initiatives worldwide are at the stage of analysis and there was little evidence connecting analysis with policy and budget changes. For example, CSOs in many African countries have conducted gender budget analysis, trained parliamentarians and made some recommendations on how to make budgets more gender sensitive, but these are hardly used for policy making and budgeting. In many cases, resource allocations are not fully disbursed, especially if there is a shortfall in expected resources. Identifying, documenting, and sharing information about initiatives, particularly those ones that have progressed from the analytical stage to the stage of integrating gender in budget formulation is important.

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Inadequate capacities of Local Councils to scrutinize/analyse budget proposals and work plans can be a hindrance to gender responsive planning. Often technical officers may not provide adequate information in regard to the budget. Strategies for Mainstreaming Gender Responsive Budgeting Governments can adopt an array of strategies for mainstreaming of gender responsive budgeting in their countries. They may include: r Institutionalizing gender responsive budgeting at all levels of government, including the national, federal, local, agencies and the legislature. r Instituting information education and communication strategies and programmes. r Promoting production of gender disaggregated data for key indicators for national development. r Using the CSOs, development partners and the media as key stakeholders for initiating, implementing, monitoring, evaluation and sustainability of gender responsive budgeting initiatives. r Passing of key legislations that support adoption and implementation of gender responsive budgeting initiatives. r Using the project approaches to initiate and pilot test gender responsive budgeting initiatives. r Conducting capacity building activities on gender responsive budgeting, including training, benchmarking and provision of logistics for Members of Parliament, employees, and stakeholders. r Debating and deliberating on gender responsive budgeting issues in public forums, including legislatures. r Initiating publications on issues of gender responsive budgeting. This could be translated to local languages in the country.


9

Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

GENDER EMPOWERMENT

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module addresses gender empowerment. It involves enabling women to achieve economic empowerment, access to social services and poverty reduction. Session objectives (i) To highlight areas/ programmes for economic empowerment adopted by the Government of South Sudan; and (ii) To discuss the challenges to economic empowerment of women

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Introduction It is generally true that poverty has a woman’s face given the gender dimensions in the control and access to factors of production including land, knowledge and skills, information etc. Economic Empowerment The Government of South Sudan has committed itself in various policy documents at national and state level to improve the welfare of men and women through specially targeted economic empowerment programmes. Some progress has been made to put in place a semblance of economic empowerment programmes.  The key areas for economic empowerment include: agriculture, training on gender based violence,

poultry farming, girl education and child protection. The Ministry of Social Development has embarked on implementation of activities that are crucial in addressing barriers that hinder women and girls from being empowered economically. These programmes include: training in human resource management, adult literacy classes in English, provision of financial resources for income generating activities like poultry farming. The key areas of policy focus for economic empowerment in Northern Bahr El Gazal State include promoting women’s education and participation in business, child protection and promotion of sports and culture. Equipping women with skills for entrepreneurship in activities such as poultry, vegetable farming, and sewing. Economic empowerment programmes in Western Bahr El Ghazal State are jointly handled by the Ministry of Social Development, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Resources and Fisheries. Challenges to Economic Empowerment The main challenges to economic empowerment of women and men in South Sudan relate to limited implementation of the planned programmes due to low funding and understanding/information on who needs the support most. A loan scheme that was introduced in Western Bahr El Ghazal did not perform well in rural areas due to high defaulting rates. The rates of defaulting were higher for group loans than individual loans due to poor group dynamics. Many women in rural areas worked hard to recover the loans instead of investing to make profits. The loans that were advanced under the Women Training and Promotion Programme where too small (varying between SSP 300 and SSP 500) to enable the beneficiaries experience an improvement in their standard of living. The Republic of South Sudan, as a way forward, needs to firm up its National and State plans and programmes for economic empowerment of poor people and especially women in rural areas. The Government needs to identify sources of funding for implementing programmes that can lead to sustainable empowerment of


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

women in South Sudan. Such programmes could focus on: increased availability and application of modern agricultural equipment and farm management practices; production of high value commodities; promotion of cottage industries; skilling women, youth and other vulnerable persons; and provision of affordable business loans. Consumption and Poverty Consumption and poverty indicators are useful measures of gauging the status of economic development of the country. The reduction in poverty and hunger is an important indication of development in line with the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) – “To Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger”. The incidence of poverty in South Sudan is 50.6%, meaning that one out of two South Sudanese does not have the necessary means to purchase the value of a minimum food and non-food bundle. Women constitute a larger proportion of the poor (51.6%) than men (48.4%); the poverty incidence is higher among females than males. The poverty incidence is slightly higher among children and the elderly. Poverty in South Sudan therefore has a female face. While focusing on improving the welfare of all South Sudanese, the RoSS should specifically target women, children and the elderly with economic development programmes that enhance their livelihoods to be at par with the rest of the population. Poverty is more concentrated in rural areas (55.4%) than urban areas (24.4%); the majority of the poor live in rural areas (92.5%) as opposed to urban areas (7.5%) . In South Sudan, improving livelihoods of the poor is almost synonymous with addressing the key barriers faced by women, men, girls and boys in rural areas that deny them access to economic rights and opportunities. Lessons can also be drawn from the region on tested approaches that have enabled countries to reduce poverty at a fast rate. For example, South Sudan is currently at the same level of poverty incidence as Uganda was in 1992. Without adopting Uganda’s approach wholesale, the RoSS should fast track some of the good practices in the region so that poverty is reduced at a faster rate.

1

SSCCSE, 2010

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Access and involvement in economic and productive activities Women and men in South Sudan are engaged in a wide range of economic and productive activities in agriculture and other sectors to improve their livelihoods. Women in particular are involved in cultivation and selling agricultural produce; making and selling several items in the market including beads, handkerchiefs, biscuits, tea, alcohol, pots and mats. They are gradually venturing into businesses that have been formerly masculine including, charcoal and firewood selling, offering agricultural labor for wages, mason work and restaurants. As a consequence of the war, many women are now the household heads after having lost their spouses and thus are increasingly engaged in income generating activities that have traditionally been regarded for men. However, despite the increased participation in economic activities, women are still fulfilling many reproductive and community assigned roles in line with the cultural norms. They are heavily involved in domestic chores including producing food and feeding the family, fetching water, looking after the sick, collecting firewood, washing and ironing clothes, cleaning the compound, fishing, cutting grass for making fences and roofing. At community level, the women participate in clearing grass, cleaning churches, burying the dead, cooking for communal gatherings and making alcohol that is consumed at village events. These activities in aggregate limit women’s ability to participate substantially in the market. In undertaking these activities, they are helped mostly by the girl children. Although women engage in independent economic activities, their labour is frequently deployed to support their husbands in unpaid tasks. Often, men are generally more engaged than women in income generating activities such as formal employment in Government and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), construction of houses, tailoring, cultivation, making bricks and other businesses such as restaurants, shops, butchery, saloons, etc. Discussions held with women in urban areas indicated that they considered working for Government as a preserve for men. This is attributed to the low levels of education of women and the fact that they are still considered to be inferior to men. This attitude and stereotype should be gradually changed so that qualified men and women equally benefit from earning salaried wages. Access to and control of productive resources Women in South Sudan have limited ownership and control over key productive assets, particularly land. Land is the primary factor of production in agriculture from which smallholder farmers get a livelihood through farming and accessing markets for their produce. In South Sudan, land is generally owned and controlled by men. Some


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

women in urban areas, especially the well-educated, can access, control and own any resource and asset of their choice. Micro finance and access to credit institutions Access to credit markets is an important indicator of the level of economic empowerment of citizens in a developing country. Credit allows people to invest in enterprises that can increase their welfare levels. Those who have got credit or loans, accessed them mainly from friends or microfinance institutions and used them mainly to start or expand a business and meeting domestic basic needs including paying medical bills or school fees, seeds and fuel. Repayment of loans was found to be generally good, although much higher among males (88%) than females (78%). The majority do not access loans because they did not need to borrow (42%), 20% are discouraged by the high interest rates, 21% do not have the required collateral, and 20% do not know the procedures for borrowing. The other hindering factors include the stringent procedures involved in borrowing (13%), unawareness of the financial institutions (8%), distant financial institutions (4%), and low income levels, making it hard to pay back. A number of remedies are suggested to enable access to credit facilities. Education The education status is assessed by key indicators including literacy, enrolment/access, efficiency indicators like persistence, drop out, repetition, performance and quality indicators like teacher: student ratio, student: textbook ratio, student: classroom ratio, access to clean and safe water and sanitation, and availability of scholastic materials. Details are covered in the following sections. Key Issues in Education and Gender Implications Low literacy rates Literacy rates

