Water Journal December 2007

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Volume 34 No 8 December 2007

Journal of the Australian Water Association

OPINION AND INDUSTRY NEWS OPINION Water Structures Searching for Answers My Point of View AWA EDUCATION Young Water Professionals CROSSCURRENT International, National, States, Industry, People in the News AWA MEMBERSHIP NEWS New Members

DBarnes, President, AWA TMollenkopf, CEO, AWA Gary Jones, CEO, eWater CR(


5 6 8 12 18



TECHNICAL FEATURES [ ·, indicates the paper has been refereed) ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS The 10th River Symposium and Environmental Flows Conference Environmental flows cannot be defined by science alone The Brisbane Declaration Environmental flows are essential for freshwater ecosystem health and human well-being Economic Assessment of Ecosystems as Components of Water Infrastructure Wetlands and other river features have economic values [i] Kimberley Waterways: Alternative Land and Water-Use Practices Catchment management on abroad scale Managing Rivers in Climate Change - Victoria's Challenges eWATER CRC eWater CR(, Flowing Apace ERM: 'How Much', 'Where' and 'When' for Environmental Flows Predicting the responses of river ecosystems Urban Water Systems: Where Do The Greenhouse Gas Emissions Come From? The residential end uses af water generated for more GHGs than the urban water utilities STORMWATER SYSTEMS [I] Rainwater Harvesting and Water Conservation at a Large Shopping Centre Overall, conservation measures reduced water consumption by 20% Preventing Oil Release: Variations in the EGOWS™ Separator Asimple, effective, concept applied to a wide range of designs [i] Roda VersaTraps: Laboratory Performance Trials Providing the manufacturer with hydraulic design data

Reported by EA(Bob) Swinton

28 34



AWStorey, SToussaint Report by EA (Bob) Swinton





NMarsh, AMilligan


DJ MFlower, VGMitchell, GPCodner


J Robertson, SNovic


DB Tolmie


MIsmail, HNikraz



73 80

OUR COVER River red gum forests are an important environmental, economic and social resource in south-eastern Awtralia. Increasing regulation of the Murray River since the J5)20s has dramatically reduced river flows and flooding.frequency and, exacerbated by the extended dry period, has led to substantial declines in forest condition. This has been quantified in a report released by Dr Shaun Cunningham ofthe Australian Centre for Biodiversity, Monash University (http://www. biolsci. monash. edu.a11/researchlacb/docs/red-gum-report.pdj). As dismssed in our River Symposium Report, page 28, we still do not know the flooding.frequency required to restore their condition. Photograph ofa degradedforest, Lindsay Creek, NW Victoria: INSET The remit ofan environmental flow at Wallpolla Island. Photos by Gillis Horner. Journal of the Austra lian Water Association



~ AWA CONTACT DETAILS • 'Promoting the sustainable ,-f' .,.::;.:,:.,. management o1 water AUUUII AN



Journal of the Australian Water Association

EMAIL info@awa.asn.au WEBSITE http://www.awa.asn.au PRESIDENT

ISSN 0310-0367

David Barnes - president@awa.asn.au

CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER Tom Mollenkopf - tmollenkopf@awa.asn.au

CHIEF OPERATIONS OFFICER Ian Jarman - ijarman@awa.asn.au

EVENTS Linda Phillips - 61 2 9495 9914 lphillips@awa.asn.au

MEMBERSHIP INFORMATION AND INQUIRIES Michael Seller - 61 2 6581 3483 mseller@awa.asn.au

MEMBERSHIP RENEWALS AND CHANGES Membership Team - 1300 361 426 info@awa.asn.au

MEDIA AND MARKETING Edie Nyers - enyers@awa.asn.au

SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION Diane Wiesner PhD - 61 2 9495 9906 dwiesner@awa.asn.au

WATER EDUCATION NETWORK Corinne Cheeseman - 6 1 2 9495 9907 ccheesman@awa.asn.au

NATIONAL SPECIALIST NETWORK Laura Evanson - 61 2 9495 9917 levanson@awa. asn .au

AWA BRANCHES: AUSTRALIAN CAPITAL TERRITORY and NEW SOUTH WALES Tanya Webeck - 61 2 9495 9908 twebeck@awa.asn.au NORTHERN TERRITORY Hayley Galbraith · 61 2 9495 99 19 hgalbraith@awa.asn.au SOUTH AUSTRALIA Sarah Carey - 6 1 8 8267 1783 sabranch@awa.asn.au QUEENSLAND Kathy Bourbon - 61 7 3397 5644 awaq@awa.asn.au TASMANIA & VICTORIA BRANCH c/o Rachel-ann Martin - 6 1 3 9235 1416 tasbranch@awa .asn .au vicbranch@awa .asn .au WESTERN AUSTRALIA Cath Miller - 04 16 289 075 cmiller@awa.asn.au INTERNATIONAL WATER ASSOCIATION, AUST. (IWAA) c/o Tom Mollenkopf - tmollenkopf@awa.asn.au

DISCLAIMER Australian Water Association assumes no responsibi lity for opinion or statements of facts expressed by contributors or advertisers.

COPYRIGHT AWA Water Journal is subject to copyright and may not be reproduced in any format without written permission of AWA. To seek permission to reproduce Water Journal materia l emai l your request to: enyers@awa.asn.au



Volume 34 No 8 December 2007

AWA WATER JOURNAL MISSION STATEMENT 'To provide a print iournal that interests and informs on water matters, Australian and international, covering technological, environmental, economic and social aspects, and to provide a repository of useful refereed papers.' PUBLISH DATES Water Journal is published eight times per year: February, Morch, Moy, June, August, September, November and December EDITORIAL BOARD Chairman: FR Bishop BN Anderson, TAnderson, CDiaper, GFinlayson, AGibson, GA Holder, BLabza, MMuntisov, CPorter, DPower, FRoddick EDITORIAL SUBMISSIONS Water Journal invites editorial submissions for: Technical Papers and topical articles, Opinion, News, New Products and Business Information. Acceptance of editorial submissions is subject to editorial board discretion. Email your submissions to one of the following three categories: 1. TECHNICAL PAPERS AND FEATURES Bob Swinton, Technical Editor, Water Journal: bswinton@bigpond.nel.au AND journol@owo.osn.au Papers of 3000-4000 words (allowing for graphics); or topical stories of up to 2,000 words. relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business. Submissions ore tabled at monthly editorial board meetings and where appropriate ore assigned to referees. Referee comments will be forwarded to the principal author for further action. See box on page 4 for more details. 2. OPINION, INDUSTRY NEWS, PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Edie Nyers, enyers@owo.osn.au Articles of l 000 words or less 3. WATER BUSINESS Brion Roult, Notional Soles & Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions brion.roult@holledit.com.ou Water Business updates readers on new products and associated business news within the water sector. ADVERTISING Brion Raul!, Notional Sales & Advertising Manager, Hallmark Editions Tel: 61 3 8534 501 4 (direct), 61 3 8534 5000 (switch), brion.roult@holledit.com.ou Adverlisements ore included as on information service to readers and ore reviewed before publicalion to ensure relevance to the water environment and objectives of AWA. PURCHASING WATER JOURNAL Single issues available @ $12.50 plus postage and handling; email dwiesner@owo.osn.au BACK ISSUES Water Journal bock issues ore available to AWA members at www.owo.osn.au PUBLISHER Hallmark Editions, PO BOX84, HAMPTON, VICTORIA 3188 Tel: 61 3 8534 5000 Fox: 61 3 9530 89 l l Email: hollmork.editions@holledit.com.au

Journal of the Australian Water Association

WATER STRUCTURES T he issues surround ing urban and regional water quality and supply have been o ne of the Australian election topics. The offers of fund ing for local projects and national plans have been a novel fea tu re o f the campaign. It is now the responsibility of the duly elected governmen t to implement sensible policies that will ensu re sustainable management of water. Amid all of the election activity there are reviews of and proposals fo r institutional arrangements in several Stares. In the 1980's the provision of water and sewerage services began to move away fro m the traditional public utility provider with a rates based tariff structure. Corporatisation of Hunter Water was followed by changes to the institutional arrangements, throughout Australia. A range of institutional models are in operation, in part reflecting the regional circu mstances of service provision. Whi le some of the models created initial d islocation they have resulted in an increased efficiency in service provision, imp roved customer service and a greater participation of the p rivate sector throughout the water industry. T hese 'arrangements' have been stable for the past decade but are now being reassessed in several States, includi ng the Melbou rne metropolitan retail water sector, the urban water industry in South East Q ueensland and p rovision of services in Western Australia. It is important that the water industry continues to provide improved customer service and asset management whilst ach ieving cost savings and high standards of water quality management. The recent low rainfall patters have furthe r rei nforced the need for a whole of water cycle and whole of catch ment ap proach to water plan ning and management.

In any evaluation of institutional arrangements it is appropriate to ensure that the models are compatible with the fu ndamentals of water management and with shifts in technology and in the provision of services. Related industries such as electricity and telecommunications serve a similar customer base however there are significant d ifferences in the nature of their product. In any institution model fo r the urban water sector it will be important that key features are recognised that include:




achieved in the last two decades are maintained and furt her developed. The low rainfall/climate change conditions under which rhe whole water sector will need to operate are generating additional costs and constraints. These need to be recogn ised as critical factors in rhe overall structure of water management in Australia. In addition rhe underlying philosophy of public water supply to protect public health should remain rhe core p rinciple rhar underpins

Dr David Barnes, AWA President

any urban water industry structure. Finally I would like to than k all AWA members and AWA staff for all rheir assistance and participat ion in what has

• Water within the water supply and sewerage systems is only part of the larger water cycle • Water, stormwater sewage, and effluents con tains other materials than H 20 and these materials, including toxins and pathogens, are critical to the protection of public health and environmental quality • Water is heavy and can be stored but requires large expensive infrastructure, it is expensive to move water against gravity and water cannot be moved rapidly from one location to another • The need to p rovide water for a wide range of purposes is changing the characteristics of the raw waters that feed o ur systems. The move from protected often upland water sources to include rivers, stormwater and effluents as water sources places renewed importance on the public health fu nction of water • The interfaces between organisations responsible for the quality and quantity of water tend to be the points of greatest risk for the effective and safe management of water. These interfaces require clear operational frameworks and can impose h igh transaction costs • Competitive models have delivered savings to the consumer in so me market sectors. There is no current competitive urban water example. In addition the economics of scale in our larger towns and cities usually in coastal areas with available water resources are not available to many smaller commu nities. T he issues of cost and quality of service become even more distorted than in the more widely reported telecommunicatio ns sector. As institutional models around the coun try evolve, it is important that the gains

Journal of the Australian Water Association

been a hectic and productive year fo r the AWA and the water sector. I wish you all a happy and safe festive season and am certain rhar 2008 will be a busy, interesting and enjoyable rime for us all.

David Barnes


Editorial Submissions Technical Papers Water journal welcomes rhe submission of papers equivalent to 3,000-4,000 words (allowing for graphics) relating to all areas of the water cycle and water business to be published in the journal. Topical stories of up to 2,000 words may also be accepted. All submissions of papers intended for the main body of the journal should be emailed to the Technical Editor, bswinton@bigpond.net.au and copy, for back up, to journal@awa.asn.au. Shorter news items should be emailed to enyers@awa.asn.au. A submitted paper will be tabled at a monthly Journal Committee meeting where, if appropriate, it will be assigned to referees. Their comments will be passed back to the principal author. If accepted and after any comments have been dealc with, the fi nal paper can be emailed with the text in MS Word bur with high resolution graphics (300 dpi tiff, jpg or eps files) as separate files. Authors should be mindful rhat Water Journal is published in a 3 column 'magazine' format rather than rhe full-page format of Word documents. Graphics should be set up so that they will still be clearly legible when reduced to t\vo-column size (about 12cm wide). Tables and figures need to be numbered with the appropriate reference in the text e.g. see Figure I, not just placed in the text with a (see below) reference as they may end up anywhere on the page when typeset. See page 2 for more details on this and other editorial submissions.

SEARCHING FOR ANSWERS For chose in Victoria over che Melbourne Cup "long weekend", ic wasn't just the horse racing chat conspired co confuse and taunt us. The weather also got its fair share of attention with wild winds and heavy rainfall in some pares of Southern Victoria. The resulting run off was reflected in some rivers and screams flowing freely into the ocean or coastal lakes for che fi rst time in a good while. Ic prompted che group chat I was with co quiz me: "Isn't there something we can do co capture all chis water?" Sections of the media seized the issue in a grander way suggesting char what we needed was more dams in Ease Gippsland. le is tempting co gee defensive; co observe chat is isn't chat simple. I found myself struggling co succinccly summarise some of the complex considerations chat we as water professionals seek co balance as we consider solutions co our water resource needs. These co nsiderations are often not apparent co che co mmunity by-and-large. They see water flowing in gutters when it rains and want co know why it is not harnessed; our cities and cowns generate millions of li tres of created effluent every day which is universally acclaimed as "a valuable resource" bu t is still predominately discharged co che sea and not re-used. T here are of course reasons fo r chis sometimes even good reasons. Bue the community wanes ideas and guidance on how co manage water responsibly not reasons why things cannot be done. One cannot underestimate the enthusiasm and effort of che public in seeking their own on-site and local solutions; bucketing out bath water, greywater diverters, ranks, even mini package recycling planes. Many of these initiatives are sustainable although there are examples where one has co query whether they would stand up from a Triple Bottom Line perspective. Ac one end of the spectrum, ic is arguable chat the health and safety risks of older people carrying buckets of shower water into che garden outweigh che environmental ucilicy of a few litres saved. At the ocher end, it seems indefensible on all T BL counts co truck groundwater from peri-urban or rural areas, th rough our cities, so we can fill swimming pools. In addition co the economic cost of cartage and the social dis-utili ty of additional

Tom Mollenkopf, AWA CEO

traffic, we suffer carbon emissions from fuel consumed. Centralised water supply systems such as dams and desali nation are seen by some as poor options. They nevertheless have a place in a diversified portfolio of water resources; the alternative solutions are not always more environmentally friendl y or lower community cost. As we seek co better manage and utilise our limited natural resources, the ongoing wo rk bei ng done in Victoria on the Food Bowl Irrigation Project will be instructive. The Goulburn Murray irrigation district is arguably Australia's most important irrigation region, worth $9 billion, with $1 .53 billio n in exporcs. As we know only coo well however, the region is dry and likely co get drier. Overall, the system currencly "loses" nearly 30% of its water, or approx. 800 GL each year. The Victorian Government has proposed chat up co $2 bill ion be in vested in modernising the ageing infrastructure of the Food Bowl irrigation system co generate significa nt water savings. In che


FUTURE FEATURES MARCH · Energy minimisation, review of Australia ' s desalination plants , membrane technology, further options fo r water resources , Asia-Pacific issues, odour management MAY· SCADA, disinfection , trenchless techno logy

JUNE · ENVIRO 2008 report & selected papers, pressure sewers, disinfection, WICD, ed ucation & tra i ning

firs t scage, water savings of up to 225 GL annually wi ll be generated by reducing losses through leaks, evaporatio n and other inefficiencies. This stage will cost around $1 billion. With a view co sharing the benefit and che burden of chis investment between country and city water users, the Victori an Government will fu nd $600 million for the upgrades with Melbourne Water co ntributing $300 million and $100 million from Goulburn Murray Water. The resultant water savings will be shared equally between irrigacors, the environment and Melbourne co nsumers. To che bystander, ch is appears to be an opportunity co make a signi ficant change in the way irrigated agriculture works in northern Victoria. Some irrigacors are of che view chat che Scace should pay whatever is required fo r che necessary works and that they alone should be the beneficiaries of rhe additional yield. At a time when many in rural Australia are concerned about their futures, it is perhaps an understandable claim. Interestingly however there are ochers in che irrigation sector chat see chis as an opportunity co upgrade irrigation infrastructu re, tech niques and technologies and co achieve greater security and who are prepared co see the benefits shared across che whole communi ty. This is a welcome view of the world rhac sees water as not 'mine' but 'ours.' A public comment period closed at the end of October and a final report was due co be submitted co che Victorian Government in November. le is co be hoped chat in a rime of challenge fo r all sections of che Australian community, we are prepared to work together fo r a fix. On the global front, AWA is continuing to engage with the broader water communiry as pare of our ongoing search for answers. Recencly we hosted the !WA-ASPIRE (Asia Pacific Region) Conference in Perch. A more derailed report appears on page 22 but I would like co acknowledge che exceptional work done by co-chairs of che Confe rence, Prof Goen Ho and Mr Des Boland, supported by a very talented team in che W.A. branch. The event was an outstanding success with over 550 delegates fro m 25 countries. With chis sore of enthusiasm and calenc, we have great cause for optimism about getting chose answers.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Tom Mollenkopf



PRIVATE MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS By Professor Gary Jones people will find a way co deal with it. That is what has happened with irrigation. Irrigation companies were formed as collectives of individual farmers, scaling up co meet their own economic needs and regulatory requirements.

In recent years, considerable Commonwealth and Scace fu nding has been sec aside co recover water for environmental flows (e-flows). Beginning with the Snowy River agreement, through co chis year's $10 billion National Water Security Plan, more than $4 billion has been earmarked for chis purpose. As much money as chis is, it will not be enough to return all rivers co a healthy condition. The $500 million Living Murray funding, for example, was recognised only as a 'first seep' decision by the MDB Ministerial Council in 2004. Consequently, additional sources of e-flows investment, especially private sources, could be essential to ach ieve river recovery. And, as experience is scarring co show, the funding of e-flows may be the lease difficult part of the whole healchy-rivers challenge. Buying water for e-flows is usually far more controversial than ocher river health interventions (such as habitat restoration or pest control) . Governments are under enormous press ure co nor ace in a way chat impacts upon existing water users, especially irrigators. We have seen how hard it can be for governments co buy water from farmers, even willing sellers, when agricultural lobby groups are regularly in the media cal king about the demise of rural communities dependent on irrigation. Consequently, there are often very strict government controls - 'freedom to operate' issues as I call chem - char influence and constrain the way public river- and wetland-managers can buy water and then use it. For example, there are rescriccions on when and how much water can be obtained, what type of licences can be bought, and when che water can be called on. Then there is the related issue of'sovereign risk', the right of governments co vary their 'contract' with the environment. There are numerous recent examples where e-flows have been summarily resumed, and wetlands have been drained, co provide water for human use. I raise these matters not co criticise governments: these are cough rimes and governments must make cough decisions. Bue from the perspective of an already stressed river ecosystem it may be disastrous co unilaterally lose e-flows in this way. To mitigate these risks for the environment in future, I believe we should encourage and facilitate private ownership and

Gary Jones is CEO ofeWater CRC (eWater Ltd), and was previously CEO ofthe CRC far Freshwater Ecology. He chaired the Living Murray Scientific Expert Panel, and the A CT ChiefMinisters Drinking Water Catchments Advisory Committee, and is an author on over 100 scientific papers, reports, book chapters and articles.

management of e-flows. This will help ensure chat e-flows rights holders are allocated water on the same basis as all ocher water users, neither receiving preferential treatment nor being subject co unilateral interventions. We need co extend che right co hold a licence to use (or cake) water co all citizens and private companies. After all, subject co planning regulations, we can all buy land and use it fo r productive purposes. Should not the same right apply co all Australians co own and use water for environmental purposes? People cell me it would be coo hard co make chis work. How can individuals possibly have the resources co make all the right decisions one-flows, they say? My response is chat we have run irrigation farms and systems builc on individual private rights for nearly a century. Yee we did not figu re out all the legal and management challenges in the fi rst year. Ir was, and will always be, a matter of trial and error and of adaptive management. I also gee cold chat 'scale' is a problem. Won't individuals with small e-flows holdings lead co a fragmented response, without creating any real and enduring ecological benefit? My answer is char if scale is a problem (or better put, an opportunity)

6 DECEMBER 2007 Water Journal of the Australian Water Association

e-flows rights could be voluntarily aggregated and managed through a charitable trust or nor-for- profit company. Governments could grant legal custodianship of a wecland or flood plain forest co these bodies. Some CMAs are already raking on chis role, building a portfol io of public and private environmental water rights co be managed on behalf of the water owners. In addition, there are private charities such as Wacerfind Environment Fund in South Australia and the Nature Conservation Council in NSW doing, or hoping co do, similar things. Another option, especially in unregulated rivers, is co create 'virtual environmental farms' in key reaches. These could be located, for example, where tributaries join, or downstream of a fishway or weir. Ac these sites, private owners could individually or collectively use their environ men cal water co support che river or floodplain ecosystem. Some people worry chat there are already coo many water recovery programs. Bue from a market perspective such diversity, public and private, is a good thing. Tc encourages, on a healthy competitive basis, the best possible mixture of e-flows management solutions for Australia's rivers and weclands. Certainly, if any of the environmental water cruses I described above wasn't doing a good job - if it wasn't getting the ecological outcomes chat were promised in its Trust Deed - the private owner could rake their water right (and annual allocation) to another 'environmental management' provider co seek a better environmental outcome. My proposal co allow private investment in environmental water ownership and management is nor about disempowering governments, nor is it saying they have no responsibility or role in e-flows management. It is about broadening the investment and management base for the environment - and, in doing so, minimising the operational constraints and risks for the long-term health and sustainability of Australian river and wetland ecosystems.

INTERNATIONAL In a mimic of Australia's WaterSmart http://www.nwc.gov.au/agwf/wsa/index.cfm and WELS schemes h ccp://www.waterrating.gov.au/, US EPA has released a "high-efficiency faucet specification" to give consumers a new way to identify high-performance, WATEREFFICIENT produces for their homes. http://www.epa.gov/OW-OWM. h tml/water-effi ciency/ specs/ fauce t_final.htm These and ocher prod uces such as aerators that receive the WaterSense label will use about 30 % less water chan conventional models. The increasi ng D ROUGHT in southern states of US has led Georgia co declare a state of emergency and demand that che US Corps o f Engineers significan tly reduces d ischarges from Aclanta's main water source, Lake Lainier. As water restrictions are introduced, the state p repares emergency response plans in case of su pply interrup tions, and many residents are having p rivate wells drilled. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007 I 1022/ p02s01-ussc.html An international seminar on water resources cold participants that water investmen ts in the MIDDLE EAST are increasing. The event also outlined likely disputes and strategies to resolve the issues. $250 billion in investment is needed within the next decade, with half needed for desalination p rojects plus water treatment planes and network renewals. http://www.iwap.co. uk/cemplate.cfm? name=business

NATIONAL T he first biennial assessment under the Natio nal Water Initiative commends considerable progress bu t says fu ture water management challenges require more work co improve and accelerate the implementation of reforms, particularly reducing the over-allocation of water resources, determ ining surface and groundwater connectivity, water accounting etc. It cites the rush co invest in new URBAN WATER INFRASTRUCTURE as evidence of past plan ning fa ilures by urban water managers. hccp://www.nwc.gov.au/ nwi/biennial_ assessmen t/index.cfm A report from the Business Cou ncil of Australia (BCA) on NATIONAL INFRASTR UCT URE advocates changing ownership and sttucture of che urban water sector includ ing introducing national regulation together with compecicion for bulk users. Measures co allow chem co pay more fo r reliable supp ly and co trade their





Office opening ceremony at the Hague City Hall with the mayor, Wim Deetman, IWA' s President, David Garman, IWA's Executive Director, Paul Reiter, Theo Schmitz from Vewin and Bas Pulles from the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affa irs. T he International Water Association (IWA) has opened a major operational office in The H ague to further its collaboration with international partners in the water sector. "The Hague o ffice o ffers us a myriad of opportunities to partner with the scientific, co nsultant, util ity and industrial com munities that are pro-actively engaged in solving p roblems of water supply and sanitation in both developed and developing countries" said Paul Reiter, IWA Executive D irector. enti tlements are also canvassed. h ttp://www.bca.com.au/Conten r.aspx? ContentlD= 101166 A new study fro m Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering (ATSE) identifi es serious gaps in the country's WATER SUPPLY PLANNING co maintain adequate water supplies in an uncertain fut ure for availability and demand. It claims chat institutional support and technical rigour for planni ng are largely absent in some states and territories. hctp://www.atse.org.au/index. p h p? sectionid= 128 Amo ng the NWC RECOMMENDATIONS fo r urban water planning are: an objective stance on all options (including recycled water, desalination, rural-to-urban trade, new dams, inter-basin transfers, and cross-border transfers) not limits on favoured choices, diversification towards less-climate dependent supply optio ns and harmonising water restrictions. h ttp://www.nwc.gov.au/ nwi/bienn ial_ assessment/recommendations_co_coag.cfm NAT IONAL WATER WEEK, an opportunity for all in the water industry to

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Based righ t in the heart of the International C ity that is home to some 150 international organisations, the IWA office was opened at an official ceremony hosted by che Mayor of The Hague on November 14th 2007. Following the opening of new regional offices in Singapore and Beijing, it demonstrates IWA's continuing expansion and regionalisation in to the regions of the world where water issues are tackled head-on.

focus on solutions to our water issues, improve d ialogue on national water issues and galvanise commu nities in the p rotection and conservation of our water resources again proved successful, though with an imminent election, a little mo re in the way of financial support for the sector might have been expected. More at www.nationalwaterweek.org.au Smart Approved WaterMark, Australia's WATER SAVINGS LABELLING p rogram for products and services that are helping to reduce outdoor water use, lau nched a new website for consumers at www.smartapp rovedwatermark.org. The new website has information o n the increasing range of accred ited, innovative products that help you save water in the garden, pool, around the home and when cleaning vehicles.

Western Australia The Water Corpo ration ' Report 2007: Sourcing Managing Conserving', highlights the major activities in 2006-07 and achievements in the core areas of our business, with a focus on sustainability. The report is available on-line.

for the twelfth week running. The daily average chis week was 133 litres/person, up slightly from 130 lase week. http://www.qwc.qld.gov.au/ ciki-read_arcicle. php?arcicleld= 168

An Enviro nmental Impact Statement for che T ravescon Crossing Dam project will be available for public input for six weeks from today 22 October 2007 until Monday 3 December 2007. The co mplete EIS can be downloaded from the proponent's website www.qldwi.com.au. For an executive summary and information on making a submission, visit the Queensland Department of Infrastructure and Planning website. http://www.workliveplay.qld.gov.au/ major_ projeccs/cravescon.shcm

INDUSTRY A scenario analysis by the Internacional Water Management Institute (IWMI) indicates chat BIO FUELS aggravate already stressed water resources as biofuel production increases demand for land at che expense of nature and requires large quantities of water, already a major drain on wo rld agriculture h ttp ://www. iwmi.cgiar .org/News_Room/ Archives/Biofuels/ A recently completed review available at http://www.ukwir.org/ukwirlibrary/91852 assesses the health risks associated with the relationship between bacterial pathogens and protozoa in water supplies. It appears chat the PROTOZOAN hose may PROTECT these bacteria from disinfection during water treatment with implications for water treatment plane protocols. The Australian Rain Corporation has been gran ced $ 1OM from the Australian Government Water Fund co undertake trials of rainfall enhancement technology in Sou th Ease Queensland. The technology increases the amount of cloud condensation nuclei in the lower atmosphere, co in turn ind uce convection, could fo rmation and precipitation. h ccp: //www.nwc.gov.au/agwf/wsa/ proj ecc. cfm?projectlD =97 &ref=0

PEOPLE IN THE NEWS ALAN SHEA has left City West Water to cake on the role of Manager Water Systems at Western Water Email: alan.shea@wescernwacer.com.au GREG KENNEDY has joined Tyco Water co bolster the resources of their Brisbane Marketing Office. Email gkennedy@cycowacer.com

16 DECEMBER 2007 Water

KATRINA LOCSEY has joined H LA ENSR in their Brisbane office as associate hydro-geologist, contaminated land . Email: klocsey@hlaensr.aecom.com Dr ANDREA PAPARINI has been appointed co lead the Centre for Water Research at UWA in to new areas of biological research. H e will develop software and hardware co study the evolution of microbial communities in water bodies. Email paparini@cwr.uwa .ed u.au

ALDO CANTOR! has been taken up the position of Water Manager for Leighton's in both NSW and ACT. aldo .cantori@leicon.com.au TONY H ILL has been appointed the new Victorian Operations Manager of HLA ENSR. Tony was previously Principal Environmental Scientist in H LA ENSR's Melbourne office, and has been with the organisation for nine years . GARY CRISP fo rmerly with Water

J ENNIFER SAGE left AWA co cake on a role with the NSW Department of Environment and Climate C hange in the Regulation and Environment Protection Group. Email jennifer.sage@environmenc. nsw.gov.au. AWA welcomes EDI E NYERS into the role of Communication Manager, commencing on 19 November. Email enyers@awa.asn.au

Corporation and now Principal Engineer

TERRY COLLINS has joined Earth Tech as Australia Technical Manager for Global Water Projects and Products. Email terry.collins@earchcech.com.au

Vice- President respectively of the Western

PETER HOLT has moved from Ecological Engineering - EDAW co Energetics as the Principal Consultant - Water. Email H oltP@energecics.com.au

TANIA COBHAM, the leader of the water

RUSSELL RIDING has joined Melbourne Water as a Senior Asset Engineer in the Mechanical and Electrical Asset team. Email: russell.riding@melbournewater.com.au

2007 Management Excellence Awards on Tania.Cobham@arup.com.au

NATALIE DAVIS joined Melbourne Water as Communications Manager, Major Projects in the Communications & Community Relations Group . natalie.davis@melbournewater.com.au

co his fami ly from all at AWA.

