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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Sustainable Transportation Design

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Land use Specification ............................................................................... 12

Content

Building Regulating Plan ............................................................................ 13

Introduction ................................................................................................. 3

Building Heights ................................................................................. 13

Geographic Boundary .................................................................................. 3

Building Disposition ........................................................................... 13

Land Use....................................................................................................... 4

Street Regulating Plan................................................................................ 14

Streets Survey .............................................................................................. 5

Redesigning Street Network ...................................................................... 15

Major Collector: Longmire Drive .......................................................... 6

Pedestrian Precincts: Quarter-Mile Radius Concept .................................. 16

Major Arterial: Rock Prairie Road......................................................... 7

Off-street Parking ....................................................................................... 16

Minor Collector: Ponderosa Drive........................................................ 8

Street Design.............................................................................................. 17

Major Collector: Rio Grande Boulevard ............................................... 8

Proposed Street Design ............................................................................. 20

Current Problems ......................................................................................... 9

Street Design Regulation ........................................................................... 22

1.

Vehicular Congestion and Gridlock at Intersections ................... 9

Proposed Intersection (Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Street) .............. 23

2.

Automobile Oriented Design .................................................... 10

Proposed Street Sections ........................................................................... 24

3.

High Speed ................................................................................ 10

Parks and Open Space Plan........................................................................ 28

Goal of General plan .................................................................................. 11

Parks and Open Space Plan........................................................................ 28

District Organization .................................................................................. 12

Definition ................................................................................................... 29

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Introduction Recently, with the pacing new development, a group of commercial, retail, business and civic use activities cropped up in the southern city of College Station. These expansions, generally known as 'Suburban Residential Neighborhoods', with the emergence of commercial development, now function as ‘Regional Centers’ and serve the southern part of the city. However, this short range planning along with its merits resulted in certain major issues like improper land use, inefficient street network and connectivity, gridlock at street intersection and vehicular congestion, pedestrian–accessibility, walk-ability and safety. The request for proposal is for Form Based Code for a district in Bryan-College Station area. This form based code aims to resolve these problems by looking into the new design based planning concept, and redesigning the area and streets in accordance with ‘form’ and subsequently its ‘function’. The prime focus of the project is to design the urban built environment to promote the use of sustainable modes of transportation; addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock, at the intersection of Major Arterial & Major Collector, through Transportation Congestion Mitigation Strategies, 'Pedestrian friendly', 'Multimodal compatible' and 'Safe Environment' Street.

Sustainable Transportation Design

North-West to South-East. There are two main thoroughfares in this area namely; Rock-Prairie Street (Major Arterial) and Longmire Drive (Major Collector).The residential component of this area is mainly Low-density single family households with some part as High-Density Duplex. Commercial, Retail and Business centers are located in a strip along both sides of Longmire Drive. (As shown in Figure 1)

Geographic Boundary The focus area for intervention and the Form Based Zoning is conventional suburban neighborhood which is situated in the South of ‘City of College Station’. It lies between Rio-Grande Boulevard and Highway-6 from South-West to North-East; and between Ponderosa Drive and Birmingham Road from Avinash Shrivastava

Figure 1 Geographic Boundary

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Land Use 

Low Density Residential Use: The study area typically accommodates conventional suburban residential tracts; most of which are single-family detached houses with few duplex and low-rise apartments. These are placed between Ponderosa Drive and Rock Prairie Road.

Commercial, Business and Retail Use: Most of the commercial, retail and business centers, which mainly encouraged the transformation of this area from suburban residential to regional center, appear to be located in a band along both sides of the Longmire Drive. (As shown in Figure 2)

Civic Use: In the South-West of the Rock Prairie Road, lies a hospital with large vehicular parking area surrounding it. Also, there are few churches and civic buildings along the Longmire Drive.

Open Spaces and Public Parks: There are two parks in our study area; a ‘Longmire Park’ in the low-density residential area; and ‘South-wood Parks’. There is also a large neighborhood park called ‘Westchester Park’ situated at the South-West of Rock-Prairie Road. (As shown in Figure 2) Figure 2 Land Use Plan

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Streets Survey Before preparing the Form-Based Code, we surveyed four streets in our study area. These streets were observed, photographed and measured the width of Right-of-Way, Driving Lanes, On-Street Parking Lanes, Bike Lanes and Side-walks. Table 1 shows the Streets Classification in our study area.

