Water Journal June 1983

Page 1

ISSN 0310 -0367


Official Joarnal of the

ffl•~ii;MMM:i'Wi=t;E:1 11


I Vol. 10, No. 2, June 1983-$2.50 I Registered by Australia Post -

publication no. VBP 1394


FEDERAL PRESIDENT F. Bishop , Scott & Furphy , 390 St . Kilda Rd ., Albert Park, 3004

FEDERAL SECRETARY F. J. Carter, Box A232 P.O . Sydney South , 2001 .


Official Journal of th e - ~A~u=s= r n~A~L-IA~N~ WATER AND WASTE WATER ASSOCIATION

Vol. 10, No. 2 June 1983


625 Lt . Coll ins St., Melbourne, 3000.

BRANCH SECRETARIES Canberra, A.C .T. J. E. Dymke , 4 Story St. , Curtin , 2605. Office 062 (81 9385)

·New South Wales D. Russell , Camp Scott & Furphy , 781 Pacific Highway , Chatswood 2067 . (02-412-2688)

Victoria J. Park, S.R.W.S .C. Operator Training Centre , P.O . Bo x 409, Werribee, 3030. (741-5844)

Queensland D. Pettigrew , C.I.G . Ltd ., P.O. Box 40, Rocklea 4106.( 07 275 0111)

South Australia A. Glatz, State Water Laboratories , E. & W.S. Private Mail Bag , Salisbury , 5108 . (259-0319)

Western Australia R. Loo, 455 Beach Rd. , Carine, 6020. (09-447-6550)

Tasmania G. Nolan , 21 Browne St ., W. Hobart , 7000 . (002 -28-0234)

Northern Territory M. Wyatt , P.O. Bo x 37283 Winnellie , N.T. 5789.

EDITORIAL & SUBSCRIPTION CORRESPONDENCE G. R. Gollin , 7 Mossman Dr. , Eagleman! 3084 03-459-4346

CONTENTS Viewpoint . . . ...... .. .... .. . ... ... .. . .... ... ........ .


Association News, Views and Comment . . .. . .... . .. .... .


A Method for Estimating Odour Concentrations Around Wastewater Treatment Plants-Dr. Michael Flynn Award, 1983 -L. Koe and D. K. Brady . . .... . ... . .... .... ...... .


Tenth Federal Convention-Sydney 1983 .... . .. .... . . .. .


Tenth Federal Convention on Candid Camera . .. . . ... .. .. . Convention 1983, Sydney-Further Reports . .. . ... .... .. .

20 23

Hi-A WWA-tha-The Song of Convention '83. Poem G.R.G .. .. . . . ....... . . . . . .. . . .


A WWA International Conference-Darwin Mining and the Waste Regime . . . . .. ..... ... . ...... .


Manufacturers Display-Convention '83 . .... .. ...... ·. . . .


In-main Oxygen Treatment of Domestic Sewage. Boulder Bay Sewerage Scheme ~ -R. Hemmings, R. Anderson and R. Shaw . ......... .


Book Reviews .. . ....... . .. . ... . . .... . ..... . ... . . . .. .


Calendar and Notices .. ... ... .. ... . .. . ..... . . . ....... .


COVER Delegates to the Australian Water and Wastewater Association's 10th Federal Convention in Sydney in April inspected progress at the North Head Water Pollution Control Plant near Manly Beach . This high rate primary treatment plant, under construction by the Metropolitan Water Sewerage and Drainage Board, is one of the first of its type in the world and the design provides for an ultimate capacity of 550 ML/d. Estimated to cost more than $100 million on comp letion, the plant is scheduled to be commissioned for the 1984-85 summer. The work is a prerequisite to the construction of a planned deep water ocean outfall some 3.5 kilometres offshore. (Cover donated by the Metropolitan Water, Sewerage and Drainage Board, Sydney.)

ADVERTISING Miss Ann Sykes , Appita, 191 Royal Parade , Parkvill e 3052. 03-34 7-2377

The statement s made or opinions expressed in ' Water ' do not necessarily refle c t the views of the Australian Water and Wa s tewater Ass ociation, its Council or committees. WATE R June, 1983


EDITORIAL Chairman , E. A. Swinton F. R. Bishop B. P. Maguire W. Rees Dr. Wayne Drew J. H. Greer B. Robb ins R. McGrath J. E. Dymke C. Weeks G. Nolan A. Vass G. Jackson Dr Barb. Bow les D. Simpson Editor: Publisher: G. R. Goffin A.W.W.A.

BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS CANBERRA A.C.T. J.E. Dymke 4 Story St., Curtin 2605 Office 062-81-9385 NEW SOUTH WALES W. H. Rees Inv. Eng., Advance Planning M.W.S.&D.Bd. P.O . Box A53 Sydney South 4001 02-269-6595 VICTORIA R. Vass, M.M .B.W., P.O. Box 4342, Melbourne 3001. 03-615-4362 QUEENSLAND D. A. Simpson Munro, Johnson & Ass. P/L 67 St. Pauls Terrace Brisbane 4000 07-221-6616 SOUTH AUSTRALIA B. P. Maguire I. & T. P. Branch E. & W. S. Dept. Victoria Sq. Adela ide 5000. 08-227-3966 WESTERN AUSTRALIA B. Robbins , Camp Scott & Furphy 47 Ord St. , W. Perth 6005 09-321-4582 TASMANIA G. Nolan, 21 Browne St., W. Hobart. 002-28-0234 NORTHERN TERRITORY G. Jackson, P.O . Box 37283 Winnellie 5789, 089-84-3666.