2001[1]

2010[2]

Age group

6

15+

South Sudan

N/A

24

Males

N/A

Females

N/A

6

15+

38

38

40

19

19

16

Residence Rural

N/A

24

22

Urban

N/A

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According to data in the table, the literacy rate for males at all ages is twice that of females. There are more people who can read and write in urban areas compared to rural areas. Although there is slight improvement in the literacy rates for both males and females, the literacy rate for females is still far behind that of males. Similarly, the young female generation is more literate compared to the old female generation. This is mainly due to an improvement in the school enrolment of girls. Enrollment into the Education System School enrolment is an important aspect in assessing access to education. Who is enrolled in school in a given society is a powerful indicator of who is valued in a family or household and how gender sensitive a given community is. Encouraging equal enrolment for both boys and girls is one of the basic strategies for addressing gender inequality. The education system in South Sudan constitutes of pre-primary, primary, secondary, alternative education and higher education. Reasons for not enrolling into the education system r Long distance to schools is a major hindering factor to school enrolment in South Sudan. It affects both boys and girls especially the young ones. Due to long distances, parents and caretakers prefer to keep their children at home. r Parents also look at their children as a source of labour for household chores; 19% of girls and 13% of the boys are retained at home so that they can assist their parents with domestic work. This mainly affects girls compared to boys. It is also important to note that some guardians do not take children to school because they are not aware of the importance/value of education in development. r Children at school also encounter a number of challenges. Schools do not provide meals yet most parents cannot afford to pack food for their school going children. r Inadequate scholastic materials such as textbooks is another challenge children face while at school. r In addition, girls face more challenges in particular with forced marriages. Parents start to force their daughters into marriage at the age of 12 years; at an age when they cannot make informed decisions let alone having the ability to manage the roles and responsibilities of adulthood. Parents go ahead to arrange marriages without the consent of their daughters. r Sexual harassment by teachers and the community is another challenge to girls’ education. Cases of teenage pregnancies are common and parents go ahead to negotiate for marriage with the “harassers” in order to conceal such cases. Unfortunately, there is no law in place to stop sexual harassment in schools. r Poor sanitation ranks third in terms of undermining retention. Lack of water at school is a serious challenge.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Recommended interventions for promoting gender equality in education r Adult education/literacy for women. After giving birth, girls should be allowed back into the education system. r Government should pay school fees, provide scholastic materials and employ leaders in schools r Free and compulsory education for all especially girls r Peace education programmes r Taking girls away from cattle camps r Training and employment of female teachers r Enact laws on early marriages r Giving equal opportunities to all girls and boys r Start feeding programmes in schools r Punishment of parents who do not take children to school r Establishing schools for girls only r There is need to sensitise the community about the importance of education r Invest more in appropriate technology in order to reduce household/domestic work. Health Key Health Issues in the Republic of South Sudan and their Gender Implications Access to quality health care is a basic human right. Women and men in South Sudan have the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. The enjoyment of this right is vital to their life and well-being. Men and women’s health needs in South Sudan include: the right to health information, the power to influence decisions, access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable health services, prevention, care and treatment of communicable and non-communicable diseases. Child Health The country’s child mortality rate is one of the highest in the world with 102 per 1,000 infant mortality and 135 per 1,000 under-five mortality (South Sudan Household Health Survey, 2008). Major causes of infant and underfive mortality include malaria, pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition. Challenges and Recommendations on Health To achieve gender-responsive health policies, the Ministry of Health should address health needs of the population and take into account gender differences. The following are recommended: r RoSS should prioritize efficient health services, education and accessibility of services in general and

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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

r r r

r r

r r

the capacity of the health system with the goal to achieve equality in service affordability, utilization and accessibility. The Ministry of Gender should work in close collaboration with the Ministry of Health to mainstream gender into sector policies and programmes. The Ministry of Gender should provide technical support in order to enhance capacity for gender mainstreaming. The Ministry of Health should take steps to improve health indicators in specific areas; for example, to reduce the maternal and child mortality rates, set gender-sensitive targets, improve access to known, cost-effective, life-saving maternal and child health interventions like bed nets, water-guard, immunization, increase female medical providers, and recruit and train traditional birth attendants into the health system. There is need to generate better statistical evidence in order to understand the needs of women, girls, boys and men. This will lead to appropriate interventions addressing the right needs of men and women. Set up community sensitization programs to sensitize women, men and children on health issues for preventive health care. Also specifically empower women through strategic health information campaigns and have male-focused campaigns. Political commitment is required in addressing health gaps including HIV/AIDS with women focused indicators and socio-cultural practices causing them. Give priority to health initiatives which address gender-related problems, for example breast, cervical and prostate cancer screening; programs for vulnerable groups; integrating health and social protection for example refugee and crisis centers for victims of violence, sexual abuse and rape.


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

GENDER & HIV/AIDS

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module relates gender issues to HIV/AIDS. It explains the HIV/AIDS scourge, demonstrating the magnitude in sub-Saharan Africa and suggests strategies for mitigation. Session objectives i. Identify the relationship between Gender Based Violence and HIV/AIDS ii. Explain what HIV/AIDS means iii. Explain the magnitude of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, with reference to South Sudan. iv. Explain the different strategies of HIV/AIDS and Mother to Child Transmission.

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Purpose This part of the module relates gender issues to HIV/AIDS. It explains the HIV/AIDS scourge, demonstrating the magnitude in sub-Saharan Africa and suggests strategies for mitigation. Session objectives i. Identify the relationship between Gender Based Violence and HIV/AIDS ii. Explain what HIV/AIDS means iii. Explain the magnitude of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, with reference to South Sudan. iv. Explain the different strategies of HIV/AIDS and Mother to Child Transmission. Introduction At the end of 2008, it was estimated that out of the 31.3 million adults worldwide living with HIV/AIDS, around half were women. It is suggested that 98 percent of these women live in developing countries. The AIDS epidemic has had a unique impact on women, which has been exacerbated by their role within society and their biological vulnerability to HIV infection. Generally, women are at a greater risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV. Biologically, women are twice more likely to become infected with HIV through unprotected heterosexual intercourse than men. In many countries, women are less likely to be able to negotiate condom use and are more likely to be subjected to non-consensual sex. Additionally, millions of women have been indirectly affected by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Women’s childbearing role means that they have to contend with issues such as mother-to-child transmission of HIV. What is HIV? HIV is short for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is the virus that causes AIDS. When HIV enters the body, it destroys its ability to fight diseases. As a result, people with HIV in their bodies become defenseless and vulnerable to all forms of disease. What is AIDS? AIDS is short for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Having AIDS causes the body to grow weaker to fight disease. This makes the person become sick and more likely to be attacked by life threatening infections. Gender and HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is not merely a health burden. In sub-Saharan Africa, which has the highest HIV/AIDS burden, the problem has become a significant social, economic and political challenge.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Due to social construction of roles, responsibilities and power control, women in Africa bear the biggest burden of HIV/AIDS infection. MTCT means transmission of HIV from mother to child. It is also called vertical transmission. This is a situation where by the HIV virus passes from the mother to the child. This can occur at different stages. It can be during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding. Mother to child transmission can be prevented through information and supervised pregnancy and delivery. Exercise: How are women and men in the community being variously affected by HIV/AIDS? (Plenary discussion) The HIV/AIDS Situation in sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa continues to bear the heaviest burden of HIV/AIDS. According to UNAIDS, AIDS is now the leading cause of death among Africans of all ages. r More than two-thirds of all adults (67%) and nearly 90% of children infected with HIV in the world live in sub-Saharan Africa; r In 2007, 2 million people died of AIDS globally, 76% of those deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa; r Southern Africa is the most severely affected region in the world, with approximately 35% of all people living with HIV/AIDS, despite having less than 2% of the world’s total population; r Southern Africa has at least eight countries with national prevalence rates of 15% or higher (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe); r With an estimated 5.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, South Africa is the country with the largest number of infections in the world; r Approximately 14 million children have been orphaned in Africa due to AIDS, 40 million more are expected to be orphaned by the disease within the next 10 years; r The rates of HIV infection in women have surpassed those of men in sub-Saharan Africa. Women now represent 60% of all adult infections in the region and three out of four young people living with HIV are female. Box 2: Regional HIV/ AIDS Statistics (2001 and 2007) Adults & Children Adults & Children living with HIV/AIDS newly infected with HIV/AIDS