Figure 3 Street Classification

Table 1 Street Classification

Figure 4 Thoroughfare Characteristics

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Major Collector: Longmire Drive Description: Longmire Drive is located in the North-East of the study area, which accommodates a strip of commercial, retail and business use along its pathway. It connects to a Major arterial-Rock Prairie Road on the South and Minor collector-Ponderosa Drive. Though Longmire Drive is a Major collector, it changes its street character quite significantly in a short stretch of 0.3 miles. (Figure 6). It is one of the major corridors and carries a heavy load of vehicular traffic with a speed limit of 35 mph. It connects to the Highway-6 via Rock Prairie Road and acts a principal connector street for people intending to access Highway-6.

Figure 5 Ponderosa Drive

Transect Zone – Urban Center 

Land Use: Commercial, Business Centers, and Retail Service.

Sidewalks and Bike lanes: Though there are existing sidewalks and bike lanes along both sides of the street, they are not very user responsive or friendly for the following reasons: a) Discontinuous b) Narrow widths c) Easily disrupted by through traffic d) No street furniture

Gridlock: There are several access points to the off-street parking lots of commercial, business, and retail use buildings, on the Longmire Drive. The intersection of these access points and the street results in gridlock at these intersections. Due to the connection between Longmire Drive and Highway-6 via Rock Prairie Road, this induces added vehicular traffic on both Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road which results in vehicular congestion and subsequently gridlock at the intersection. Avinash Shrivastava

Figure 6 Ponderosa Drive - Existing Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Major Arterial: Rock Prairie Road Description: This segment of Rock Prairie Road is a major thoroughfare running across the whole study area from west to east and joining the Highway-6. It is a high-speed five lane street with speed limit of 45 mph, classified as Major Arterial, which also carries a heavy load of vehicular traffic like Longmire Drive. Unlike Longmire Drive, there are less access points on this street. But at the same time, crossing across the street is a major concern for pedestrians because of no pedestrian crossing in a long stretch of this street.

Sustainable Transportation Design

Chaos at Intersection: The area around the intersection of Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road mainly comprises of commercial and business centers, retail stores and restaurants which attracts vehicular traffic and results in congestion at the intersection. Some other reasons are: a) Due to the high traffic demand to access Highway Six. b) High Vehicular traffic from different directions. c) Pedestrian Safety because of limited crossing time at the intersection and lack of signals.

Transect Zone-General Urban and Urban Center 

Land Use: Business, Retail, and Residential Use, Public Utility and Parks.

Sidewalks and Bike lanes: a) No Bike lanes b) Sidewalk is too narrow c) No buffer between sidewalk and high-speed moving vehicular traffic d) No Street Furniture. Figure 7 Rock Prairie Road Existing Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Transect Zone-Suburban:

Minor Collector: Ponderosa Drive Description: Ponderosa Drive runs parallel to the Rock Prairie in this segment of suburban transect zone, which mainly serves to the residential use along the street; most of them are low-density single-family detached houses with some high-density duplex and multi-family low-rise apartments. Unlike Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road, Ponderosa Drive has less moving traffic volume with a speed limit of 35 mph.

Land use: Low-density Residential use

Sidewalks and Bike lanes: a) Narrow width of bike lanes and sidewalks. b) No Street Furniture.

Transect Zone-Suburban: 

Land Use: Low and High-density Residential Use

Sidewalks and Bike lanes: a) No Bike lanes b) Sidewalk is too narrow and discontinuous c) No Street Furniture.

On-street Parking: Even though there is no designated parking lane, people usually park their cars along the street.

Major Collector: Rio Grande Boulevard Description: Similar to the Ponderosa Drive, this segment of Rio Grande Boulevard caters to the low-density residential area, located in suburban transect of our study area. The vehicular traffic on this street is low as compared to Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road and the speed limit is 35 mph.

Avinash Shrivastava

Figure 8 Ponderosa Drive Existing

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Figure 9 Rio Grande Boulevard Existing

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Current Problems 1. Vehicular Congestion and Gridlock at Intersections As shown in the Figures 10 & 11, for a long time, this area has been troubled with the problem of severe congestion and gridlock at intersections, mainly at the intersection of Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road due to the following reasons: 

Land use: As Figures 10 & 11 illustrates, area around intersection of Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road attracts and carry added vehicular traffic due to the conglomeration of commercial, business, retail and public use activities. The band along the pathway of the Longmire Drive also attracts and induces extra vehicular traffic on the street.