VIEWPOINT TECHNOLOGY SHARING AND COMMUNICATION It is a pleasure and a pri vilege to be invited to share a few thoughts with the readers of Viewpoint in Water.

As literature is studied a nd as fir st-hand conversations are held with the technical and policy leaders in wa ter pollution control in vari o us countries around the world , pattern s a nd opinions are form ed . Althou gh comments herein are confin ed to matters of water pollution control , it is lik ely that similar pa tterns are present in other areas o f tec hnology a nd policy. It is quite clear that ma ny years ago as the indu strial revo lu tio n materia lized , the development occurred first and fo remost , with little co ncern for th e environm ent . This was a logical state of affairs as fulfillin g major needs in those co untries th at set as to p priority, industrial development. Nevertheless, there were indi viduals I 50 years ago who devoted their li fe times to the development o f technology fo r treating wastewater. It is true that th ese individu als did not set the policies in their respective countries but they laid the important framework that now is necessary. Without the work of th ese pioneers the policy makers today would have little from which to mak e la ws.

Ba nding togeth er is as old as man and has played a key role in developing technology and providing the best ways to share that technology fo r the world 's comm on good. In the wat er pollution control area the In stitute o f Water P ollution Co ntrol in the United Kin gdom (and elsewh ere through Branches) a nd the Institu tion of Publi c Health Engineers in the United Kingdom (and elsew here through Branches) both have been fun ctioning for more th an 100 years. The Water Polluti on Control Federat ion, a lth o ugh based in the U .S. has a ffili ations with organi zations in 19 other countries and began its li fe in I 928. Technically-o riented associatio ns generally follow a simila r program o f activities. Beca use o f the nature of specia li zed tec hnical subj ect matter a nd th e need to make available the findin gs and ex peri ences of indi vidua ls and groups, publi ca tion s a re primary activities. So are conferences . All techni cal and sc ientific ass ociation s and soc ieti es a re not sa tisfi ed with their effectiveness, or lack o f, in parti cipatin g in nati onal poli cy . In a sense, thi s is healthy because it is evident co nstantly that more effective ways are needed . Tec hnical a nd scientific indi viduals do an effecti ve job of talking among th emselves but ge nera ll y do not do well with the general public and in th e politica l a rea. Very few techni cal and/ or scientific peop!e become elected officia ls for a variety of reasons. This is not intended to denigrate th e missions a nd program s o f associati ons a nd soc ieti es in the free world. It si mply is a n observa tion o f fact a nd is one reaso n why engineers a nd other technical peopl e find the political a rena fru strating. ,. Associations and societies perfo rm an in valu able service in society and need the support and pa rticipation by as many speciali sts as poss ibl e. One of the great sati sfa cti ons about being in association acti vities is the exchange o f technology and of personal ex periences among similarl y committed people around the world. Such a satisfaction is demonstra ted by the relationship between A WW A and WPCF. The sharing of technology through publications, conferences , a nd indi viduals on a one- to-one bas is has been stimulating and hi ghl y productive. Although A WW A is much younger tha n WPC F and ma ny orga ni zati ons in some other countries, its maturit y developed qui ckly . It was only a few years ago tha t Water was only a n idea a mong a fe w of the leaders in A WW A. Tod ay that publicat ion is among th e best in the world. It sho uld find it s way to more people in ma ny coun tri es. For the past two years disc ussions have bee n proceedin g between A WW A and WPCF about jointly sponsoring the A WW A Co nference in I 985 . Such a joint conference will do much to enh ance furth er th e advancement o f soundl y- based , rati ona l progress in water polluti on control. Th e problems a re the same the world around and it is good that information can be shared freely and openly among th e bes t talent th at co uld be asse mbled. The 2 I st Annu al Report of A WW A is an impress ive document th at demonstrates tremendou s progress in a sho rt 2 1 years. WPC F sa lutes A WW A for that progress and ex presses very best wi shes for further good health and prosperit y during th e nex t 21 years. With leaders lik e Frank Bishop A WWA ca n have nothing but success . ROBE RT CAN H AM Executive Direc tor Water Pollution Co ntrol Federat io n , USA