Adults prevalence (%)

Adult & Child deaths due to AIDS

2007

22.5 million

1.7 million

5%

1.6million

2001

20.9 million

2.2 million

5.8%

1.4 million

Sub-Saharan Africa

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The various factors contributing to the high rates of infection in sub-Saharan Africa and, particularly in southern Africa can be summarized as follows: r Household poverty makes it difficult for people to respond to and combat the disease. Low income levels make it difficult for individuals to access prevention, treatment, and care services including medicines and nutritious food; r National poverty impacts the level of education and prevention programs, as well as the provision of adequate basic health care; r Labour migration due to high unemployment and poverty results in large populations of migrant workers engaging in high-risk behaviour while away from their families; r Low understanding of HIV transmission; r Inadequate access to health care services both for prevention and treatment r Stigma and discrimination lessens the likelihood for people to get tested, disclose their status and receive treatment; r Untreated sexually transmitted diseases which increases the risk of HIV infection; r Sexual abuse, rape, and the inability of women to protect themselves from infected partners; r Rape as a weapon of war in conflict zones make victims vulnerable to HIV. Currently, there is no known cure for HIV/AIDS. The available treatment delays HIV from turning into AIDS. The only way to know whether one has HIV is by taking an HIV test. Condom use is the most effective method to prevent infections; there is also abstinence from sex. Strategies of HIV/PMTCT r Reduce HIV prevalence among women of reproductive age. Prevention of HIV infection is still the cornerstone (the other prevention strategies do apply) r Increase use of individual prevention strategies to decrease HIV incidences r Increase access to and utilisation of effective family planning methods for women living with HIV, including prevention of unwanted pregnancies r Offer HIV testing to all pregnant women and their spouses r Provide ARVs to pregnant HIV-positive women and their immediate family members who are HIV positive. r Provide infant feeding and counselling services r Provide additional reproductive health interventions including options for family planning r STD diagnosis and management, modified obstetric care and family planning services r Support mothers and infants through postnatal care. r Increase awareness of PMTCT through public awareness messages. r Provide a conducive environment in families and communities for pregnant women to disclose their HIV status and be supported to practice those measures, which are important to reduce HIV transmission. Exercise: What are the mechanisms for prevention of HIV/AIDS? (For details refer to Appendix 14)


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Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

THE ROLE OF COUNCILS IN GENDER ACTION

SECTION

Purpose This part of the module explains the role of Councils and Councillors in gender action. It also identifies challenges and strategies to address gender concerns in communities.

Session objectives After delivering this unit, participants should be able to:(a) Discuss the role of Councilors in promoting effective gender action in the Republic of South Sudan; and (b) Identify challenges and formulate strategies for mainstreaming gender and issues about the status of women in their respective counties.

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Introduction It is evident that all stakeholders at national, regional and international level must put concerted efforts for gender equity, empowerment and mainstreaming to become a reality on the development agenda. Parliamentarians are indeed the pivot that can link the key stakeholders on gender matters including the citizens, governments, the civil society, development partners, and international organizations. It is the responsibility of parliamentarians to ensure that government policies, programmes, projects, objectives, interventions and actions comply with national, regional and internationally agreed standards on gender matters. The unit has identified generic roles, challenges and strategies for mainstreaming gender and issues about the status of women. However, the trainer should ensure that practical challenges and strategies are derived by participants to address gender issues in the country. Role of County Councilors Legislatures at any level and therefore Councilors can ensure coherence between policy pronouncements and action on gender by: r Mainstreaming gender in the development process, which could require a change of attitudes towards women. Attitudes will only begin to evolve when all change agents are involved in making policies and resources are devoted to bringing about change. Parliaments have a role to play in ensuring all stakeholders and change agents, especially women, are consulted and participate in the development process. r Through committees, Councilors can also ensure the gender objectives and related policies are prioritized as well as coordination and monitoring of gender outcomes. This is due to the fact that Council has an important role to play in the oversight of District Development Plans through allocation of resources and oversight by the committee systems. r Councilors can seek to ensure there are sufficient budget allocations for scholarships targeted at girls living in very poor families so as to remove such impediments. This can go a long way to address the MDG on education which focuses on primary education. r Councilors should ensure those tasked with implementing CEDAW and any affiliated policies have received gender sensitivity training and have adequate resources to enforce implementation. r Since women are major victims of HIV/AIDS, Council should ensure by-laws and policies are in place, which provide women with the information they need about how they can prevent contracting HIV, along with information about treatment and drugs. Challenges of Tackling Gender Issues by Local Councils There are many challenges and limiting factors relating to promoting and implementing gender issues by Parliaments and governments they oversee. They include:


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Inadequate sex-disaggregated data; this is often a problem in effective design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of gender sensitive policies, programmes and actions. In most countries there is some sexdisaggregated data within and outside government, which can be useful. However, there is a need to generate more information in order to shed more light on the differences between women and men, girls and boys, particularly in access to resources, opportunities, and security. Assessing priority areas; appropriate frameworks for determining priority gender issues are lacking. Most developing countries do not have the capacity and technical know-how to assess and determine key priority areas that will address gender inequalities. There is need for appropriate frameworks to assist in determining priority gender issues within and across sectors in the context of national policies, plans, programmes and interventions. Building critical mass of people; gender has remained less integrated in government structures and institutions. Building a critical mass of people is necessary to help build high levels of gender ‘literacy’ among civil society partners, within national women’s groups and amongst Parliamentarians, to help spread a range of skills such as advocacy, research techniques, and gender literacy and analysis. Less gender sensitive committee system and parliamentary processes; most Parliaments have not mainstreamed gender in their operations. The Rules of Procedures do not expressly recognize and prioritize gender considerations at committee levels, plenary debates, outreach and delegations abroad. Without such focus, the role of Parliament and parliamentarians in propelling gender issues can become futile. Limited understanding and ratification of international and regional commitments on gender; there are several commitments resolved in conferences and meetings on gender at international and regional levels which Parliaments and parliamentarians should be familiar with. Limited access to gender research and publications; Parliaments and parliamentarian need to have access to both online and library information on gender, which often is not the case. Most parliamentary libraries, especially in developing countries, do not have up to date information covering critical areas in development, including gender. The situation is made worse in cases where the parliamentary research structures and systems are weak, with limited or no staff with expertise in gender.