Highway-6: Another reason that results in vehicular congestion and subsequently gridlock at the intersection of Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road, is the connection between Longmire Drive and Highway-6 via Rock Prairie Road for people intending to access Highway-6. This induces additional vehicular traffic volume on both these streets. Also vehicles heading from all the different directions especially vehicles going to the Highway-6 through Rock Prairie Road increases more traffic volume on these streets leading to gridlock.

Parking access point: On the Longmire Drive and in the close proximity of the intersection, there are several access points to the off-street parking lots of commercial, business, and retail use buildings. Avinash Shrivastava

Figure 90 Gridlock

The intersection between these access points and the street results in conflict and finally gridlock at these intersections. Network: Existing network in study area did not provide alternatives for traffic flow except going through intersection of Rock Prairie and Longmire and turns out high congestion at the intersection.

Figure 8 Existing Parking Access Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

2. Automobile Oriented Design The second problem in study area is inefficient and insufficient, pedestrian and bike responsive, sidewalks and bike lanes. Though the communities; commercial and residential districts are plausibly walk able and bike able (as per the Quarter-Mile Radius concept), the walking and biking environment is not safe and comfortable for pedestrians and bikers. (Pedestrian Audit) 

No sidewalks and bike lanes on local streets.

Discontinuous Sidewalks.

No/One-Sided/Discontinuous Bike lanes.

No pedestrian crossing in a long stretch of the major thoroughfares and is more prone to accidents as people tend to jay-walk and the speed limit is also significantly high.

No raised median on the street and the width of street is relatively more to be crossed in one go.

Uni-directional traffic signal for pedestrians at the intersection.

Discontinuity in the sidewalks due to excessive access points.

No street furniture and lack of plantings.

3. High Speed Thirdly, vehicles moving at higher speeds on major streets: Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Road, both have 35 mph and 45 mph speed limit respectively. Along with being a threat to pedestrian safety, higher speeds also reduces street capacity because of greater headway amongst vehicles.

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Pedestrian first:

Goal of General plan

 This new Form Based Code focuses more on design and form over use. It aims to redesign the target area in terms of District Designation, Building Regulating Plan, Street Regulating Plan, Parks and Open Space Plan to achieve the following objectives:

Providing continuous sidewalks and bike lanes on both the sides of the street.

Adding pedestrian crossing at a proper distance on the streets and adding median on a wider street.

1.

Limiting the vehicular speed –

Providing proper buffer from the driveways (trees, on-street parking or enough width).

Designing street-oriented buildings and establishing street-Building relationship.

Providing comfortable street furniture and shade.

Mixed use for commercial, office, open space and civic buildings.

2.

3.

Alleviate the vehicular congestion and resolving the problem of gridlock at intersections and along major thoroughfares. Create a safe and conducive environment for pedestrians and bicyclists by encouraging and maximizing walkability, bikeability, while reducing reliance upon cars. Improvise and encourage the functioning of Regional Centers and strengthen the local self sufficiency.

The whole plan will be guided by the following design principles which standardize the elements making it appropriate for streets and sidewalks width, building forms including frontage, setback, lots, and heights, parking location and sizes, plants and lighting: Enhance Street Connection and Network:  Redesigning street network by adding, extending or removing streets.  Increasing access to Highway Six.  Efficient Signal control at major intersections.

< 30 mph

Parking regulation: 

Shared parking space.

Providing On-Street Parking.

Instead of Off-Street parking, providing multi-storied vertical parking.

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

District Organization

Land use Specification

Study area has been divided into three transect districts:

Table 2 shows the Land-Use Specifications for the transect districts T3, T4 and T5.

T3 - Suburban Zone,

T4 - General Urban Zone,

T5 - Urban Center Zone.