W A T ER Jun e, 1983


ASSOC/A TION NEWS VIEWS AND COMMENTS Fifth Summ er School in Ca nberra (Februa ry 1984) a nd the 11th Federa l Con venti on in I 985. T im e was devoted to strat egies th at wo uld increase recognllt o n of th e Associat ion by th e Government. The 10TH FEDERAL CONVE TIO co nvention s, wo rkshop a nd our Journa l go a A ll good thin gs must com e to a n end and long way, but more impact is needed a nd thi s includes th e I 0t h Fed era l Co n vention in ultim ately the Associati on may have to Sydney, whi ch was a reso und ing success pro vide a pa id secretariat rather than rely on from a ll po ints o f view as can be a ttested to hono rary assistance as exists now. by the 400 registrants a nd over I 00 One decision not m ade li ghtl y by Cou ncil accompanying persons. was to increase m embership fees to $25 per T he success of a Co nventi on depends o n annum , a rise of 20 per cent. Th e ma ny factors, its loca ti o n, the ven ue, the subscription has been held co nstant for 2 them e, the program me, th e organisa tio n and years but ri sing costs across th e board have ·m ost of a ll the peopl e - a ll pl ayed a necess itated the in crease. While I wo uld li ke significant pa rt but special thank s are due to to avo id in creases, l find it is not feasib le T im Smythe, Cha irma n of the Organi sing unless the Association is to degenerate into a Co mmittee, a nd his band o f enthusiasti c m oribund society. workers for th eir sterling effo rts, a nd to the Co mparing th e Association subscription Ladi es' Co mmittee who pro vided a wa rm with th ose of ot her lea rn ed societi es and C PI friendl y atm osphere along wi th m any chores in creases in Govern m ent services in th e last e ffi cientl y done. It would be remiss of me if yea r o f 17 per ce nt, I tru st yo u will apprec iate tribute was not pa id to th e m ajor a uthoriti es th e need for the increase. - the MWS&DB, the Hunter Di stri ct Other facets of interest are covered by o ur Boa rd, the MMBW and th e New So uth Ed ito r in oth er parts of the Journa l. Wa les PWD, whose support for the Con venti on m ateriall y co ntributed to its FRANK BISHOP success - fu ll hea rted support was read ily Federal President given from the top executi ve down thro ugh a ll levels of the major a uth orities.


AFFILIATIONS The Syd ney Con vention , wi th the influ x of overseas guests, provided the stimu lus fo r deta iled discussion s with ex isting and possible future affi liations. Discuss ions were held with th e WPCF and IWSA on the ongo ing in teracti o n with the Associa ti on , and discussions were initiated wi th th e America n Wa terwo rks Associati on , th e New Zea land Water Supp ly and Disposal Association, and th e In stituti on of Water Engineers and Scienti sts (U.K.). There will be an ongoi ng dialogue with the IWSA on how it can assist the Association. The older well -esta blished A m eri ca n organi sati ons, WPCF and A WWA, offered ass istance with no strings as did th e U.K. based !WES. Dialogue co ntinues with th e In stitution o f Engineers, Austra li a, wi th Dr. Ru ssell Bridge, Cha irman of the Civi l Coll ege, IEA, who is keen to ma inta in li a ison and work to li a ising and co ll aborating in planning conferences a nd se minars of wa ter rela ted nature.

COUNCIL MEETING The Federal Executive Meeting preceded th e all day Federal Co un cil m eeting held on the Sunda y be fore the Sydn ey Co nventi on. Detail ed attenti on was given to th e Darwin Speciali st Conference (September 1983), the 6

WATER Jun e, 1983


Thi s m eetin g was held during the course of the 10th Federal Conventi on in Sydney. A fter the formal opening, th e Treasurer's report was presented to th e m eeting a nd ado pted , th e Federal Pres ident, Fra nk Bi shop th en prese nted hi s own report under th e following head ings:

Learned Society Function: After reference to the Sydney Convention the Pres ident com m ented upon these major events li sted in the Associat ion's programme Speciali st Co nference on the Water Regi m e in Relati on to Mining. Da rwin , 4-9 September I 983. Fifth Summer Schoo l, Canberra , 6- 10 February 1984. 11th Federal Co n vention , Melbourne, February 1985. Information Transfer: The prod ucti on of 'Wa ter' is continuing with m aintenance of th e standard of content and production and of tim e- tabling. Various Branches a re produc ing newsletters for closer contact wi th Branch m embership. Education and Public Relations: Considerable acti vity has occurred in these

a reas • Producti on of th e 2 I st An nua l Report. • Schedu le of Water Research Projects 1982. • Submi ssion to the Federal Government on Stud y into Nat ional Water Reso urce Perspect ives to th e yea r 2000. • Red ra ftin g the Assoc iati o Ru les. • Continuation of dial ogue with th e New Zea la nd Water Suppl y a nd Disposa l Associati on a nd with va ri ous U .K. based societ ies. • Main tenance of li a ison with th e In stituti on of Engin eers Australi a to promote closer work in g relationships with th at organ isa tion. Th e Presi dent's report was adopted by th e m eeting without discussion. In genera l busin ess' com men t was made upon the vo lum e a nd weight of th e comp ilation of papers for the I 0th Con venti o n with their attendant problem s as a matter for attenti on in future conventi ons. The Journal: Mr Howard considered 'Water' to be a very good publi ca tion whi ch has impro ved in the past year. IWSA: Mr Howard asked if AWWA's relat ionshi p with IWSA was being developed. The Pres ident replied that A WWA is a Corporate Membe r and further di scussio ns would be held V{ith the IWSA Pres ident during the Co nven tion.