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Strategies for mainstreaming Gender by Councilors Parliaments and parliamentarians need to devise various means to address the challenges they face in mainstreaming gender and the status of women in the development agenda of their countries. Some of the generic strategies could include:r Debating the content of Bills and ensuring gender considerations are taken into account; r Creating a network of gender focal points across other committees of the legislature; r Working in partnership with national women’s machinery, civil society, NGOs, the private sector and the media to ensure follow‐up on parliamentary action, review and oversight; r Holding public hearings and consulting with communities to determine the effects of policies, programmes and legislation on women and men, girls and boys; r Holding governments and particularly ministers to account for their actions. Institutionalising gender‐sensitive budgeting by raising gender issues during budget debates and developing partnerships with the Budget or Public Accounts Committees; and r Ensuring the implementation of CEDAW obligations, especially in relation to State reporting.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Glossary Condition: refers to the material circumstances in which men and women live. Access: the ability to use a resource or opportunity. Control/Power: the ability to make decisions about and derive benefits from resources and opportunities. Practical gender needs: Needs of women and men that relate to responsibilities and tasks associated with their traditional gender roles or to immediate perceived necessity. Responding to practical gender needs can improve the quality of life but does not challenge gender divisions or men’s and women’s position in society. Practical needs generally involve issues of condition or access. Strategic gender interest: Interests concerning the position of women and men in relation to each other in a given society. Strategic interests may involve decision making

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Bibliography African Union: http://www.au.int/en/ AWEPA: http://www.awepa.org/ EAC: http://www.eac.int/ EASSI: http://www.eassi.org/ IPU: www.ipu.org Parliamentary Centre: http://www.parlcent.org/en/ PoU: http://www.parliament.go.ug/ RSS: http://www.goss.org/ RSS: http://www.goss.org/ Saferworld: http://www.saferworld.org.uk/ UN Women: http://www.unwomen.org/ UN: http://www.un.org UNDP: www.undp.org or www.undp.or.ug WBI: http://wbi.worldbank.org/wbi/


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

APPENDICES Appendix 1: Sketch of the Tentative Training Time Table

Day One 09:30 -10.30 am

Introduction and Agenda Setting

10:30 -11:00 am

Tea

11:00 -1:00 pm

Planning a training programme

1:00 - 2:00 pm

Lunch Break

2:00 - 4:00 pm

Training Methods

Break

Day Two 9:30 -10:30 am

Principles of Adult Learning

10:30 -11:00 am

Tea

Break

11:00 - 1:00 pm

Techniques for delivering a training

1: 00 - 2:00 p.m

Lunch Break

2:00 - 4:00 pm

Overview of gender themes in the module

Day Three 9:30 -10:30 am

Gender Concepts

10:30 -11:00 am

Tea

11:00 -1:00 pm

Local Councils & Gender

1: 00 - 2:00 p.m.

Lunch Break

2:00 - 4:00 pm

Women and Leadership in Communities

Break

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Day Four 9:30 -10:30 am

Overview of International, Regional and National Responses on Gender

10:30 -11:00 am

Tea

11:00 -1:00 pm

Gender & Policy Linkages

Break

1: 00 - 2:00 p.m.

Lunch Break

2:00 – 4:00 pm

Gender Empowerment

Day Five 9:30 -10:30 am

Gender Empowerment

10:30 -11:00 am

Tea

11:00 -1:00 pm

Gender Responsive Budgeting

1: 00 - 2:00 p.m.

Lunch Break

2:00 – 4:00 pm

Gender Responsive Budgeting

Break

Day Six 9:30 -10:30 am

Gender & HIV/AIDS

10:30 -11:00 am

Tea

9:30 -10:30 am

The Role of Councils in Gender Action

Break

10:30 -11:00 am

Lunch Break

11:00 -1:00 pm

Evaluation and Closure


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Appendix 2: Principles of Adult Learning The table below lists the 10 principles along with a description of the adult learner characteristics that each principle refers to. It also suggests some actions that trainers can take to design and deliver training events that respond to these characteristics, thus creating a more effective learning environment.

Principle

Observations: How Adults Learn

Implications: How Trainers Can Respond

1. Experience

t8FBMSFBEZLOPXB lot and want that to be acknowledged t8FBSFBDDVTUPNFEUP doing things in a certain way t8FXBOUUPESBXGSPN and build on our own experiences

t3FTQFDUBOECVJMEPOQBSUJDJQBOUTFYJTUJOHLOPXMFEHF and experience;t$SFBUFMJOLBHFTCFUXFFOUIFDPVSTFNBUFSJBMBOESFBM situations that are familiar to participants; t"TLQBSUJDJQBOUTIPXOFXJOGPSNBUJPOöUTXJUIXIBU they already know; t6TFJOUFSBDUJWFUSBJOJOHNFUIPETUIBUHJWFQBSUJDJQBOUT opportunities to learn from each other; t*ODPSQPSBUFBDUJWJUJFTUIBUBMMPXQBSUJDJQBOUTUP experiment with new ways of doing things.

2. Teamwork

t/PPOFDBOGPSDFVTUP learn if we don’t want to t8FMJLFUPCFJODPOUSPM  but don’t like to do all the work ourselves t8FFYQFDUPUIFSTUPBEE to what we already Know

t*OWPMWFQBSUJDJQBOUTJOBSUJDVMBUJOHUIFJSMFBSOJOHOFFET beforehand during the training event; t1BSUOFSXJUIQBSUJDJQBOUTUPBDIJFWFMFBSOJOHPCKFDUJWFT t$MBSJGZSPMFTBOESFTQPOTJCJMJUJFT t%POUEPPSEFDJEFXIBUQBSUJDJQBOUTDBOEPPSEFDJEF for themselves; t1SPWJEFPQQPSUVOJUJFTGPSUIFBVEJFODFUPJOøVFODFUIF direction and pace of the session; t%FTJHOQBSUJDJQBUPSZBDUJWJUJFTTPUIBUFWFSZPOFJT included; t6TFSFøFDUJPOBDUJWJUJFTUPFYBNJOFIPXUIFHSPVQDBO work more efficiently or effectively; t1BVTFGSFRVFOUMZUPUFTUVOEFSTUBOEJOHBOEJOWJUF feedback.

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3. Relevance

t8FBSFCVTZQFPQMFXF need to have a reason to pay attention t8FBSFOBUVSBMMZFYDJUFE to learn things that help us understand our own lives t8IBUJOUFSFTUTVTNPTU is knowledge that we can apply now to real situations

t%FTJHODPVSTFNBUFSJBMT DPOUFOUBOENFUIPETUP respond to participants’ needs; t$PNNVOJDBUFIPXFBDIOFXUPQJD TFTTJPO BOE resource can help meet an identified need; t$MBSJGZFYQFDUBUJPOTEVSJOHUIFPQFOJOHTFTTJPO t1BUUFSOJODMBTTFYFSDJTFTPOSFBMMJGFTDFOBSJPTUIBUBSFPG interest to the audience; t6TFEFTDSJQUJPOT FYBNQMFTBOEJMMVTUSBUJPOTUIBUBSF familiar to participants; t1MBOPQQPSUVOJUJFTGPSBQQMZJOHOFXJOGPSNBUJPOUPSFBM situations as quickly as possible; t$POUJOVBMMZEFNPOTUSBUFIPXOFXJOGPSNBUJPOMJOLT with previous knowledge; t"MMPXQBSUJDJQBOUTUPTFUUIFJSPXOPCKFDUJWFTBOE evaluate their own learning.

4. Safety

t/FHBUJWFFNPUJPOT prevent our learning – if we feel ridiculed, ignored or unsuccessful, we will participate less t1PTJUJWFFNPUJPOT encourage our learning – if we feel respected, supported and successful, we will participate more

t$SFBUFBOFOWJSPONFOUJOXIJDIQBSUJDJQBOUTGFFM welcome, comfortable, respected and productively challenged; t*OUSPEVDFZPVSTFMGBOEUIFDPVSTFDPOUFOUJOBXBZUIBU builds confidence in the quality of the design and your competence as a trainer; t$PNNVOJDBUFUIFGFBTJCJMJUZBOESFMFWBODFPGUIF learning objectives early; t(JWFQBSUJDJQBOUTUJNFUPCFDPNFBDRVBJOUFEBOEGPSN interpersonal connections; t6TFTNBMMHSPVQTBUUIFTUBSUPGUIFFWFOUUPEFWFMPQ trust; t#FHJOXJUITJNQMF DMFBSBOESFMBUJWFMZFBTZUBTLTCFGPSF advancing to more complex and difficult ones; t.BUDIUIFDPNQMFYJUZBOEQBDFPGUIFUSBJOJOHEFTJHOUP the capacity of the audience so that success is possible; t#VJMEQPTJUJWFSFJOGPSDFNFOUJOUPUIFUSBJOJOHEFTJHO t3FDPHOJ[FUIFWBMVFPGFBDIDPOUSJCVUJPO t.BOBHFHSPVQJOUFSBDUJPOTPUIBUMFBSOFSTEPOPU feel ridiculed, threatened or ignored; keep criticism constructive; t3FDFJWFGFFECBDLXJUIBQQSFDJBUJPOBOEDBSF