Table 2 Land-Use Specification

Figure 10 Transect Districts

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Wenhao Li

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Building Regulating Plan

T3 Building Height

Building Heights 

All building height shall be measured in number of stories

The maximum for each floor is 14-15 ft from floor to ceiling

The height shall be measured from the ground to the roof

Lot Occupation

Building Setback

Building Disposition 

Sustainable Transportation Design

Buildings shall be placed within the area which fits into specific zoning requirement as shown in Table 3A

Principal Building Outbuilding Lot area Lot Coverage Front

T4

T5

3 stores max

4 stores max

5 stores max

2 stories max

2 stories max

2 stories max

10,000 sq.ft. avg 50% max

2,500 sq.ft. avg 70% max

1,500 sq. ft. avg 80% max

24ft.min

Side

12ft.min

Rear

12ft.min

Frontage

Buildings shall have façade along frontage lines and elevation along lot lines.

6ft.min 18ft.max 0ft.min 10ft.max 3ft.min 70% min at setback

0ft.min 12ft.max 0ft.min 24ft.max 3ft.min 70% min at setback

Table 3 Building Standards

The façade and elevation of the building shall be distanced from the frontage and plot lines as shown in Table 3A

Figure 11 Building Height Illustrations

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Street Regulating Plan

Figure 14 Overview of Study Area

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Redesigning Street Network The approach to resolve the vehicular congestion and gridlock at intersections mainly focuses on enhancing the street connection and network. This can be done by a) redesigning street network by adding, extending or removing streets and b) Increasing access to Highway Six.

The access points, to Highway-6, are proposed to increase from one to three. In this way, people get more choices to move on different routes (to enter into highway) rather than over-crowding on the Rock Prairie.

There are two proposed streets: One is an extension of a local street â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Bluestem Circleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; which will connect Ponderosa Drive to Rock Prairie Road, and further to Birmingham Road, while extending in the South-east direction. This is parallel to the Longmire Drive and acts as a support to Longmire in carrying the vehicular traffic from Ponderosa Drive to Rock Prairie Road. This street is proposed to alleviate the traffic pressure on Longmire. The other street proposed is an extension of Birmingham Road which connects Birmingham Road to the Rock Prairie Road, while extending in the North-west direction. This street is proposed to by-pass the vehicular traffic on Rock Prairie Road by providing a cut through access to the vehicles through the T4 district. This will reduce the unwanted flow of vehicles to the intersection of Longmire and Rock Prairie. Figure 12 Proposed Street Network

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Pedestrian Precincts: Quarter-Mile Radius Concept

Off-street Parking

Pedestrians can easily walk to the Neighborhood Center and feel safe because every street, in this community, is designed keeping in mind pedestrian safety and comfort. The purpose is to make the communities more sustainable by increasing walk ability and bike ability. Figure 16 illustrates that,

1.

Most of the Off-Street parking shall be located in rear or beside the buildings.

2.

Shared parking shall be encouraged.

Neighborhood size varies depending on the different transect zones, but all within the walk able distance.

3.

Instead of Off-Street parking, multi-storied vertical parking shall be provided.

Neighborhood centers are Civic use, Recreational and Open spaces.

Open spaces can be found throughout the neighborhood, it may be combined with a civic use.

Figure 17 Shared/Vertical Parking and Service Area

4.

The vertical parking towers, in Figure 17, are located so that everything in the commercial district is at a walkable distance to encourage walkability and reduce reliance of motor vehicles.

Figure 13 Pedestrian Precincts: Quarter Mile Radius Concept Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

into pedestrian focused shopping, business, and civic mixed-use community center.

Street Design To address and resolve all the problems mentioned previously in this report, we redesign the streets and classify them into four categories namely, a) Avenues, b) Boulevards, c) Streets and d) Locals.

2.

Parking regulation: On-street parking, on major corridors, can be provided in accordance with the parking standard as mentioned. Most of the off-street parking lots shall be moved to the rear of building. And adding one more two-stories parking structure to share parking space between office use and civic use.

3.

Building style: All building along the major streets shall be tightly connected to the street context through setback restriction and façade design. Also, in order to strengthen the transparency, the façade of ground commercial and retail shall be covered by glass and minimum transparent ratio shall be 70%.

To resolve the problems associated with street design constraints, we have designed the classified streets according to requirements of the target area. For ex: Unlike the conventional definition and design, Boulevard has been designed to carry low speed traffic with single median raised centrally. It is slightly different from Avenue in terms of street character and design. New Street Classification The Design Approach 1.