IN APPRECIATION OF CONVENTION SUPPORT During the co urse of the Sydney Con ve nti on, Federa l Pres ident Fra n k Bishop a nd others ex pressed th e grea t appreciat ion of th e Association for th e contributi ons and assistance rece ived from A uthorities a nd private so urces. Th e M.W.S. & D . Boa rd , Sydney, th e Publi c Works Department , th e Hunter Di stri ct Boa rd and the M.W.S. & D. Board, Melbourne a ll prov ided generou s suppo rt and a length y list of Co nsultin g Engineers di splayed at the Co nference indi cated th e assistance by this sector. Plant and equipm ent and process di spl ays by twenty six ex hibi to rs fo rm ed a va lua ble and interesting adjun ct a nd feature elsewhere in thi s issue. Th e faci liti es and assista nce prov ided by the num ero us a uth oriti es in organis ing field visits was a m ost m ateria l contribution . Wi th o ut such ass ista nce in fin a nce a nd reso urces, co n venti ons of thi s nature wo uld not be practi ca bl e a nd th e Assoc iati on is grateful accordingly.



LIFE MEMBERSHIP AWARDS At the Federal Co uncil m eeting on A pril I 0th , Honorary Life Membership was co nferred upon two members.

H EN RY MeFIE - TASMANIA Henry joi ned th e Association in 1973 and was the prim e mo ver in th e formation of the Tasmanian Branch in that year. H e has been a m ember of th e Branch Committee since its in ception and was Bra nch President in 1973, 74 and again in 1981 -82. H e has served as a Federal Councill or si nce th e Branch formation in 1973 and was Federal Pres ident in l 97 5-76. Th e success of the l 978 Summer School owed much to H enry's energies and capacity a nd he is a strong supporter of th e Associati on's convent ion and schoo l and symposium programmes.



THE GUY PARKER AWARD Thi s awa rd of $200 for book purchase, co mm em ora ting the co ntribution of G uy Parker to th e Assoc iati on, is made for th e first tim e thi s year. Th e award will be granted a nnuall y, for the best pa per published each yea r in ' Water'. For th e yea r terminating with the March 1983 issu e, the award has been won by S. Rama Bhat, J. M . Eckhert a nd N. A. Gibson for th eir pa per 'New Met hod s for the Determin at ion of Sulphur A nion s in Natural a nd Wastewaters' which was published in the iss ue of March 1983.

KEN WOOD - VICTORIA Joining the Assoc iation in l 97 l , Ken beca m e a member of the Branch Co mmittee a nd undertook the respon sibilities of Treas urer from that time and served in that ca pacity for eleven years, res ign ing the post late last yea r. O ver th is long period he has given co nstant parti cipation in Co mmittee matters and serv ice on the membership sub-comm ittee and in other areas. In recognition of length y and co nstant serv ice, th e Victorian Committee proposed the award of Honorary Life Membership.




THE DR MICHAEL FLYNN AWARD 1983 TO AUTHORS LAWRENCE KOE and DEREK BRADY This awa rd of $300 is made bi enniall y to the aut hor or authors of th e paper adj udged th e best present ed to th e Assoc iation's Fed era l Con vention. For th e I 0th Co nve nti on , held in Sydn ey in April this yea r, th e award winning pa per was ' A Method for Estimat ing Odour Co ncentrations A round Wastewater Trea tm ent Pl a nts' by Lawrence C. C. Koe of Sin gapore and Dere k K. Brady of Queensland. Th e paper a roused great int eres t a nd presentation, by Mr Brad y, was excell ent. Th e winn in g paper is publ ished in fu ll in thi s issue. Ne ith er of th e authors co uld be prese nt to rece ive th e awa rd in perso n.

Pro f . Jackson accepted th e award fo r his co-a uthors.




ASST. SECRETARY CHANGE Rex Denga te who ha s rend ered sterling se rvice in assis ting the Hon . Secretary over so me years ha s had a j ob re loca ti o n whi ch necess itates him stepping ou t of hi s A WW A ac ti viti es. He does so with the sin ce re th ank s of the Co un cil for hi s se rvices (and co ngratulati ons upon hi s ma rriage). The breac h will be fill ed by Gra ha m Dooley who is a t prese nt Act in g T ec hni ca l Assistant to th e Engin ee r in C hi ef of th e M.S.W. & D. Board , Syd ney. G raham hold s a Sc ience degree. B.E. (Civ il. with Honours) and a Mast er's in Publi c Admini stration fro m th e A m erican U ni versit y, Was hingto n D.C. - none o f whi ch shou ld go amiss with th e A WWA! We lco m e to th e team.