DR THERESE FLAPPER has joined Clearwater Tech nology as Technical Manager, responsible fo r growing a research & development portfolio. Contact theresef@clearwatercechnology.com.au BEN MARTIN has been appointed Manager of HLA ENSR Singleton NSW office. Ben is a hydrographer with > 10 years in environmental management. bmarcin@hlaensr.aecom.com REBECCA POTTER has joined Melbourne Water as an Environmental Flows Plan ner in the Waterways Group. She has previously worked as a freshwater biologist with EPA Victoria. rebecca. po ccer@melbournewacer.com.au ANYA JONES-GILL has joined Melbourne Water as a Water Resources Modeller in the Urban Water Planning Team. (Previously with Montgomery Watson Harza) anya.jonesgill@melbournewater.com.au

Journal of the Australian Water Association

for Desalination at GH D has been elected a Director co che Board of the Internacional Desalination Association. Contact: Gary.crisp@ghd.com.au PET ER ADDISON of the Water Corporation and NOEL LAVERY of SKM have been endorsed as the President and Australian Branch pecer.add ison@wacercorporacion. com.au business in the Cairns office, was named Young Manager of the Year at the Australian Insti tute of Management's Friday 2 November. KEN WOOD, a life member of AWA and long term treasurer (honorary) of Victorian Branch has passed away: sincere sympathies PETER COOMBES has been appointed a founding director of Bonacci Water, based in Melbourne from early 2008. He remains a conjoint associate professor of integrated water cycle management at the University of Newcastle. Tenix Alliance has announced the following appointments co their Engineering and Technical Services (ETS) group: BRUCE DUNCAN, fo rmerly from SKM in Perch has taken the role of Design Manager (Brisbane) - Email: bruce.duncan@tenix.com; ANDREW CONNELL, formerly with Stanley Consulting in the USA has taken the role ofTenix Alliance's Design Manager (Melbourne) Email: andrew.connell@cenix.com; and SIMON RASMUSSEN , formerly with Gippsland Water is now Commissioning Manager for Mackay Recycling Project Email: simon.ramussen@tenix.com


conference reports YWPS@ASPIRE 2007

ASPIRE Report by Des Boland It was a very cold Sunday morning in Perth. The city was still alive and the Perth Co nvention and Exhibition Centre was just opening. The catering staff were polishing the tea spoons and preparing the coffee cups to be ready fo r the start of this major international AWA/IWA event, ASPIRE 2007. On this Sunday morning, a group of young (and young at heart) water professionals gathered together for the IWA YWP workshop , the firs t event of the ASPIRE conference. A group of about fifty participants came to hear words of wisdom from several keynote speakers who work in various sectors of the water industry, representing many different pares of the Asia Pacific Region. The programme was organised by Michael Storey (IWA YWP C hair and A WA NSW YWP Comm ittee Member) from Sydney, and Adrian Puigarnau (IWA Programmes Officer), who flew in from London. T he day started with a networking session designed to allow all the attendees to meet professionals from Perth and other parts of the world.

Meeting tomorrow's challenges was the first theme of the day. All the speakers emphasised how important a role the next generation of professionals will play in the water industry. With an increasingly drying

climate and a d ramatic increase in the world's population, drinking water sources are being placed under increasing stress. In an environment under pressure, the next generation of water professionals must be the ones to come up with the innovations needed to meet the challenges facing water supplies in the future. It is extremely important that the water industry recognises the need to engage all those talented individ uals who want to step up and make a difference. Mr Geoff Syme, CSIRO, reminded us to consider the so cial impacts of water supply and waste water management. Community and institutional issues are just as important as the physical aspects of water management. As water providers need to secure a sustainable water supply, they need to implement measures such as desalination and recycled water. Co mmunity engagemen t and trust is becoming ever more important. H e also mentioned that communities with well managed water resources will be those most resilient to change in the future. Mr Syme fini shed his talk with a question: Will the next world war be fought over water resources? Prof. Norihito T ambo from Hokkaido University in J apan illustrated the impact of population and economic growth on worldwide water usage. The rapid population growth in developing countries and economic boom in developed countries over the last 50 yea rs, together with global warming, has had an extreme impact on water availabili ty. Food crop demand is stretching water resources to a level where, if water management is not sustainable, it will deplete all water resources.

Adrian Puigarnau (IWA Programmes Officer) A Career in Water? The afternoon session started with presentations on the different career opportunities available in the water sector. The session included representatives from consultancy, nonprofit NGOs, industry, government, academia and utilities. Each were asked to outline what YWPs could expect from a career in their field, the type of work that YWPs cou ld potentially do and also possible career advantages. After the presentations, there were breakout groups where participants were able to engage in discussions with each of the presenters, to find out more about the different areas of the water industry they were interested in. The final sessio n of the day was foc ussed on the activities of the YWPs in the ASPIRE region, through both IWA and AWA. Darryl Day again highlighted how im portant these types of days are for the professional development of YWPs.

AUSTRALIAN WATER ASSOCIATION NATIONAL EVENT CALENDAR 2007 & 2008 Accurate at time of printing. For branch events, please visit the AWA website www.awa.asn.au and/or check with your local branch contact for up to date information.





4-6 Feb 08

AWA-IWA Young Water Professionals Conference

Brisbane, QLD

Sandra Hall

07 3346 7209

27-28 Feb 08

Accounting for Carbon in the Water Industry

Sydney NSW

Diane Wiesner

02 9495 9906

30 Mar - 2 Apr 08 Water Efficiency 2008

Surfers Paradise QLD

Linda Phillips

02 9495 9914

30 Mar - 2 Apr 08 3n1 National Water Education Conference

Surfers Paradise QLD

Corinne Cheeseman 02 9495 9907

30 Mar - 2 Apr 08 I National WICD Conference

Surfers Paradise QLD

Stephanie Seddon

02 9495 9918

5- 7 May 08

Enviro Convention & Exhibition

Melbourne, VIC

Wayne Casde

02 9495 9921

March 2009

Ozwater 09

Melbourne, VIC

Wayne Casde

02 9495 9921

Date January 2008


20 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

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conference reports impact of changing climate on water supply in the southwest of Western Australia. Although nothing is certain, he put the case that as responsible managers of water supply, there was no choice but to face up to the inevitable change and adapt. He gave a brief outline on WA's strategy to secure their water su pply by multiple differenr sources and types of supply. Professor Yoshi Watanabe, President of the Japan Society on Water Environment, explained that issues in J apan are quite different than in Australia, yet also their water supply systems are under stress and their strategies have to continually adapt to changing supply and demand circumstances.

YWPs at As pire

The 2006 IWA Young Water Professional award winner Ng H ow Yong, gave an enthusiastic speech and an insight into how winning this award has significantly conrributed to his career development, including winning the Singapore Young Scientist of the Year award in 2007.

comb ined with tech nical aspects were the best formula for good YWP events. YWP day at ASPIRE got a big thumbs up in both these categories and provided us in WA an excellent opportunity to gain contacts with o ur neighbours around Australia and the whole ASPIRE regio n.

A short presentation was given by Chris Corr (GHD & YWP National President) to give an update o n what the YWPs in the AWA were doi ng, especially the activities going o n in WA to address the mostly local aud ience.


Prior to the fi nal group workshop, Peter Addison (Water Corporation & AWA WA Branch President) approached the group with a challenge. He asked the YWPs to think of a way the YWPs could communicate better on the natio nal and international level, to use the workshop as a means to keep and maintain the networking opportunities happening amongst all countries in the ASPIRE region, and to ensure that we are all working together to combat our future water problems. Keeping this theme in mind the YWPs split into two groups to d iscuss and answer 3 q uestions: What do you gain from the YWP network, W hat activities do/did you like doing with YWP, W hat activities would you like to see happening in your YWP Branch? The networking aspect of the YWP programme was highlighted as very important. All the YWPs committed to being open to receive 'cold calls' (and emails) from those they had met at the conference, in order to be able to increase the knowledge sharing among the YWP branches in the ASPIRE regio n. Most attendees also agreed that an element of fun

22 DECEMBER 2007


Perth 28 October to 1 November 2007 Over 500 delegates recently enjoyed the 2nd TWA ASPIRE Conference in Perth. The themes of the conference were opportunities , challenges and technology for water and sanitation in the Asia Pacific region. Delegates came from a wide variety of countries and ranged from academic science, education, design, planning and project delivery, and management and operation of d istribution and collection schemes. Over half the delegates were from overseas with large groups from Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea and Si ngapore. Japan alone had over l 00 delegates. The conference was opened by the Governor of Western Australia, His Excellency, D r Ken Michael AO who invited the delegates to get behind the spirit of cooperation that already exists in our region. T he type, variety and magnitude of challenges facing the different regions were typified in the two keynote addresses. J im Gill, CEO of Water Corporation in Western Australia, set the scene as to the

Journal of the Australian Water Association

As a consu mer driven society, he put the case that the concept of "virtual water" particularly in imported food is probably one of the major issues facing Japan. Water shortage off shore has a greater potential to create problems fo r them , rather than their home supplies. With industry recycling about 75% of their water, he said that there was a trend towards decentralised systems, which have been enabled by rapid developmenr of membranes-based treatment systems. T he technical program was divided into five streams and filled with over 160 papers. Many of the papers were highly technical and reflected che diverse range of research being undertaken in Asia and Australia. Poster papers were very well patronised with well over 200 d isplays . Congratulations to the AWA conference ream who successfully managed the conference for IWA and we all look forward to the 3rd ASPIRE, Taiwan in 2009.

4TH IWA LEADING EDGE CONFERENCE ON WATER AND WASTEWATER TECHNOLOGIES Report by John Poon T he International Water Association's fo urth annual Lead ing-Edge Conference on Water and Wastewater Technologies (IWALET 2007) was hosted by the Republic of Singapore, 3 co 6 June 2007. T he Singapore conference focused on enlightening its audience with the latest advances and innovative developments in water and wastewater technologies. The conference was conducted using a single plenary session of invited speakers on the first day, followed by two parallel sessions (one fo r dri nking water and the other for wastewater} on days two and three. Conducting the conference in chis manner



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conference reports kept che programme eight, the subject matter con textual and discussions highly insightful. The conference used a combination of invited speakers recognised by their peers as leaders in che fields of water and wastewater, as well as presenters whose papers were accepted following a rigorous review process. The first day of the conference focussed on the New Advances in the Fundamen tal Science of Water and Wastewater Tech nologies. The second and third days explored the Scace of the Arc in Water and Wastewater Technologies. These leading edge technologies mostly fel l into the following categories: Drinking Water

• Advanced Oxidation for Drin king Water • Membranes for Water Treatment • Nanotechnology in Water Treatment • NOM Removal Wastewater

• Capturing the Energy Value from Wastewater and Sludge and che Role Environmental Biotechnology may play • Membrane Bioreaccors • Nutrient Removal and Recovery • Technologies for Biosolids Management. In addition co the speaker presentations, four workshops were held on the afternoon of the fi rst day co delve into the following themes: • What the Future of Technology needs co Bring for the Productio n of Drin king Water from Alternative Sources • Future and Sustainability of Wastewater Treatment • Controlling NOM Fouling on Membranes • Anaerobic Membrane T reatment. The coral number of delegates registered for the IWA-LET 2007 was around 365. Four technical tours were included in the co nfere nce. About 230 delegates cook advantage of these technical tours co witness the significant progress and water infrastructure investment Singapore has made over the past fou r years co make icself self-sufficient for water. Some of the tour highlights were as fo llows:

Tuas Seawater Desalination Plant -A 50 GL per year seawater reverse osmosis plant the uses the latest technologies for energy recovery and low energy use RO membranes.

Marina Barrage - An ambitious project currently under construction and due for completion in 2007. T he Marina Barrage is 24 DECEMBER 2007


ACCOUNTING FOR CARBON IN THE WATER INDUSTRY An unfortunate fact of life is chat all participants in the water industry - one of the biggest users of power - are going co have co count the carbon cost of doing business in che twenty first century. Yee it has been good co see that many of the water utilities have already realised chat carbon emissions trading is just around che corner and have sec up units in house, staffed by professionals who are focused on identifying areas where energy usage can be reduced, efficiencies gained and savings made. AWA's Accoun ting for Carbon Conference at Dolcone H ouse in Sydney on 27th and 28th February 2008 has attracted an excellent response from our Call for Papers. The Managing Director of Australia's largest water utility, Kerry Schott will be speaking about the policies and changes that Sydney Water, platinum sponsor for the Conference, is undertaking co reduce ics emissions. A keynote speaker (yet co confirm) from the US will be presenting che international perspective and there will be a presentation on the strategies being undertaken by Californian wastewater treatment industries Papers submitted have come from the major utilities also in Western Australia, Victoria and South Australia and from government departments. Private a dam built acro ss the Marina Channel (mouth of the Singapore River) close co the central business district. le aces as a tidal barrier chat prevents high tides from causing flooding of inland low-lying areas at che same time creates a freshwater reservoir behind it. Thus it provides three main benefits in the one project: Water supply, flood control and new opportunities for recreation. In Singapore the project is often called 'The Reservoir in the City". It is also a notably effort co use captured scormwacer for water supply.

Chestnut Avenue Water Works - Probably the largest ultrafilcracion membrane drinking water treatment plane in chis region. With a capacity of about 273 ML per day and fl exibility co incorporate RO membranes, che plant is a key component of che Marina Barrage project fo r water supply. NEWater Visitor Centre - What else can be said about chis place! The visitor centre has been given a facelift. If you missed seeing Version 1.0, Version 2.0 is just as much fun. le is the most fun anyone can have in the water industry without getting wee. Fantastic!

Journal of the Australian Water Association

enterprise has not forgotten the issue of carbon either. Blake Dawson looks at the legal arena and the emerging regulatory regime. Energy provider, O rigin Energy will also be talking about what seeps ic is u ndertaking co ensure chat there is a higher proportio n of renewables (solar, wind and even geothermal) in its own output. Bue it is not just a matter of cap turing the data about how much power (and the resulcan t carbon emissions) chat is being expensed by water treatment plants, wastewater treatment, collection systems, pumping systems etc. Deali ng with offsets and how savings can be identified, actioned and achieved is probably more important co the industry's future. There are papers addressing the issue of offsets and new technologies coo. This is a Conference chat all AWA members need co attend if they concerned about the future path the industry will be fo llowing and the impacts it will have on chem and the work they do .

A registration form and conference details are available on the A WA website. The access is via the Events section, National Events. http://www.awa. asn.au/events. Enquiries dwiesner@awa.asn.au or hgalbraith@awa. asn. au Variable Salinity Plant - An innovative project co harvest fres hwater from a estuarine influenced scormwater channel using a novel RO membrane system especially designed and adapted co cope with wide ranging and quickly changing salinity and turbidity in the source water. Ulu Pandan NEWater Facto,y - The fourth and latest of all the NEWater plant co be built. With a design capacity of about 146 ML per day it is easily the largest plant of its type in the region , nearly equally che en tire South East Queensland Western Corridor Project in a single facility. The latest microfiltracion and RO membrane technologies and energy saving devices are used in this impressive piece of water supply infrastructure. Ulu Pandan Membrane Bioreactor - This MBR plant started off as a 23 ML per day demonstration plant has successfully transitioned into a full-scale MBR plant working cogecher with the existing conventional activated sludge treatment plant. In land and space constrained Singapore, a large future role MBR technology is not coo hard co imagine.

Some of the key leading edge technologies that had significan t speaker time and attention at the Singapore Con ference were: • Membrane separation • Environmental biotechnology • Advanced oxidation processes • Nanotechnology and micro fabricat ion There are some key observations that can be made about the technology pathways the water industry may fo llow. It was clear to the delegates that global water industry is facing major sustainability challenges from climate ch ange, growing water scarcity and ever increasing population. T h e good news was that rhe global water industry was intensify irs R&D efforcs and beginning to consider new ideas and in novatio ns to help meet the sustainability challenge. I t is interesting to note that unprecedented levels of R&D and innovation are occurring in an industry notable for its lack of invest ment in th is area in the past. We are now seeing, for the first rime, rhe water industry seeking and adopting new ideas and approaches from rhe fields of nanotechnology, micro-fabrication, biotechnology an d semicond uctor physics. This trend may converge and lead to the delivery of promising new technologies fo r the global water industry.

Innovations and Future Developments in Membrane Separation Technology The level of research on membrane separation tech nology co ntinues to increase at an increasing rare. Ir was the breakthroughs in energy and p rod uctio n efficiency in the late 1980s and early 1990s that lead to the proliferation of large scale membrane plants we see today. O ne truism about this technology is that the grou nd does not stay still fo r too long. Research is expanding and concentrati ng on two key areas (I call them the b ig two): water quality and product ivity. In fact product ivity can be broken down into fou r sub areas (the min i fou r): • Energy use • Fouling • Water recovery Brine management. Research is growing in these four areas to improve the sustai nability of membrane separatio n tech nology. Based on what was witness at the recent IWA-LET 2007 conference we are most likely d ue for another set of breakthroughs or a new generation of membrane technology to meet the sustainabi lity challenge. Nanotechnology fo r water treatmen t is probably the next frontier and a very promising one indeed with sign ificant energy savings and reduced fo u ling rhe main promises. The IWA-LET con ference had no less than seven papers presented on this su bject and all of the speakers were very excited about the future. A leading researcher at UCLA in the United Stares has already starred to produce prototypes of R O membranes that have been impregnated with nano-sized particles of titan iu m d ioxide, or nanocomposites for short. Venture cap ital to support the commercialisation of nano-composite RO membranes has been secured and it may not be that far away before we see the firs t nano-composite membranes in the market place. Interestingly, UCLA also happens to be the birthplace of the first commercially viable RO membrane in the early 1960s. Where does Australia fit in to this rapidly developing field? The CSIRO has recently put together a collaborative partnership under the Water for a Health Country Flagship Programme to support rhe development of more sustainable membranes desalination technologies. Researchers in Australia are now begin ning to explore

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 25


WAI l:.K.\.U


the use of nanotechnology and environmental biotechnology fo r the development of the next generation of water treatment technologies. We h ope to see the water industry full y support such initiatives. However, Australia has a lot of catchi ng up to do in this rapidly developing fi eld and fi nding appropriate funding may be an issue.

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PUB Singapore and the Singapore Government have already begun heavily investing in the development o f membrane separation technologies. One of Australia's leading membrane resea rchers Prof. Tony Fane th is year was asked to head up a $18 million dollar initiative by the Singapore Government to sec up a new Membrane Research Centre in Si ngapore. P rof. Fane has been given the role of leading 40 researchers to develop a more sustainable future for membrane separation technologies. Singapore's government has also announced a $100 million scheme called the Technology Pioneer (TechPioneer) Scheme to fu nd new and innovative advanced treatment technologies, a significa n t part of which is expected to include membrane separation technologies . In Singapore the key source of R&D funding is the Singapore Government, which has announced a drive to invest and d evelop a knowledge based economy as a plarform for future prosperity. Singapore's Natio nal Research Fund (NRF) is underwritten by the Singapore Government with $5 billion over the next decade. The NRF has identified three core R&D sectors: Biotechnology, D igital Inform ation Technology, and Environment and Water. The government's R&D efforts in water are led by PUB Singapore. R& D is a key strategy n ot only fo r water sustainability but also a major growth d river for Singapore's economy, which is why the N ational Research Foundation (NRF) has committed some $330 million over five years to promote R&D in th is sector. To spearhead these efforrs, the Singapore Government has set up the Environment and Water Industry Development Council (o r EWI) in May 2006. By 20 15, Si ngapore hopes to double the number of jobs in the water industry to 11,000 and triple the value-add to the economy to $1.5 billion. Impact of Nanotechnology on Water Treatment

Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing area of world-wide research. The US

government spent USD 1 billion on nan otechnology R & D in 2005 , and Japan and the EU spent similar money. The commercial attractiveness of chis emerging technology is that the entry cost is com paratively low. Countries that missed out on the computer revolution b ecause of capital constraints are less likely to miss out on nanotech. The global market for nano technology-based products is esti mated by che US National Science Foundation to be USDl,000 billion by 2015. Nanotech nology is based on the face chat familiar materials develop odd properties, possibly useful ones, when they are nanosize. A nanometer is one-billionth of a metre, which is like comparing the size of marble (say one nanometre in diameter) to th e size of Earth (say one metric metre in diameter). Working with materials at the molecu lar or nano-scale and build ing materials from the atomic level and up, may help us develop, to name just a few: • new non-invasive and low side effect cance r, H IV and malaria treatments • highly efficient solar cells • extremely fire resistant glass • low cost and more effi cient fi lters for water and o il production • extremely light weight, strong and co nductive power transm ission cables (nanotubes) • computer chips that can store enormous amounts of data o n smaller and less power consuming chips Of course, nanotechnology is still in its infa ncy, but we are already seein g produces in the market place, such as the Korean firm that makes refrigerators with antibacterial and an ti-odour filters from nanosized silver particles, and tennis rackets chat use composite plastics reinforced with nanoparcicles. The potential of this technology ro the water industry is the development of water filters that can p roduce high quality water from contaminated sources (seawater, brackish water, recycled water, etc.) at a lower cost, higher water production rate and energy use than roday's membrane (polymer material) treatment technology. The impregnation of today's membranes with nano-sized particles can produce membranes that are at lease 25% more efficient at producing water and more fouling resistant. Hence the great interest in chis emerging technology.


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An International Event

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T h is was a truly in ternational event - a partnership between the Riversymposium (Australia) and the Nature Conservancy (USA). Brian Richter, che Director of che G lobal Freshwater Team of the Nature Conservancy, which has operated for more than ten years and represents some 1000 freshwater expercs, opened by saying chat the idea of che con fere nce theme being Environmental Flows (e-flows) stemmed from discussions between himself and Griffith U niversity during the 2005 Symposium. Over 50 delegates from develop ing countries were sponsored co attend the symposium. A major contribution is made annually by the Internacional Riverfoundation to enable approximately 38 delegates to attend and che ochers were su pported by contributions from AusAid, and WWF In cernacional. T here were specialist sessions on u rban rivers, river investments, dams, even river art and river dolp hins, but che majority of the sessions covered che eflows topics of science, economics, law, community engagement, IWRM, implementation, agriculture and water reform. Despite che majority of the delegates being Australian the papers and discussions represented a global outlook. There were over 200 papers from overseas, and about 120 from Australia. Australia has its problems, and a wide range of chem, bu r there is an even wider range of problems in che ocher continents, both for the developed nations and the developing. The Riversymposium has a long-establish ed practice of awarding the T hiess Riverprize Awards, both Internacional and Australian.

Speakers' papers , presentations and audio recordings can be downloaded from the website www.riversymposium.com. In some cases papers have been withheld pending publishing.





drought-stricken terrain .


::l One of the Symposium casks was che m

~ framing of an internatio nal statement, ~ given the tid e of the Brisbane

~ D eclaration . Th is was drafted, discussed

g in panel sessions, and amended at length 'U ili both during the Symposium and ~ afterwards, rhe result being promulgated in all countries rep resented, with a 'call ~ 0 to action'. We publish it on pages 34Gl ~ 35. Note, ic is directed at the global ~ situation. The Australian scene is already far more advanced in many respects, even though our policies are not often mirrored by our actio ns. So, what are the further key e-flows-relaced actions Australia needs co focus on ? T he National Water Commission has recently published its first Biennial Assessment and chis sums it up. We publish chis at the end of the Brisbane Declaration. I

The official opening of the Symposium by Governor of Queensland, Her Exce llency Quentin Bryce. The international prize was won by the Danube River represented by the Internacional Commission fo r the Protection of the D anube River (I CPDR), AUSTRIA, a legally binding conven tion involving 13 countries in a 800,000 km 2 catchment wh ich covers 9% of continental Europe and encompasses every aspect of river use, from water sup ply, irrigation, industrial use (and pollmion), to recreational use and navigation. The Australian Prize, in contrast, was won by che Murray Wetlands Working Group, a voluntary body which persuades farmers to allow hard-won environmental water allowances to intermittently flood natural

Environmental flows cannot be defined by science alone.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Opening the Symposium The total number of delegates was 756, from 50 countries. There were the usual technical sessions and discussion panels but also a novel series of workshop training sessions, run both prior and immediately fo llowing the main con ference. In che opening session Professor Paul Greenfield, Chair of che Symposium, commenting"that river management is never going to be a quick fix and requires sustained effort, introduced the keynote speakers and a panel of in ternacional experts who ouclined the global situation. The Symposium was officially opened by Governor of Queensland, H er Excellen cy Quentin Bryce, who recognised che outstanding work being done globally in managing our rivers, the importance of such a gathering in Queensland and in particular recognised The Nature Conservancy for its support of chis event. N ick Davidson, Deputy Secretary General of Ramsar, concentrated in his key note speech on the challenges to retain the viral

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werlands, which are being degraded more rapidly than any ocher ecosystem in the world, since drainage yields valuable agricultural land. He was followed by Lucy Emerton, Regional Head of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). She is an eco nomist and argued char natural eco-sysrems are extremely valuable even by economists' standards, yet they have rarely been costed for their benefits, and have regularly been jettisoned for shore term profits. This situation muse change and she quoted examples in developing nations. Her paper based on her address is published on page

36. Leroy Poff, Colo rado Scace University, USA, spoke on the state of river science. No constructed model for such complex systems can achieve both precision and generalism, together with realism, so mathematical science is no panacea. H owever, it is essential to prioritise e-flows and provide cools for a balanced societal process. Brian Richter, The Nature Conservancy, reflected chat river studies once concentrated on fish, then expanded co

Nick Davidson addresses the plenary session.

diversity, ecology, now consider social values, i.e. human well-being and economic enterprises .. . but these must be balanced. Rebecca Tharne, Internatio nal Water Management Institute, d iscussed integrated water resource management, IWRM, a

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30 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

process for coordination of policy and legislation, economics, equity and environment. The need for e-flows is recognised bur needs co be justified. Michael McLain, Florida Internacional University, spoke on the viral need for building human capacity. This requires reliable management cools, training, infrastructure, instruments and equipment, all of which spells dollars. Our knowledge must span hydrology, ecology, sociology, conflict resolution, and fina lly enforcement. Bruce Aylward, representing the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, USA, noted chat of all the session themes, only cwo sessions were devoted to economics. There is a wide variety of institutional arrangements, government, private, voluntary. He posed a list of questions co be asked regarding e-flows. Is che benefit clear, is it proven, what are the alrernarives, what will be the costs, is it adaptable, and if it involves voluntary action, is there any compensation? Kevin Rogers, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa emphasised chat changing a river regime is a social issue, and concentrating only on the science of environmental flows is cloaking the real issues. Ecosystems are never linear, whereas the scientific method is srricrly linear. i.e. one poses a single hypothesis, then proves it. The human face of social justice, multiple outcomes, inept or corrupt politicians, pose a complex dynamic canvas. To search for simplicity is na'ive and we can be blinded by the need for logic in our institutional arrangements. Policy must always be adaptive, co cope with conti nually moving targets. We should apply some

applied aspects of social sciences: Action Research; study rhe effects of implementation; apply rhe theories of change management, just as in businesses. We must aim at futu re building, nor just correcting rhe present. Jamie Pirtock, the (Outgoing) Director, Global Freshwater Program me of rhe WWF, International, commented char South Africa was rhe first, in 1998, to incorporate a water reserve into its Water Act and this was fo llowed by Australia. Yer he asked, what has actually been achieved? Australian policies are fin e, bur action is Ii mired e.g. the Snowy River where a 30% E-Flow was recommended bur currently, none in place In later sessions Max Finlayson (IWRM) affirmed char agriculture and wetlands can not co-exist (see Water, September) bur asked if we can change the way we think about agricultural water. Because of the expanding world population some 45,000 large dams are being planned with frightening consequences for the natural ecosystems. Since rhe 1950s, food prices may have been reduced by the green revolution, bur the Living Index has declined dramatically. We must change the paradigm for institutions and policies. Ir is the policies outside rhe water sector which need to change, with less agricultu re, more negoriarion, to adapt to a new environment. We need to reform the reform process. ELOHA, Ecological Lim itations of Hydrologic Alteration, is a system which has been developed by an internation al commi ttee ro evaluate risks prior to any proposal, say, to build a dam, and Angela Arrhrington, from Griffith University outlined the content.

The gala atmosphere at the Th iess Riverprize presentations.