Avenue – Rock Prairie Road

Street landscape: Besides following the street design requirements in T5, some other street amenities such as awning, seating, planters, and light combined with the sidewalk café shall be further designed in public frontage to convert the thoroughfares from an automobile oriented street

Boulevard – Longmire Drive, Rio Grande Boulevard, Street Way Street – Ponderosa Drive, Birmingham Road, Bluestem Circle Street

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

T3

T4

T5

Curb Type/Width

Raised Curb 5-20 ft.

Raised Curb 5-20 ft.

Walkway Type /width Plants:

Sidewalk 4-8 ft.

Raised Curb 5-20 ft. Sidewalk 4-8 ft.

Arrangement

Regular

Regular

Regular

Species

Alternating

single

Alternating

Planter Type

Continuous

Continuous

Continuous

Planter

Planter

Planter

Planter width

8-16 ft.

8-12 ft.

4-6 ft.

Lights Type

Pipe, Post

Post, Column

Column, Double-column

Sidewalk 12-20 ft.

Figure 18 Proposed Thoroughfare Plan

Table 4 Public Frontage

Public Frontage: Public frontage is the area between the private lot line and the edge of the traffic lanes. It usually contains sidewalks, plants, lightings, benches, and other street amenities. The general dimension about the public frontage represents in the Graphic 19. This table assembles the specific dimension for the public frontage elements---curbs, plants, and lighting, allocating in T3, T4 and T5

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Figure 1 Public Frontage

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Proposed Street Design

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Sustainable Transportation Design

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Table 6 Thoroughfare Assembles

Street Design Regulation

Thoroughfare Type

Design Speed

Traffic Lane Width

T3

T4

T5

Below 20 miles 20 miles to 25 miles 25 miles to 30 miles

8 feet 10 feet

√ √

11 feet

Design Speed

Parking Lane Width

T3

T4

T5

Parallel 7 feet

Below 20 miles 20 miles to 25 miles 25 miles to 30 miles

Parallel 8 feet Parallel 8 feet

Sustainable Transportation Design

Transect Zone Right-of-way Width Driving Lane Width Parking Lane Raised Median Width Biking Lane Sidewalk Design speed Plants type Curb Radius Public frontage type

Local

T3 46 ft. 10ft 7 ft 4 ft 4 ft 5 ft. 10 MPH Ball 12 ft. commercial, residential

T3 28 ft. 10 ft N/A N/A 4ft. 5 ft. 10 mph Ball 12 ft. Residential

Boulevard

Avenue

Transect Zone

T4, T5

T4, T5

Right-of-way Width

70 ft.

90 ft.

Driving Lane Width Parking Lane

10 ft. 8 ft.

10 ft. 8 ft.

Raised Median Width

12 ft.

12 ft.

Biking Lane Sidewalk

5 ft. 8 ft.

5 ft. 8 ft.

20-25 mph

20-25 mph

√ √

Thoroughfare Type

Street

√ √

Design speed

Table 5 Vehicular Parking Assembles

Plants type

Ball

Curb Radius Public frontage type

Thoroughfare Assembles: These thoroughfares assemble the detail elements which fit the basic general streetscape requirements.

Avinash Shrivastava

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15 ft. commercial,business, residential

15 ft. commercial, residential

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Proposed Intersection (Longmire Drive and Rock Prairie Street)

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Proposed Street Sections

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Sustainable Transportation Design

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Sustainable Transportation Design

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Sustainable Transportation Design

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Parks and Open Space Plan

Open space types: T3

T4

T5

Green Playground Park:

√ √

√ √

√ √

Mini park

√ √ √

√ √

Natural Park Neighborhood Park

Square Plaza

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Civic Building: A building designed especially for civic use.

Definition This part provides definition of terms in the Code that are technical or that may not reflect a common usage of the term. Definitions: Apartment: A dwelling unit sharing a building and a lot with other dwellings or uses. Avenue: A thoroughfare of high vehicle capacity while low speed. Avenues are short distance connectors between urban centers. Avenue may be equipped with s landscape median. Bike Lane: A dedicated bike lane running with a moderate-speed vehicle thoroughfare, demarcated by striping. Boulevard: A thoroughfare of high vehicle capacity while moderate speed. Boulevards are long distances thoroughfare traversing urban area. Boulevard is usually equipped with slip roads buffering sidewalks and buildings. Building Configuration: The form of a building, based on its massing, private frontage, and height. Building Disposition: The placement of building on its lot. Building Height: The vertical extent of a building measure in stories, not including a raised basement or attic. Building Type: A structure category determined by function, disposition on the lot, and configuration, including frontage and height.