FEE INCREASES Faced wi th steadil y in creas in g costs the Federal Co un cil has relucta ntl y dec ided to


increase membership fees. Th e new fees will appl y as from Jul y 1st 1983 and wi ll be: Members a nd Associates .. ...... ...... $ 25.00 p.a. Members, retired .. $ 12.50 p.a. Students .... .... .. .... .. .$ 5.00 p.a. (una ltered) Sustaining Members ............ $100.00 p.a . (m in)




SOUTH AUSTRALIA BRANCH ACTIVITIES The seco nd meeting for th e year, o n March 10th a joint address on "Design of High Rate Filters for Water Treatment Plants" was presented by Dr. Susumu Kawa mura. from James M. Montgomery, Co nsultin g Engineers of Ca li forn ia, U.S.A. a nd Mr. Brian Stone from Montgomery- Ho skin g Pt y Ltd . The topic was mo st releva nt to So uth A ustra li a's ongoing ac ti v ity in the filtrati on fie ld . Brian tra versed the hi story and trend s of filter design from the slow sand filt ers o f th e l 800s through rapid filt ers to th e hi gh perform a nce processes of toda y with rates up to 800m/ day. Dr. Kawa murra followed with an out lin e of the major des ign aspects for hi gh rate filt ers, t heir appli cat ion to co nventional and direct and ad va ntages and di sa d va ntages. He summarised filt er co ntrol m ethod s and the se lf back- washing filt er and th e on-lin e or contact processes. A Branch m eeting on ' April 2 1st took ad va ntage of the visit to Adelaide of Dr. Ron Packham , a keynote speaker a t the I 0th Federal Co n ve ntion , held in Sydney from I l th - 15th Ap ril 1~83. Dr. Packh a m 's wo rk on th e relationship between wa ter qualit y a nd heart disease ha ve won him wo rld wide acc laim. His researc h on drinkin g wa ter standard s is equall y acknowledged and he spoke on this subject under the hea din g "Standard s, Limits and G uid elin es - WHO Drinking Water Standard s Rev isions" . Dr. Packham first outlin ed th e organ isation and function of th e Water Resea rch Centre (WR C) and th en spoke on th e genera l co ncept of standard s and limits for drinking wa ter, a nd the genera l philosoph y adopted by the WHO in establishin g its latest wa ter qualit y guidelin es. WHO has placed primary emph as is on bacteri ological qualit y but in recent years che mi ca l qualit y param eters ha ve rece ived increas ing atte nti on. In th e latest WHO standards, guidelin e va lues have been set for 27 chemi ca l parameters. In concluding he point ed o ut th a t WHO se ts guid elin e leve ls rather than ma ximum a ll owab le limits as exp la in ed in th e la tes t WHO sta nda rd s publica ti ons soo n to be released. A one da y symposium on "The Effects of Land Use on Water Resources" o rga nised WATER June, 1983


ASSOCIA TION jointly by th e AWWA, WRFA and Hydrological Society of S.A. on May 5th, was highl y successful. The sy mposi um which was opened by the Hon. Jack Slater, Minister of Water Resources attracted I 10 participants. The purpose of the sy mposium was to discuss resea rch into th e effects ofland use and contemporary changes upon water resources, the effects of subtle change in the hydrological regime and to highlight th e adj ustm ents required to achieve good farm practi ce and catchm ent management. The Committee extends a wa rm we lco me to new members Messrs. Makestas, Blank, Killick, Sweet, Yerrell, Hesketh , Gardn er (associate), Bennett and Haughey. We regret to record the death of Jeff Vowles on March 18th , 198 3. Jeff was an acti ve Branch member and will be sadl y missed by his man y fri end s in the A WW A. STATE NEWS

Work on two maj or contracts fo r th e $25.6M Morgan Water Filtration Plant co mmenced in March. The plant is schedul ed to operate by late 1986. Work on the 12ML filt ered water storage tank is well advanced and a contract for six brick-veneer houses in the Morga n township fo r key personnel has been let, occupancy is scheduled fo r Jul y 1983. The plant is conventional and will improve the ph ysical quality of Ri ver Murray and will also assist in the control of the amoeba Naeg/eriafow/eri, the organism whi ch ca uses amoebic meningitis. The 200 ML/d plant will be controlled by a micro-processor based contro l system operated from visual di splay units in the main plant control room. Chloramination of the Tailem Bend-Keith pipeline commenced on March 8th, with th e commi ssioning of the ammoniati on plant at the Tailem Bend pumping stati on. Extensive laboratory studies suggest that chloramination wi ll improve di sinfection in the Tailem Bend -Keith pipeline, in control of Naegleriafowleri. Field trials monitoring and surve illance will check the effecti veness of the process If the Tailem Bend-Keith trial is a success, the process will be considered fo r application in other water supply systems. Recent heavy rains and a big fall in water col)sumption in th e metropolitan area are expected to save an estimated $ I million thi s financial year in pumping costs. Pumping into the Mannum-Adelaide pipeline was stopped in ea rly April, while pumping into the Murray Bridge-Onkaparinga and Swan Reach-Stockwell pipelines ceased in March. Metropolitan storages are currently 45% full compared to 47% for the same time last year. Resumption of major pumping from the River Murray to meet demand in th e metropolitan area is not expected until well after winter 1983. 8 WATER June, 1983