Col in Chartres discussed the development of a national compatible Framework for Assessing Water Health and released by rhe NWC as part of 'Australian Water

Resources 2005' and. being cried in Queensland and Northern Territory. Ken Matthews and Peter Cullen ouclined rhe NWC vision for healthy rivers. All

The Technical Sessions For the technical sessions this reporter had to concentrate on the Australian scene. A major featu re, running over three sessions, was enti tled 'The Australian Government: securing water for rhe environment through knowledge, policy and implementation'. Tony McLeod outlined the national plan for securi ty, effective markers and adaptability to climatic extremes and Chris Schweizer outlined a strategic framework for coordinating e-warering. T heir priorities will be to protect the Ramsar wetlands, threatened species and migratory birds. T here is no way we will ever return to a pristine river, the aim is to define a healthy working river, and work to achieve it despite the drought and climate change.

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Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 31

governments have promised to identify outcomes and make arrangements to meet chem. There are 'Shining Promises', but nothing has been delivered. There is a pressing need for Environmental Managers to be known and respected. They should be the fount of all information and their management cools co be no less efficient and effective than the production manager's cools. There is no doubt rhar there are gaps co be addressed - see the NWC's Biennial Assessment.

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32 DECEMBER 2007


Peter Cullen summarised: If we propose co develop the northern rivers we must rake heed of the mistakes we have made down south. The community must be persuaded char the river environment is as important as livelihood. We must clarify the tasks of rhe many various agencies and NGOs. We don't have a systematic approach co measuring river health. (Victoria and Tasmania are ahead). We should aim for resilience. For example the wetting frequency for river red gums needs to be determined. 10 years may be too long, perhaps the wetting interval needs co be five years or seven at most. There is not enough understanding by the environmental scientists of the knowledge resident in the affected local population and we need co develop a philosophy co deal with the social context. A water revolution is on the way, so don't be surprised. The demand for e-flows is not a tree-hugging movement, it is about delivering goods and services. Naturally, there were papers on Australian irrigation, and Eloise Kennedy (The Nature Conservancy) noted that increasing the efficiency of irrigation may be good, but it could result in a decrease in return fl ows. H er case studies in the Goulburn Valley showed that substituting pipes for channels killed a wetland. Shahbaz Khan discussed imp roving irrigation options for reducing the unnatural skewing of river flow by conjunctive use of ASR and groundwater and different cropping patterns. However there is a need for economic drivers co change from rice cultivation to something more sustainable in the Murray Darling Basin. The effects of river ou tflows on the Great Barrier Reef was discussed by Nick Heath, WWF-Australia. The Crown of Thorns plagues probably occurred every 100 years or so, bur over a century the loss of rainforest and coastal wetlands has allowed the rivers co flow unchecked and the plumes of sediment (and nutrients) are visible 50 km our into the reef. The

Journal of the Australian Water Association

nutrients increase micro-algal growth, the starfish larvae are proliferating, so that plagues are occurring in 12-15 year cycles. The sources of the nutrients are 5-10% urban, 90 % rural, but individual fa rmers cannot afford to shift. Agricultural production may be worth some $600 million yet the G rear Barrier Reef, the world's best tourist attraction, is worth some $5 billion a year, and is steadily being destroyed. This situation has been recognised by the Commonwealth bur little action has been initiated. However, Tim Wrigley of rhe Canegrowers Association reported chat in the Tully region, individual farme rs are successfully rehabilitating wetlands co reduce nutrient outflows. Erin Bohensky explained the CSIRO research in che region on the concept o f social resilience and Iris Bohner fo llowed with four scenarios on futu re development, both urban and agricultural, on areas of the Reef outside che control of che GBRMP Authority, with particular reference co climate change. These scenarios have been conveyed co che community to raise public awareness, with the 'business as usual' option leading co profound degradation. Development of the Northern Rivers is being posed as a possible solution co decreasing run-off in the south and che particularly che Murray-Darling Basin, and once again CSIRO in collaboration with a number of organisations, under the banner of the Northern Australia Irrigation Futures, has been developing a sustainability framework. Rather than adopting tradi tional irrigation techniques one scenario proposes a mosaic of development.

Summary There was a clear theme emerging from all these discussions, that environmental flows cannot be defined by science alone. The use of a river or wecland is a community decision , caking into account economics, and environment certainly, bur also social and equity matters. Ir is the task of rhe scientist co clarify and explain rhe options and the likely results. In the current southern Australian scenario of near zero allocations for irrigation due co the prolonged drought, the battle between long-term environment and shore-term economic survival is a tough one, and the environmentalists have co make, as Professor Greenfield said, a sustained effort co persuade the community chat e-flows are worth it.

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THE BRISBANE DECLARATION ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS ARE ESSENTIAL FOR FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND HUMAN WELL-BEING This declaration presents summary findings and a global action agenda that address the urgent need to protect rivers globally, as proclaimed at the 10th International Riversymposium and International Environmental Flows Conference on 3-6 September 2007. Freshwater ecosystems are the foundation of our social, cultural, and economic well-being. H ealthy freshwater ecosystems - rivers, lakes, fl oodplains, wetlands, and estuaries - p rovid e clea n water, food , fi ber, energy and many ocher benefit s chat support econom ies and livelihoods around rhe world. T hey are essential to h uman health and well-being.

Freshwater ecosystems are seriously impaired and continue to degrade at alarming rates. Aquat ic species are declin ing more rapidly rhan terrestrial and marine species. As freshwater ecosystems degrade, human commu nities lose important social , cultu ral, and eco no mic benefi ts; estuaries lose productivity; invasive planes and animals fl ourish ; and the natural resilien ce of rivers, lakes, wetlands, and estuaries weakens. The severe cumulative im pact is global in scope.

Water flowing to the sea is not wasted. Fresh water char flows into the o cean no urishes estuaries, wh ich p rovide abu ndant food supplies, b uffer infrastructure against storms and tidal surges, and dilu te and evacuate poll utants.

Flow alteration imperils freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. T hese ecosystems have evolved with, and depend upon,

Environmental flows describe the quantity, timing, and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems. naturally variab le flows of high-q uality fres h water. Greater attention to environmental flow needs m ust be exercised when attemp ting to manage floods; supply water to cities, farms, and industries; generate power; and facil itate navigation , recreation, and drainage.

Environmental flow management provides the water flows needed to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems in coexistence with agriculture, industry, and cities. The goal of environmental fl ow managem ent is to restore and maintain the socially valued benefits of healthy, resilient freshwater ecosystems through participato ry d ecision making in formed by sound science. G rou nd-water and floodp lai n management are integral to environmental flow management.

Climate change intensifies the urgency. Sound environmental flow management

hedges against poten tially serio us and irreversible damage to fres hwater ecosystems from climate change impacts by maintaining and enhanci ng ecosystem resil iency.

Progress has been made, but much more attention is needed. Several governm ents have instituted innovative water policies char exp licitly recognise enviro nmental flow needs. Environmen tal flow needs are increasingly being considered in water infrastructure developm ent and are being ma intained or resto red through releases of water from dams, li m itatio ns on groundwater and surface-water d iversions, and ma nagement of land-use pract ices. Even so, rhe progress m ade to date falls far sho rt of the global effort needed to sustain healthy freshwate r ecosysrems and rhe economies, livel ihoods, and hum an well -being char depend upo n chem.

Global Action Agenda The delegates to the 10th International Rjversymposium and E nvironmental Flows Conference call upon all governments, develo pment banks, donors, river basin organisations, water and energy associations, m ulcilaceral and bilateral institutions, comm unity-based organisations, research insti tutions, and the p rivate sector across che globe co commit co the fo llowing actions for restoring and mai ntai ning environmental flows:

Estimate environmental flow needs everywhere immediately. Environmental fl ow needs are currently unknown for the vast majority of freshwater and estuarine ecosystems. Scientifically credible methodologies quanti fy the variable - no t just minimu m - flows needed for each 34 DECEMBER 2007


water body by explicitly linki ng environmental flows to specific ecological functions and social values. Recen t advances enable rapid, region-wide, scientifically credible environmencal flow assessments .

Integrate environmental flow management into every aspect of land and water management. Environmental flow assessment and managem ent should be a basic requirement of Integrated Water Reso urce Management (IWRM); environmencal impact assessment (EIA); strategic environm en tal assessment (SEA); infrastructure and industrial developm ent and certification; and land-use, water-use, and energy-production strategies.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Establish institutional frameworks. Consistent integratio n of environ mental flows inco land and water managem ent req uires laws, regulations, policies and p rograms char: (I) recognise enviro nmental flows as integral to sustainable water management, (2) establish p recautionary limits on allowable depletions and alterations of natural flow, (3) treat ground water and surface water as a single hydrologic resource, and (4) maintain environ mental fl ows across political boundaries.

Integrate water quality management. Minimising and treating wastewater reduces the need to maintain unnaturally high screamfl ow for dilutio n purposes. Properly

created wastewater discharges can be an important source of water for meeting environmental flow needs. Actively engage all stakeholders. Effective environmental flow management invo lves all potentially affected parties and relevant stakeholders and considers the full range of human needs and values tied to fres hwater ecosystems. Stakeholders suffering losses of ecosystem service benefits should be identified and properly compensated in development schemes. Implement and enforce environmental flow standards. Expressly limit rhe depletion and alteration of natu ral water flows accordi ng to physical and legal availabili ty, and accounting for environmental flow needs. Where these needs are uncertai n, apply rhe precautionary principle and base flow standards on best available knowledge. W here flows are already highly altered, utilise management strategies, including water trading, conservation, floodp lain restoration, and dam re-operation, to restore environmental flows to appropriate levels. Identify and conserve a global network of free-flowing rivers. Dams and dry reaches of rivers prevent fish migration and sediment transport, physically lim iting rhe benefits of enviro nmental flows. Protecting high-value river systems from development ensures that environmental flows and hydrological co nnectivity are maintained from river headwaters to mouths. It is far less costly and more effective to protect ecosystems from degradation than to restore them.

Build capacity. T rain experts to scientifically assess environmental flow needs. Empower local commu ni ties to participate effectively in water management and policy-making. Improve engineering expertise to incorporate environmental flow managem ent in sustainable water supply, flood management, and hydropower generation. Learn by doing. Routinely monitor relationships between flow alteration and ecological response before and during environmental flow management, and refine flow provisions accordingly. Present results to all stakeholders and to the global communi ty of environmental flow practitioners.

Visit www.riversymposium.com to add your name to the over-100 list of registered supporters.

AUSTRALIA'S POSITION The Brisbane Declaration recognises chat, "Several governments have instituted innovative water policies chat explicitly recognise environmental flow needs .. . Even so, che progress made to dace falls fa r short of rhe global effort needed to sustain healthy freshwater ecosystems and the economies, livelihoods, and human wellbeing chat depend upon chem". Australia could reasonably claim to have instituted innovative water policies chat explicitly recognise environmental flow needs; bur even with chis relatively mature policy framework what more needs co be done? The National Water Commission recently released irs fitsr Biennial Assessment on rhe implementation of the National Water Initiative (NWI) . In his covering letter to che PM (as Chair of the Council of Australian Governments) che Chair of the NWC M r Ken Matthews outlined fifteen points needing further action. The points chat parallel chose made in che Brisbane Declaration have been excerpted below. Mr Matthews says: The Commission has fou nd chat che National Water Initiative (NW!) remains rhe primary and enduri ng national blueprint for water reform in Australia. The implemenrarion of rhe NW! is ddivering real improvements in the management, use and understanding of water in Australia. Despite considerable change in Australia's water circumstances since signatu re of rhe NWI, rhe NWI 's policy prescriptions continue ro be widely accepted as rhe righr ones for Australia. However rhe Commission urges govern ments ro avoid complacency. There is much rhac needs ro be done, and much chat needs ro be done fas ter. I want to highlight fo r you and rhe Premiers and Chief Ministers, (15) action-oriented points from rhe Commission 's assessment: I. Overallocation of water resources continues to be a central national challenge. Ir is sci!! nor being managed as envisaged under rhe NW!. A number of sraces have nor del ivered on rheir commitment ro move ro sustainable levels of water extraction.

2. As a consequence of rhe NW!, water planning practices have improved across all scares bur rhe qualiry of science underpinning water plans in Australia needs sustained arrention and resources. 3. Progress in rolling our completed and operational NWl-consiscent water plans continues ro be difficult for governments. The clarity and certainty promised under rhe NW! will nor be realised until these plans are in place. 4. T here is a growing need for more effective compliance and enforcement action by governments if rhe integri ty of Australia's water management is ro be preserved. 5. The Commission sees an u rgent need for water managers ro determine rhe degree of connecciviry between surface water and groundwater and then ro manage rhe joinr resource in more sophisricared ways. 6. Water inrerceprion acrivi ties (such as large scale fo restry and far m dams) continue ro be recognised by governments as serious challenges ro water securiry bur action by governments to dare has been neither concerted nor sysremaric. 7. Following considerable pressure from rhe Commission, good progress has been made in rhe expansion of water trading among southern MurrayDarl ing scares. This will be a great help in adjusting ro future warer shorrages. Governments will need to co ntinue ro build rhe necessary institutions and conditions for markers ro fu n ction smoothly. 11. Arrangements fo r rhe ma nagement of environmental water have nor emerged as envisaged in rhe NWI; roo often envi ronmental managers lack clear identity, authoriry and suffic ient fi nancial and technical capac iry, and independent audits of environmencaI outcomes are nor yer occurring. Environmental water management arrangements deserve renewed anencion.

12. A more harmonised and rigorous national approach to monitoring river health and groundwater is required (the Commission has proposed a national fram ework for assessing river and werland health for chis purpose).

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 35

ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT OF ECOSYSTEMS AS COMPONENTS OF WATER INFRASTRUCTURE L Emerton The Need to Rethink Infrastructure I nfrastructu re can be defined as the stock of facilities, services and equipment that is needed for the eco nomy and society to functi on properly. In turn, the provisio n of adequate and accessible infrastruccure is widely - and rightly - seen as lying at the heart of economic growth, human development and poverty reduction. A recen r keynote address by the Vice President of Operations of the Asian Development Bank explains well the priority that is accorded to infrastructure investment by most public sector decision-makers and developme nt do nors: "To say rhar infrastructure development has impact is ro stare the obvious. No industrial country has advanced to such status without developing solid infrastructure facilities. And no lowincome cou ntry has managed to escape poverty in the absence of infrastructure. There is no question that, for a developing country, infrastructure investment will pave rhe way for growth and thus poverty reduction. Poverty reduction and economic development depend on sustained growth, which in turn depends on productive activities supported by roads, railways, seaports and airports, power generation and transmission and ocher infrastructure services. In addition to eco nomic growth, infrastructure development has a very tangible impact on people's daily lives, and especially on che lives of poor people." (AD B 2006). It would indeed be hard to deny the importance of investing in infrasrruccure as a prerequisite co sustained and equitable economic growth, across the globe. Conventional definitions of infrastructure (and the bulk of investments in it) have, however, ignored one of rhe most important (and productive) components ecosystems such as wetlands, forests, grasslands, coral reefs, mangroves and ocher natural habitats. T his omission has, This article is based on the author's Keynote Address co the F.iversymposium, Brisbane, 2007.




A wetland system provides a plethora of ecosystem services to surrounding villages, Stung Treng Wetla nds, Cambod ia (photo by Will Darwall).

unfortunately, proved extremely costly in economic terms.

Ecosystems as Infrastructure Like other components of infrastructure, ecosystems provide a suite of services that are essential fo r economic production and consumption, and are required for society co prosper. Water services, in particular, are important. For example wetlands play an appreciable role in surface, sub-surface and ground water storage, as well as maintaining dry season river flows and attenuating downstream flooding. Many types of wetland also absorb, fi lter, process and dilute nutrients, pollutants and wastes. Upland vegetation such as grasslands and forests provide land cover which helps to slow the rate of runoff, guard against erosion, even our seasonal peaks and lows in waterflow, and minimise

Wetlands and other river features have economic values.

Journal af the Australian Water Association

rhe silt and sediment loads carried downstream. These services typically yield extremely high economic values for downstream water users, because they underpin water supply and quality, and prolong the lifetime and productivity of infrastructure. Managing ecosystems for their water services is frequently a far more cost-effective option than employing artificial technologies or taking mitigative measures when these essential functio ns are lost through environmental degradation. Maintaining wetlands for flood control, fo r instance, is usually substantially cheaper than rebuilding the roads, bridges and buildings that get washed away. Conserving an upstream forest typically costs far less than investing in new water filtration and treatment plants downstream, or undertaking expensive de-siltation activities. For example, in Portland Oregon, Portland Maine and Seattle Washington it has been found char every US$1 invested in watershed protection can save anywhere from US$7.50 to nearly US$200 in costs

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for new water treatment and filtration faci lities (Reid 2001). T hrough conserving upstream fo rests in rhe Catskills range, New York C ity hopes ro have avoided investing an extra US$4-6 billion on infrastrucrure to maintain the quality of urban water supplies (Isakson 2002). Yee, while vast amounts of money have been sunk into rh e reservoirs, pumps, pipes and raps required to abstract, store, distribute and use water, this valuable natural cap ital has remained largely absent from the invest ment equation . Ar rhe worst, there has actually been a 'negative investment' process whereby ecosystem s have been destroyed, degraded and converted in the course of expanding the b uilt environment. For che most part, rhe economic benefits associated with ecosystem water services, and the economic costs associated with their degradation or loss, remain unaccounted fo r.

The Problem of Ecosystem Under-valuation Ecosystem under-valuation has lon g been a persistent problem in water planning and decision-making. Balance sheets have rarely tallied up the economic benefits chat ecosystems p rovide for water quality and supply, or recognised that there is a tangible return to investing in their conservation. Ar the sam e rime che econom ic costs, losses and opportun ities foregone char are incurred when ecosystems are degraded have simply nor been factored in when investment, land and resource use alternatives are weighed










Production and consumption goods such as:

Ecosystem functions and services such as:

fish, firewood , building poles, medicines, fodder, recreation, etc..

watershed protection, nutrienl cycling, flood attenuation, micro-climate, etc.

Premium placed on possible future uses or applications, such as:

Intrinsic significance of resources and ecosystems in tennsof.¡

industrial, leisure, pharmaceutical, etc.

cultural, aesthetic, heritage, bequest, etc.

Figure 1. The total economic value of ecosystems (from Emerton and Bos 2004).

against each other. Ecosystems are still largely left our of water eq uations - for example chose chat balance decisions about how to allocate water, how much co charge for water produces and services, where to channel investment funds, or what design of infrascruccure to choose. G iven this tendency co under-valu ation, it is hardly surprising chat natural ecosystems have been modified, convened , overexploited and degraded all over the world, in the interests of ocher seemingly more 'product ive' or 'profitable' land and resource management options. The expansion of agriculture, industry and settlement has involved the widespread conversion and reclamation of natural habitats as well as the diversion of water and modification of water flow regimes. Intensive harvesting of nacural resources has been promoted as a means of

The Muthurajawela Swamp in Sri Lanka provides important flood control and wastewater purification as wel l as food resources (photo by Sriyanie Miththapala).

38 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

generating income, employment and foreign exchange earnings, and has placed h igh and often unsustainable demands on the environment. At the macro-level, u ndervaluation of ecosystems in eco nomic policy fo rmulation has often hastened processes of environmental degradation and loss - fo r example through subsidies to land conversion, tax breaks and fiscal inducements to " reclaim" natural habitats, and low or non-existent penal t ies and fines for environmentally polluting and degrading activities. In fact, the problem is nor that natural ecosystems have no economic value, but rather chat chis value is poorly understood, rarely articulated, and as a result is frequently omitted from water decisionmaking. Although conventional analysis decrees ch at che "best" or most efficient allocation of resources is one chat maximises economic returns, measures of the recurns to di fferent land, resource and investment options have for the most part failed to deal adequately with ecosystem coses and benefits. As a result, decisions have tended to be made on the basis of only partial information, thereby favo uring shore-term (and often unsustainable) development imperatives or leading to projects and programme choices chat fail to optimise economic benefits. Ar the worst, in the absence of information abour ecosystem values, substantial m isallocacion of resources has occurred and gone unrecognised Qames 1991), and immense economic coses have often been incurred to the sectors, industries and human populations who depend on their goods and services. For the most pare, the calculations char underpin water development decisions therefore remain fundamentally incomplete - and thus misleading in their conclusions as to the relative coses, benefits and returns to different uses of

land, resources and investment funds, because they (at best) under-estimate or (at worst) ignore altogether ecosystem values. Declining future profits, increasing future costs, and additional remedial measures are all more expensive for water. T hey are also costs rhar are typically passed on ro consumers or end-users in terms of higher charges and fees or lower quality services. Yer from an economic perspective, natural ecosystems should be considered in rhe same way as other elements of infrastructure - as a stock of facil ities, services and equipment which are needed for rhe economy and society ro fun ction properly, and from which high returns are generated when investments are made in their upkeep and improvement (Emerton 2006).

Articulating the Value of Ecosystems for Water One reason for rhis persistent undervaluation is rhar tradi tional co ncepts of rhe economic value of ecosystems have been based on a very narrow defin ition of benefits (focusing mai nly on com mercial uses and physical products) and a limited range of valuation techniques (primarily looking ar prices in formal markers). Over the lasr rwo decades rhe application of a more inclusive coral economic val ue framewo rk (Pearce 1990) and rhe development of a range of new techniques for environmental valuation (see for exam ple Barbier et al 1997, Emerton and Bos 2004, James 199 1, Gren and Soderqvisr 1994, Win penny 199 1) have however provided a set of conceptual and merhodological too ls ro enable ecosystem values to be more easily and accurately assessed in relation ro water services.

Mangroves provide important flood and storm control protection: A ceh, Indonesia (photo by Elaine Slomet).

T he concept of coral eco nomic val ue has now become one of rhe mosr widely used framewo rks for identifying and categorising ecosystem beneftrs. Instead of focusi ng only on direct co mmercial values, it also encompasses subsistence and nonmarker values, ecological functions and no n-use benefits (which typically far ourweigh rhe direct value of natural resources). As well as presenting a more complete picture of rhe eco nomic importance of ecosystems, it clearly demonstrates rhe high and wide-ranging economic costs associated with their degradation, which extends beyo nd rhe loss of direct use val ues. Looking ar rhe total economic value of a ecosystem essentially involves considering its full range of characteristics as an inregrared system - its resource stocks or assets, flows

of environmental services, and the attributes of rhe ecosystem as a whole (Barbier l 994). Reflecting these methodological advances, rhere is today a growing body of literature on the economic value of ecosystem water services, which has been applied across the globe. This provides increasing evidence and examples of rhe economic value of ecosystem services which serve protect and sustain human serrlemenrs. In Vientiane, rhe capital of Lao PDR, wetlands offer flood attenuation and wasrewarer rrearmenr services ro city-dwellers, ro a value of around US$2 million per year (Gerrard 2004). Forest catchment protectio n and erosio n control services conrribu re more than US$100 mill ion a year ro the Ugandan national economy in terms of their co ntribution ro warer


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Journal of the Australian Water Association

Water DECEMBER 2007 39

supplies for irrigation, energy, fisheries and water supply sectors (NEMA 1999). Almost a million urban dwellers rely on natural wetlands for wastewater retention and purification services; one marsh area in the centre of Kampala, the largest city, has been calculated to be worth several thousand dollars per hectare per year in terms o f the services it provides in receiving and creating the major p roportion of the city's wastewacers (Emerton et al 1999). Work carried o ut across fou r natural wetlands in the Zambezi Basin in Southern Africa shows chat they have a nee p resent value of more than US$3 million for reducing fl ood related damage coses, are worth some US$ l 6 million for groundwater recharge, and generate water purification and treatment services to an estimated US$45 million (Turpie et al 1999). The annual value of the ecosystem services provided by M artebo mire in Sweden, including maintaining water quality and supplies, moderating wacerfl ow and processing and filteri ng wastes, has been calculated at between US$350,0 00 and US$] million (Gren et al 1994). In the Lajeado Sao Jose micro-watershed in Brazil, environmentally sustainable upland management practices save almost US$2,500 per month in downstream domestic water treatment costs (Bassi 2002). Important informat ion on the value chat ecosystems add to water-dependent commercial activities and industries has also been generated. In eastern Indonesia, downstream farmers are willing to make additional payments worth some three quarters of their existing irrigation fees in order to conserve upstream catchment forests for their d rought mitigation services (Pattanayak and Kramer 20 0 1). Investing in catchment forest management has been shown co be worth between US$15-40 million for the Paute hydroelectric scheme in the Andean Highlands of Ecuador, through minimising upstream erosion and prolonging reservoir storage capacity, dam lifespan and power generation (Southgate and Macke 1989). Conversely, the costs associated with the loss of the forest catchment p rotection services provided by Cambodia's Bokor National Park co Kamchay H ydroelectric Scheme have been estimated at over US$2 mill ion in terms of power revenues foregone (Emerton et al 2002). The common fi nding of chis literature is the high - and yet traditionally uncounted - value of ecosystem water services: for household consumption, industrial profits

40 DECEMBER 2007 Water



Fishermen i n the Stung Treng Wetlands, Cambodia !photo by Will Dorwoll).

and national economies, and in terms of the vital contribution they make co human wellbeing and secu rity. These values tell an important sto ry, and belie the wisdom of omitting ecosystem costs and benefits from water decision-making and investment planning. Ecosystems should, in fact, be considered as inseparable from ocher parts of water infrastructure, and their value in underpinning economic production and consumption needs to be factored into decision-maki ng. Their maintenance and upkeep requires an equal - or greater - priority when development is being planned, and investments are being made.

Future Challenges: Investing in Ecosystems as Water Infrastructure Economic measures and indicators remain an important factor when choices are made abou t how co use and allocate funds, resources and lands, and recent advances in ecosystem valuation certainly represen t a major step forward in terms of broadening the information base available co decision-makers. Although calculati ng the eco nomic value of ecosystems for water does not necessarily favour their conservation, and economic criteria are only one sec of fa ctors among many in decision-making, it at lease permits them co be considered as economically productive systems, alongside other possible uses of land, resources and funds. However high the value of ecosystem benefits for water is demonstrated co be in theory, this has little meaning unless it actually translates into changes in realworld policy and practice. The better

Journal of the Australian Water Association

understanding and more accurate quantification of the economic value of ecosystem water services is still reflected weakly in the policies, markers and prices which determine the trade-offs and decisions faced by public policy-makers, private landholders and investors. Despi te their high economic value, there remains massive underinvestment in natural ecosystems as p roductive components of water infrastructure. Yet in order to ensure their productivity and continued support to human development, ecosystems need to be maincained and improved to meet both today's needs as well as intensifying demands and pressu res in the future just like any other component of infrastructure. A key question is, therefore, how to fi nd ways of stimulating investment in natural ecosystems as a core componenc of water infrastructure. A shift in the way in which development and conservation trade-offs are calculated is required - moving from approaches which fail to factor in environmental coses and benefits, co chose which recognise natural ecosystems as valuable and productive assets. Until the decisions and policies char underpin land, resource and invescmenc decisions start to cake these costs and benefits into accounc, they will remain incomplete, misleadi ng, and in many cases sub-optimal in economic and financial terms.

If ecosystems are recognised as assets which yield a flow of services that are required fo r the maintenance of downstream water supply and quality and for protection against water disasters, the human, social and financial capital that is

required to sustain chem (and which t hey, in turn , s ustain) also needs to b e allocated to thei r upkeep. In contrast, fa iling to count and invest in eco systems as assets is not only s ho re-sighted in econom ic terms, but t he coses, losses and fo regon e values chat result m ay u lcimacely u n derm ine m an y of che goals chat so much time, effort and fu nds are being channelled into - cost-effective, equitable and sustainable econom ic growth and development for all.