Trainersโ€™ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

5. Enjoyment

t8FMFBSOXIFOXFXBOU to learn t8FBSFNPSFXJMMJOHUP learn if learning is fun t8FIBWFNPSFGVOXIFO we like the people we are working with t8FFOKPZSFDFJWJOHQSBJTF  even for small efforts

t-PPLGPSXBZTUPNBLFUIJOHTGVOย‰CFDSFBUJWF t6TFFOFSHJ[FSTBOEDMPTJOHTUPFODPVSBHFBNPSF animated, festive, relaxed atmosphere; t"MMPXQFPQMFUPDIPPTFXIPUIFZXPSLXJUI t4USVDUVSFDPNQFUJUJPOTUPCVJMEDPMMFDUJWFUFBNTQJSJU t#VJMECSFBLUJNFTJOUPUIFTDIFEVMFUIBUBSFMPOHFOPVHI for participants to socialize; t$POTJEFSiPVUPGDMBTTwBDUJWJUJFTUIBUGBDJMJUBUFJOGPSNBM interaction; t)BWFGVOZPVSTFMGCFFOUIVTJBTUJD

6. Immediacy

t0VSBUUFOUJPOTQBOBOE patience is limited t8IBUXFMFBSOรถSTUJT usually what we learn best t8FXBOUUPCFBCMFUPVTF what we learn immediately

t1MBDFJNQPSUBOUNFTTBHFTBUUIFCFHJOOJOH t.BLFBTUSPOH JOUFSFTUJOHรถSTUJNQSFTTJPO t,FFQTFTTJPOTSFMBUJWFMZTIPSU t'BDJMJUBUFPQQPSUVOJUJFTUPBQQMZOFXJOGPSNBUJPOBT quickly as possible.

7. Reinforcement

t8FMFBSONPSFJGXFVTF more than one of our senses t8FGPSHFUUIJOHTRVJDLMZ repetition aids retention t8FSFNFNCFSCFTUXIBU we hear last

t&OHBHFNVMUJQMFTFOTFTUPEFMJWFSNFTTBHFTBTZPV explain something verbally, try to show it as well; invite participants to hold the paper, read a slide, draw a diagram, demonstrate a possible solution, etc. t3FHVMBSMZSFWJFXJNQPSUBOUNFTTBHFT t3FDBQFWFSZNJOVUFT t"GUFSFBDICSFBL TUBSUXJUIBSFWJFX t"TLRVFTUJPOTUIBUFODPVSBHFSFDBMM t6TFBGSBNFXPSLPSTUSVDUVSFUPIFMQZPVTVNNBSJ[F  organize and regularly review core concepts; t6TFDMPTJOHTUPSFJUFSBUFUIFNPTUJNQPSUBOUNFTTBHFT

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8. Activity

t8FMFBSOUIFNPTUCZ doing t4FMGDPOöEFODF Increases with practice

t4FUBDIJFWFNFOUCBTFEPCKFDUJWFT t%FTJHOUIFUSBJOJOHUPCFBTBDUJWFBTQPTTJCMF t0SHBOJ[FBDUJWJUJFTTPUIBUFWFSZPOFQBSUJDJQBUFT t"MMPXUJNFGPSQBSUJDJQBOUTUPSFøFDUPOXIBUUIFZIBWF done.

9. Accountability

t8FXBOUUPCFTVDDFTTGVM t*OHFOFSBM XFMJLFUPLFFQ our promises and want others to do so as well t8FBSFNPUJWBUFEUPMFBSO when someone is holding us accountable for doing so

t6TFDMFBSPCKFDUJWFTUPGPDVTBOESFGPDVTBUUFOUJPO t4UJDLUPZPVSBHFOEBoVOMFTTUIFHSPVQBTBXIPMF decides to change it; t5SBDLQSPHSFTTXJUIJOUIFUSBJOJOHEFTJHO t1BVTFGSFRVFOUMZUPiUFTUwVOEFSTUBOEJOHUISPVHI questioning and activities; t"MMPXQBSUJDJQBOUTUPFWBMVBUFUIFJSPXOMFBSOJOHNBLF sure they can see what they have achieved; t&OHBHFDPXPSLFSTBOETVQFSWJTPSTJOBTTFTTJOHMFBSOFST needs; connect them to the training event’s action planning process

10. Style

t&WFOUIPVHIXFIBWFBMPU in common with respect to how we learn, we also have our differences t8FUFOEUPQSFGFSB particular style of learning

t$IPPTFBDPMMFDUJPOPGUSBJOJOHBDUJWJUJFTUIBUBQQFBMUP different styles; t#FBXBSFPGUIFQPUFOUJBMGPSMFBSOJOHTUZMFUPCJBT training style; t&ODPVSBHFUIFTIBSJOHPGEJòFSFOUQFSTQFDUJWFTBOE respect the differences.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Appendix 3: Merits and Demerits of Training methods (a) Case Study Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of Case Studies Advantages

Disadvantages

Providing concrete subjects for discussion.

Information must be precise and kept up-to-date.

Providing active learner involvement.

Time consuming to produce.

Simulating performance required after training.

Needs sufficient time for participants to complete the case.

Learning can be observed.

Close relationship to “real-life” may be difficult to achieve.

Participant’s experiences can be brought into use and shared with others.

Difference between the training situation and real world may not be recognized. Participants can become too interested in the case content and lose track of the critical issues. There is not always just one right solution.

(b)

Demonstration Table 2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Demonstrations

Advantages

Disadvantages

Aids understanding and retention.

Must be accurate and relevant to the audience.

Stimulates the participants’ interest.

Written examples require expertise and time to prepare.

Can give participants a model to follow.

Facilitator’s demonstrations may be difficult for all learners to view.

Large groups can be handled.

Requires ample time for preparation.

Easy to focus participant’s attention. Involves participants.

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(c)

Role Plays Table 4: Advantages and Disadvantages of Role Plays

Advantages

Disadvantages

It allows change/modification of attitudes.

Role players learn more than observers.

Development of interactive knowledge and skills.

Observers may be passive until the exercise is discussed.

Enables people to see the consequences of their actions on others.

Success depends on imagination of the players.

Can generate interest in the subject.

Attitude change may be short lived.

Active participation is generated. Provides a living example of the situation being studied. It is the only exercise where emotions become the predominant feature. (d) Lecture or Exposition Table 5: Advantages and Disadvantages of Lecture method Advantages

Disadvantages

A large amount of material can be covered within limited time.

It does not allow for immediate feedback from the participants.

One facilitator can handle a large audience at the same time.

The attention of the participants can easily be distracted.

Content and sequence are completely under the control of the facilitator.

Lack of participants’ activity – participants’ role is passive.

Ensures consistency of information.

Knowledge/information imparted by talking is not easily memorable unless it is followed up with a more practical technique. Saturation point is reached relatively quickly.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

(e)

Brainstorming Table 6: Advantages and Disadvantages of Brainstorming method

Advantages

Disadvantages

Stimulation of interest on the part of the participants. Participants can be easily derailed. Active participation in the learning process allows for enhancement and clarification of issues through discussion. Helps participants to learn from experience

Difficult to apply to a large audience. Requires ample time.