In February members were guests of the Sunbu ry Sewerage Auth ority on a technical in spection of the Sunbury plant. The plant, of 30 000 EP design ca pacity (presentl y 8 000 connected) consists of pre and primary treatment stages fo llowed by denitrifi cation/ nitrification phases. Following stages employ alum and sedim entation to remove phosphoru s and th en filtration through a tripl e media filter. Prior to discharge to Jacksons Creek the effluent is chl orinated. Members joined with the Institutions of Engineers in March to hear Dr. Walter Kni sel of US Department of Agricultu re. Dr. Kni sel who was brought to Australia by the A WRC to lecture at the workshop on Non-Point Pollution at Mo nash University, visited most Australi an states speaking on his CR EAMS model. This model is a field size unit area simulati on model of pollutants in run off from agri cultural areas. Over 50 members were very fortun ate at our April meeting to hear Dr. R. F. (Bob) Packham, Assistant Director of Water Research Centre in the UK, speak on the centre's work on water quality standards and the revision of the WHO Standards. D r. Packham was a keynote speaker at the 10th Con venti on in Sydney, and is remembered for his presentation and knowledge on this important area of water science and engineering. Forthcoming Meetings: May 24 Development of Water Filtration Practi ces June 3 Ladies N ight as 'Chestnuts' contact J. Park 741 5844 June 28 Properties of Plasti cs with Releva nce to PVC pipes July 26 Anaerobic Digestion (tentati ve) - mini seminar Aug. 23 Annual General Meeting. ST ATE NEWS Changes at the Top

Changes at the top management level of three State Authorities have occurred recently. Mr. Jeffrey Wright took up the post of Chairman of the Environment Protecti on Authority in early May. Mr. Wright, form erly assistant director of the New South Wales State Pollution Control Co mmission, has said that his first priority will be to review and redraft the Environment Protection Act which is 13 years old and now inadequate.In another change, Mr. Kenneth John Shepherd was appointed as the Director of Water Resources within the Mini stry for Water Supply and Resources, replacing the previous head, Mr. John Mann. It is believed Mr. Shepherd, fo rmerly


Di rector of Planning in So uth Australia's Engineering and Water Supply Department has been appoin ted on a 2 year contract to develop a statewide water management and conservation strategy and to make reco mmendations to the Government on the most suitable organisational structure. Following the new Labor Government's decision to di vide the Chairm an's position as head of th e Melbourne and Metropolitan Board of Works into a part time Chairman and a full time General Manager, the Government ann ounced in e rl y May the appointment of Mr. Ru ss Ingersol to the latter post. T he Chairman, Mr. Ray Ma rginson, Vice-Principal of Melbourne U niversity, was appointed some time ago. The Drought

Recent ra ins in late April and early May have eased th e drought throughout much of Victoria.However much of the central region of the state is still affected by below average rain fa ll. Melbourne still has mild water use restrictions. The city's water supply storages held onl y 36% of available capacity in April. 11th A WW A Convention

The Victorian delegati on to the Sydney Con vention is still " recovering" from the good tim e had, the useful exchange of ideas, contacts made and the high standard of papers and presentations. However, with good old Sydney-Melbourne rivalry, the organising committee for ' the 11th Convention has vowed to do better. Jot it in your diary now and plan to attend.


It is good to report that monthly meetings continue to be well supported. At the March meetin g, D r. John Quinn presented an interesting talk on tropical di seases, an appropriate health subj ect for di scussion here in th e north ern ex tremity of our continent. In April, Darwin's City Engineer Duncan Beggs discussed the problems associated with the di sposal of both wet and dry wastes for Darwin. Garbage di sposal areas have been long established, but as in oth er locations and contrary to all preventati ve effort s, th e di sposal areas have become partl y enveloped by residenti al development well before the damp areas have been full y utilised. This, of course, results in pressure to relocate the dumps with consequent considerable addition al costs to th e ratepayers. There are also accompanying problems from odours which the Council is attacking with some optimism as to success.




STATE NEWS Planning for the September Intern at ional Confe rence is well in hand with the ven ue confirm ed - the Mindi! Beach Casino and finalisation of papers cont inu ing. Special thanks to Ron Freyling, John Kenworthy and John Paul for thei r efforts. Ron brought back from the Syd ney Co nference most favourable reports - it was a very successful venture. It is un fo rtunate that representation from the N.T. was limited to a sole delegate. Attendance at Conferences is of great importance to all Branches and particul arly so to the relatively isolated area such as the N.T. for co ntinuing updat ing in technology, planning and decision making and for the direct contacts formed .

QUEENSLAND BRANCH ACTIVITIES The Regiona l Conference will be held at the Cedar Lake Resort, Nerang, inland from the Go ld Coast on 20th and 2 1st August, 1983 . The venue has been booked and the sub-committee is finali sing the details to ensure th at the Conference is a success and that delegates will be well catered for. The sub-com mittee on Ed ucatio n and Training met on 29th March, 1983. T he adopted terms of reference are: "The A WW A (Qld Branch) thro ugh its Education and Training Sub-Com mittee is • to become aware of ex isting and proposed co urses, pertinent to th e Water Industry (at trade, operator, technician and profess ional levels) offered in Queensland. • to establish and maintain liaison with all appropriate ed ucati onal establishm en ts and to offer th e experti se of A WW A to assist in the design and presentation of these co urses and their periodic review. • to establi sh presen t and future areas of need and public awareness of ed ucati onal and tra ining needs of the water industry, to bring these to the attention of ed ucati onal esta blishm ents _and to lobby for appropriate progra mmes to be establi shed. • to li aise with Federal Co un cil Standin g Committee on P ublicity an d Education. • to work towards th e estab lishm ent of a Water Industry Ad visory Co uncil. · Foll ow- up actions will incl ude letters to educational esta blish ments, publicising co urses in Water Talk, seeking the views of the membership and then lobb ying wi th educational bodi es. The Don King-Scott Me morial Prize is an annual award by the Q ueensland Branch of A WW A to th e out standing student graduating from the QIT Grad uate Diploma in Environmental Engineering. The Pri ze was initiated in 1972 on the death of Don King-Scott, formerly Chi ef Engineer of the Department of Local Governme nt Town