The Author Lucy Emerton

(with degrees from t he University of London and Un iversity of East Anglia) is Head, Global E co no mics and the E n vironment Programme o f the World Con servation Union (I UCN), currently b ased in Colombo. Tel: ++94 11 269 4094, em ail: Lucy.Emercon @iucn.org

References ADB, 2006, Improving the Welfare of the People Through lnfrastrucrure Development: Keynote Address by Liqun J in, Vice President, Operations, Asian Development Bank. Asia-Pacific Business Foru m 2006 on Transport and Logistics, Seoul Barbier, E. , 1994, ' Valuing environmental functions: tropical wetlands', land Economics 70(2): 155-73 Barbier, E., Acreman, M., and D . Knowler, 1997, Economic Valuation o/Wetlands: A

Case of That Luang Marsh, Vientiane, Lao PDR, IUCN -The World Conservation Union Asia Regional Environmental Econom ics Programme and WWF Lao Country Office, Vient iane Gren, I., and T. Soderqvist, 1994, Economic Valuation of Wetlands: A Survey, Beijer Discussion Paper Series No. 54, Beijer Internacional Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm Gren, I., Falke, C., Turner, K. and l. Bateman, 1994, Primary and secondary values of wetland ecosystems, Environmental and Resource Economics 4 : 55-74 Isakson, R. 2002, Payments for Environmental Services in che Catskills: A Socio-Economic Analysis of the Agricultu ral Strategy in New York City's Watershed Management Plan, Report was elaborated for the "Payment for Environmental Services in the Americas" Project, FORD Foundation and Fundaci6n PRISMA, San Salvador James, R., 1991 , Wetland Valuation : Guidel ines and Techn iques, PHPNAWB Sumatra Wetland Project Report No 31, Asian Wetland Bureau-Indonesia, Bogor NEMA, 1999, Uganda Biodiversity: Economic Assessment, National Environment Management Authority, Kampala

Pattanayak, S. and R. Kramer, 2001, Pricing ecological services: Willingness to pay for droughr mirigation from watershed protection in eastern Indonesia, Water Resources Research, 37(3) : 771-778 Pearce, D., 1990, An economic approach co saving rhe tropical forests . Discussion Pap er 90-06, London Environmental Econom ics Centre, London Reid, W ., 2001, Capturing the value of ecosystem services to protect biodiversity. In Managing human-dominated ecosystems, eds. G . Chich ilenisky, G.C. Daily, P. Ehrlich, G. H eal, J.S. Miller. Sc. Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden Press Souchgare, D. and Macke, R. ( 1989) ' The downstream benefits of soil co n servation in Third World hydroelectric watersheds'. land Economics 65(1) Turpie, J., Smith, B., Emerton, L. and J. Barnes, 1999, Economic Valuation of the Zambezi Basin Wetlands, IUCN - The World Conservation Union Regional Office for Southern Africa, H arare Winpenny J., 1991, Values for the Environment: A Guide to Economic Appraisal. HMSO Press, London

Guide for Policy Makers and Planners, Ramsar Convention Bureau, Gland Bassi, L., 2002, Valuation of land use and management impacts on water resources in che Lajeado Sao Jose micro-watershed Chapec6, Santa Catarina State, Brazi l, Land-Water Linkages in Rural Watersheds Case Study Series, Food and Agriculrure Organisation of the United Nations, Rome Emerton, L., lyango, L., Luwum, P., and A. Mal inga, 1999, The Economic Value of Nakivubo Urban Wetland, Uganda, IUCN - The World Conservation Union, Eastern Africa Regional Office, Nairobi Emerton, L., Seilava, R. and H. Pearith, 2002, Bokor, Kirirom, Kep and Ream Natio nal Parks, Cambodia: Case Studies of Economic and Development Li nkages, Field Srudy Report, Review of Protected Areas and their Role in che Socio-Economic Development of the Four Countries of the Lower Mekong Region, International Centre for Environmental Management, Brisbane.and IUCN - The World Conservation Union Regional Environmental Economics Programme, Karach i Emerton, L. and E. Bos, 2004, VALUE: Counting Ecosystems as Water Infrastructure, IUCN -The World Conservation Union, Gland Emerton, L., 2006, Counting coastal ecosystems as an economic part of development infrastructure. Ecosystems and Livelihoods Group Asia, World Conservation Union (IUCN) , Colombo Gerrard, P., 2004, Integrating Wetland Ecosystem Values into Urban Planning: T he

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Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 41

fereed paper

KIMBERLEY WATERWAYS: ALTERNATIVE LAND AND WATER-USE PRACTICES A W Storey, S Toussaint Abstract This article focuses on the successful application of alternative ap proaches to land/animal/water managemen t on the waterways of northern Western Australia. Following the environmental impacts of past pastoral activities, the innovative alternative mode of production evident at Kachana Pastoral Station has the potential to benefit local environments and populations, as well as to foster an integrated practice model of potential use elsewhere.

Key Words: Waterways, East Kimberley, Pastoralism, Alternative Landscape Use and Management, Holism, Ecological Approaches

Introduction From a southern Australian perspective, the Kimberley region of Australia is often portrayed as the last frontier or a pristine wilderness. While such an image may accurately represent certain inaccessible areas, the 'rangelands' are far from pristine, having been variously affected by fire and the pastoral industry since the late 1800s. A consistent and observable pattern is that the combined effects of remote area history, pastoral expansion involving overgrazing and poor stock management, and the consequences of long-term mining and exploration have resulted in many sect ions of the landscape being over-used or ' run down ' Qebb, 2002).

It is increasingly evident that certain landuse practices, combined with increasing industrial and touristic development have affected the quality and flow of rivers and other water sources (WRC 1997; Storey et a/2001; Toussaint eta/2001; Kohen 2003; Douglas et al 2006) . In this article we consider how rivers and wetlands in the Kimberley, and the broader landscapes in which they are embedded, have altered, as well as how certain pastoralists are end eavouring to implement a less damaging and more innovative mode of production. Adopti ng disciplinary approaches that include aquat ic ecology 42 DECEMBER 2007


intensity 'wet season' rains. Rainfall is generally < 1000 mm, but evaporation may be several metres per annum. It is an environment that can be generally characterised as alternati ng areas of sp inifex, pindan, steep ranges, intricate (albeit deteriorating) water courses and desert.

Figure 1. The Dunham River (right) as it meets the regulated Ord River (left). Note high sediment load indicative of catchment erosion (photo Lee Scott-Virtue, 2002).

and anthropology, a primary concern is to show that by combining a spectrum of alternative management practices, and by diversifying rangeland economies, a more balanced and sustainable approach is possible. Our discussion is exemplified by a focus on rhe Kachana Pastoral Station in the East Kimberley where integrated labour-intensive practices and ideas have resulted in environmental re-generation and renewal. Attention to economies that add to the benefits of low-key pastoralism, such as a small eco-tourism camp, have also played a part in revitalising the landscape and social life more generally. While Kachana is a focus, it is not necessarily the only answer, and other pastoral stations in the Kimberley are reducing their dependence o n cattle and have introduced a range of economies that have benefited local lands and waters, as well as facilitated congenial social activity.

Kimberley Lands and Waters The Kimberley is a vast and rugged region of over 100,000 square kilometres, typified by temperatures ranging between 20 and 45 degrees Celsius, with a warm dry season (May to November), followed by monsoonal and cyclonic-driven high

Catchment management on a broad scale.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Pastoral expansion began in the region in 1903 and intensified in 1920 Qebb, 2002). By 2001 the Kimberley hosted app roximately 530,000 cattle on 98 stations covering 23 million hectares, and was renowned for holding the highest number of cattle for any region in Western Australia. C urrently almost o ne-third of pastoral stations are managed (if not always owned) by indigenous groups (Brown 2004). The effect of pastoralism on the broader Kimberley environment and water sources has received increasing attention (S torey et a/200 1; Toussaint eta/2001) . WRC ( 1997) reported that the most serious cause of river degradation in the Kimberley was the loss of riparian and catchment vegetation due to extremely intensive grazi ng pressure over wide areas . Fragile soil was exposed to intense rainfall resulting in increased runoff, causing sheet and gully erosion. Erosion was exacerbated by freeranging stock congregati ng around pools and billabongs, where they defoliated and trampled the land. Eroded soil was then washed into the rivers, increasing turbidity and causing siltation along banks, in pools and across estuaries. More recently, EPA (2006) again highligh ted fire and overgrazing as two of the main threats to Kimberley ecosystems, including the deleterious impact of erosion on aquatic systems. Kohen (20 03) also noted that the increased frequency of fire, particularly in the late dry season, removed vegetation, leaving soils exposed to the high intensity rains, resulting in rapid run-off and increased erosion. This is exemplified where the D unham River meets the regulated Ord River, with high sediment in the forme r reflecting catch ment erosion (Figure 1).

1ecnn1ca1 reatures refereed paper

Siltation was seen as a major threat to the ecology of Kimberley rivers, many of which naturally recede to isolated pools in the dry season, with these pools providing critical refuges for water-dependent fauna (WRC, 1997). Sediment smothers the animals livi ng on the bottom, coats organic deposits and algae upon which the fau na depend as a food source, and then covers habitat such as woody debris, gravel beds and undercuts. Poo ls become shallower, water temperatures generally increase, as do diurnal changes in oxygen levels, making the pools less suitable for fa una. Eventually, the pools become infilled and no longer provide a refuge in the dry season . If this process occurs along the length of a river, dramatic losses in biodiversity will eventuate. This is of particular concern to the Kimberley, which is noted fo r its high levels of endemism, particularly in fish (Unmack, 2001; Allen et al 2002).



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The Human Communities Impacts are not only to biodiversity, but also disadvantage local human communities, and can undermine ind igenous cultural values chat rely on these ecological values (Srorey et al 2001; Storey, 2006; Toussaint eta/2001, 2005). Our concerns here are additional and two-fold. In the firs t instance, despite the impact of cultural and political change on indigenous groups, there are some who continue to embody and practice environmental knowledge learnt via many generations of experience. They have suffered and now endeavour to respo nd to the impact of reduced access to food and other resources (such as frogs for fishing bait, varieties of fish, crocodiles, bush honey, and so on). Second, local non-indigenous residents who have developed ties to nearby land and water sources, as well as visitors to the region, such as tourists and those seeking lo ng-term alternative life-sryles, also suffer the co nsequences of a diminished environment. Once a catchment is denuded of vegetation there is greater and fas ter rainfall runoff and erosion. In rhe Kimberley rangelands ecological, social and economic resources (viz. soil) are literally being 'washed away', impacting on the potential for indigenous and non-indigenous populations to sustain their own lives and livelihoods in ways that accord with local cultural beliefs and socialiries. Yer, regionally-appropriate catchment management and restoration, readily applied in the southwest of the srare (WRC, 1999) is nor being implemented in the Kimberley rangelands.

• Halls Creek


Figure 2. The Kimberley Reg ion of Western Australia, showi ng the location of Kac hana Pastoral Sta tion.

Alternative Ideas, Practices and Benefits However, one example of acti ve management can be seen at Kachana Pastoral Srarion (KPS), nestled in the Ease Kimberley's Durack Ranges, approximately 120 km south-west of Kununurra (Figure 2). Managed fo r almost 20 years by Chris and Jacqueline Henggeler, and Danny and Regula Waser, KPS provides a crucial example of how degraded catchments of the Ease Kimberley rangelands may be rehabilitated. A holistic approach is taken to rangeland management, which, controversially, uses cattle as a tool. T he aim is ecologically sustainable land and water-use, and their model nor only relies on bur also explicates the importance of human activity as well. Based on African and American herding skills char involve low stress stock handling, Chris Henggeler has trained semi-wild Kimberley Shorthorn cattle as a herd. Usually on his own bm sometimes with support from a family member, such as teenage daughter Rebeccah, Chris uses controlled grazing in varying lengths of rime and intensity which in turn controls animal impact. Working on a ratio of one person per 60-80 head of cattle (although two experienced people could train and work 300 to 500 animals, and on more

productive land, one person could handle a trained herd of 2000 head of cattle), it is not immediately cost-effective bur has clear environ mental benefits. Depending on the desired outcome, such as to encourage growth of preferred species, to mai ntain vegetative cover, to redevelop a soil profile, implement strategic firebreaks or stabilise riparian zones, a selected area and allocation of time will be discerned. Embodying a practice coined turni ng 'd irt into soil', cattle are moved betwee n 'paddocks' (unfenced) on an hourly to daily basis, to prevent them overgrazi ng and denuding any part of the statio n. T he resu lt is a dense cover of ann ual and perennial vegetation, even late in the dry season (cf Figures 3 & 4), when many pares of other 'traditionally-run' pastoral leases are denuded and open to erosion. The basic concept of this work is the imptovemenr of soil health, th rough the introduction of micro-organisms, burrowing insects like dung beetles, and working and composting the soil by the action of cattle hooves breaking down tall grasses to initiate the composting process. Chris Hen ggeler makes the cogent point that many current pastoral management practices are not sustainable, because 'the asset that maintains the vegetation and therefore supports rhe cattle, the soil, is being burnt-off or washed into the rivers' (C Henggeler, pers. comm.).

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 43

!fereed paper

Figure 3. Cockatoo Creek, a former rain forest wetland on Kachana Station, by 1992 was badly damaged by poor stock management, feral cattle, donkeys, and frequent w i ldfires (photo Kachana

Figure 4. Cockatoo Creek in November 1996 (a) and Moy 1998 (b), four and six years ofter active management showing establishment of vegetation assisted with periodic grazing to promote th e soil-building process (photos Kachana Pastoral Company).

Pastoral Company, N ovember 1992).

Areas of the station char cannot yet be created with active management exhibit the classic signs of fire and uncontrolled grazing, leaving bare sand and rock. Feral cattle yet to be brought into a herd, overgraze areas, reducing them to dust bowls which erode into the watercourses when the rains come. Further downstream, the co mbined effects of fire, grazing and loss of vegetation become more visible, whereby recent rainfall events have resulted in extensive erosion of the creek lines (Figures 5 and 6).

In 1995 Chris Henggeler estimated char he was 'losing over a million tonnes of peat and topsoil per year' through broadsheet and gully erosion . KPS supports a diminishing number of pockets of remnant rainforest as well as raised Melaleuca pear springs and seeps (Figures 7 and 8). Carbon daring shows these peat deposits rook up to 3000 years to establish (Karl-Heinz Wyrwoll, Geography Dep t, University of Western Australia, unpublished data), but are now being lost in a couple of years, evidence that this is a relatively new phenomenon. Uncontrolled stock access to these areas by feral cattle leads to runneling and draining of the peat, which is then sufficien tly dry to burn during wildfires. The resultant floods, which previously the landscape could accommodate, can cause catastrophic erosion as was seen at Kachana in Goanna Creek following 1: 10 year rainfall events in 2000 and 2001 (Figures 5 and 6).

Figure 7. Goonno vlei; a poperbork peat seep alongside Goa nna Creek showi ng deep peat layer supporting plant growth in late dry season (photo Jane Rapkin, September 2003 ).

Minimisation of Erosion Figure 5. Goanna Creek showing bank and bed erosion to bedrock following fire a nd above overage rai nfall (photo Jane Rapkins, 2003).

Figure 6. Bonk erosion and undermining of riparian vegetation in Goonno Creek. These 'assets' w ill soon be lost as they collapse into the creek (photo Andrew Storey, 2003).

44 DECEMBER 2007


On those parts of Kachana Station being intensively managed, erosion is being minimised. Chris's dedicated labourintensive activity has managed to revegetate eroded, seasonal creek lines, which are now permanently flowing as the vegetation acts like a sponge and intercepts and holds back the wet season rains. Even when the big rainfall events occur the creeks run clear, whilst adjacent unmanaged catchments are turbid and actively eroding. His challenge is co reduce run off. As Chris notes, his station has a similar annual rainfall to Perch in the southwest (~ 750 mm per annum), and it falls over a similar length of time. By revegeraring the subcatchments and the creek lines, Chris is increasingly able to hold this water on the landscape longer. As well as intercepting rain and reducing run-off, vegetation reduces evaporation from the soil profile in

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Figure 8. Goonno vlei; alongside Goanna Creek showing pugging from feral cattle, w hich can lead to runneling and drying of the peat layer making it susceptible to fi re (photo Ja ne Rapkin, September 2003).

technical features .fereed paper

the dry season, and holds the soil together to prevent erosion. The proof is perennial creek lines that are vegetated, and an intact pear layer rhar soaks-up rhe rain and gradually releases it throughout the dry season.

Conclusions The benefits of hol istic management to the waterways and broader landscape are obvious. Minimising erosion reduces sedimentation of cri tically important refuge pools. Healthy ripa rian vegetation also provides shade for all species (including hu mans), keeps the water temperature lower, and helps prevent the proliferat ion of problem algae. Vegetation slows runoff into rh e creeks, in tercepts nutrients and sediment, provides habitat in the form of large woody debris falling into the cha nnel, and a carbon (energy) source to in-stream food webs, directly in the fo rm of leaf litter and indirectly through the input of insects, fru its and seeds, all of wh ich fish feed upon. These, in rum, are also a viral source of food and recreation to local and visiting comm unities, some of whom visit and observe life and work at Kachana via a short-term stay at the Cleanskin C reek Eco-Tourism Camp. T he subject of ano ther paper, this camp runs in conjunction as an alternative source of revenue, support and social activity, and serves as a research venue which provides visitors and researchers with environmentally sustainable accommodation (www.kachana.com).

Postscript Access to KPS is by small plane on ly. Leaving the bush airstrip at Kachana and gaining height, the valley rapidly grows small with distance (Figure 9) and quickly see ms insignifica nt in the broad landscape. Yer what Chris Henggeler and his coworkers and supporters are achieving holds significant promise for sustainable management of the Kimberley range-lands. By working with land, water and cattle in a way rhar differs from that of their predecessors. However, for th is approach to gain acceptance as a potential management tool fo r Kimberley rangelands and waterways, where 'European' agriculru ral practices do nor appear to be environmentally (or economically) sustainable, there is a need to gain scientific, social and environmental credibility. With respect to watercourse management, studies are needed to pull apart the effects of grazi ng and fire from climatic variability on catchment hydrology an d catchment ru noff. A better understanding is also needed of the erosion characteristics and sediment dynamics of

Figure 9. Looking west - the view into the valley where Kachana Pastoral Company is implementing holistic management, showing remnant rainforest, peat soaks and perennial creeks in the foreground, and Regula Gorge in the distance (photo Andrew Storey, September 2003).

these catchments and how they are affected by fire and over-grazing, alongside alternative management practices. Research also needs to explore and make meaningful withi n scientific domains rhe relationships humans have to their hab itats, whether pastoral, agricultural , narnral, built or marine, in order to understand more specifically how and why so me people are prepared to work with, rather than in opposition to, the environments wi thi n which they live and work.

Acknowledgments We tha nk Chris an d Jacqueline Henggeler for their hospitality and insights to land and water management and Lee Scott-Virtue and Dean Goodgame of Ki mberley Specialists fo r their support. Lisa Chandler is thanked for drafting the map of the region.

The Authors Andrew Storey (email: awstorey@ cyllene.uwa.edu.au) is Adjunct Senior Lecturer in rhe School of Animal Biology, T he University of Western Australia, and Sandy Toussaint (emai l: toussain@ cyllene.uwa.edu.au) is Associate Professor in the Discipli ne of Anthropology and Sociology, The University of Western Australia. References Allen, G .R., Midgley, S. H. and Allen, M. (2002)

Field Guide to the Freshwater Fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth. Brown, H . (2004) The Kimberley: Australia's Wild Outback Wilderness, Published by Hugh Brown, PO Box 1918 Broome, WA, 6725. Douglas, M.M., Bunn, S.E. & Davies, P.M. (2005) River and wetland food webs i11

Australia's wet-dry tropics: general principles and implications for management. Marine & Freshwater Research, 56: 329-342. EPA (2006) Draft of Western Australian Srace of Environment Report, www.soe.wa.gov.au (cited July 2006). Jebb, M.A. (2002) Blood, Sweat and Welfare: A

Histmy of White Bosses and Aboriginal Pastoral Workers, Nedlands, University of Western Australia Press Kohen, J.L. (2003) Proceedings of the 2nd Kimberley Fire Fomm, Brumby Base, El Questro Wilderness Park, Ease Kimberley, Western Aust ralia, 3-6 May 200 I, published by Kimberley Specialists, Kununurra, Western Australia. Storey, A.W. (2006). Ecological values of the Fitzroy River with links to indi genous cultu ral values [in) Kimberley A ppropriate Economies Roundtable Forum Proceedings (eds) R. Hill, K. Golson, P. Lowe, M. Mann, S. Hayes & J. Blackwood. Publ ished by the Australian Conservation Foundation, pp. 47-49 . Storey, A., Davies, P. M., and R. H. Froend (200 l) Fitzroy River System: Environmental Values, report prepared for the Water and Rivers Commission, Perch, Western Australia. Toussaint, S., Sullivan , P., and Yu, S. (2005) 'Waterways in northern Aboriginal Australia: an interconnected analysis, Anthropological Forum, vol. 15, no. 1, pp.61-74. Toussaint, S., Sullivan, P., Yu, S., and Mulatry, M. (2001) Fitzroy River Cultural Values: preliminary findings, report prepared for the Water and Rivers Commission, Perth, Western Australia. Unmack, P.J . (2001). Biogeography of Australian freshwater fishes, Journal of Biogeography 28, 1053-1089. WRC ( 1997) The State ofthe Northern Rivers. Publication No. WRAP JO, published by the Water and Rivers Commission, Perth, Western Australia. WRC (1999) River Restoration. A manual for the

restoration and management ofrivers. Published by Water and Rivers Comm ission, Perth, Western Australia.

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 45

technical fe~


environmental flows

MANAGING RIVERS IN CLIMATE CHANGE - VICTORIA'S CHALLENGES Report by EA (Bob) Swinton Abstract This article outlines the current framewo rk for river management in Victoria, and how ic has faced its first test in dealing with drought.


Victorian River Health Program

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It then postulates scenarios due to climate change, if the forecasts of reduced rain fall eventuate. The policy challenges and responses are summarised. DSE believes that maintaining its current approach would be seen as inapp ropriately idealistic. It has come to the concl us ion that a renewed focus to battle climate change needs a clear policy approach that ad d resses the risk while recognising u ncertainty.

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The Victorian River Health Strategy an Asset-based Approach Climate change is presen ting the water industry with unp recedented management challenges. It's a challenge that Victoria's Office of Water has risen to, by developing innovative ways co p rotect the state's ri ver systems. For more than five years, the Victorian River Health Strategy (2002) (VRHS) has provided the framework of the state's river health program. The VRHS was the first initiative to begin systematically identifying river assets and addressing threats co river health (see figure 1). The state's rivers are managed using derailed five-year Regional River Health Strategies, which focus on statewide river health, strategic investment and rigorous and continuous resource assessment. Each strategy has been developed by one of the nine regional Catch ment Management Authorities (CMAs) and Melbourne Water in the greater Melbourne area, in consultation with rhe community.

This report is based on the presentation to the International RiverSymposium, Septem ber 2007, by four officers from the Victorian Departmenr of Sustainability and Environment, Office of Water: J ane Doolan, Exec ut ive Director, Sustainable Water, Environment and Innovation, Gary Howell, Director, Integrated River Heald, and Invest ment, Pau l Ben nerr, Director, Environmenral \Varer Reserve Management and Julia Reed, Program Manager, Living Murray Environmental Delivery.






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Figure 1. The Victoria n River Hea lth Prog ram . Officers carried out a thoro ugh inven tory of social, economic and environmental riverrelated assets and used it to identify priority reaches in a river system. Key threats co these assets were then pin-pointed.

• Achieving an overall improvement in rhe ecological condition of the remainin g rivers; and

Both steps were carried out using the River Val ues and Environmental Risk System (RiVERS), a database application developed over three years by the Victorian Waterway Managers Forum and DSE, to help p rioritise river management activities using a risk management approach .

Where the key threat is flow stress, river health management focuses on environmen tal flows. This moves rhe plan ning process into the arena of water allocatio n .

I n each case, the result ing risk p rofi le has been used as rhe basis o f a Regional River Health Strategy, containing a su ite of specific, logical actions chat include management action targets (such as "carry out imp rovement works in 25km of habitat") as well as resource condition targets (such as improve rhe Index of Scream Conditions by I - 2 po ints over 12.5km of Reach 64). The driving principles char underpin rhe Victorian river health framewo rk are: • Protecting rhe rivers char are of rhe highest community value from a decline in condition ; • Maintaining the condition of rivers char are currently ecologically healthy;

Journal of the Australian Water Association

• Preventing damage from future management activities.

T he community-agreed objectives o utlined in Regional River Health Strategies form the basis of scientific studies to identify flow needs fo r a river system. Victoria's FLOWS meth odology (launched in 20 02) is used to define the flow needs of rivers. FLOWS has advanced flow studies from a minimum flow approach to one that links the identifi ed achievem ent of environmental objectives to specific elements of a holistic river flow regime, for example environmental fl ow recommendations for Winter/Spring freshes at Warrandyte in the Yarra River, as shown in the part cable, Figure 2 . At this point we fin d ou rselves with a detailed strategy to protect or, where necessary, improve the health of each priority Victorian river reaches consistent

with the expectations of the community. Actions and targets sic alo ngside scientifically rigorous environmental flow recommendations. The ability to address enviro nmental flow issues are co nsidered through Regional Sustainable Wacer Scracegies, which among ocher things aim to balance che needs of towns, irrigarion and the environment while also evaluating options for improving environ mental flows where necessary. So fa r so good.

Drought and River Health - A Rude Awakening

Figure 2. Yarra River: Environmental Flow recommendations at Warrandyte. S..a•on Low flow



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Figure 5 In 2006/07, the majority of Victoria's unregulated rivers (about 200) were on an irrigation ban and storages were at record

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lows. The Wimmera storages, for instance, were ar only 7 per cent at the end of the "winter rains". On I July 2007, it was announced chat irrigation allocation in regulated systems across northern Victoria, including che Goulburn River and River Murray, was to be zero. Across the state nearly 300 towns were placed on rhe harshest water restrictions, limited to inside water use on ly. Meanwhile the signs of th e prolonged drought were also evident in che condition of rivers and werlands. The Campaspe River flows were abou t 20 times lower than under nacural co nditions. River management has had to adapt to these conditions very rapidly. Water supply emergencies in some systems and the use of limited environmental wacer targeted at the highest environmental priorities had to be dealt with. In "normal" years Victoria's environmental watering focus has been on "improvement" - restoring stressed rivers, while proceccing healthy ones. Under drought, priorities have needed to change. The focus now shifted to: • Maintaini ng refuges to allow fo r ecosystem recovery; • Avoiding critical loss of priority species and communities; • Avoid ing catastrophic events; and


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Bue what happens when a crisis hi es chat increases che rhreac to assets and limits our abil icy ro provide environmental flows? DSE officers have been wrescl ing wich chis issue for the past few years - cu lminating in major learnings. The severity of che current drought for mosc of southern Australia is well-known, and ics impact on Victoria is wellilluscraced by the three maps of rainfall deciles (see Figures 3, 4 and 5).



• Avoiding loss of priority areas where signi ficant past investment in river health has occurred. Increasingly, DSE in conjunction with Fisheries Victoria and CMAs developed innovative ways to reduce rhe impact of the drought on the key environmental assets. These included: • Directing consumptive water en-route (different pathway from dam to end user) to meec priority sires, such as in che Campaspe River and at Broken Creek, where chis was possible without impacting on water users;

1 .'4/0..8.5

M .-lnt.aln •,c;.tw,,g chann _. g•Oft'l•"Y & ~ v.g..i.ation ancroa,ch rn.nt In cn_...1. •ntraln c,,rganlo mat.rial. •ng ag. Ngh, flow ~ -• • & Cngag• bi11111bang,a & io- . . , _, ~ l a l n... oe- 1 . M5-3. v ~ O!!i-3. v ~

• Closing freshwater crayfish fishe ries in flow-stressed river systems; • Protecting large woody debris normally underwater but now exposed due to low flows; • Preparing Dry Inflow Conti n gency Plans (D lCPs), which identified drought refuges and included management actions to protect chem (such as fenci ng-off stock and providing off-scream watering points), and • Establ ishing a Drought Employment Scheme, usi ng $ 10 million across Victoria to employ droughr-affecred farmers for river restoration works, such as fencing, stock exclus ion, off-scream wateri ng points and weed co ntrol. This ki nd of program has never been undertaken by the team before and symbolises th e type of shift in chinking char has also needed to occur within che environmental watering ream. The best and mosc targeted use of environ mental wacer together with complementary river health activities was certainly not the sole challenge. With the dro ught placing unprecedented pressure on water supplies, a reduction in environmental flows was required in some rivers to provide emergency sup plies fo r essential human needs. Environmental risks needed to be weighed against water supply for human health and safety such as basic town supplies. In water supply emergencies, in which environmental flows have been sec aside for consumptive use, DSE has worked with water corporations and CMAs to provide risk assessments of decreased environmental flows for the environment and the water supply system. Important decisions about emergencies consider the following: • Water availability; • Requiremencs to meet critical human needs, and

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 47

technical features

• Severity of risks to high-value environmental assets. Without exception, water corporations are working to ensure they meet their long term d emands without impacts on the environment. In summary, Victoria's experience of the drought has had a massive impact on environmental water management and we have learned and evolved. Key learnings have been: • The importance of refuges and the need to identify them; • Improving the number of tools available to compensate fo r drought and lack of flow; • Stronger planning around drought;

Figure 6. Barmah Forest: (a) a necessary flood; (b) a drought-affected scene. Photos

• Better environmental risk assessments to fo cus management, and

by Paul O'Connor, DSE.

• Seeking community understanding and support for the use o f enviro nmental water in droughts.

Drought on Steroids - Climate Change Scenarios and Consequences H aving learned from the drought, Victoria is now trying to u nderstand rhe potential long-term implications of climate change on water avai labi lity and ecological objectives for rivers, so that it can be considered in rhe management app roach. Under climate change scenarios, Victo ria will have more frequent and longer drought with much longer dry spells and less frequent fl oods. In an attempt to understand the possible impacts of chis, river assets and environmental flow components have been tested against modelling of stream flow reduction under medium and severe climate change scenarios, as forecast by CSIRO. The results have shown potentially significant impacts for fl ow regimes and ecological health of V ictoria's river systems. An example is the Barmah Forest, on the River Murray. Under severe climate change conditions (and while maintaining current levels o f irrigation entitlem ent), longdurarion , medium-level flooding would occur 7 per cent of the time (as opposed to 47 per cent naturally) . M eanwhile the longest period between floods would be 33 years (as opposed to five years under natural co nd ition s) . This, if ir occurred, would most likely spell rhe end of colonial bird breeding and the loss of Moira grass p lain wetlands . D SE's modelling has also revealed that, under the same scen ario, the frequen cy of shorter duration floods would also reduce, to rhe extent that populations of small fi sh

48 DECEMBER 2007 Water

and frogs, dependent on wetlands, would probably disappear, as would most areas of River Red Gums . T hese analyses have shown some clear gaps in our ecological knowledge that are crucial to our interpretation o f the ecological impacts of climate change scenarios. T hese include: • Tolerances (how long between drinks); • Resilience (how many dries in a row); • Refuges (what's a refuge, how big and how many); and • Recolonisation ability after dry periods. The challen ge now is that rivers, wetland s, fl oodplains and estuaries m ay have m ore frequent and longer droughts with much longer d ry spells and less frequent fl oods requiring a mammoth change in management focus.