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Appendix 4: General Facilitation tips It is very important for you as a facilitator or trainer to understand the points below as they will guide you: The Dos (a) Trainers should be ahead of the participants. They must prepare adequately and plan how the sessions will be handled. It is important that the trainers are conversant with both the trainers’ notes as well as the corresponding handouts. (b) Constantly monitor the level of concentration and energy of participants. If it drops, it is essential that you either introduce an energizer/warm up, or you halt the session and have a break. (c) It is desirable to vary the composition of sub-groups during the training i.e. discourage the same people being in the same group or near each other all the time. (d) When you ask a question, allow enough time for participants to suggest answers. In case participants find difficulties in responding, re-phrase the question or give a clue to assist them respond rather than giving a straight answer. (e) It is imperative that the team of trainers meets often (at least once each workshop day and a couple of times before the actual training) to share ideas on how best to carry out the training/ achieve set objectives. (f ) Always ensure that the participants choose a timekeeper from amongst themselves. He/she should ensure that time is managed well for purposes of achieving the training objectives. (g) Always be prepared to use alternative training aids or equipment. The trainer should be adaptable to any environment and be able to adjust the training approach without losing the focus of the training. (h) No answer is wrong, and the participants should be encouraged to come up with several examples from their life experiences. (i) Finally, remember that the learning experience of the participants is determined more by how useful the training was for their work, than by how much information was presented during the workshop. (j) The trainer should recap the process and the content covered during the session and writes a report at the end of the workshop. (k) Discussion of any future activities and follow-up to the training to help the participants think about how they are going to apply the knowledge gained are important. The trainer should ask the participants to reflect on the following questions: r How can you apply the information that you have acquired? r What will you do differently when you return to the job/organization?


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

The Don’ts As a trainer /facilitator you should avoid the following: (a) Going for facilitation/training without preparation. (b) Apologizing: After all the participants do not know what you had prepared. (c) Ineffective equipment: Test all the training equipment before participants come in and make sure they are working. (d) One approach to work: Never go to facilitate without emergency alternative training aids / instruments in case some fail. (e) Folding hands when facilitating. (f ) Inappropriate dressing: Participants may spend all the time on your dressing instead of concentrating. (g) Obstruction during facilitation. This could be visible or audible.

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Appendix 5: Post Training Evaluation Module: Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan Title Date A:

: _______________________________________________________________________ : _______________________________________________________________________ On a scale of 1 to 6, have the objectives of the training workshop been reached?

Overall Objective At the end of the Training of Trainers (TOT) workshop, participants are able to: 1. Deliver the gender in Local Councils module to Councilors of selected counties Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high Specific Objectives At the end of the workshop, participants are able to: 2.

Master how to deliver a training module. Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

3.

Explain key gender concepts and their applicability Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

4.

Understand the relationship between gender and Local Councils Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

5.

Explain the role of women as leaders in communities Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

6.

Appreciate international, regional and national responses, commitments and actions on gender as a tool for development Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

7.

Explain the link between gender and policy Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

8.

Explain gender mainstreaming and empowerment as development tools Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

9.

Explain gender responsive budgeting as a tool for development Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

10.

Discuss the effects of HIV/AIDS on gender in society Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

11.

Discuss the role of Councilors in promoting gender actions in their jurisdiction Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

B:

On a scale of 1 to 6, how would you rate the following

12.

The facilitation of the training workshop Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

13.

The organization of the workshop Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

14.

The meals and refreshments Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

15.

The venue Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

C: 16.

Please provide your views on the following

Which parts of the training workshop did you find the most useful? And why? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

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17. What changes would you make to the workshop and why? ___________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ 18. What topics/areas would you add or give more time to? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

D:

On a scale of 1 to 6, how would you rate the following:

19.

How relevant was the training workshop to your work? Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

20.

Overall, was the training workshop useful? Low | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | high

21. Any additional comments? ___________________________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Thank you


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Appendix 6: Gender Roles at Household and Community Levels Gender roles are distinct in any society. In each society, there are definitions of what women and men of that society are expected to do in their adult life. Children are socialized to internalize these roles. Girls and boys are prepared for their different but specific roles. Most times when a man is seen doing women’s tasks, other members of society regard him as a coward, docile, or stupid. When a woman does what is presumed a man’s task, such a woman is regarded as too tough or being “more than a woman.” In some societies, a woman riding a bicycle is not an acceptable norm. Such women who dare to ride bicycles BSFFRVBUFEUPNFO Some of the perceptions of men and women in various jurisdictions: Men’s perceptions

Women’s perceptions

We pay so much bride price because we expect our Men take women as slaves. wives to work hard in order to pay back. In a way, we buy the women. "Once you buy somebody, that person should work for you."

Men are selfish. They do not want to work.

Some women enjoy hard work to please their husbands and in-laws and to show that they are worth the price paid for them.

Men who have more than one wife find it hard to work for all the wives and thus leave the women to fend for themselves and their children

Some women do not want to be helped with household work. They view household work as their domain and they do not want men to interfere. Some women believe that they are married to work for their husbands and they view it as a failure on their part if their husbands would want to help. When we help our wives with household work, some of them gossip about it and this makes us unwilling to continue helping with such tasks.

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When men and women’s tasks are examined in society, it is often discovered that very few tasks were exclusively done by women or men. It is common knowledge in societies now that, apart from giving birth, men and women can perform all other tasks. However, there are roles specific to men such as: - digging graves, fathering a child, digging pit latrines, paying bride price, marrying women and `disciplining’ women.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Appendix 7: Case Studies of Local Government Case study I: The District Local Governments Mandate in Uganda The Local Governments are established under Chapter 11 by Articles 176-207 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda. The Local Government Act, 1997 sets out the following major objectives for Local Governments: r Give full effect to the decentralisation of functions, powers, responsibilities and services at all levels of Local Government. r Ensure democratic participation and control of decision making by people concerned r To establish affirmative action on behalf of groups marginalised on the basis of gender, age, disability or any other reason created by history, tradition or custom, for the purpose of addressing imbalances which exist against them r To establish sources of revenue and financial accountability r To provide for the election of Local Councils r To establish and provide for the composition of interim councils for newly created Local Government units pending elections. r To provide for formation of interim executive committees Case Study II: Local Councils in the Federal Republic of Nigeria The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 in its fourth schedule details the functions of Local Government councils to include, the consideration and the making of recommendations to the Commission on the economic planning or any similar body on: r The economic development of the State in regard especially to areas of authority of the council and of the State affected; r Collection of rates, radio and television licences; r Establishment and maintenance of cemeteries, burial grounds and homes for the destitute and infirms; r Establishment, maintenance and regulation of slaughter houses, slaughter slabs market, motor parks and public conveniences; r Construction and maintenance of roads, street lightings, drains and other public highways, parks etc; r Naming of roads, streets; r Registration of all births, deaths etc r Assessment of privately owned houses or tenements for purposes of levying rates; r Control and regulation of advertising, movement and keeping of pets, restaurants bakeries, laundries; r Control and sale of liquor. The functions of councils shall include the participation of such a council in the government of a state in respect to the following matters: Education; Agriculture; Health services; And others as conferred by the House of Assembly.

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Appendix 8: Time Management Introduction Being a leader or council member can be time consuming. In addition to Council work, women leaders take care of home- and family work. Therefore, they need to make good use of the time they have. There are a number of steps one can take to use time effectively. Organizing your work You need a few basic tools to organize your work well. If you don’t already have them, obtain the following items: r A small diary: carry it with you in your bag or pocket to note appointments or meetings you arrange. r A place for your papers: a cardboard box will do, divide it into sections so that you can keep related things together. For example, keep meeting papers, letters or notes on an issue in one bundle or folder, which is separate from other bundles relating to other issues. Then you will find papers easily. r A notebook, in which you write things to do. Carry it with you so that you note things that you agree to do or need to find out, at the time you agree to do them. r Another book left at home where people can write messages if they call when you are out. r Look at your diary and `to do’ book regularly so that you don’t forget tasks. Steps in managing your time There is never enough time. In order to use what you have effectively: r List what needs to be done. r Decide what is most important. r Plan what you will do today/this week. r Check your list and revise your plans Prioritising A leader can be asked to do many things. How do you decide what is most important? From time to time it is good to reflect on your priorities and check that you are giving time to them. My own priorities r What do I want to achieve as a councilor? r Be assertive in planning your priorities. Voters’ priorities r Is the task urgent - must it be done now?


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

r Is the task demanding but not really important - someone wants it done now? r Be assertive in doing the important things first. Further considerations r Am I putting this task off because I hate doing it? r 1VUUJOHUIJOHTPòEPFTOPUIFMQHFUJUEPOFOPX How long will it take? r Do I have realistic ideas about how long things take? r Am I always in a hurry because I did not allow enough time? r Check the time you spend on tasks. Do I leave enough time for my family? 1VUUIFNEPXOPOZPVSMJTUPSQSJPSJUJFT5IFZOFFEZPVSUJNFUPP Planning r Everything that needs doing should be written down. r Cycle of council and party meetings. r Time for paperwork. r Weekly and daily programme. r A `to do’ reminder list of each day.