Water Supply and Sewerage Branch, fo under member of A WWA and first president and in augural federa l councillor of Q ueensland Branch. The comm ittee recently increased th e va lue of the prize from $50 to $ I 00. Congratulations to this year's recipient, Mike Lever of Brisbane City Council. A questionnaire requesting detai ls of members interests, affiliation, ed ucation etc. , and com ment on A WWA acti vities was sen t to members in June 1982. Of 450 forms issued, 26 1 were returned and 199 provided comment on A WWA services to ass ist in planning and organi sing of future activit ies. T he com ments wi ll be studied by the committee. Thirteen items were listed as done well by A WW A. The greatest frequencies were: the newsletter (78 replies), th e Journal (50), monthly meetings (44), operator training (40). The list of adverse items was fifty long. Greatest freq uencies were: more regional meetings (1 5), more se minars and weekend meetings ( 15), arrange technical tours and site visi ts (15), provide access to techni cal publications (10). At the General Meeting on 23 February, Dr. Wa lter Knisel of the US Department of Agriculture spoke on "Mathematical Modelling of Non-Point Source Pollution" . The USDA came up wit h their co mputer model called 'CREAMS' in 12 m onths. There are four users of the program in Australia including one in Q ueensland. At the Genera l Meeting on 20th April, Peter James, Chairman/ D irector Solway Firt h Purification Board spoke on "Water Pollution Control in England". Operato rs' Certificates were presented at the General Meet ing on 22nd June and Mark Pascoe of the Brisbane Ci ty Co uncil spoke on "Dissolved Air Flotation". Coming Events July 6 Presentation of Operators' Certifi cates. Ken Hart ley of G utteridge Haskins & Davey will speak on "Commissioning of Bundamba Wastewater Treatment Plant". August 3 Annual General Meeti ng. Tom Fenwick of the Q ueensland Water Resources Com mi ssion wi ll speak on "The Burdekin Scheme". August 20,2 1 A WW A Regional Co nference on Effluent Disposal. Cedar Lake Reso rt , Nera ng. STATE NEWS At last the drought in Queensland has broken. T he widespread, beneficial and very we lcom e ra ins over most of Q ueensland at the end of April and the beginn ing of May resulted in most of Q ueensland's Shires being taken off the d rought list. The un fort unate part abo ut th e ra in of course was the damage ca used by th e resulting fl ooding in vario us parts of the state.


WESTERN AUSTRALIA BRANCH ACTIVITIES A good attendance of 60 members were present on 9th February to hear Dr. B. Kavanagh of Metropolitan Water Authority and Dr. E. Wajon of W.A. Institute of Technology give th eir paper " Odours and Tastes in Dri nking Water" . Dr. Kavanagh outlined the various constituents which could ca use odours in water and explai ned some of the difficulties in identification. Dr. Wajon verified Kavanagh's comments by outlin ing some of hi s investigations (including human " sniffers") in attempts to isolate a swa mpy odo ur that occurs without warning in the Wanneroo area. The odour which cannot be reported in th e lab., wi ll occur in a given dwelling but not in its neighbo urs, or may occur in an adj acent street, but has always go ne when the Authority's Inspectors arrive o n the scene. On 2nd March, another large gathering, including members of I.E. Aust. Environment Branch, heard an interesting paper on " Recent Developments in the Disposal, Neutralization and Monitoring of Effluen t from La Porte Titanium on the Leschenault Peninsula". The paper on a fa irly contentious topic was presented to a most appreciat ive audience by J. Abbott of P.W.D. , Dr. G. Ho of Murdoch University and Mr. J. Ha ll of the Geological Survey of WA. T he mini symposium mentioned in our last issue wi ll be held on 12th July at Institution of Engineers , headquarters between 3.30 pm and 8.00 pm. The symposi um will have a good selection of papers and will provide an evening meal. More detai ls wi ll a pi.ear in your next issue of " Wa isted Worters."

STATE NEWS The well known lagoo ning process of wastewater treatment has recently been th e subj ect of a major breakthrough at K ununurra in W.A .'s Kimberley region. T he new process utili ses macro-o rga ni sms occurring naturally in the area - rather than micro-organisms whi ch have hitherto bee n th e general practice throughout the world. Due to P.W.D. 's natural desire to perfect the system before an nouncement to th e world of science and technology, yo ur correspondent can onl y give the ··comments" secti on of the relevant P.W.D. Water Sampling form - recentl y " leaked" to " WATER" .

Secondary Pond No. I Green Translucent - Some sc um in corners Several crocodi les. Polishing Po nd No. 2 - G reen - Alm ost Clear - One crocod ile on ly.