Can the Victorian River Health Framework Cope?

If we want to aim to ensure river assets survive during d ry sequences, and provide capacity to recover during wetter years, we must continue to have a tight and co ntrolled managem ent regime, making rhe absolute best of environmental water, changing management objectives where necessary. The question is how can the current V ictorian River H ealth framework be refined to make ir more useful in facing an uncertain future. D SE believes th at m aintaining its current approach would be seen as inappropriately idealistic. Ir has com e to the concl usion rhar the p rogram needs to provide a clear poli cy approach rhar addresses the risk while recognising uncertainty.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Seven ways have been identified in which this needs to occur: 1. Planning n eeds to foc us m ore on d rought refugia, maintaining key recovery mechan isms and understand ing dry spell tolerances. Regional River H ealth Strategies, for instance, need to evolve to identify drought refugia as well as key sources and pathways for flora and fauna recolonisation. 2 . Environmental Flow Provision must be made from a balanced portfolio of water products to meet key asset needs. High reliability water, for instance, can supply river base flows in normal years and refugia in drought years. Low reliability water can create freshes and piggy-back on high natural fl ows to create flus hes as well as anabranch, wetland and floodplain watering. 3. The role of CMAs and Melbourne Water as an Integrated River Manager n eeds to evolve further. T hese organisations need to be capable of m ore sophisticated environmental fl ow management, able to trade in the water marker (if required) and working in a regulatory environment which allows it to achieve its goals. An Integrated River Manager should be able build river works to economise on environmental water and even enable third parry investment (perhaps NGOs) in environm ental water. 4 . T he possibil ity of simulating natural fl ows with river works must b e fully investigated, such as has alread y occurred by usi ng pumping at H attah Lakes and as part of the Livi ng Murray p rogram . In add ition, while co mplementary restoratio n programs will continue, a larger emphasis will need to be placed on providing pathways for recolo nisation and p romote

integrated works co aid recovery in wetter years.

5. Relationships with consumptive users muse conti nue co expand and build on che synergies wherever possible of consumptive water delivery with ecological outcomes. W hile we can continue co find smart ways co use consumptive water fo r che environment (such as by utilising Inter Valley Trade water for the lower Campaspe), there is also potential co explore alcernacive water sources (e.g. recycled water and scormwacer).

6. The knowledge base muse continue co be expanded to improve incerprecacion of the ecological impacts of potential climate change on key refugia characteristics, ecological tolerances and thresholds, resilience and recolonisation paths.

Tools Used

by the Victorian Government to Manage Rivers

RiVERS - The Victoria's River Values and Environmental Risk System, was launched in 2004 and has successfully enabled risk assessment by linking values to threats and racing likelihood and consequence of che threat and its impact on value. T he database application makes provision for other factors, such as trajectory, upstream and downstream impacts, as well as public perception, providing a sound platform for Regional River Health Strategy planning. FLOWS - T he FLOWS method is a method used for determini ng environ mental water requirements in Victoria. Lau nched in 2002, FLOWS is

7. Finally, a process for knowing when and how co change management objectives is needed.

• River assets or actual river com ponencs, such as flood plains, may need to be given up on based on their regional priority;

The harsh reality is char we are facing a future in which hard choices will need co be made:

• A decision may even need co be made to allow a river co move from perennial co ephemeral; bur

• Environmental objectives may need co be traded off agai nst each ocher (e.g. river red gums versus fish);

• Knowing when and how to make these decisions is critical, so char river health assets are not prematurely given up.

Type G - PULL - OUT RESISTANT COUPLINGS providing axial restraint for all kinds of metal pipes. Patented Double Lip seal - EPDM or NBR material. Stainless Steel Construction. For Pipe & Tube from OD 26.9mm to OD 634 mm Industrial Application working pressure up to 70 bar Made in Germany Water & Waste Water applications, Compressed Air, Building, Civil & Industrial applications, Mining, Engines, Machinery & Shipbuilding.

based around che philosophy of describing key flow components as part of a recommendation for an environmental flow regime rather than a minimum flow recommendation. The Index of Stream Conditions (ISC) Launched in 1999, the five-yearly ISC brings together data from a variety of sources to give a derailed overall picture of river condition. Five sub-indices make up the ISC score - hydrology, water quality, screamside zone, physical fo rm and aquatic life. The next ISC is due co be carried ou t in 2009. While Victoria's River Health Management fra mework is facing up co the challenge of drought, co move forward into the reality of climate change it will need co evolve. Tr is in doing chis work now char we will ensure we can meet the future - head on.


tech n ¡ ca I features


deliver ch is by mid 2009, w ith prototypes being rested during 2008 by our partners.

Building Solutions eWacer CRC has just completed ics seco nd year of operations, and we are, quierly, making good progress. We are building che next generatio n of integrated water forecasting and decision cools for Australia. These are cools char will, in che hands of water planners, managers, and operators, ensure char the best scientific and engineering knowledge is available co support the cough and complex decisions char have co be made - decisions chat will guide the sustainable use of water for the coming decades . And as we know, chis is a crucial time for sound decision making in water resources management, for the long-term economic, social and environmental fu cure of Australia. Focusing on the integration of hydrology, ecology and decision science, eWacer is developing integrated solutions, as well as stand-alone cools or utilities, for five areas of water industry activity. They are fuelled from our collaborative research teams' activities and new knowledge, which is supplementing the large body of existing knowledge being incorporated into the products. Constructio n and assessment of these produces is in the hands of multistrand teams from our industry and research partner organisations and och er interested bodies.

If urban waters are yo ur area of expertise,

eWaterCRC chat is, rivers where flows have been modified co service irrigation districts, cowns and other rural industries. T his integrated cool ' RiverManager' supports plann ing and management fo r river systems. RiverManager is being designed co provide effi cient interaction with river operators, as well as shore-term and long-term planning and forecasts, and advanced testing of scenarios, including climate-change. le should also help with management of economic and ecological assets such as significant werlands. We will

Five Water Industry Areas If you are managing and operating rivers and water supplies, you will be interested in a comprehensive decision-cool chat will enable stakeholders co manage rural rivers: 5 0 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

chen watch ouc for the imegrated urban water management software and decision cools we are b uilding fo r use either at moderately small scale (new developments o r suburbs), or at region al scale (town, cicy, catchment). These address water q uantities, qualities, various urban-water 'screams', impacts on infrastruccure and ecology, and water-use efficiency. Numerical models, decision framewo rks and web portals are all in develop ment by eWater for urban water management. Ecological responses are important if you are evaluating environmemal flow allocatio ns and che recurn on investment in catchment and river restoration programs. As you can read elsewhere in chis issue of WATER, eWacer is at road-resting stage

technical teatures

eWater CRC


wich a stand-alone ucili cy or tool, 'ERM', for predicting the respo nses of ecosystems to managemenr actions. The ERM tool is a way of combining existing models of biological responses to flow or ocher habitat feat ures, with ptovision for adding new or local knowledge. The outputs are predictions of responses by species you are interested in, whether desirable (e.g. fish) or undesirable (e.g. toxic algae). A key pare of the outp ut is assessment of how much confidence one can have in the predictions, according to which sources the tool has called on. ERM builds on the apptoach rhar was used in che Murray Flows Assessment Tool (MFAT) developed for the Living Murray program, but it has a more flexible and open framewo rk. Ocher eWarer cools in chis restoration area of water ind ustry work will become avai lable to help idenrify which ecological assets are most important to che overall ecological condition of a catchment, or to decide where your restoration investment will give the best ecological return. If you are involved in restoring, you will also need co be monitoring and assessing rhe outcomes and improvements in water quality and river condition. There are many guidelines and other forms of assistance in existence already, so eWarer's contribution in chis area is a web platform. Ir wi ll give web access co existing and new cools, co help with setting objectives, program design, choice of ind icators, data handling, robust assessmenrs and inrerprerarion and reporting of results. Finally, bur by no means lease, is eWate r's 'WarerCAST' cool, for forecasting and managing quantity and quality ofstream water. Building on our E2 prototype, chis cool is being designed for rural and peri-urban catchments, and will help you assess land-use alrernarives, and climate variations, for their likely effects on sediment and nutrients in streams. The impacts of groundwater near the surface is also a factor that can be explored using WarerCAST. This tool is also in prelimi nary resting stage.

Application reams have been evaluating prorocypes of WarerCAST and ERM th is year, in South Australi a, Queensland and Victoria. Their feedback is enabling us co adjust these tools so they will be ready for release, initially co our partner organisations, during 2008.

Catchment Modelling Toolkit eWater supports and maintai ns the Catchment Modell ing Toolkit char was set up by our foreru nner the CRC fo r Catchment Hydrology. T he T oolkit is a web-based distribution point fo r hydrological, ecological and catchment management models and databases. Jc contai ns che popular cools MUSIC, RAP, E2 and

Good Design, Sound Testing We see our development of innovative models as the first link in a value chain char ends with a long-term national and international audience of satisfied users. T hat is why we are determined co back our outputs with professional, industry-standard customer support, maintenance, insrallarion and training. Carefully rhoughc ouc software design is the first seep in achieving rapid uptake. Once the cools are bu ilt, rhe next steps are 'roadresci ng' and revision, delivery, customer support and traini ng courses. Each product will go along chis path, so char even at its first release to the partner organisations char requested ic, our pa rtners can be assured char it is user-friendly and that its users know what it can do, what related cools can work wich ic, and how you the user can cap fully into char range of capabilities. eWarer products are being designed so char they are mutually compatible (interoperable), operate in a consistent and reliable man ner, and share as many common funcrions as possible: e.g. for hand ling and visualising data. This means chat you will be able to create models and extract data in the same way in each of che producrs in rhe eWacer portfolio. Also, it will be easy co move between different produces and, say, combine analytical capabilities from two or more products to generate analyses across water disciplines. The concept is to have a common software platform which allows all eWarer cools to be able to work interactively as modules, giving the user maximum freedom.

Integrated environmental solutions Reliable and timely environmental services tailored to your business requirements

As each cool nears completion, ir is passed co an industry-based Application team for 'road-resting'. The idea is co ensure the product is exactly what is needed fo r chat particular area of work - so if there are things the ream finds non-user-friendly or nonfunctional the product is adjusted. Journal of the Austra lian W a ter A ssociation


DECEMBER 2007 5 1




RRL, Aquacycle, CLASS and SedNet, and over a dozen others (26 in total), as well as information on TIME (The Invisible Modelling Environment), a code-base and algorithm library. The contents of the Toolkit help p redict th e multiple impacts of land and water management decisions across a whole catchment. The tools are upgraded or replaced as new versions become available. Toolkit tools are supported by documentation, and popular tools are also supported by an electronic discussion group where users share tips and trouble-shooting advice. See www.ewacercrc.com .au/coolkit. At present the Toolkit has more than 9000 users worldwide, growing at around 50 per month.

Training Industry and Researchers eWacer is serious about building capacity in water users and the water industry. Our partners' staff in eWater have extensive knowledge and experience in water science and water resources management, which they are passing on through training courses of various rypes, as well as through manuals they are writing for our software products.

• ANU Master of Environment • Graduate Diploma of Environment • Graduate Certificate of Environment Select from over 100 ANU courses with core components in Environmental Science;

Research Methods; Society and Environment; and Economics and Governance. Progress through the program from an entry level that depends on your undergraduat e record and experience, advancing to PhD opport unities. You can also take an individual course to enhance your knowledge and ski ll in a particular area of environment and sustainability. The program has award-winning teachers and will develop your independent learning, analytical, teamwork, and oral and written communication skills, equipping you for a career in research, management, policy and community engagement. Program specialisations include: •

Integrated Assessment and Modelling

Water Science and Management

Global Change

Environmental Policy

Integrative Methods and Practice

Natural Resource Management

Society and Environment

Flexible learning is central to our delivery. Many courses can be taken in an intensive mode over a 2-week block. Two or more courses can be undertaken remote ly as research essays or larger research projects with supervision from world-renowned experts at the Fenner School of Environment and Society.

We provide face-co-face training workshops to users of software in the Catchment Modelling Toolkit. And we also offer innovative flexible training, which combines interactive self-pa ced online courses and shore face-to-face workshops. Flexible courses are available in the Australian River Assessment System (AUSRIVAS), and in general catchment education via WaterCourses Online. For more detail please visit www.ewacercrc.com.au/training. eWater is a Cooperative Research Centre. Therefore, as part of the CRC Programme, we give as much support as possible to new postgraduates training for 21st century roles in the water industry or water research. Our current 27 postgraduates are based at all eight of our partner universities across eastern Australia. David Flower (see paper in chis issue), at Monash University, is one of chem. eWater postgraduate students share in the CRC's industry-focused collaborative research experience, as members of our project teams. This gives benefits chat are cwo-way: student research can add value to our research portfolio, and the students also gain experienced input to help their own research.

Drought and Fire Unfortunately we can expect to see more bushfires as catchments dry out in the continuing drought. eWacer has set up two special websites chis year - one about drought in ecosystems and one about bushfire effects in catchments. These are sources of objective scientific knowledge and observations largely from south and east Australia, brought together as a freely available resource. They are accessed via che eWacer website home page (www.ewatercrc.co m .au). Boch sites are expected to grow as more knowledge is accumulated. As our Chairman, Don Blackmore AM, said recencly, "The discussion around balancing water use between human or environmental needs needs in these critical periods is often tense and environmental values are heavily discounted. eWater is available to provide objective advice on the environmental consequences so chat policy makers and communities have clearer choices. "The drought, with che added impact of climate change, will resulc in major modifications to the way we manage water - including the cost of water, who has access to it and how we manage our environment under these difficult and rapidly changing circu mstances. All of chis means chat the tools and produces chat we are developing are even more important now than when eWacer was established."

The Author Ann Milligan is Communication Manager of eWacer Cooperative Research Centre, based at head office in Canberra, ACT. Email: ann.milligan@ewatercrc.com.au

52 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

ERM: 'HOW MUCH', 'WHERE' AND 'WHEN' FOR ENVIRONMENTAL FLOWS N Marsh, A Milligan Abstract Step1 : Asset Selection

industry, townspeop le and distant consumers as well as th e riverine ecosystem ch at you are targeting. You want chem to be based on the best information and predict ions available.

ERM (ecological response Identify the Asset or ecological process and the alternative interventions modell ing) cool being developed by eWater C RC, is software that predicts the responses of river Step2: Ecological Response Model ecosystems co changes in p hysical elect or build a model that relates your environmental asset to interventio eW ater has been dev eloping th e conditio ns. The tool h el ps answer ERM (ecological resp onse questions such as how will ri ver m odelling) too l, to support co nditio n change if flow volumes Step3: Link Scenarios decision- making about are m odified , we deliver water at Link alternative intervention scenarios such as eflow options to the model enviro nmemal fl ows. E RM a d ifferent time, revegetate, add m akes it possible to predict th e large woody d ebris, o r d o all of kinds of ecological re sponse to be these things. T he cool is based on Step4: Run expected when there are phys ical a library of m odels which Simultaneously run all scenarios and generate comparison plots changes in the river quantify ecological response o r nmen t. T his is especially enviro habitat requi rements fo r any valuable in drough t, when combinatio n of physical habitat Steps: Assess Output environmental fl ows are being criteria. The outputs - predicted Interpret the output and report, review assets or revise scenarios held back to save wa ter. You ERM responses - present not need to be a ble to ch oose the Figure 1. Running the Ecologica l Response Modelling tool. o nly the quantitative ecological best timing and co ndi tion s for response but also an estimate of releasing this preciou s water to the robustness of the underly ing drought, there is the added problem of achieve a desired effect in the r iverine science used to generate the model. This find ing enough water for human need s and environment. The ERM rool calls o n the presentation of mod el 'confiden ce' allows still allowing some environmental fl ows to science built u p from experiments and the current best available knowledge co freshen riverine drought refu ges so they can o bservations across Australia, as well as inform d ecisions whilst highlighting key continue co sustain fish, planes and specific predictive mod els that r elate informat ion gaps. The ERM cool provides a fund amen tal ecosystem processes until the ecological response to environmental fac tors transparent and repeatable way to ask 'what d rought breaks. such as srreamflow. if' questions and to co ntinue to build upo n If you are involved in environmental fl ow T he E RM cool is available for u se with or the library of ecological understanding . management, you need to quan tify the without panels of expert hydrologists and environment's water needs and assess the Introduction ecologists. A key fearn re is char ERM cells ecological implications of the range of you if you can have high , medium or low E nvironmen tal flows are o ften a focus of possible water management scen arios. This confidence in its outputs. Ir lees you rest restoration activities, as a way of providing involves linking physical p rocess m odels various scenarios and predict the sizes of water in appropriate regimes to meet the (hyd rology) co ecological resp on se. Your responses (represem ed as po pu lation change needs of stressed ecosystems along a river. decisions about flow could affect users both or h abitat response to N RM activity) of D ecisio ns have to be m ade about whether, local and downstream, including rural vegetation, fish, or other fo rms of life, to where and when to p rovide flows for the secs of flo w data or ocher data you em er fo r benefit of the riverine environment, in the I. IC:Ull.l-111.f, iut: I t->yv,,-.,,::, your target river. T he prediction p rocesses context o f the whole catchment and human are recorded . You can reuse chem , of 1'iver ecosystems. demands on the river. In the current severe

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 53



, ~


technical features . . e- 'W .a t e r ,c: .R C . .... . .......,,_._ : ' . ":~;.,. .. ,. {....


..... ":..



re-question the data, and adapt the cool to explore different problems. Ir is a resource you can exploit repeatedly and transparently, and co which you can add new models of ecosystem behaviour. Without being a software developer yourself, if you have access co expert knowledge char is nor already within the library of ecological response models, you can add these new models and commit them co the publicly accessibly database or score chem locally fo r use on your own project. The database is both ' transparent' and easily communicated to ocher stakeholders in the water allocation process. Ideally, however, you wi ll have some aquatic-ecology background if you are adding models to rhe ERM, ensuring you understand the complex ecological processes involved.

Using ERM To use ERM, rhe first stage is co identify the particular species or ecosystem processes (such as fish spawning) that you hope co stimulate by, say, a particular regime or allocation of environmental flow.


Time series Input

Time series Input

Time series Input

the alternative flow scenarios co rhe model. For example, a model for a fish may define a particular flow condition for spawning; hence the input here would be a flow timeseries. Any number of different input scenarios can be considered simultaneously.

T ime series Input

Now you run the models, and all scenarios are assessed simultaneously, allowing a comparison of the relative merits of each scenario for the species or process you are interested In.

Finally you consider the outputs in relation co other factors, such as social or economic, for your situation, and perhaps then try a new set of scenarios. Figure 1 shows the sequence.

Figure 2. An ecological response model (do rk grey) has: on input of ti me series that represent characteristics of habitat or stress factors; meta information to quantify w ho produced the model and the confidence in it; a function for transforming and combining the input time series into a single outp ut time series (usual ly a reflection of habitat availab ility through ti me); and a meth od of summarising that time series to produce a si ng le key metric to allow comparison across alternative scenarios .

Next, check to see if a model for that species or process is contained within the ERM library, and that the specific application char you have in mind firs within the range of suitable applications specified by char model 's author. If nor, then you need to modi fy an existing model or add your own. There is a 'model builder' interface co facilitate the process of modifying existing models or building

completely new models. You can borrow elements from another model, and link any supporting information such as reports, pictures, web pages or data sets co the model. You can specify where and under what circumstances your model should be applied . T he third step is co link the model to appropriate time-series for the environmental variables. For environmental flow, this is simply a matter of linking all of

Inner Workings An ecological respo nse model as used in the ERM tool is a method of translating natural resource management interventions into ecological consequences. The models are scored in a library for reuse and review.

There are two critical elements of a model (Figure 2): firs t the 'numerical transformation function ' which converts inpu t scenarios (such as different fl ow scenarios) into consequences (such as the percentage of stream that has suitable fish habitat under each scenario). T his is what we traditionally think of as a model.

The second critical element is the meta information which describes the model. T his contextual information contains a confidence schema co rare the robustness of rhe model, and provides detailed

Table 1. Function


Numerical function procedure

Direct lood

Fish X is known to move, as a precursor to spawning, when a flood pulse occ urs in spring.

Link flow input data, and characterise a ' flood pulse'. The model reports the frequency of occurrence of the pulse under a range of scenarios.

Roting curve

Fish X is known to spawn when the temperature is between 1 8 and 28 degrees

Link temperoture input data. Use the model builder interface to construct a ' roting curve' wh ich relates temperature to ' spawning suitability'

Hydraulic habitat

Fish X hos adhesive eggs wh ich it lays in beds of mocrophytes (water plants). Mocrophytes ore known to grow in shallow slow-moving water.

Link a hydraulic model and flow data and characterise the hydraulic habitat requirements (e.g . depth less than 0.2m, velocity less than 0 .3m/s) .

Mathematical function

We hove a multiple regression model that allows the prediction of the number of native fish species based on a combination of flow alteration, dominant flow season, altitude and substrote.

Link the input data (flow alteration, flow, altitude and substrate type). Use the Model builder interface to enter the a lgorithm that links these input variables.

Rule based

There is high risk of algal bloom i f the summer flow is constantly low, the wind speed is low and the temperature stays high.

Link flow, wind speed and temperature data sets. Use the model builder interface to create a series of ' if' and 'then' statements.

Com bi notion

A 'good' year may occur when f i sh X hos suitable breeding conditions and there is o low risk of algal bloom.

Use the model builder interface to link the above direct load, ro ting curve, hydraulic habitat and rule based models to provide on overall model to define a good year.




Journal of the Australian Water Association

descriptions of where the model should be applied and for what purpose. T he ERM cool allows a range of numerical transformation functions, and che range of possible functions will grow over time. The beauty of chis approach is chat che ability co represent ecological response is noc constrained by che types of numerical function allowable. In chis way quancicacive ecological models from many different sources using different numerical approaches can be used in che same scudy. There are currently six alcernace numerical functional fo rms possible in ERM: 1) direct load, 2) racing curve, 3) hydraulic habitat, 4) mathematical function, 5) rule based and 6) any combi nation of che above. Table 1 shows examples of che use of each.

,,, :;;:.~,.;.., -w M:idalsllleb c,~

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Figure 3. ERM output table; the right ha nd columns illustrate model confidence for each of the models associated wi th each attribute (rows).

Confidence Each of che models of ecosystem component response (or habitat change) in ERM provides you with a measure of che 'co nfidence' you can have in each model. Wirh ecosystem components (such as species of fish, insect larvae, planes) chat have been well scudied, with field data ro quantify habitat use and habitat availability concribucing co thei r habitat preference curves, you will be able co have more confidence in any predicted response co flow change than if che habirac preference is based on professional judgement wich liccle supporting data. The co nfidence racing is based on an objective classification including three categories: 1) the published source of the data chat feeds inro che model, 2) the quality of the data that underl ies the publication, and 3) how specific the model is in the source document. ERM produces an overall con fidence racing and summarises confidence as low, medium or high depending on rhe requirements of che study. ERM presents the model results in a cab le chat you can scan for che relative ecological response and also ro see che model confidence (Figure 3). You can see which organisms are likely to be affected by che environmen tal flow, and also which results are based on the more through science. In addition co che confidence score, ERM provides 'meta data' - supporti ng contexcual information such as the author of each model; che models it has been built from (its 'history' or 'pedigree'); and any descriptive information or links co datasets, web sires, reports or ocher supporting information (Figure 4). The ERM cool comes with models built in , but it is also designed ro allow you ro build your own local library of models or ro link



• O\olgongtood,_.._,.fnoUN1J

s_.,.-J....,- 31 110 ~ • G-lfM-..-,.M-

Figure 4. A marine example, illustrati ng some of the contextual information used to descri be a model.

ro and contribute co a collective online library of ecological respo nse models. Ir is chis growing collecti ve library of quantitative models of ecological response chat provides rhe capacity for open review and refinement of models by users and scientists, and ro allow for rapid adaptive management as ecological understandi ng improves.

Delivery During 2007, a team of staff from state NRM agencies and catchment management groups has been 'road-testing' ERM, and the rool is currently being adapted in che light of che team's findings. Trials have been running in the Onkaparinga River of South Australia, che Werribee River in Victoria, and che Herbert River in Queensland, using ecological data and conceptual models of ecosystems from chose rivers. The cool is now being adapted in response co critical feedback on che user

interface. By mid 2008, chis produce should be ready for its release co eWacer's partner organisations, first, and then co ochers. Further information is available from Dr Nick Marsh and on che eWacer website at h ccp://www.ewarercrc.eom.au/ down loads/ cechnologies/R2. pdf

Acknowledgments ERM is being built in an eWarer CRC development project involving collaborative work between staff of seven scare NRM agencies, six universities, CSIRO Land & Water, Melbourne Water, and the Adelaide and Mount Lofty Ranges NRM Board.

The Authors Dr Nick Marsh (nick.marsh@csiro.au) leads the teams developing the river restoration produces in eWacer CRC. Ann Milligan is Communication Manager for eWacer CRC.

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 55

technical features




eWater CRC



URBAN WATER SYSTEMS: WHERE DO THE GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS COME FROM? DJ M Flower, VG Mitchell, GP Codner Abstract Urban water systems generate greenhouse gas (G H G) emissions both d irectly, in che fo rm of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from water storage reservoirs, wetlands, and wastewater treatment fac ili ties, and ind irectly, as a result of significant energy and materials consumption. This paper briefly p resenrs the curren t find ings of an ongoing investigation of the GHG emissions associated with operating urban water systems. The key outcome of chis research has been the idenrification of the vario us domestic applian ces collectively associated with the residential end uses of water as the key source of GHG emissions in urban water systems. To illustrate chis finding, four different hoc water service types were investigated for a case study h ousehold in Melbourne, Australia . Ir was fo und char for a case study household in Melbourne, rhe GHG emissions intrinsic to th e res idenrial end uses of water were 5-25 rimes greater than chose gen erated by the provision of the associated water supply and wastewater services, depending on the type of hoc water service installed.

Introduction Urban water systems, and rhe natural systems chat feed chem, are highly sensitive

The 1·eside11tial end uses of watel' gene,.ated far 1110,·e GHGs than the urba11 water utilities. to ch anges in temperature and rain fa ll patterns. As a result o f induced climate change, closely linked with anthropogen ic GHG emissions, both of these patterns are expected to change over rhe next century, and these changes are expected to have a significant negative impact on water resources across much of Australia (P reston & Jones 2006). However, it was noted in rhe same report char while it is un likely that induced climate change and the associated impacts o n urban water systems can be avoided altogether, by caking early action to reduce G H G emissions, it may b e possible to minimise the changes. U rban water systems pro duce GH G emissions as a result of: (a) the consumption of energy derived from carbon based fuels, (b) biological processes char occur in water storage reservoirs, wetlands, and wastewater creacmen r facilities which directly generate GHGs, and (c) the consumption of produces and services char involved energy consu mption

and/or the direct ch emical or biological generation of GHGs at an earlier manufacturing or transport stage. Thus it can be seen chat urban water systems are a key nexus p oint of climate change drivers and im pacts, which can be thought of as a feedback loop, upon which the effects of various urban water managemen t strategies are currently poorly understood. T his investigation is limited to the former two sources of GHG emissions, noting chat the latter source has often been found to be relatively small in previous studies of vario us urban water system co mponents (see, for exam ple Grant et al. 200 6) .

Methodology This paper summarises and builds upon peer reviewed research presented by Flower et al. (2007a, 20076), and is primarily intended co identify the key sources of operational G H G emissions within a case study urban water system located in Melbourne, Australia. I m portantly, and in contrast to most previous stud ies, rhe system boundary used th roughout chis investigation was expanded to holistically include all components of the case study urban water system, such char the operational GHG emissions associated with each system component could be observed within che broader co ntext of the entire

Ststem Bounda'l' .tcurre nt investLgatio'1} _____ ___ _ ______ ______ ____ ___ ___ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ System Boundary (most previous investigations) ~-------- ------ ------- ----------------------

Boundary (most previous investigations) ~System ---------------------------------,





Unexploited water resources

Energy Supply (electrical, thermal, transport, etc)

Greenhouse gas emissions (including both energy related and direct emissions)

Melbourne Water



Yarra Valley Water



Yarra Valley Water and/or Metbourne Water

,___ _ __, I ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - '


l------------ -------- -------------

Figure 1. System boundary containing the urba n water system components an d responsible agencies considered in this study.