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Appendix 9: Some highlights of the CEDAW (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f ) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l)

Article 1 of CEDAW defines discrimination against women as any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex leading to impairing or nullifying the enjoyment of life. State parties were urged to condemn all forms of discrimination against women Women participation to be guaranteed constitutionally National constitutions to embody the principle of equality between men and women and to legislate against discrimination State parties to ensure full advancement of women States to adopt special measure to accelerate equality (quota, affirmative action) States to put in place measures to modify social cultural patterns of conduct for men and women States to ensure proper understanding of maternity leave as a social function States to suppress and legislate against women trafficking Put in place measures to eliminate discrimination against women in public, political life and education and to remove all forms of stereotyping Eliminate all forms of discrimination against women in employment, work and health Eliminate discrimination against women in marriage and family life.

Fifty-one out of fifty-three African states have ratified CEDAW and twenty-four have signed its optional protocol. The Beijing Platform for Action, which complements CEDAW, has also been ratified by many countries in Africa. The critical areas under the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action include. r Poverty; r Education and training; r Health, including reproductive health; r Violence; armed conflict; r Economy; r Power and decision making including aiming at gender balance in government bodies; r Institutional mechanisms; r Human rights; r Media; r Environment; and r The girl-child.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Appendix 10: The UN Security Council Resolution 1325 The key features of this resolution are; r The recognition that it is women and children who are most adversely affected by conflict. r It re-affirmed the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflict and peace building r Asserted the importance of women’s equal participation in maintenance and promotion of peace r Acknowledged and urged states on the need to implement fully the international humanitarian and human rights law to protect girls and women during conflict. The resolution called on states to; r Adopt gender sensitive perspective in peace and conflict negotiation and implementation. r Support for local women’s peace initiatives and indigenous processes to conflict resolution. r All in conflict to respect international human rights law.

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Appendix 11: Key Gender Concerns in the East African Region Access to health by women Despite the EAC Partner States having signed and ratified international and regional commitments and further domesticated them through legislations and instruments that provide for the right to health care, there remained serious gaps in service delivery which must be addressed. The budgets for health have remained inadequate to ensure effective service delivery. By August 2012, the EAC Protocol on Gender Equality was not yet ratified by the Partner States. The Protocol would guide the EAC Partner States on appropriate legislative and policy reforms by identifying the gender gaps and addressing program implementation weaknesses. Further, the Protocol affirms regional commitment towards national issues by harmonization of national legislation to incorporate the right of women to health care and create stronger mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of health services to women at all levels. The Protocol shall also ensure that the international standards of protection of the rights of women to health care are adhered to including the provision of comprehensive, affordable and accessible services. Girl Child All East African member states are committed, through adoption of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals, to promote the wellbeing and development of the girl child. A girl child in this context refers to females below the age of 18 years. Member States of the East African Community have also gone ahead to provide for the rights and wellbeing of the girl child under their child development policies and laws. All these instruments reflect member states’ commitment to the elimination of all forms of discrimination against the girl child. These efforts have resulted into positive changes in a number of areas including improvements in girls’ access to primary education, strengthening of legislative provisions related to age of marriage and other forms of violations. While these efforts are commendable, girls continue to be disadvantaged compared to boys. Gender inequalities in education All East African member states are committed, via their espousal of the Education for All (EFA) and the Millennium Development Goals, to eliminate gender disparities in education. All the Member States of the EAC recognize the right to education for boys and girls, men and women and also provide for Universal Primary Education (UPE) in their Medium-Term Education Development Programmes. By 2010, while Uganda had UPE; in Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania, primary education was free and compulsory. In addition, Rwanda and Tanzania have undertaken a more pragmatic approach to girls’ education including providing incentives for girls, continued education for young mothers, creating education funds/schemes for girls and eliminating gender stereotyping in education curricula among others. These efforts were commendable; however, more efforts are needed to address the existing gender inequalities in education that continue to disadvantage women and girls.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

In all the five EAC member states, female literacy is lagging behind compared to that of males. At the regional level, statistics for 2008 indicate that Kenya is leading with 70 percent literacy rate for women compared to 78 percent for men. Uganda is lagging behind the rest of the five EAC countries with 66 percent literacy rate for women compared to 82 percent literacy for men in 2008. This implies that more women compared to men continue to miss out on development opportunities because they cannot read and write. Member states and governments have a critical role to play in creating an enabling environment that will accelerate the achievement of gender equality and women’s empowerment in education. Governments need to target adequate resources to functional literacy among women and girls, eliminate dropout rates, promote female education including in education in sciences. Gender equality in education is critical to regional sustainable development. Human rights violations against women Women’s rights have traditionally been viewed as separate from human rights. Yet, throughout their lifetime, women are often faced with violations of their human rights, with such violations often taking the form of gender-based violence and discrimination among other acts. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaims the entitlement of every individual to equality before the law and to the enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedom, without distinction of any kind. Human rights violations against women continue despite the existence of legislative and policy frameworks in the EAC Partner States. Human rights violations happen at all stages of the lives of women, at the personal, professional, social and economic arenas. It is the duty of EAC Partner States to take appropriate legislative, judicial, administrative, budgetary, economic and other measures to the maximum extent of their available resources to ensure that women realize their rights. High maternal mortality and morbidity rates in the region for example, are an important indication for Partner States of possible breaches of their duty to ensure women’s access to reproductive health care services. A rights-based approach to maternal health addresses the obligations governments have to fulfilling the right to the highest attainable standard of health for all; enables individuals and communities to claim their rights; and underscores the duties to community that we all carry in ensuring the right to health for all. Violence against women Violence against women is recognized as one among many vices that is a threat to inclusive and sustainable development in the EAC. Violence against women and girls is one of the most widespread but least recognized human rights violations. It manifests in various ways in the public and private spheres and embodies the most common means of violation of the human rights of women. It can include physical, sexual, psychological and economic abuse, and it cuts across boundaries of age, race, culture, wealth and geography. It takes place in the home, on the streets, in schools, the workplace, in farm fields, refugee camps, during conflicts and crises. It has many manifestations from the most universally prevalent forms of domestic and sexual violence, to harmful practices, abuse during pregnancy, so-called honour killings and other types of homicide. It is important to

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note that, widespread gender based violence is common during and after armed conflict. Often, this pattern corresponds to a deficiency in the institutional mechanisms and rule of law meant to prevent and punish such crimes. The main bottleneck to ending violence against women does not only lie in the substance, but more so in the implementation of the laws, policies and programmes on the protection of the human rights of women. As a result of a deeply rooted cultural, traditional and social determinants surrounding the issue, there is need to change the strategies addressing violence against women. One of the ways that is recommended is to create a link between violence against women and the important question of development. The financial, psychological and connected long-term costs of violence against women must be addressed in relation to national cohesion and nation building, as underlying policy issues, if an end to violence against women is to be realized in the EAC Partner States. Women and armed conflict Women bear a heavy burden in conflict and post-conflict societies, both directly through violence perpetrated against them and their families, and as survivors attempting to reconstruct destroyed communities. There is growing recognition of women as agents of change, skillfully reshaping and rebuilding communities. The abuses that women and girls suffer in armed conflicts may take various forms, such as rape, sexual slavery and forced prostitution. Women refugees and internally displaced women remain vulnerable to violence and exploitation while in camps, when fleeing conflict, as well as in countries of asylum and during repatriation. Notably, the effect of armed conflict on women requires addressing a variety of factors, the relevance of which differs considerably among cultures and individual women within those cultures. In the EAC, the effects of armed conflict has been experienced in almost all the states. For example, the 20-year Lords Resistance Army war in northern Uganda; the 2007 post-election conflict in Kenya; the Rwanda genocide; and political instability in Burundi. Since armed conflict has a devastating impact on the lives of women; destroying the social fabric of society and the economic infrastructure, the EAC has been implored to develop policies and programmes to address this problem. Such policies and programmes should have clear monitoring and evaluation frameworks towards the actual realization and implementation of UNSCR 1325. Women and the economy The promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment is essential to poverty eradication and achieving sustainable human development today. The major reasons behind the continued social exclusion of women and gender inequalities include patriarchal values; traditional and cultural norms; lack of economic dependence; limited or lack of access to education; under–representation of women in decision-making positions; and women’s lack of knowledge of their legal rights. In some jurisdictions, the notion of male superiority over women is taught from a young age. The continued social exclusion of women is also an outcome of the low