Civic Space: An outdoor space dedicated for public use. Civic space types are defined by the combination of certain physical constants including the relationship between the intended uses, their sizes, their landscaping, and their enfronting buildings. Commercial: The term collectively defines the workplace, retail and office. Community Type: A category defines the physical form of settlement. Cottage: An edgeyard building type. A single family building on regular lot and it often share with the ancillary in the rearyard. Courtyard Building: A building that occupies the boundaries of its lot while internally defining one or more private patio. Curb: The edge of the vehicular pavement detailed as a raised curb or flush to a swale. The curb usually incorporates the drainage system. Design Speed: is the velocity at which a thoroughfare tends to be driven without the constraints of signage or enforcement. There are three range of speed: Very Low (below 20 MPH); Low (20-25 MPH); Mediocrity (25-35); High (above 35 MPH). Elevation: an exterior wall of a building not along the frontage line. Entrance of Building: Main point of a access of pedestrian to a building.

Civic: The term defined by non-profit organization dedicated to arts, education, culture, recreation, government, transit, and municipal parking.

Faรงade: an exterior wall of a building is set along the frontage line.

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Frontage Line: Those lot lines coincide with a public frontage. Facades along the frontage line define the public realm and are therefore more regulated than the elevation that coincides with other lot lines.

Sustainable Transportation Design

House: An edge yard building type. A single-family dwelling on a large lot.

Pedestrian Shed: An area, approximately circular, that is centered on a Common Destination. A pedestrian shed is applied to determine the approximate size of neighborhood. A standard of pedestrian shed is 1/4 mile radius or 1320 ft, about five minutes distance walking in a comfortable environment.

Long Pedestrian Shed: A pedestrian shed of 1/2 mile radius used for mapping community type.

Planter: The element of public streetscape which accommodates the trees. Planters can be continuous or individual.

Lodging: Premises for daily or weekly renting of bedrooms.

Principal Building: The main building on a lot.

Lot Line: The boundary that legally and geometrically demarcates lot

Private Frontage: The private held layer between the frontage line and the principal building faรงade.

Lot Width: The length of principal Frontage Line of a lot. Mixed Use: Multiple functions within a same building through superimposition or adjacency, or in multiple buildings within the same area by adjacency. Mixed use is one of a principal of TND development from which many of its benefit are derived, including compactness, pedestrian activity, and parking space reduction. Office: premises available for the transaction of general business but excluding retail, artisanal, and manufacture use.

Public Frontage: The area between the curb of the vehicular line and the Frontage Line. Element of public frontage includes sidewalk, curb, planters and lights. Residential: Premises available for long time dwelling need. Retail: Premises available for the sale of merchandise and food service.

Parking Structure: A building contains two or three stories of parking.

Setback: The area of a lot measured from the lot line to a building faรงade or elevation. This area must be maintained the clear of permanent structures with the exception of galleries, fences, garden walls, etc.

Path: A pedestrian way traversing a park or rural area.

Sidewalk: the paved layer of public frontage dedicated for pedestrian use. Shared Parking; an accounting parking space that are available for more than one function. The requirement is reduced by a factor got from calculation. Avinash Shrivastava

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Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Sustainable Transportation Design

Story: A habitat level within a building of no more than 14 feet in height from the floor to finished ceiling. Attics and raised based are not considered as story. Streetscape: The urban element that establish the major part of the public real. Streetscape is composed of thoroughfares, public frontage and private frontage. Thoroughfare: A vehicle way incorporates the moving lanes and parking lanes within a Right-Of-Way. Transect Zone: Transect Zone are administratively similar to the land use zones in conventional codes, except that in addition to the usual building use, density, height, and setback requirements. The elements are determined in different Transect Zone: T1 Natural, T2 Rural, T3 Suburban, T4 General Urban, T5 Urban Center, T6 Urban Core.

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

31


Form Based Code - Addressing Sprawl-Induced Gridlock Rock Prairie and Longmire

Avinash Shrivastava

Wenhao Li

Yin Yun

Sustainable Transportation Design

32

Report: A Design for Sustainable Transportation - Form Based Code  
Report: A Design for Sustainable Transportation - Form Based Code  

The pacing new commercial development in the southern part of City of College Station,along with its merits has also resulted in certain maj...

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