Journal of the Australian Water Association

system . This system boundary is illustrated in Figure 1. Commercial, institutional and industrial end uses of water were not considered for chis paper. Note that stormwarer systems were excluded from chis analysis because: (a) the authors were informed char there is negligible operational energy input to the stormwarer system in Melbourne (Baxter 2007) and, (b) there was no reliable data available regarding any ocher potential sources ofGHG emissions, such as any anaerobic processes ch ar may occur in some wed ands leading to the direct biochemical generation of G H G emissions. It is acknowledged by the auth ors chat this exclusion would not be possible in cities with combined sewer systems, where rhe GHG emissions associated with stormwater systems would be inseparable from chose associated with wastewater systems. These issues will be explored in further detail in future research. T o investigate the GHG emissio ns associated with an urban water system, a case study of a household of three adults occupying a single, fully detached residence in the eastern suburbs of Melbourne, Australia was d eveloped. The operational GHG emissions associated with each system component id entified in Figure 1 were determined using data from a wide range of sources . The G HG emissions associated with centralised water supply and wastewater system s were determined using data published by the Victorian Water Industry Association, originally collected by Melbourne Water and Yarra Valley Water, the two water utilities responsible for water supply and wastewater services in the case study region (Victorian Water In dustry Association 20 06). Spatially and temporally averaged fi gures for the 2005/2006 fi nancial year were used , which were believed to be more widely representative than location specific or instantaneous data, for the purposes of chis scoping investigatio n. Nore that no d irect G H G emissions from water sto rage reservoirs were included, due to a lack of reliable dara . Also note that the final figures used all ocated the GHG emissions associated with peripheral activities, such as admin istration, into the figures for water supply and wastewater


• Hot Water

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Figure 2. Annual household water consumption by end use and temperature. services, since these activities are integral to the provision of such services. The GHG emission factors used fo r centralised water supply and wastewater services were 246 kg CO 2 -e/ML and 882 kg CO 2-e/ML respectively. N ore char for the entire city of M elbourne, total water utility related G H G emissions in 2005/2006 were ap proximately 394,332,000 kg COz-e, a substantial mass. T he resi dential end uses of water consume both hot and cold water, and so me of the associated appliances, such as dishwashers and clorheswashers, require energy input co operate. ln Australia, the water and energy consumption o f household appliances is regulated by various sta ndards, such that most new appliances are labelled with average an nual water and energy consumption derails for a predefined usage pattern (see, fo r example, AS/NZS 2007.11.2:200 5 for dishwashers). Two reporrs produced for the agencies associated with rhese standards provided commentary o n the standards and an alysis of lo ng-term trends in appliance energy efficiency and uptake (Commonwealth of Australia 1999, Energy Efficient Strategies Pry Led 2006). The operational en ergy consumption associated with each residential end use of water, in terms of natural gas and elect ricity co nsumption , was converted into G H G emissions using the factors and methods developed by the Australian Greenhouse Office (Commonwealth of Australia 2006). G H G emissio n factors for natural gas and

electricity in the state of Victori a, Austra li a were used, and hence, the results are sire specifi c. However, the underlyin g model used in this investigation has the capacity to vary these emission factors, and the associated sensi tivity of the resu lts will be the subj ect of future resea rch . Nore the u se of the carbon dioxide equivalen t (CO 2-e) as the unit of measurement, an index which incorporates the various global warming potentials of a wide range of GHGs, including, among ochers, carbo n dioxide, m ethane and nitrous oxide. The GHG emissio n factor used for electricity consumption was 1.325 kg CO 2 -e/kWh , and that u sed for natural gas co n sumption was 63.6 kg COz-e/GJ. The water co nsumption pattern used throughout chis investigation is sh own in Figure 2 , and was developed using the data collected and publish ed by Yarra Valley Water (Roberrs 2004, Roberts 2005a, Roberts 20056). Average values were used, although it was recognised char there is a very broad range of usage patterns surrounding the average for most end uses. T his issue is explored further in Flower et al. (2007 a). Nore char hot water consumptio n was determined by assuming a p referred shower temperature of 40 degrees Celsius, and char the clorheswasher was used on a warm cycle 50% of the time. Nore also char the dishwasher heated water internally, thus drawing no externally heated water.

• • • • • • •


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Fax: 07 3390 7177 Email: info@allflowsupply.com.au Web: www.allflowsupply.com.au

Journal of the Australian Water Association


Automation Data Logging Pressure Control PH / DRP Flow Meters Plastic Piping Systems Automated Meter Reading Equipment • Under Pressure Tapping Equipment

DECEMBER 2007 57

Table 1. Key energy consumption characteristics of the hot water services investigated. Description

Conversion Efficiency

Standing Losses

Solar Contribution Factor

98% 75% 98% 75%

2.8 kWh/day 17. l MJ/day 2.8 kWh/day 17. l MJ/day


Electric Storage Gas Storage Solar (Electric Storage boosted) Solar (Gas Storage boosted)

Scenario Development It became clear quite early in the modelling process chat heat ing water for various end uses was generally che largest single source of GHG emissions in an urban water system. To investigate chis in greater detail, four scenarios were developed, each with a different type of hoc water service. The characteristics of each hoc water service investigated can be seen in Table 1.

Results For each of the scenarios described earlier, rhe operational GHG emissions associated with each end use of water were calculated, including not only chose associated with the

65% 65%

provisio n of the necessary water su pply and wastewater services, but also chose intrinsic co the end use. The results of chis analysis are shown in Figure 3 .

It can be seen that the GH G emissio ns associated with rhe provision of water supply and wastewater services are small relative co chose intrinsic co the end uses of water, generating a coca! o f 62 and 147 kg COre/household/year respectively. Across all four scenarios, these small quantities were jointly responsible for between 4% and 15% of total GHG emissions. In general, the process of heating water was found co be the single largest source of GHG emissions in the urban water system

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Journal of the Australian Water Association




Conclusions While rhe water industry has been aware for some rime char the GHG emissions associated with hearing water are significant, very few hard faces have been available. This paper presents such faces, and has shown char for a case study household in Melbourne, the GHG emissio ns intrinsic co the residential end uses o f water were app roximately 5-25 rimes greater than those generated by the p rovision of the associated water supply and wastewater services, depending on the type of hoc water service installed. Ir can thus b e seen char wh ile urban water utilities are collectively responsible for significant GHG emissio ns, on a per household basis, these G H G emissio ns are quite small, especially relative to chose intrinsic co the residential end uses of water.

The advice p rovided by Kein Gan and Peter Roberrs ofYarra Valley Water, and Lloyd Harrington o f Energy Efficient Strategies was greatly app reciated .

• Decades of mineral processing experience

• Manufacturing in accordance with Quality System AS/NZS ISO 9001:2000

To place these results in context, consider chat, according co the factors and methods developed by the Australian Greenhouse Office, operating a typical petrol powered passenger car travelling 15000 km annually generates approximately 4400 kg COre each year (Commonweal ch of Australia 2006). Ir was interesting co see char in chis case study, annual household water related G H G emissions were of similar magnitude.


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considered here, especially when electricity was used as the thermal energy source. Changing from a conventional electric storage unit co a gas boosted solar system was found co have the potential co reduce coral water related G HG emissions by up to 75% in ch is case study.




....... .



The Authors David Flower (David.Flower@ eng. monash.edu.au} a Post-Graduate Student, Dr Grace Mitchell, a Senior Research Fellow and Associate Professor Gary P Codner are all with the Institute for Sustai nable Water Resources, Department of Civil Engineering, Monash U niversity, partners in the eWacer C R C.

References Baxter, K. 2007. Personal communication 17 April 2007. Melbourne Water, Melbourne, Australia . Commonwealth of Australia. 1999. Australian

Residential Building Sector Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1990-2010. Australian Greenhouse Office. Canberra, Australia. Commonwealth of Australia. 2006. Australian

Greenhouse Office Factors and M ethods

tecnn1ca1 reatures

eWater CRC



• Water Supply 'C'

ns ~ 2500

• Appliance Operation


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Figure 3. Annual ho usehold GHG emissions by end use for each of the fou r different hot water services.

Workbook. Australian Government Deparrmenr of rhe Environment and I-lerirage, Ausrralian Greenhouse Office. Canberra, Australia. Energy Effici ent Srraregies Pry Led. 2006.

Roberts, P. 20056. Yarra Valley Water 2004 Residential End Use Measurement Study. Yarra Valley Water. Melbourne. Victorian Water Industry Association. 2006.

Victorian Water Review: An Accountability

Greening Vv'hitegoods -A repon into the energy efficiency trends of major household appliances in Australia ji-om 1993-2005.


Flower, D.J.M ., Mitchell, V.G . & Codner, G . P. 2007a. The potential of water demand management srraregies to reduce rhe greenhouse gas emissions associated with urban warcr systems. 1st Conference on

Sustainable Urban Water Management & 9th Conference on Computing and Control in the Water lndwtry, Leicester, UK. 3-5 September, 2007. Flower, D.J.M., Mirchell, V.G. & Codner, G .P. 20076. Urban Water Systems: Drivers of Climate Change? 13th lnternruio11al

Rainwater Catchment Systems Conference & 5th International Water Sensitive Urban Design Conference, Sydney, Australia, 21-23 August 2007. Grant, T., Opray, L., Grant, A., Sharma, A., Mirchell, V.G . & Pamminger, F. 2006. Life Cycle Aspects of Alrernarive Water and Sewage Servicing. In A. Deictic & T. Fletcher (eds.), 7th International Conference

on Urban Dminage Modelling & 4th International Conference on Water Sensitive Urban Design, Melbourne, Australia, 2-7 April 2006. Preston, B.L. & Jones, R.N . 2006. Climate Change Impacts on Australia and the Benefits ofEarly Action to Reduce Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions. CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research. Melbourne, Australia. Roberrs, P. 2004. Yarra Valley Water 2003

Appliance Stock and Usage Patterns Survey. Yarra Valley Water. Melbourne. Roberrs, P. 2005a. Evaporative Air Conditioner Study. Yarra Valley Water and Water Services Association of Australia. Melbourne, Australia.

Report for the Victorian Water Industry. Victorian Water Industry Association. Melbourne, Australia.

"More UFRVs for your money, and better quality water"

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Email: jamescumming@jamescummiog.com.au Journal of the Australian Water Association


Licence no: 1628

Water DECEMBER 2007 59

.fereed paper


Stockland Meters

121 .7 67%

Srockland's Wetherill Park Shopping Centre is located approximately 35km from Sydney's CBD. Energy Conservation Systems (ECS) was engaged to plan, manage and install various water conservation measures. Total water consumption has decl ined 36 kl/day or 20%, from the baseline consumption. The largest water savings in Stockland's operational areas were achieved in the Food court (40%), amenities (22%) and cooling rowers (20%). T he largest water savings across the tenant portfolio were achieved at the Asian food outlet (40%) followed by the cinemas (20%).





4 2%


15.5 9%

11 % Centre




Introduction Stockland's Wetherill Park shopping centre is located in south western Sydney, approximately 35km from the city centre. Stockland Wetherill Park receives approximately 6.6 million visitors a year to its 144 specialty stores and has a gross lettable area of over 50,000m 2 . Along with major tenants such as Woolworths, Franklins, Target, BigW, Hoyts,

Other 54 49%

Figure 1. Baseline Water Consumption throughout the Shopping Centre (kl and % of the total water consumption). The segment 'Other' represents cumulative water consumption for businesses whose individual water consu mpti on does not exceed 3 kl/day (library, childcare, community centre etc) .

Best&Less, KFC and McDonalds, the centre has a dining/restaurant area, medical suites and community facilities.

CT1 9

S upennarket

6 5% Foodcourt

Stockland is one of the largest and most diversified property groups in Australia with interests in retail, commercial, industrial, residential and retirement living investment and development, and funds management. Stockland is Australia's largest residential developer and also owns 43 retail properties diverse in size and location. The company has developed a set of principles via its Employee Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability Committee to guide its asset and development management across all divisions. Their water sustainability principles are reduction of potable water demand, minimisation of wastewater generation and management of srormwater quality and flow. (Stockland, 2007)

15 Asian Food Out let 5 4%

Seafood retailer

6 5%

A menities 4 4%


Figure 2. Water balance of water users supplied through the two Stockland's water meters (kl). The segment "Other" includes Stockland's un-metered public amenities, staff amenities, major tenants, butchers, hair dressers, food stores located outside the food court and a number of other small retail shops. CT - Cooling tower.

60 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

Overall, conservation measures reduced water consumption by 20%.

refereed paper

The Project Accordingly Stockland engaged Energy Conservation Systems (ECS) ro prepare a Water Savings Action Plan and prepare a successful application for the fu ndi ng available through the NSW Government's Water Savings Fund ro subsidise the project coses. ECS was engaged ro project manage and install water co nservation measures at Wetherill Park. le was estimated char water savings would be approximately 19 per cent of che coral water consumption. (Energy Conservation Systems, 2006) . Water services and water balance The site's water and sewerage services are provided by Syd ney Water Co rporation. Prior ro che project, 19 cenancs had been separated from che Stockland main supply with their own, individual water meters. All ocher water consumption across che centre was measured through the two main Srockland's water meters and only one major tenant was sub-metered. As a pare of che water conservation project, sub-meters were installed ac all th ree Stockland owned cooling rowers, one of Srockland's pub lic amenities, che water supply ro rhe food court area, an Asian food ouclec (located withi n che food court), and a seafood retailer. Water consumption ch rough the site during 2004/2005 was 58,300 kl/year and in 2005/2006 it was 59,000 kL/year. Figures 1 and 2 show chat the largest water consumption prior ro che installation of water conservation work was measured through Srockland's cwo main meters. Water Conservation Work In January 2007, che water co nservation project commenced and was enchusiascically supported by Srockland's senior management. The project achieved a systematic and struccured approach and was

Figure 4. Position of rainwater Tank.

Figure 3. Downpipe interception and location of Rainwater ta nk.

delivered without a single interruption even with such a diversified sire. The fo llowing work was carried out ro reduce the amoun t of water used ac the site: • Rainwater harvesting and reuse ch rough a cooling rower; • Installation of a waterless wok in an Asian food oucler; • Flow reduction of several hundreds of raps located through the food court, amenities, restaurants and ocher major and minor tena nts; • Installation of water efficient hand nozzles in food preparation ouclecs; • Reduction of Aush volumes in to ilets and urinals; and • Smarr Water Meteri ng ro monitor water consumption, detect leakages and assist in monitoring and veri fication of water saving projects. Rainwater Harvesting Energy Conservation Systems designed a Rainwater Harvesting Scheme ro collect

water from a section of roof area (1,000m 2) and ro reuse the water in a nearby cool ing rower. The ECS' in-house 'Rai nwacer Sizer' modell ing tool was used ro calcu late che optimum size for a rainwater tank. The modelling tool is supplied with the fo llowing information: • The rainfall pattern and quantity obtai ned fo r the nearest rainfall station; • Cooling rower current and predicted water demand; • Available harvesti ng area; and • The roof runoff factor. Due ro che sire's space limitation the rainwater rank was installed in a secluded pare of the carpark beneath rhe shopping centre. A custom-made rectangular panel tank was buil t ro rake advantage of rhe available space. The galvanised steel rank has a 60 kL capacity. A pulse-enabled water merer was installed on the supply line from the rank ro the cooling rower to quantify savings. A magnesium sacrificial anode was fitted into the tank for protection against co rrosio n. The anode will be inspected annually and it is expected char ic will require replacement every five years. Rainwater is pumped ro the cooling rower basin ro replace feed water chat has evaporated during the cooling process. Water is dosed with an anti-fouling agent, biocide and corrosion inhibitor. When the rainwater tank is low, the pump switches off and potable water is supplied ro che cooling rower. The choice of cooling rower was based on its proximity to th e rainwater rank and its daily water demand. The cooling rower typically consumes 5.5 kL/day through the summer and 3.5 kL/day in che winter. Figures 3 and 4 show the in terception of downpipes and the storage rank.

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 61

technical features refereed paper

Water Fixtures End-of-line flow regulators with aerators were installed throughout the tapware located in the centre co ensure a limited and water efficient fl ow of water. The flow regulators were selected co comply with AS!NZS4020 Testing ofproducts for use in contact with drinking water. The regulators are certified with a 3 Star racing for shower and kitchen capware and a 5 Star racing for amenity basin tapware as stipulated in AS/NZ 6400 Water efficient products -

Rating and labelling. Prior co che installation of flow regulators che average flow race through the tapware ranged from 9 - 17 Umin, regulators reduced chis co 3 .5-8 Umin. Low-flow high pressure hand nozzles were installed in selected food preparation outlets co replace the existing inefficient nozzles. The new nozzles maintain high pressure over a shore d istance (20-30 cm) which is the distance where dishes would be rinsed. These hand nozzles reduced flow races from over 12 Umin co 4 Umin. All single flush toilets an d urinals were recroficced co reduce the amount of water used for fl ushing (down co 7 Uflush) whi le still maintaining an adequate flush. Sensor operated urinals were also adjusted co provide effective flush volume at the maximum time interval for a particular urinal without compromising che odour and hygienic standards. Water su pply to troughs located in Stockland amenities was shut off and Prosan's Propag8 waterless cubes were installed. All troughs in Stockland amenities will be replaced with waterless urinals over the next 12 months. Some toilers and urinals use a flus herecce system. In order to reduce the flush volume a new diaphragm was inserted into the flushererre valve, which decreased che duration of flush by more than 50% without affecting performance (reducing che flush from approximately 11 to 4 Uflush).

Waterless Wok Conventional wok stoves consume a large amount of potable water. The water is used co cool the surface of the cookcop and to clean the wok in between meal p reparation. In a conventional wok stove, sprayers are mounted on che underside of the ridge at che front of the cookcop to cool che surface of the cooktop which is heated by a gas burner beneath che wok. If che sprayers were removed without modi fication to the stove, che surface could




Figure 5. Waterless wok.

buckle and there would be an increased risk of bums for the chef and also of fire from spi lt cooki ng oil. The sprayers consume approximately 2.5-3.5 kUday. The ocher major use of water is through rinsing the wok in between meal preparation . A "ri nsing cap", which usually operates for che duration of cooki ng period, is used co rinse the wok between meals, chis is estimated to consume 2-3 kUday. When nor in use, chis tap commonly runs into a reservoir at the rear of the stove which is kept full so water can be ladled into che wok during meal preparation. (Sydney Water, 200 5). Waterless woks (Figure 5) are designed co allow air cooling of che cooktop through an "air gap" close to che chamber surrounding the gas burner. This ventilation eliminates the need fo r water sprayers. Other feacures are a shut-off mechanism on the rinsing cap for when it is not in use. The tap is a swivel-type, when it is not in use it sics inline with che wall and does not consume water, when it is required it is pulled forward and water automatically srarcs running. There is a separate cap used to fi ll the reservoir which is activated by a knee-operated timer cap (Sydney Water, 2005). ECS installed a sub-merer to quantify water savi ngs from replacing the traditional wok with a waterless wok. Subsequen t to

Journal of the Australian Water Association

che inscallacion of che waterless wok, water consumption decreased from 5 co 3 kl/day.

Optimisation of Cooling Towers There are th ree Stockland-owned cooling cowers at the site. Their water consumption flu ccuaces through che year dependent on the hear load. In a cooling cower, water is primarily consumed through evaporatio n (ap proximately 90%) followed by bleed and drift (Department of E nvironment and H eritage, 2006). Accordingly, chere are several strategies ro reduce water co nsumption ch rough a cooling cower including the reduction of drift/splash (generally applicable at the design stage), preventing overflow and leaks and op timisatio n of cycles of concentration. The term "cycles of concentration " is che number o f times a volume of water can be recirculated through the cooling cower before it is discharged co sewer at a sec TDS concentration, and is che ratio of the concentration of dissolved solids in che condenser water co the concentrat ion in the make up water. Water savings at Scockland's cooling cowers were achieved by ensuring che cowers are not starting coo early and running too lace. Minor overflows were addressed and che controls were reviewed.

refereed paper

Consequently, rhe cycles of concenrrario n have been ser ro range from 8.2 - IO cycles of co ncenrration or 900 ro 1100 TDS (ppm), respectively. This measure has reduced water co nsumption across cooling rowers by approxi mately 20%.

Overall Results As part of a comprehensive Moniroring and Veriftcarion Program, ECS' Smart Water Meters were installed at a number of crucial locations at the site. The Moniroring Program has provided a signiftcanr input in addressing leaks and veri fication of achieved water savi ngs. ECS ' Smart Water Merer monirors instanraneous water consu mption an d transmits rhis information ro a secure website, which allows remote mon iroring of the sire's water consump tion. The Smarr Water Merer provides signiftcan tly greater info rmation than quarterly water bills and rhe ability ro dececc minor leaks and behavioural changes in water co nsumption before they become a major issue. Signiftcanr water savings have been ach ieved rh roughour rhe sire. The site's

Rain Vau It

rotal water consumption has decli ned 36 kl/day or 20% from rhe baseli ne consumption. As expected, differenr water savings are achieved through va rious areas. The largest amounr of water savings were achieved across SrockJand's operational areas, includi ng the Food court (40%), amenities (22%) and cooling rowers (20%) . The largesr water savi ngs across rhe re nan r portfolio were achieved at che Asian food outlet (40%) followed by the ci nemas (20%).

Acknowledgments The authors thank and acknowledge Srockland Corporation Limited in its proacti ve approach to sustainability issues. W e also thank SrockJand's managemenr ream, in particular Michael Beckwirh and the Werherill Park Shopping Cenrre's Management. Finally we rhank the NSW Department of Environment Cli mare and Change (rhe former NSW Deparrmenr of Energy, Uriliries and Susrainabiliry) as rhis project was supporred by the NSW Governmenr's Water Savings Fund.

Rainwater Reuse System 5 Kilolitres to 5 Megalitres TM -

The Authors Jennifer Robertson is a Projecr Engineer (j .roberrson@ecsausrralia. com) and Sreten

Novic is Water Business Manager (s.novic@ecsausrralia.com). They can be conracred on (02) 9983 I I 44. References Energy Conservarion Systems 2006. Water Savings Action Plan. Reporr prepared for Srock.land Werherill Park Shopping Cenrre. Deparrmenr of Environment and Herirage, Water Efficiency Guide: Office and Public Buildings, 2006. hrrp://www.environmen t. gov.au/serrlements/publications/ govern men r/ warer-efficicncy-guide. hem I

Stockland Corporate Responsibility and Sustainability Report 2006. h rrp:/ /icc3 . in reracrivei nvescor.co m .au/ ScocklandCRS/Corporare%20Responsibil iry %20and%20Susrainabiliryo/o20Reporr/EN/ body.aspx?z= I&p=- 1&v= I Sydney Water, The Waterless Wok Stove. Face Sheers 2005. hrrp://www.sydneywater. com .au/Pub! ica tions/FactSheers/ W ok_scove_facr_sheet. pdf


RainVau/t'M Rainwater Reuse System Commercial and Residential - 5 KL to 5 ML RainVauW is an underground rainwater reuse system that incorporates modular horizontal cylindrical precast concrete storage components together with specialised pre-treatment filters, calmed inlet, siphoned overflow outlet and floating intake. This system can be designed for smaller residential reuse or for commercial and Industrial sites where large volumes of stormwater are collected from roof or hardstand catchments. Storage components are available in various diameters and are very robust in design to allow for shallow installations under traffic loading and to provide optimum resistance to uplift forces associated with flotation in high water tables. Storage modules can provide incremental volume increases from 2.5 KL to 17.0 KL. depending on storage diameter.

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 63

technical features


to achieve chis partially emptied state (Tolmie & Scone, 2005).


The Exten ded Gravity Oil Water ___. 1--+,--,-,.,,,...,..,~~.,..,..,.,J"7,-,~,,.,..,..,..,.,..,.,~~,,.,..,..,.,1---1 ___. Oi ly water inflows are Separator (EGOWS™), -+=<-<.<...k!-'.L'-'""-''-'-'-'"""""""<..<..<.~=£.U.L.:,,t.-"-"-"-'-"-'~ Effluent Influent accumulated progressively with water Olly water developed by the Water Research no release of water up co a siphon Laboratory ofUNSW, embodies priming level, at which point the the concept of a siphonic accum ulated water is released discharge, followed by refill, and steadily co return the EGOWS™ thus removes the inflow peak of separator to the partially emptied episodic rainfall and minimises state (F igure 2). Separated oil the impact on che downstream rema ins at the water surface Figure 1. American Petroleum Institute (API) Separator. environment. More importantly, throughout the water level the separator can be designed to cycling until it is removed for capture a catastrophic oil spill risk exists of oil droplets shore circuiting to disposal. completely without operator intervention. the separator o utlet. An EGOWSTM separator is sized co achieve Some 80 EGOWS™ separators have EGOWS™ Operating Cycle a desired residence time before release of already bee n installed. This paper illustrates The EGOWS™ concept extends the oil water. Computer simulation of actual how the concept can be embodied into a separation time by arranging for the rain fall data for an actual EGOWS™ wide range of designs. separator to be in a partially emptied state separator and catchment showed chat THE EGOWS™ Concept intervals between releases of the separator before the arrival of an episodic inflow of oily water. A siphon is one of several ways water can be as long as several days, much Previous research at UNSW into che longer than is required for effective performance of oil-water gravity oil separation (Figu re 3) . separators led co the concept of using the separator volume co accumulate episodic inflows of oily water before release. This allows substantially longer time for oil separation and hence the residual oil content in the water evenwally released is well within the current and emerging regulatory requirements. (A limit o f IO mg/L oil and grease is common and in some situations the required limit is ' no visible sheen ' on the receiving water.)

Level nses


No effluent water

Effluent water


Conventional gravity separators

effluent water

Conventional oil-water graviry separators operate fu ll of water and release an equal quantiry of water whenever there is an episodic inflow of oily water (Figure 1). The available residence time is in the order of minutes and a significant

Effluent water

Siphon loses pnmo

A simple, effective, concept applied to a wide range of designs. 64 DECEMBER


No offluont wator

Figure 2. EGOWS™ Operating Cycle.

Water Journal of the Australian Water Association

No mechanical components, control equipment and power supply are required, which eliminates the ongoing maintenance costs incurred by existing oil-water separators. The concept can be custom designed for any catchment and can be retrofitted co existing graviry separators.

Applications of the EGOWS™ Concept The concept was initially developed in 1996 wich assistance from the electricity industry, since the initial and clearly appropriate application was the protection of the environment from spilled transformer oil in electricity substations and on transmission lines. While the risk of a major spill may be low, the environ mental consequences could be disastrous. A catastrophic spill of oil can be capmred without any uncontrolled release of o il-water separator contents co the environment. This is particularly attractive in situations of unattended

oil storage such as eleccriciry substations (where power may not be available fo llowing failure of a transformer). Ocher types of separator which operate full of water have no such accu mulation capacity. W here an EGOWS™ separator is sized primarily to contain che contents of che largest oilconcaining vessel on site, che EGOWS™ operating volume usually provides sufficient residence time for creating oil-containing rainfall runoff.





o.e C




i------------- __ _ __ __ ·- _

-1--------- - ~·.,:::·~~·- -·


. .. = ..







o.s -



0 ~

...a:w ...<w



-: ___r

be adapted co use, effectively and economically, che existing water storage opportunities in the scormwacer drainage systems. The cask was to manage stormwarer runoff from che Kurnell Refinery to the wetlands of Botany Bay. The refinery stormwarer managemen c situation is aggravated by che need to include storm runoff from che neighbouring National P ark (Figu re 5).

7 1


The refi nery main pipeway (over 1 0 .2 km long and 30 m wide) has been ~ 0 .1 employed as che EGOWS™ S\t~~ rH •lev• I -separator (Figure 6). 1 ,,-,-r r-1 r r.L , ,, ,, OO I 1 1 I 1 T I 1, - r I Design Variations 6 7 9 II 13 I S 17 19 2 1 23 25 27 29 A novel sip hon un it ac che oucler FEBRUARY • 1996 Although rhe basic design was an end co ntrols che water level in the in-ground rectangular concrete pipeway and delays release of Figure 3. Simulation of Full Scale EGOWS™ Level tank, che concept can be applied in sto rmwarer until sufficient rime has Cycli ng with Actual Rai nfall and Catchment Data. been provided for oil separati on many ocher fo rmats, e.g. using standard pre-case ranks. Where site from the runoff (Figure 7). slope permits, or dictates, above-ground tanks have been used, for The refinery subcacchmencs were modelled by che Water Research example in a pristi ne National Park environment in Victoria Laboratory to quantify runoff flows, fo r various rain events and (Figure 4) . runoff hydrographs. Siphon sizes and siph on prime/break levels for the required oil sepa ration time could then be determined. The A very different approach was caken in a large scale application in a modelling results fo r a I hour duration l 00 years Average Return Sydney oil refi nery. le illustrates how che EGOWSTM concept can 1


Transformer Bund Oil Interceptor System

Figure 4. EGOWS™ Separator in Victorian Alps (SKM, Southern Hydro) .

Figure 5. Caltex Kurnell Oil Refinery adjoins Botany Bay.

Figure 6. Main Pipeway is the EGOWS™ Separator at

Figure 7. EGOWS™ Siphon Unit at Kurnell refinery.