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

investments in the human capital of women at household and national levels. Despite notable improvements in the policy, legal and institutional frameworks, gender inequalities still prevail particularly in accessing: secondary and higher education; productive resources such as land, capital, and technology; basic infrastructure (water, energy, roads); agriculture and rural development services; basic health services; employment opportunities and decision-making processes. Women and girls are still heavily disadvantaged. For example, women continue to have less access to education than men. They continue to have less employment and advancement opportunities. Their role and contribution to national development is neither recognized nor rewarded. The wage gap between men and women is still wide; women continue to be absent from decision-making; and, although they bear the brunt of conflicts, women are generally not included in peace negotiations or other initiatives in this regard. The persistence of gender inequality in all sectors compounds the achievement of the MDGs and overall socio-economic development in the East Africa region. Due to the fact that gender inequality acts as a powerful constraint to growth, removing gender based barriers would make a substantial contribution to helping the East Africa region realize its growth potential and achieve growth targets articulated in the national, regional and international instruments. This can be done by implementing MDG-responsive development and planning with the active involvement of civil society to evaluate the outcomes. This can be enhanced by reviewing existing legal frameworks, protecting women’s access to land, with the view of removing discriminatory provisions, which work against their interests.

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Appendix 12: Gender Analysis Tool - The 10 Key Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Who does what? {Activities} How? With what? {Access to resources} Who owns what? {Ownership of assets} Who is responsible for what? {Obligations} Who is entitled to what? {Claims, rights} Who controls what? {Income, spending} Who decides what {power} Who gets what? {Distribution} Who gains and who loses? {Redistribution} Why – What is the basis for the situation? {Rules, norms, customs}

Appendix 13: The benefits of mainstreaming gender into Local Council committees r It opens up opportunities for both women and men r Real problems of men and women are considered r There is increased capacity for each committee to address gender concerns in the course of its work. r There is increased capacity of the women members of each committee to participate effectively in committee work. r It contributes to good governance. As an institution with oversight responsibility of poverty reduction in the county, the benefits of gender mainstreaming in Council include: r Improved accountability of the Local Government to Council and the people, particularly with respect to poverty reduction. r Increased transparency of Local Government in decision-making as a result of Council activities. r Strengthened participation of civil society in Local Government decision-making as a result of Council activities. r Enhanced involvement of the poor in governance in the county and more effective poverty reduction efforts.


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Appendix 14: Mechanisms for prevention of HIV/AIDS Education “In the absence of a vaccine, the social vaccine of education and awareness is the only preventative tool we have.” Dr. Manmohan Singh, Prime Minister of India. Education plays a vital role in HIV prevention particularly in young people. Teens and young adults aged 15-24 accounts for about 40% of new infections globally (among those 15 and older). This statistic speaks volumes to the importance of education that targets this cohort. Life skills based education in schools is an effective method aimed at encouraging safer behaviour among young people by providing important information about safer sex and other HIV prevention methods (UNAIDS, 2007). When adapted to specifically address HIV prevention, education in schools helps young people understand the social and environmental factors which may put them at risk for HIV infection, and can have positive effects on behaviour changes including delayed sexual debut, and the reduction of sexual partners (UNAIDS, 2007). Apart from educational programs to sensitize children and youth to safer sex and HIV prevention, the very fact of ensuring children have access to school and educational opportunities is an important aspect of HIV prevention. Not only are higher levels of education associated with safer sexual behaviours and delayed sexual debut, but attending school provides children with opportunities to help them emerge out of poverty which remains a factor in the spread of HIV. Access to free, high quality primary education must also be ensured, in line with the Millennium Development Goals (UNICEF, 2008). Complimentary strategies, for out of school children, must also be developed to ensure that this already at risk group is not further marginalized. Young people, who have dropped out of school, children from families who cannot afford to send them to school or need their labour at home as well as orphans and street children, require the support and knowledge offered through educational programs. This could include peer-to-peer education and outreach, or life-skills training in a community capacity. HIV Prevention among key populations At risk or vulnerable populations are often difficult to reach with HIV prevention programs due to their mobility, isolation, as well as the fact that they may be “invisible” populations, which means their existence is denied by national governments or communities. However, in order to stop the spread of HIV infection among vulnerable groups, information and prevention programs must be targeted to their specific needs, and access to essential health services must be improved (UNAIDS, 2007) The most effective way to prevent HIV infection among the general population is to ensure health care and education services are available to those most vulnerable to HIV infection – in other words, providing targeted information. This requires that countries are aware of which groups are experiencing high rates of HIV infection,

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and those strategies are tailored to the needs of those groups. For instance, harm reduction strategies such as the provision of sterile needles has been proven effective among injecting drug users at risk of HIV infection. Providing condoms and emphasizing 100% condom use among brothels, is an example of an effective way to prevent the spread of HIV within the commercial sex industry. By and large, governments, as well as parliaments, must demonstrate openness and honesty when dealing with the HIV pandemic at the national level, discrimination which promotes the stigmatization of marginalized groups or “taboo” behaviours, must be challenged and changed. Legal protection must also be given and enforced to protect vulnerable groups from HIV related violence, especially gender-based violence that targets women and men who have sex with men. The groups most vulnerable to HIV require that their HIV prevention needs be addressed (see unit 2). These groups include: r Children and orphans r Indigenous people r Injecting drug users r Men who have sex with men r Migrants and mobile workers r Peacekeepers and soldiers r Prisoners r Refugees and internally displaced people r Sex workers and their clients r Women and girls who may be victims of violence.

http://parliamentarystrengthening.org/HIVmodule/1/1o.html


Trainers’ Manual on Gender in Local Councils in the Republic of South Sudan

Voluntary Testing and Counseling (VCT) Detectable antibodies to HIV appear within days or weeks of initial exposure to the virus. These can be detected by a simple test that can accurately pick up 99.9% of infections. Testing is important for several key reasons given that when individuals know their status they can use this information to protect themselves and others from infection. However, the fear of knowing ones status because of the repercussions and the stigma attached to HIV is a deterring factor for many in seeking testing. Knowing the demography of the people at risk, or vulnerable populations, is an effective way to ensure that these groups have access to testing and counseling services, as they are often outside of mainstream health care facilities due to inability to pay user fees, or for fear of discrimination and stigma. UNAIDS maintains that prevention, detection, and effective treatment of sexually transmitted infections are all important methods of reducing vulnerability to HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2007). UNAIDS also suggests that widespread testing of HIV and other STIs has been shown to “reliably yield important information for monitoring HIV responses” (UNAIDS, 2007). When governments are knowledgeable of the exact numbers of HIV infections within the country or region, and committed to improving the quality and consistency of data collected at the country level, they consequently improve the accuracy of responses at the national and global level (UNAIDS, 2007). However, it is important for governments to disaggregate their data according to age and gender, as this information is vital in developing HIV responses, which are appropriate to these varying cohorts, especially women, and youth who are increasingly the two most vulnerable groups (UNAIDS, 2007). Condoms and “Safer Sex” The term “safer sex” is used rather than simply “safe sex”, as no form of protection is 100% effective. However, condoms, if used correctly and consistently are highly effective at preventing HIV transmission (UNAIDS, 2008). This is true of both male and female latex condoms. As such, condoms should be made readily available in healthcare, community and education centres, at either low or preferably no cost. The World Health Organization also recommends “safer sex” campaigns which encourage delayed sex among young people, mutual fidelity among partners, overall reduction in the number of sexual partners, and early and effective treatment for other sexually transmitted diseases which, if left untreated, exacerbates rates of HIV infection (UNAIDS, 2008).

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Gender trainer's manual