Kurnell Refinery. Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 65

technical features

Interval (ARJ) rain event are illustrated in Figure 8. Five siphons of progressively higher capacity and priming level were installed. (Figure 9). A secondary storage basi n wirh siphon control was included co delay release of National Park runoff and ensure rhac chis runoff also receives sufficient retention time for oil separation. (This application won che Incernacional Water Association 2006 Project Innovation Award for Applied Research in rhe Australia and South Ease Asia Region, presented in Beijing). Where the runoff catchment area is relatively large, the EGOWS™ can be sized co rrear rhe first flush runoff only. This is rhe case at a large mineral processing plant in a tropical situation, with 8000 m2 of sire draining co a sensitive environmen t. An existing API separator, grossly undersized, has been converted co rhe EGOWS™ concept, and will capture quite adequately rhe first flush of run-off from any tropical downpour.

Advantages The EGOWS™ concept is ideally suited co situations involvi ng episodic infl ows where the installed separator volume can be prepared co capture and delay release of che inflow. T his allows significancly extended residence time for oi l separation and/or empty volume co receive inflow without uncontrolled release. Such situations include:




V j 00






I >




-0 5







Tl,... from ,tart of rain ....-.1 (hou,1)

• Stphon 1 now (m3/s) • Weter level above p1peway bne (m) • Stormwater Inflow (m31s) ..... Cum lnftow (m3) ... Cum Clean Water Rale1M l m3\

Figure 8. Kurnell Stormwater Flows and EGOWS™ System Levels for a I Hour l 00 Year ARI Rain Event.

Conclusions The separator can deal with current and emerging regulatory limits on oil content of released water in a reliable, automatic and fail-safe way, free from the complications and coses associated wirh mechanical components, insrrumenrarion and power supply. This has nor been available in previous practice oil-water separators. Whole of life cost analyses show char EGOWS™ is lower cost than previous practice oil-water separato rs. Ir achieves lower effluent oil contents and is able ro capture a catastrophi c oil spill. Ocher advantages ofEGOWS™ include nor needi ng operator intervention in an emergency, greater protection of receivi ng environments from pollutants and much


• Highway runoff - both scormwacer from oily surfaces and a catastrophic spill from a road canker

smaller peak flow impacts on downstream drainage systems. le also produces a created water sufficiencly free of oil for recycling/reuse.

Acknowledgments Energy Australia has been very supportive in che development ofEGOWS™, from its initial willingness to rest the EGOWS™ concept ar fu ll scale co continuing involvement in promoting its application. SKM, GH D and Card no have taken EGOWS™ conceptual designs and carried our engineering and construction to clienr satisfaction. Calcex Kurnell management, engineering and operations staff have worked closely with UNSW in applying che EGOWS™ concept in innovative ways co control oily scormwacer at relatively modest cost.

The Author

• T ransporc terminals, particularly co ntainer terminals, airports

David B Tolmie is Consultant Technologist at the Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engi neering, University of N ew South Wales (UNSW), d.colmie@unsw.edu.au

• Heavy vehicle washdowns e.g. at mines, construction sites • Workshops - where a daily washdown cycle is employed. Ocher creative applications are still being identified and conceptual designs have been developed for proposed EGOWS™ installations e.g. for a rail/road interchange in New Jersey, USA. Licensing opportunities exist for EGOWS™ representation overseas.


2500 0


• Mose oil storages where containment of spi lls is an environmenral priority

66 DECEMBER 2007


References APT, (1990), Publication 421 , Design and Operation of Oil-Water Separators, American Petroleum

Figure 9. Smallest Siphon in Operation at Kurnell Refinery.

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Institute, Washington. Tolmie, DB and Stone, PB (2005), EGOWS™ for Improved Oil-Water Separation, Chemeca 2005, Brisbane, 26 September 2005.

.fereed paper

ROCLA VERSATRAPS: LABORATORY PERFORMANCE TRIALS M Ismail, H Nikraz Abstract T his study investigated the performance of a cylindrical Pollutant Trap intended for solids and oils separation from stormwater. Experimental analysis was cond ucted on scale models of a ROCLA VersaTrap Type W (VTW) for the treatment of industrial wastewater, and a Type G (VT G) gross polluranr trap (GPT) to establish the hydraulic characteristics and poll utant removal efficiencies (PRE). To replicate typical in situ conditions, rhe VTW was tested with two screen conditions (0% and 50% blocked) and the VTG with five blocked screen co nditions (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100 %) . The resu lts were scaled up to estimate data fo r the range of full size units . The results suggest that the cylind rical chamber is an effi cient separation system for fine solids but less so for free oils in suspension. Data analysis has demonstrated that the head loss increases in proportion to flow rates and screen blockage condition. The pollu tant removal efficiencies are inversely proportional to flow rates .

Keywords: gross pollutant t raps, hydraulic characteristics, poll utant removal efficiencies.

Introduction Stormwater pollution, emanating from stormwater systems from urban catchments, is now widely recognised by the comm unity as a pressing enviro nmental issue requiring urgent attention by catchment managers. One concern is the growing p roblem with non-point source pollution in the form of storm drai nage from roadways. The types of stormwater pollu tants can be grouped according to their water quality impacts such as suspended solids, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), microorganism, toxic organics, toxic trace metals, litter and oil surfactants. Thomson et al. (1997) cites that pollutants such as lead, zinc, copper, chromium, iron, and phosphorus attach to suspended solids (SS) and are transported over roadways to storm drains. These pollutants come from sources such as tyre wear, brake linings, and leakage of oil, pavement wear, application of


~ ~ I

- -- - - 4

I ). ~5












1- Inlet pipe 2- Outlet pipe 3- Basket 4- Internal Chamber 5- External Chamber 6- Bypass

Figure l. (a) VersaTrap type G. (b) VersaTrap type W.

de-icing compounds, pesticides and herbicid es, accidental spills, tree leaves, and littering. The solids come from the fine particulate dust of the surrounding areas, dust and dirt transported and blown about by veh icular traffic, and the de-ici ng agents namely sand/salt mixtures (Thomson et al. 1997). The sizes of particles on roadways are of great importance in design for solids' removal. Street surface particulate matter has been described as having particle sizes ranging from about 74 to 3000 Âľm and less (Sartor & Gaboury, 1984). Sansalone, ( 1998) also performed particle srnd ies in Cincinnati , Ohio and they found solids ranging in size from smaller than 1 micron to greater than 10,000 micro n. The Australian sampled road runoff data displays a significantly finer particle size distribution, with a greater percentage of particles less than 125 Âľm up to 70% (Ball & Abustan , 1995). Gross pollurant craps (G PTs) are designed to remove poll utants from waste/storm water to prevent or reduce the

Providing the manufacturer with hydraulic design data.

co ntamination of rivers, lakes and other receiving water bodies. The poll uranr removal efficiency of a GPT is one of the critical issues to be considered when selecting a GPT for a specific installation . GPTs when installed in a drainage system introduce additional head losses, which need to be raken inro account in rhe design process. This paper p resents experimental resting results for rwo VersaTrap models. The study was focused nor only on the pollutant removal efficiency but rhe head loss of the models under different screen conditions.

Background The VersaTrap range of gross pollutant traps has been developed in Western Australia in response to the need for a relatively small, unsophisticated GPT, applicable to typical d rainage systems in Perth, where stormwacer is frequently discharged inro local water bodies. The original concept of an in-line unit incorporating a bypass facility (Type VTG) was developed further into an offline version sui table for use in railwater condirions (Type VTA, utilising a diversion weir pit for bypass) and an industrial waste trap (VTW), designed to trear the full flow . This paper describes rhe resting and results from testing of scale models of the VTG and VTW.

Journol of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 67

technical features

Treatment Mechanism

_ ____,M ...__ _

The units are designed to remove suspended solids and floatables, sediments and oil from waste/stormwater and to prevent re-entrain ment of these contaminants. VersaTrap devices remove pollutants by directing the flow tangentially into a cylindrical chamber (treatment chamber), creating a vortex, and then passing downwards into the cylindrical screen or basket. Vortex separators have no moving parts and are designed to operate under high flow conditions. Generally, no external power is required for operation of the unit as the influent and underflows may be conveyed by gravity through the vortex separator depending on the available hydraulic head. Suspended pollutants are captured in the perforated stainless steel basket or screen, and clean effluent exits to the outlet through the external chamber. In the case of the VTW, a system of nested baskets is used, with screen aperture size progressively decreasing. Suspended solids and sediments are concentrated in the centre of the base of the basket, whilst floarables and oil are collected at the water surface in the treatment chamber. Emptying by vacuum eduction or removable basket removes accumulated sediments, suspended solids and floatable poll utants .

Experimental Setup Graphical representations of the models are presented in Figure 1. Each model basically consists of two cylindrical chambers with d iameters of 300 and 500 mm, screen size of 2500 mm fo r VTG, two screen sizes of 2500 and 30 00 mm for VTW, in/outlet pipes with same diameters of 50 mm for VTW and 150 mm for VTG. The models were fitted in a pipe system as depicted in Figure 2. A centrifugal pump was used to pump water from the rank to the model, returning to the reservoir downstream. The flow rate was adjusted using a valve immediately downstream from the pump. Pollutants were introduced through a tee junction upstream of the inlet. Mano meters connected upstream and downstream of the model were used to measure the head p ressure and flow level, from which the velocity head was calculated.


Downstream Pipe

Upstream Pipe

Water Tank p



Figure 2. Schematic diagram of experimental setup.

M T F (0.4 Lis) is defined as the flow at which the vo rtex establishes in the treat ment chamber. DTF (0.6 Lis) is l. 5*MTF, considered to represent the mean flow rate. DPF (1 .25 Lis) is 2*DTF, and allows for peak fl ows of approximately double the average fl ow. DDPF (2.5 Lis) is considered to be the ultimate flow capacity of the device, being double the anticipated normal peak flow. This safety factor of 2 allows for potential exceptional events and/or blockages. By using energy equatio n (1), the Head loss of the model was calculated. The corresponding Head loss of the trap model was determined at the four different screen conditions namely; clean si ngle screen, clean double screens, 50% blocked single screen and 50% blocked double screens, replicating potential conditions in the field. 2


~+A+z =~+h+z +HL 2g pg I 2g pg 2


Versatrap Type W

Where P 1 is the pressure head at the inlet pipe, P2 is the pressure head at the outlet pipe, VJ is the velocity head at the inlet pipe, V2 is the velocity head at the outlet pipe, zl is the elevation level at the inlet pipe, z2 is the elevation level at the outlet pipe and HL is the total head loss (energy loss).

Hydraulic characteristics including velocity head and pressure head were determined at the fo llowing flow rates; M inimum Treatment Flow (MTF), Design Treatment Flow (DTF), Design Peak Flow (DPF) and D o uble Design Peak Flow (DDPF). The

VT type G has a built-i n bypass facility; therefore the hyd raulic testing procedures of VT type G were more extensive than VT type W. The hydraulic tests involved the

Hydraulic testing procedure




Versatrap Type G

Journal of the Australian Water Association

determination of treatment flows and the correspo nding H ead losses with single basket at 0%, 25%, 50 %, 75 % and 100% blocked screen conditions. This was done to represent typical screen conditions in the field. In the 100% blocked screen condition, water will not enter the basket in the treatment chamber but passes over the built-in weirs directly to the outlet of the exit chamber via the annulus between inner and outer cylinders. T he method of hydraulic testing of the VTG for each screen condition was to establish both a Design Treatment Flow (DTF) and Design Peak Flow (D PF). DTF is the maximum treatment flow with zero bypass flow. DPF is 5 x DTF - the maximum pipeline flow that the d evice is designed to carry (i.e. 20 Lis in the case of the model).

Pollutant removal efficiency testing procedure

Versatrap Type W Three different categories of pollutant samples were prepared and tested for VT type W with 50% d ouble blocked basket conditions to determine Pollutant Removal Effi ciency (PRE) . The pollutant categories such as suspended solids; sediments and oil were collected to represent the actual pollutant types that the wastewater carries. The PRE tests were done at Design Treatment Flow (0 .6 Lis), Design Peak Flow (1.25 Lis) and the Double D esign Peak Flow (2 .5 Lis). The PRE was determined by comparing the amount of pollutants being recovered from the

treatment chamber to the pollutants introduced before the tests or by applying the fo llowing equarion (2);

Pollutants Remo~a/ = /00 x Loadin-Loadout (2) Efficiency(%) Loadin





Y = 0.038622X



0.023232X + 0.061693

R2 = l.00


en en 150 0

Versa/rap Type G

'6 (tl

T o determine che PRE of VT type G, t hree d ifferent groups of pollutants were prepared, namely, orga n ic and ino rganic poll utants, sediments and oil. Each group of pollutants, scaled to rep resent the actual field pollutants, was divided into two sam ples wit h the sa me weight and quantities. As a result, there were s ix rests of PRE for th e model wit h basket at 50% blocked screen condition. To represent che actual fieldwork, two resting procedu res for each group were done in two separate cond itions . The first rest involved the int roduction of h alf of the pollutants at 50 % DTF and t he other half at DTF then the flow rare was decreased gradua lly to zero. The second rest involved the introduct ion of half of t he pollutants at 50% DTF; introdu ce rhe ocher half at DTF, and increase the flow rare to DPF for arou n d 3 minutes th en rhe flow rare was decreased gradually to zero. The PRE was obtain ed by comparing rhe numb er of po ll utan ts recovered after the test to the number char was introduced before che test or by using the above eq uation .





- - Double Basket --- single Basket

50 0 0






Flow rate (Us) Figure 3. Head loss and flow rate for VTW at 0% and 50% blocked screen conditions. 300





en en 150

50% -t.- 75%


'6 (tl (I)





---- 100%

50 0 0






Flow rate (U s) Figure 4. Hea d loss an d flow rate for VTG at all blocked screen cond itions.

Results and Discussion Hydraulic test results

Versa/rap Type W Results The head loss increases as the fl ow races increase as revealed in Figure 3. Ar 0% and 50% blocked screen cond iti ons, th e

h ead losses were ide n tical in each fl ow rate with double and sin gle baskets. It was found chat the h ead lo sses were 60 mm at DTF and 93 mm at DPF. This was determi n ed for the four hydraulic rests. In

Table 1. Hydrau lic Test Results for VTW Double Basket 50% Blocked Screen Condition. Model

VT 10/ 06 VT 12/ 07

Scale Factor Min TF (L/s) DTF (L/s) DPF (L/s) DOPF (L/s) HL@DTF (mm) HL@DPF (mm) HL DOPF (mm)

0.4 0.6 1.25 2.5 60 93 250

2 2.26 3.39 6.79 14.14 120 186 500

Inlet/Outlet pipe Diameter (mm)



2.5 3.95 5.93 11.86

VT 15/ 09 VT 18/ 10 3 6.24 9.35

VT21 / 12 VT 22/ 13

24.70 150 232.5 625

18.71 38.97 180 279 750

3.5 9.17 13.75 27.50 57.29 210 325.5 875

4 12.80 19.20 38.40 80 240 372 1000

4.5 17.18 25.77 51.55 107.39 270 418.5 1125






LP = x is the geometry scale of the prototype, VP = xo.s is the velocity scale of the prototype, Lm Vm Qp = Qm

XS / 2

is the discharge scale of the prototype (Hamill, 2001).

the double basket with 0% and 50% blocked scree n conditio ns, che head loss increased rapidly from 93 mm at DPF (I .25 Lis) up to the h ighest 25 0 mm at DDPF (2 .5 Lis). In th e si ngle basket w ith both screen co nditions, the Head loss at DD P F was fou nd to be 240 mm . This means chat at DDPF the head loss on ly changes with double baskets. Therefore, t he h ead loss increased with the increase of flow races and number of baskets. However, it is identical in both blocked screen conditions for each configu rati on (single & double basket). After the head losses of VT type W model were calculated, it was necessary to scale chem up to estimate the valu es of head loss for all selected prototypes. Since the flow conditio ns in Versa Trap units are generally gravity driven and effectively under n onpressurised flow the Froude number was considered appropriate for determ ining the velocity, discharge ere. From Table 1, 6 scale factors were chosen for the sizes that might be used in the actual fie ld. For

Journal of the Australian Water Association




technical features refereed paper

example, at VT 22/13, which is 4.5-scale factor, the head loss was 270 mm at DTF (25.77 Lis) and it was 1125 mm at DDPF (107.39 Lis) .



The fi ve selected screen conditions simulate typical actual conditions in the field as pollutants build up. The Design Treatment Flow (DTF) depends on the screen condition. Ir decreases as the percentage of blocked screen condition increases. DTF slowly decreases from 5.7 Lis for 0% blocked cond ition down to 4 Lis for 75% blocked condition until zero at I 00% blocked screen condition. This obviously leads head loss to have diffe rent values in each configuration as shown in Figure 4. Ir was fo und chat the head loss curve had a similar pattern for the first four con ditions. T his is because the flow path geometries were the same. The head loss increased as the flow rares and the percentage of blocked screen conditions increased. Ar 0% blocked screen condition, the HL was increased from around 21mm at DTF (5 .7 Lis) to 122.7 mm at DPF (F igure 5). Also, at 50% condition, it in creased from 28 .7 mm at DTF (5 Lis) up to around 138 mm ac the DPF (F igure 6). In the 100% blocked condition, the pattern of head loss curve was totally different. This was because rhere was no water entering the treatmen t chamber; therefore the discharge went di rectly downstream through the bypass. This created a relatively high head loss as shown in Figure 7. T he head loss rapidly increased from approximately 86 mm at a flow rare 3.35 Lis up to 246 mm at DPF. Following the same method of scaling, Tables 2 and 3 illustrate all hydraulic characteristics of 0% and 100% blocked screen conditions for different sizes of realli fe prototypes. From the laborato ry experiment, it can be fo und that VTG has DTF rares ranging from approxi mately 30 Lis fo r prototype VT 10/06 up to 174 Lis for VT 22/13. Also, the DPF of the smallest and biggest prototype had capacity rares to handle 115 Lis and 873 Lis respectively. Thus, the head loss of the same prototype sizes were 245 mm and 552 mm. In the 100% blocked screen condition, there is no treatment flow, therefore the DTF equals zero (see table 3). At the DPF, the head loss was found around 490 mm for the double scale facto r prototype (VT 10/06) and approximately 1110 mm for VT 22/ l 3. Head Loss Coefficient

Gross Pollu tant Trap manufacrurers often use the head loss coefficient (Ke) as a guide



R 2 = o. 9983 7




E 100

Versa /rap Type G Results

70 DECEMBER 2007

Y = I .888E ·5x 3 - 0.000326X 2 + 0.004853X + 0.0003 19

(J) (J)

.Q "O Cll Q)


80 60 40 20 0 0




Flow rate (Us) Figure 5. Head loss and flow rote at 0% blocked screen conditio n.


v = 2.647E · 5x 3 - o.oooss3x2 + o.oonsx - 0.00 129 R2 = 0.99836

140 E 120

-S (J) (J)

.Q "O Cll Q)


100 80 60 40

i ~

20 0 0






Flow rate (Us) Figure 6. Head loss a nd flow rate at 5 0% blocked screen conditio n.

300 - - - - - - - v


= - 1. 1129E ·5x 3 +o.ooo946X2 - o.00747X + 0.1004

250 ·

R 2 =0. 99991






IB 1oo


50 0 +------,.-----r------,,------,-------1 20 25 10 15 0 5

Flow rate (Us) Figure 7. Head loss a nd flow rate at 100% blocked screen condi tion.

the head loss perfor mance of their products. The value of the head loss coefficient was determined by calculating rhe rati o of the energy loss to the equivalent "full pipe" velocity head at the inlet pipe. A small head loss coefficient makes the un it system suitable for a range of urban locations including low-lying areas. T he head loss coefficient at the lowest flow rare to

Journal of the Australian Water Association

was as high as 53 (Figure 8) . This should be interpreted with some caution owing to low flow velocities and pressure differentials. From Table 2, the Ke value at 0% blocked screen condition is 1.82 - nor dissimilar to ocher GPTs used around Australia. For Continuous Deflective Separation (CDS) and CleansAll® GPT s units, rhe head loss coefficient value is given as around 1.3

refereed paper

(Wong, 1997, Roda W ater Quality, 2004). T he head loss coefficient values for the fi rst fo ur scree n conditions ranged fairly reaso nably from 1.82 fo r 0% up to 2.4 1 for 75% blocked condi tion. However, at the 100% cond ition, the head loss coefficient went up signifi cantly to 3.64.

Table 2. Hydraulic Test Results for VTG 0% Blocked Screen Condition . Model

5.68 20.32 122.73 1.82

DTF il/s) DPF !L/s) HL@ DPF (mm)

Pollutant removal efficiency results


VTW Pollutant Removal

Inlet pipe Diameter Imm) 150 Velocity in pipe lm/ s) 1. 15

Suspended solidsljloatables removal efficiencies The caprnre rare of the VT W model was signifi ca ntly superior to the VTG, as expected. Ir was also fo und that it decreased with increase of the flow rates. Since the two screens used were 3000 and 2500 mm, most solid suspended pollu tants were nor capable of passing through the perforations in the screens. T he highest mass caprnre rare, 99.9%, was determined at DT F fo r the first rest flowing. T he lowest overall mass caprn re rare, 98.4 %, was achieved at DDP F (2.5 Lis) . The materials accumulated in the two baskets, which were located in the botto m of treatment chamber. Sediment removal efficiencies Sim ilarly to first rest results, the capture rate of the model was found to decrease with decreas ing particle size fo r all sands tested. Also it was found that it decreased with increasing flow rare of the discharge. T he highest mass caprnre rare of the model was 93.8% fo r the first rest particles flowing at DTF (0 .6 Lis) . The overall mass capture rates of the last two tests were 88 .5% and 89.7% for DPF (1 .25 Lis) and DOP F (2.5 Lis), respectively. The mass caprnre rare of the last rest was higher than expected and ind icates ch at the test samples were nor identical. T he material accumulated between the screens and the treatment chamber wall and inside bo th screens. Oil removal efficiencies The oil removal efficiency of VTW model is a function of in fl uent flow races of the system. As the flow races increase, the trapping removal efficiency decreases. T he oil that was used for this experiment was Canola oi l with a density of 917 kg/ m3, which is similar to the density of fuel oil of around 820950 kg/m3 (Walker, 1998). T he highest caprnre rate of the model was 88.6% at DTF (0.6 Lis) and ocher overall oi l amou nt caprnre races were 81 .1% and 70.2% fo r DPF (1.25 Lis) and DDPF (2.5 Lis) respectively. The oil fo r the

VT 10/ 06 VT 12/ 07 VT 15/09 VT 18/ 10

Scale Factor

VT21 / 12

VT 22/ 13







32.17 114.99 245.47 1.82

56.21 200.88 306.84 1.82

88.66 3 16.88 368.20 1.82

130.35 465.87 429.57 1.82

182.0 1 650.49 490.94 1.82

244.33 873.22 552.31 1.82

300 1.62

375 1.8 1

450 1.99

525 2.15

600 2.30

675 2.44

Table 3. Hydraulic Test Results for VTG 100% Blocked Screen Condition a t (20 VT 10/ 06 VT 12/ 07 VT 15/ 09 VT 18/10



Scale Factor

DTF (L/s) 0 20.32 DPF (L/s) HL @DPF (mm) 246.07 Ke 3.64 Inlet pipe Diameter (mm) 150 Velocity in pipe lm/s) 1.15

2.5 0 200.88


0 114.99 492.14 3.64

615. 17 3.64

0 316.88 738.21 3.64

300 1.62

375 1.81

450 1.9 9

-'T (I)


i: (I) 0


(/) (/)


u ..Q

VT21 / 12 VT 22/ 13




0 465 .87 86 1.24 3.64

0 650.49 984.28 3.64

0 873.22 1107.3 1 3.64


600 2.30

675 2.44


y = 27.216x·1 · 0414 R2 = 0.9582

~ 50

(I) ·c3 40



"O (ll (I)



0 0






Flow rate (U s)

Figure 8. Head loss coefficient derived for Versa Trap type G at 0 % blocked condition. 70

~ 60

y = 37.19x·1.09e1 1

R2 = 0.9396




50 1

·c3 ~







=a (ll







0 0






Flow rate (Us)

Figure 9. A verage head loss coefficient derived for VersaTrap type G . Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBE R 2007 71

technical features

first rwo rests was collected from the trearmen t chamber however; in the last test it was collected from internal and external chambers because of the oil density.

VTG Pollutant Removal Suspended solids!floatables removal efficiencies Using one screen 2500 mm and 50% blocked, the capture percentages of the two rests were found co b e consistently high. The pollutant removal effi ciency (PRE) of the model in both tests was determined as approximately 94% and 92% respectively. The captured p ollutants accumulated in the basket, which is in the bottom of treatment chamber. The reason for determining the PRE of the VTG fo r the 50% blocked basket condition (rather than at, say, the 0% blocked co ndition) was to provide performance data for a typical field situatio n, where the objective is to remove pollutants even when the screen is partially blocked.

Sediment removal efficiencies Using the same method described for the VTW, the cap ture rates for suspended sol ids and sediment were measured. The total trapping efficiency chat the VTG achieved in the first test was found to be 80.5%. The highest capture rate fo und was 96% for 600 µm particle sizes at maximum treatment flow however; the poorest capture rate was around 56% for less than 425 µm particles. The overall mass capture rate for 2.36 mm and 425 µm was 91 % and 6 6% respectively. All particles were accumulated inside the basket, however; so me of the 2.36 mm were fou nd in the upstream pipe (i .e. not transported into the GPT). The coral trappi ng efficiency of the second test was found co be 82.5%. The highest capture rate was 99.4% for the 600-µm particles however; th e poorest was 58.4% for less than 425 µm p articles. Similarly co th e firs t test, the majority of the material was accu mulated in the basket and some in the external chamber. From tests 1 and 2, it can be clearly said that the capture rate of the treatmen t ch amber was fou nd to decrease with d ecreasi ng particle size fo r all sands tested. Also it was found chat it d ecl ined as the flow races of the discharge increased.

Oil removal efficiencies An absorbent p illow was used to test oil trapping efficiency in the VTG model. By letting the absorbent pillow float in the




internal chamber of the model, the assumptio n was chat as the oil enters the chamber it would be absorbed straigh t away into the pillow. In both tests, the absorb ent pillow was used to abso rb the oil by capillary action. The efficiencies of the fi rst and second methods were fo und 29.2% and 49. l % respectively. T herefore even though the VersaTrap type G was d esigned primarily as a gross pollutant trap (i.e. not an oil separator) the device still performed satisfactorily under lab oratory conditio ns as long as abso rbent pillows were used.

The implications of chis reduction on head losses at DPF are significant. • The results of chis research provided the manufacturer with guidance when redesigning and refining the products, and are seen as a critical part of the product development process.

Acknowledgments The scale models were provided by Roda. The designs are being refined in accordance with the results of these trials.

The Authors


Mohamed Ismail (email: msahgiar@

• H ead losses are directly proportional to flow rates.

Hamid Nikraz is his Supervisor in the

• Pollutant Removal Efficiencies (PRE) are inversely proportional to fl ow races. • PRE of suspended solids for VTW was the highest at 99.9%, 99.5% and 98.4% for DTF (0 .6 Lis), DPF (1.25 Lis) and DOPF (2.5 Lis), respectively. • PRE of VTW for oil was 88.6%, 8 1. l % and 70.2% for D T F, DPF and DOPF respect ively. • PRE of VTG for suspen ded solids/ floacables 92%, and 80.4% for sediments. • PRE ofVTG for oil was from 29.2% to 49.1 % . • T he research has demonstrated chat the VersaT rap system traps relatively small particle size sediments (to which most nutrients and metals are attached) but is less effective for oil (particularly the VTG). • T his research indicates that the DPF should be based on a factor of 3 x DTF (i.e. in accordance with the generally accepted practice of providing a treatment capacity of the peak flow generated by a one in 3 month ARI storm event), rather than the 5 x DTF adopted for these tests .

Water Advertising To reach the decision-makers in the water field, you should con sider advertising in Wate r Journal, the official journal of Australian Water Association. For information on advertising rates, please contact Brian Rault at Hallmark Editions, Tel (03) 8534 5000 or email brian.rault@halledit.com .au

Journal of the Australian Water Association

gmail. com) is a Post Graduate student, and Civil Engineering Department of the Curtin University of T echnology, Bentley, WA.

References Allison R.A., Walker T.A., Chiew F. H .S., O'Neill LC. and McMahon T.A., (l 998),

From Roads to Riven: Gross pollutant removal from urban waterways, Report 98/6, Ball, J .E. and Abusran, I. (1995). An Investigation of Particle Size Distribution during Storm Events from an Urban Catchment, Proceedings ofthe Second International Symposium on Urban Stormwater Management, Vol. 2, NCP No. 95/03 , pp 53 1-535. Hamill, L. (2001 ). Understanding hydmulics. Second edition. Basingstoke, Palgrave. Menezes, F. M. Areal, R. Luketina, D . (1996). "Removal of particles using coagulation and floccularion in a dynamic separator" Powder Technology 88 (1996) 27-3 1 Roda Water Quality. (2004) . CleansAlt® Gross Pollutant Trap, Design Manual. ISO 9002 Lie. No. 0177. Sansalone, J.J. ( 1998) . "Physical Characteristics of Urban Roadway Solids Transported During Rain Events", ASCE]ournal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 5. Sartor, J.D. and Gaboury, D .R. (1984). Srreet Sweeping as a Water Pollution Control Measure: Lessons Learnt Over t he Last Ten Years, Sci. Total Environ., 33: 171-183. Thomson, N .R., et al., (1997), "Highway Stormwater Runoff Quality: Development of Surrogate Parameter Relationships", Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Vol. 94, pp 307-347. Walker, R (1998). D ensity, Mass, SG of Liquids. h ttp://www.simetric.co. u k/ si_liq uids.h t m. April 2007 . Wong, T.H.F. (1997), Continuous Deflective

Sepamtion: Its Mechanism and Applications, proceedings of the 70th Water Environment Federation Conference, Ch icago, Illinois, USA, 18-22 October, 1997.

WATER-SAVING DEVICE WINS INTERNATIONAL AWARD T he MulriCyclone, a new Australiandesigned and parented swimming pool filtratio n device, has j ust been awarded rhe 2007 Piscina Barcelona Sustainability Award at rhe p restigious Internatio nal Swim ming Pool Exhibition, Piscina BCN, which was held in Barcelona in October.

Water Business aims co keep readers alert co business news and new produce releases within che water sector. Media releases sho uld be emailed co Brian Raulr at brian.raulc@halledir.co m.au or Tel (03) 8534 5014. AWA wishes co advise readers chat Water Business information is supplied by third parties and as such, AWA is not responsible for t h e accuracy, or otherwise, of th e infor mation submitted. and judged rhe MulriCyclone to be rhe best.

Designed by Warerco, this revol utionary product has no moving parts to wear and no fil ter med ia to clean or rep lace. The Multi Cyclone wo rks on the basis of centrifugal water filtration. Inco ming water is guid ed by a diverrer plate so char it enters multiple hyd ro cyclo nes tangentially, generating a stro ng centrifugal effect. This sp ins the sediment o ut to the hydro cyclo ne's wall and then sp irals it down to th e sed imen t su mp, wh ile the cleansed water spirals u pwards. The accumulatio n of sed imen t can be visibly monitored through the Mu lriCylcone's clear sed imen t sump. The Mu ltiCyclone is cleaned by simply opening its purge valve . Only 15 litres of water is disch arged ro clean the M ulriCyclo ne of sediment.

The M ulciCyclone is ideal as a pre-filter and w ill extend the life of existing filters. le works together with sand, diatomaceous earth or cartridge fi lters, firri ng between rhe pump and the existing filter. It fil ters out up to 80% of the incoming sediment before rhe existing fil ter even gets to see the water. The end resu lt is that the fil ter requires less cleani ng, saving water and ti me. For a sand filter, the water savings can be up co 5000 litres a year through less frequent backwashing. Cartridge filte rs may only need to be cleaned once every one or two years, depending on their size. T he M u lti Cyclo ne is under world-wide patent pendi ng and has j use b een released in Austral ia.


WORK ON EXTENSION TO THE VIRGINIA PIPELINE SCHEME Earth T ech is working with SA Water on a $4.7 million extensio n of the Virgi nia Pipeline Scheme to deliver an add itional three b illion litres a year o f C lass A recycled water to Angle Vale in the Northern Adelaide Plains.

I nstigated by the Swim m ing Pool Exhibition and organised by the Catalan I nstitute of Construct ion Techno logy, ITeC, judges reviewed a total of 63 products from 50 international companies

T he project is being managed by SA Water, and fu nded by the Sourh Australian government and rh e Australian government Water Fun d under rhe Water Smarr Australia program. Earth Tech will design and b u ild a new 20 -kilomerre p ipeline network to deliver

recycled water to existing horticulturists and market gardeners at Angle Vale and open up new land for irrigation. T he exten sion will be completed by September 2008, in time for the 2008-09 irrigation season. Peter Everist, Earth Tech Group General Manager, said the Virgi nia Pipeline Scheme continues to lead the way in Australia fo r sustainable water managemen t and has established South Australia as an Australian and world leader in water recycling. "Sustain able water use is o ne of the greatest challenges facing commun ities in Australia an d arou nd the world . After 11 years of conti nuous drough t, it is certainly a major concern for Australian farme rs," Mr Everisr said. "Earth Tech currently su pplies aro und 40% of Aust ralia's Class A recycled water and is the country's largest supplier of recycled water for farming. We operate over 200km of p ipeli ne networks that supply recycled water d irectly co over 360 customers, mainly for fo od production b ur also for recreational fac ilities and fo r residential uses such as toilet fl ush ing and garden watering," explained Mr Everisr. T he Virgin ia Pipeline Scheme is operated by Earth T ech and curren tly supplies 15 b illio n litres a year of Class A recycled water. It was Australia's first major water recycli ng project and remains one of the world's largest and longest running high q ual ity water recycling schemes. One of Earth Tech's other recycled water projects, the Eastern Irrigation Scheme in M elb ou rne, also featu res Australia's largest membrane ultrafiltration recycled water treatment plant, which received a Project Innovation Award from the International Water Association in 2006.

More information on Earth Tech can be found at www.earthtech.com.

MOSQUITO MONITORING IN WETLANDS In recent years, the constructio n of artificial wetlands, wh ich treat urban stormwater, has b ecome common practice with in Melbourne and elsewhere. Although these wetlands are usually designed and



Bentley WaterGEMS VS XM Edition brings the only platform-independent solution to the world of water distribution modelling, allowing engineers to build, analyse, and map water distribution models without being anchored to a specific engineering design or geospatial platform. For more information, see the inside front cover of the December issue of Water Journal, visit www.bentley.com/A WA, e-mail anz.marketing@bentley.com, or call +61 (0)3 9699 8699.

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 73

constructed in a man ner co min imise mosquito nu mbers, public concern over potential mosquitorelated health risks remain. Ecowise Environmental has carried out a mosquito monitoring program, for Melbo urne Water, at key wetland sites over the past fou r years. T he purpose of the p rogram was co better understand mosquito population dynamics at the sites, the potential p ublic health risk, management options co control potential outb reaks before they occur, and methods co improve wetland design and maintenance. Additio nally the information assists to increase p u blic confidence in the appropriateness of scormwater treatment in wetlands.

dvertessy@ecowise.com.au or Melbourne Water's Rhys Coleman at rhys. coleman@melbournewater.com. au

HYDROPHOBIC MATERIALS MIXER WINS AWARD The water industry has many things in common with the bulk materials industry and one area where they share an interest is in mixing particularly char of hydrophobic materials. JS Melbourne Controls was awarded as the Winner of the Australian Bulk Hand ling Awards 2007 for Innovation in Technology, which was held in Sydney in November, and sponsored by Ad as Copco. T he award was for che Melbourne Hydro De Wetter - a purpose designed device co mix hyd rophobic materials. The water industry mixes (amongst ocher things), powder accivaced carbon (PAC) as pare of ics fi ltration process. PAC is very hydrophobic and there are n umerous reports abo ut che difficulty in mixing it into liquid. Using the Melbourne Hydro De Wetter, the mix is thorough and complete. And it's fas t.

Figure 1. Mosq uito Trap. Sampling o f both adult and larvae mosquicos occurred on a fo rtnightly basis during che peak mosqui to months between November and March. A carbon dioxide light trap (see Figure 1) with dry ice (frozen carbon dioxide), a ligh t sensitive fan and attraction light bulb , was used co catch adult mosquitoes. Two craps were sec up ac each sire in che afrernoo n and then collected che fo llowing mo rning. Adule mosquitoes were then taken co the laboratory for identification. Larval mosquitoes were sampled using a dipping method. Ac each site, che sampler dipped a ladle amongst as many d ifferent habitats as possible, including adjacent d rains, with a total of ten dips per site. A coral of 14 mosquito caxa have been identified since the monitoring program commenced. Of chose caxa, three are considered a public health risk due co an ability co be a vector of hu man disease (for example, Ross River virus). On che whole, both adult and larval mosquito numbers were low at che wetland monitoring sites, particularly in years of low rainfall. In general, the Melbourne Water scormwacer treatment wetlands do not appear co be creating a mosquito problem. Nonetheless, it will be importan t co continually monitor these sires in post-drought conditions.

For more information, contact Ecowise Environmental's Dan Vertessy at

74 DECEMBER 2007 Water

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Perhaps mo re important is the face chat because the mix is carried out in pipe d irectly from the bag, there is no need co be over concerned about OH&S as the powder won't be exposed co che elements, nor the workers, who usually need co don protective clothing and face masks just co handle it. And the workers love it coo. They'll quickly cell you how unpleasant PAC is co work with. Being a powder, ic floats easily in the air when disturbed, and as such, presents serious O H &S risks. J ohn Melbourne said, "Difficul t co mix produces like powder and gran ular accivaced carbon, coal dust, milk powder, tann in and iodine create huge problems for industry as a whole as they simply do not like co mix into liquid, so we decided th rough extensive R&D co design a solution using our patented hydro-shear principle". "In addition, when many of these p roduces are mixed using traditional paddle metho ds, they allow powder fl otation into the air creating an extremely hazardous environment for workers who may then in hale these tiny particles. Our Hydro De Wetter does nor because the mixing is all done in pipe".

For more information tel (03) 9761 0811 www.melbourneflow.com.au, email: john@melbourneflow.com.au

NEW PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER Schneider Elecrric's new Mod icon M 340 p rogrammab le controller is confi gured with Unity Pro and complements Schneider's M odicon Premium (medium to large controllers) and Q uan tum (large to extra large controllers) fo r industry and infras tructures. T he h igh-performance Mod icon M 340 has an exceptional boolean p rocessing capability and also hand les fixed and floating decimal calcu lations with little effort. W ith 4MB of internal memory rhe Modicon M 340 can manage ap plicat io ns u p ro 70 thousand instructions and up to 256KB of data. The processor integrates a US B port and two comm u nicatio n ports for CANopen, Ethernet and/or Modbus. Modico n M340 d raws o n the experience of Telemecan ique in cou nting, positioni ng and regulation, allowing you to exp ress you r specific requirements efficien tly and simply. Dara is au tomatically backed up on the internal Flash memory and no battery is requ ired, so maintenance is drastically reduced, alternatively applicatio ns can be au romatically backed up o n a SD Card. This card's 'Plug & Load' tech no logy enables easy updating of your application, and the ability to transfer your ap plication onto o ther machines with no d isruption of operation . D ara and maintenance fi les can be stored and easily accessed fro m a PC or by simple 'drag-and-drop ' via FTP client from the SD card.

Modicon M340 can be program med via USB po rt or Ethernet. Machines can be remotely monitored in complete security via modem or standard ADSL lin k. The embedded web server allows rhe operator to program on line, transfer p rograms, access data fi les and manage remote operatio ns and diagnostics. Its compact size means rhe Modicon M340 can fir easily into righ t spaces. T he Modicon M340 is also flexible with rack configuratio ns of 4 to 12 mod ules and a maximum density of 64 chan nels per module. Each module is 'hot swap' designed and automatically reconfigured by

the CPU ar replacement. Ir adapts easily to severe industrial environments exceeding IEC standards. In add ition, Modicon M340 con for ms to the RoH S European D irective o n environment p rotection.

For more information log on to www.schneider-electric.com.au or call 1300 369233.

MONITORING CONSUMPTION COMES FIRST 'us' - Utility Services, an alliance between South East Water and rhe Siemens-Th iess Services Consortium is assisti ng irrigators, utilities, ind ustrial and co mmercial businesses, schools and the general com m unity with a water consum ption mon itori ng system branded as 'H ydroShare'.

Ir recently won rhe prestigious Victorian Engineering Excellence Award for T echnology and judges noted char a key feature of rhe project was rhe way in which it was bei ng taken up in schools through co mpetitions and students raking an act ive interest in water usage. 'us' operates and maintains South East Water infrastructure, d el ivers cap ital wo rks programs, provides innovation and tech nologies to Sou th East Water and creates extern al busi ness opportunities by sharing the com bined capab ilities with other water ind ustry clients and custom ers . Business Development M anager, Bernd Vetter, said 'us' achieves an excellent return on investment for South East W ater in the provision of reliable, cost effi cient operations and maintenance services and in addi tion focuses on initiatives such as Hyd roShare. "External b usiness op portun ities such as H yd roSh are have been extremely successful and have further increased the partner's retu rn o n investment wh ile providing an important function to any users and the goal to decrease water wastage. H ydroShare is a web-based water co nsumptio n mon itoring system which monitors actual use, trend and water flow in real rime, which means that water leaks can be identified immediately and repaired fas ter. "D ara loggers in stalled on the water meter or flow merer feed information into a central internet portal via existing GSM network on a daily basis while also p roducing excep tion reporting im mediately via SMS messaging and/or email. This monitoring ability means customers can identify leaks before they cause major problems and reduce water consump tion at the same rime. The sustainability director at Bentleigh Secondary College, Bil l T homas, said the

techn ology had already saved rhe school more than $6,000 a year in water fees. "The monitoring system recently identifi ed another leak wh ich was under the co ncrete. We were losing about 1.67 litres a minute, that's 24,000 litres a day." "The new technology is great because I can log on every morning and see how m uch water we've used rhe previous day and comp are that with recent usage. We have incorporated rh e monitoring process in rhe student's cu rricul um, so they can now chart and examine water patterns," said Bill. Melbourne's Top200 water consumers in South East Water's and Yarra Valley water's area are co nnected ro the system with ocher landmarks like Telstra Dome, Melbou rne Zoo, Aquatic Centre, G overnor H ouse and M elbourne Museu m also in control through water use monitoring.

www.usus.com. au

RAPID MARKET UPTAKE OF NEPHELOMETERS M onitoring aerosols is now of growing interest especially as current research h as p roven char fine particulates are linked to adverse health effects. In wh at appears to be rhe shortest lead rime Ecorech has experienced from p roduct lau nch to sale - just o ne month since Ecotech launched its new nephelomerer, rhe Aurora - the abundant num ber of orders coming from Asia, Europe and the US indicate a clear increase in global interest and concern for aerosol an d visib ility mon ito ring.

--Fo llowin g excellent reviews from un iversities and research facilities worldwide, the new Aurora 1000 & 3000 are hailed to be 'the most user frie ndly Nephelometers on the market' Laboratoire d e Meteorologie Physique, C lermont-Ferrand, F rance. "This rapid marker uptake is testament co Ecotech deliveri ng o n the promise of superior products while lowering the cost of ownership," said Anne Alramore, P roduct Manager, Ecotech P ry Ltd .

For more information about products that monitor aerosols and visibility please visit our website: www.ecotech.com.au or call us for a chat phone: 1300 364 946. Email: ecotech@ecotech.com.au

Journal of the Australian Water Association


DECEMBER 2007 75

water business

WALLINGFORD LAUNCHES INFONET EXCHANGE Wallingford Software has launched InfoNet Exchange, a new module for InfoNer, the asset management software solution for the water and wastewater industries . The launch coincides wi ch the release of InfoNet v8 .5, which features a number of additional and important produce improvements.


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I nfoNet Exchange is a new optional module for InfoNet users chat allows for the automated exchange of data between an InfoNec Master Database and ocher thirdparty databases and fi le fo rmats without the necessity to use the core InfoNet application itself. "This is a major advantage fo r corporate users", believes Stuart Dodd, InfoNec's Global Produce Manager. "The exchange of data between I nfoNec and ocher systems such as GIS, billing or CRM systems - is a daily occurrence and not necessarily undertaken by InfoNet users or water engineers." "By providing an API (Applications Programming Interface), IT departments can integrate InfoNec with all the ocher core applications in use within the organisation without having to acquire InfoNec skills. T h is will facili tate much deeper and speedier integration ofinfoNet within the organisation," concl udes Mr Dodd. InfoNec Exchange can import o r export data to Oracle and Oracle Spacial databases, Personal and SDE Geodatabases, JET Database, and Shape, MIF, XML and CSV fi les. Impo rt updates can be applied to all these databases and files formats, and export updates to Oracle and Oracle Spacial databases, and to Personal and SDE Geodarabases. An additio nal featu re of InfoNec Exchange is the ability to create reports via predefined templates . The ability to define standard reports, which can interrogate multi million object databases and be initiated by external users or a batch fi le, allows the creation of predefi ned reporrs by the asset owner at regular p redefined times.




Highlights amongst the many improvements to I nfoNet available with the release of InfoNer v8.5 include:

ratin g, and excess heat from a 450 kW drive will be only 1350 W - corresponding to the heat from only 23 light bulbs.

• The ability to 'reserve' an InfoNer network to prevent ocher users committing changes, thereby ensuring that no conflicts wi ll occur when committing complex changes to a network;

Danfoss now expands its range ofVLT® drives with power capabilities all the way up co 1.2 MW. D rive vol rage racings range from 380VAC through 690VAC. The u nique 'back-channel" is extended through the entire range of drives .

• The new Update Network from CCTV Surveys cool enables the user to create nodes from CCTV su rvey data, fo r instance to automatically create nodes at surveyed connection locations; • InfoNet now supports NASSCO PACP v4.2 the import of Manhole Survey data from NASSCO MACP (Assessment and Certification Program) format.

For more information visit www.wallingfordsoftware.com

NEW STANDARDS FOR HEAT MANAGEMENT A unique 'back-channel cooling' system released by Danfoss separates the cooling air and helps solve the heat loss problem by raki ng air fro m the outside of the control room and exhausting it back outside. T he back-channel cooling system is standard on Danfoss high power drives whether you cho ose IP0 0, IP21 or IP54 enclosures. W ith the addition of optio nal duct k its the back-channel coo ling can be extended to standard indusrrial enclosures where the drives are installed. These thermally tested kits ensure the most efficient cooling of the drive while maintaining the protection racing of the industrial enclosure.

Heat losses minimised The overall electronic design ofVLT® drives together with the use of h igh quality electronic components is the basis for unsurpassed energy efficiency. Once heat losses in the electronics are limited, the energy used co operate the cooling can also be limited . This way VLT® high power drives end up loosing only 2% of the provided energy as heat. T he rest is utilised in the ap plication.

Exceptional cooling concept The VLT® h igh power drives all have their energy efficient power transistors mounted up against the effective aluminium or copper heat sinks, which at the same time effectively separates coo ling air and heat gain from the electronics. With this princip le, it's possible to fo rce cold air through the cooling duct without polluting the electron ics with dust and other residues from the ambient air. Once controlled, the cooling air scream can be ducted d irectly o utside the cabinet - or outside the building.

For further details please contact Debbie Busuttil on (03) 9703 5141 or visit www.danfoss.com/pacific.


The majority of the cooling air and 85% of the heat losses are passed to the outside of the control room reducing cooling costs. Furthermore, this cooling air only passes over heat sink surfaces and is not seen by the internal electronic components of the drive. This keeps a significant amount of contaminants ou tside of the d rive resulting in extended life and reliability. Heat gain inside the control room is therefore only 0.30% of the drive power

Journal of the Australian Water Association

Allflow's locally designed Hard W ire Network System, means that meters in high-rise and commercial developments are easily read. The system utilises standard networking cabling, and p rovides either onsire reading via a d isplay or PC or web reading via the provided software.

Revolutionising small population water disinfection • Portable, self-operating • Rapid deployment for emergency disinfection • Eliminates vapour lock • Maintain residuals at low flow • ADWG & EPA compliant

water business

It has been d escribed as ideal for: • small to medium sires with 10 to 1000 meters

char hydrants should be operated to pull rh e freshest water into the area being flushed.

• New installation where cable installation is easy The new system is suitable for connection to new or existing water and gas meters with a pulse output.

For more information call Al/Flow Supply on Ph (07) 3390 7166, Fax (07) 3390 7177 or email us on sales@allflowsupply.com.au or visit www.allflowsupply.com.au

FLUSHING SIMULATION: NEW IN WATERCAD AND WATERGEMS The new Bentley SELECT Update (SU3) for WarerCAD and WarerGEMS includes, among other new featu res and enhancements, a Flushing Simulation module that will help utilities and municipalities p lan, analyse, and optimise flushing programs to control and improve water quali ty in their water distribution systems. The new module is included with both WaterCAD and WarerGEMS at no additional cost. Ben tley SELECT subscribers can immediately download this new update to sta rt optimising fl ushing programs in their water distribution infrastructure. Water d istribution system flushi ng is an important tool for controlling water q uality througho ut the network. Flushing stirs up and removes sediments from mains and removes poor quality water from rh e system, replacing it with fresh water from the source. Flushing is usually accomplished by opening one o r more hydrants in a planned pattern. The usual rule of thumb for flu shing is to always fl ush with clean water behind you, meaning

Flushing programs usually start at the source and move out through rhe system. U nfortunately, operators conducting the flushing program cannot see what is occurring in the mains, or measure parameters like velocity or flow rate in p ipes. Water d isrriburion models provide a way co look into the pipes and obtain an indication of how a flushing program will work.

Flushing Simulation in WaterCAD and WaterGEMS The new Flushing Si mulation module - included at no additional cost in both WarerCAD and WarerGEMS - can be used co simulate the effect of fl ushi ng water d istribution systems. The implementation of the new module is oriented coward increasing velocity in mains co flush out solids and stale water, with the primary indicator of the success of flu shing being the maximum velocity achieved in any pipe during the flushing operation. T here are two types of flu shing that can b e simulated using the new module: • Conventional flushing: consists of opening up hydrants one at a rime without any isolation valve op eration. • Unidirectional fl ushing (UDF): consists of one or more h ydrants while isolation valves (or pipes) may be closed co control the directio n of flow. D epending on the target velocities and layout of the system, conventional flush ing is often adequate. Unidirectional flushing will improve velocity although it requires additional labour and input data. A recommend ed workflow is co fi rst simulate conventional fl ushing strategies and then identify areas which are not adequately flushed and require unid irectional flu shing. If a secondary goal is co rest the operation of every hydrant, then conventional fl ush ing is usually adequate, while if valve exercising is also a goal, unidirectional flushing becomes more attractive. In addition to rhe new Flushing Module, the new SELECT Update for WaterCAD and WarerGEMS includes, at no additional cost, the following new features and enhancements: • Leak calibration: a new D arwin Calibrator enhancement that points the user in rhe d irectio n of likely leaks. • Hydropneumaric rank element: a new element that improves hydropneumatic tank EPS modelling and facilitates import from HAMMER fo r transient modelling). • HAMMER integration: a WaterCAD or WaterGEMS model is now a HAMMER model. Many new elements in WarerCAD and WaterGEM S co accom modate HAMMER such as surge tanks, air valves, and rupture discs. • VSP suction side improvements: variable speed pumps can now handle suction sid e controls and fixed flow settings. • Hydrant element improvemen t: additional behaviour fo r hydrant elements has been added including lateral losses and a default emitter coefficient. • Time series data import: for grap hing of SCADA data for EPS calibration.




Journal of the Australian Water Association

water ous1ness

• Compl iance with new platforms: support fo r ArcGI S 9.2, M icroSrarion 8.9.4 and AutoCAD 2008.

For more information about the new WaterGEMS and WaterCAD: visit http://www. bentley. com/en-A U/WaterGEMS/ or contact your nearest Bentley office: http://www. bent!ey. com/en-AU/ Corporate/Contact+ Us/

the development of in situ analysers in rhe mid-l 990s. The in situ analyser probes are immersed directly in che channels or basins of the wastewater treatment plane and rhe results indicate real conditions di rectly at the sampling point. By doing so, additional costs for pumps, pipe wo rk and their maintenance are avoided.

MULTIPLE WASTEWATER PARAMETERS Endress+Hauser has launched a new inline analyser for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. T he new STI P-scan device overcomes the costly sampling and maintenance procedures required by historical 'cab inet analysers' since it operates d irectly in the process. On-line analysis has been used for monitoring and process co ntrol in wastewater treatment for approximately 20 years. The online analysis market started with 'cabinet analysers' that require sample preparation systems con taining components such as pumps and filtration units. These components increase the cost and require maintenance, and th is prompted

E n dress+Hauser's STIP-scan inline analyser has the added benefit of allowing the measu rement of multiple parameters simultaneously. Using a single probe, nitrate, chem ical oxygen demand (COD) or total organic carbon (TOC) , total solids

(TS), sludge volume (SY), sludge index (SI) and spectral absorption coefficie nt (254 low) can be m easured. STIP-scan is a UV/Vis-spectroscopic sensor, which operates on rhe pri nciple of light absorption. The core of STIP-scan technology is a min iaturised spectrometer. A xenon lamp sends light flashes through a measurement cell con taining the sample. After being transmitted through rhe sample, the light is collected and recorded by a photo diode array spectrometer in the wavelength range between 190nm and 720nm. The water sample does nor require any prerrearment and is drawn d irectly at the measuring chamber. The quartz settl ing chamber also serves as the spectrometer cell. Immediately after sampling, the particles and sl udge floes start to settle. The settling condi tions in the measuring cell are nor influenced by turbulence outside the measuring system. During the settling process, continuous, rapid measurements are taken of the total solids (TS in g/1) using the absorption of visible light. From the results of the seeding kinetics, a settl ing curve is recorded and the

Depending on the settling characteristics of the wastewater, the complete measu rement cycle cakes between o ne and fi ve minutes.

sludge volu me (SY in ml/l) is calculated. Particles in the ligh t-path normally infl uence che accuracy of che measurements. The settling p rocedu re com pensates for chis interference, making che resulting data very accurate. After approximately 30 secon ds of settling, the sample is suffi ciently clear fo r analysis. Nitrate, spectral absorp tion coefficien t (254 low) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) or coral organic carbo n (TOC) are measured. The system determines the end of the measuring cycle when the measured values become stable. T he sample is expelled out of the measuring cell and a new measurement cycle is init iated.

The flu ctuation of che lamp intensity, precipitation and d iscoloration of the cell are usually limitations of spectroscopic measurements. These effects have been taken into account when developing STI Pscan. Each rime a sample is drawn or expelled, the inner part of the q uarcz cell is mechanically cleaned by special seals on the piston. T his routine prevents che format io n of p recipitates; $TIP-scan typically, does not need cleaning or calib ration. D iscoloratio n is compensated for by means of a reference measurement before each



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any potential discoloration of the cell are then au tomatically compensated for. End ress+H auser's STIP-scan inline analyser does not need any chemicals fo r calibration or operation and essentially operates with no maintenance. T he system can be installed in the inlet, in the aeration basin and in the effluen t.

For more information tel 1300 363 707 email info@au.endress. com or visit www.au.endress.com

COPON Internal Pipe Coatings for Water Pipelines




measurement cycle. The sample piston scops, and the light-beam of the spectrometer is d irected through a hole in the pisto n. T he drift of che ligh t sou rce and

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ADVERTISERS' INDEX ABS Wastewater Technology


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inside front cover


Bentley Systems, Inc Berendsen Fluid Power and

Engineered Products Group (EPG) 41


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80 DECEMBER 2007


Journal of the Australian Water Association

outside back cover

CitectSCADA is renowned as the world's most reliable control and monitoring system. W ith the release of V7.0, the world's most reliable SCADA just got even better, introducing exciting new features like advanced clustering to help you safeguard the reliability of your plant, and online changes to help reduce your operating costs and maximise productivity.

When everyone's relying on you, you can rely on CitectSCADA!

Find out more at www.citect.comN7


Wallingford Software smarter solutions for the water industry

ln/oWorks™SD Comprehensive modelling of stormwater flows

Models pressurized and free-surface flows

Generates state-ofthe-art flood maps

Optional 2D surface flood simulation engine

lnfoWorks SD Fully dynamic, hydraulic modelling software for stormwater professionals • As part of the lnfoWorks family, lnfoWorks SD benefits from the fastest, most accurate and robust, dynamic simulation engine in the industry • Fast, accurate and comprehensive modelling of stormwater flows in complex urban environments • Consistent handling of both pressurized and free-surface flows • 'High-caliber' quality of analysis applied to both open channels and closed conduits • Generates state-of-the-art flood maps to visually represent surface water flood depths and demonstrate how flooding affects the modelled environment • Models WSUD and BMP design, construction, and maintenance practices and criteria for stormwater facilities • Simulation of control structures and control logic (Real Time Control) • Unique capability to model surface and conduit flows simultaneously with continuous interactions • Models open channels, conduits, culverts, interconnected ponds • Event-based or real-time continuous simulations, making it ideal for infrastructure design, evaluation projects and real-time operational use • Optional fully-dynamic 2D surface flood simulation engine, completely integrated with the pipe and surface-channel hydraulic simulation, for complex multiple path flow routing and analysis • Recognizes all GIS platforms, CAD data and asset management systems, and integrates seamlessly with other lnfoWorks products

'lnfoWorks SD models the complex real-world environment of underground and ·overland flooding to exceptional standards without compromising either usability or performance: without doubt the most flexible and productive stormwater drainage solution available today'

lnfoWorks - proven hydraulic modelling software from Wallingford Software: leading the world in providing smarter solutions for the water industry.