WATER June, 1983


ASSOC/A TION NEW SOUTH WALES BRA NCH ACTIVITIES Branch m embers have been busy preparing for and then enjoying th e Tenth Federal Convention. Neverth eless, Branch acti v ity has co ntinued at more or less th e usua l rate. On Wednesday, 2nd March, thirty members gathered in the Water Board Th eatrette to hea r a lect ure by Dr. Walter G. Knisel on "General Aspects of Agricu ltural Management Modelling". Dr. Knisel, Research Hydrauli c Engineer with th e .S. Department of Agriculture, who was visit ing Austra li a for a co nference on Non-Point Sources of Po ll ution , spent two da ys in Sydney givin g a seminar on hi s work as well as thi s lecture. Resea rch following th e 1972 deci sion of the U.S. Congress to impro ve water quality was directed to identifying non-point so urces of pollution and findin g so luti ons to these problems by 1984. A need was seen to deve lop a mathem atical model to this end. Dr. Knisel em phasised that th e model was required to be multidisci plina ry in character - to take into account a range of ph ysi ca l properties such as soil chemistry, hydrology, sediment behav iour and so on. It d evelops management practices for minimising non-point po llut ion prob lems and is being extended to cover areas up to IO sq. km in size. A live ly di scuss ion sess ion concluded a successful Branch activit y. About 25 m embers on 11th May heard a lecture "Modern Foundation Techn iques in Water Engineering" by Mr. Bob Dixon , Foundati on Engineer for the Sydney Water Board . Mr. Dixon discussed a range of Water Board proj ects including water pollution cont rol plants, sewer pumping stations and pipelines wh ere the use of mod ern techniques had en sured that foundation problems had been so lved in an expeditiou s and economi c manner. In particular he emphasised the way in which the use ofbentonite slurry techniques had made such an impact on foundation work in the last 20 to 30 years. Features of the lecture included discuss ion of: • the co nstruction of a rigid di a phragm wa ll adjacent to existing struct ures at . Wollongong WPC P using bentonite slu rry to stabili se the trench during excava tion down to cut-off level. • th e construction of a cut-off wa ll a t Warriewood WPC P using a bentonite slurry displacement method. • th e use of bentonite in th e sinking of a ca isson for a sewer pumping station a t Newport Beach to reduce skin fri ction on the outside of th e ca isson shell. This obviated the necess it y for an increase of more than 50% in the thickness of the caisson sh ell. • the use of v ibroco mpaction techniques at 10

WATER June, 1983



Winmal ee WPC P to stabili se the so ft deposits of a buri ed river chann el th at traversed the site. • the use ofpreloading tec hniques to achieve the co nsoli dation of th e fou ndati ons for a 1500 mm diam eter sewer cross in g a 200 m wide flood p lain at Deep Creek, Na rra been. Mr. Di xon was able to draw on hi s wide ex perience in foundation matters ga ined in the United Kingdom , th e Middle East, Ma lays ia and Western Australia during th e discussion period which followed.

Coming Events

17th June Half yearly Social Function at th e Cyprus Hellene Club, as we go to press.

29th Jun e lecture by Dr. M . Semmens of the U ni versit y of New South Wa les on The Effective Organics Removal by conventional water treatment processes.

17th August a family barbecue and inspecti on of Garden Isl and Naval Dockyard .

17th August the Annual General Meeting at the Roya l Automobi le Club - Guest Speaker, Mr. Ken Johnson (Chi ef Exec uti ve of Ri ver M urray Commission).

23rd Sept. dinner dance at the Sebel Town Ho use.

STATE NEWS New m embers joining si nce March and we lcom ed are: Sustaining Members: Transfield Pty. Ltd.: Westinghouse Electri c Pty. Ltd. ; A ustgen Bio-jet; Lordco (Aust.); H ydra-Process Equ ipm ent Pty. Ltd. Individual Members: Miss T. Gadiel and Messrs. J. Ham il ton , K. Petersen, R. Mason, K. Macoun, E. Con ley, T . Danger, G. Chadban, R. Eagle, M . Muston, C. Montgom ery, A. Torr, J. O 'Gorman, F. Cattell, P. Sterelny, N. Gibson , R. Mcloughlin, T. Crowley and C. Gilbert. Associate Members: Messrs. J. Bennett and D. Hanley.

News of Former Secretary Dr. Dary l Lacey, Hon. Secretary of th e N .S.W. Branch between 197 1 and 19 76 is now six months into his two year contract with the Meteoro logy and Env ironm ental Protection Adm ini stration of th e Kingdom of Saudi Arabia . Acting as adviser to the MEPA directorate, Da ryl is already am assing interesting stories of mosques, muezz in and multi -billion dollar expenditures which he hopes to share with the Branch earl y in 1984 during his mid-term home leave.


NEWCASTLE GROUP At the 62 nd Genera l Meeting, held on the 14th March, Mr. Jim Buchanan from the Hunter Distri ct Water Board spoke on the topic " Restructure and Management of the Water Industry in Brita in ". Mr. Buchanan had recentl y completed a stud y tour in Brita in through a NSW Public Service Management Fellowsh ip and visited most major water authorities there. Since the passing of the Water Act (1973) th ese authorities ha ve been restructured and this has in cluded a number of major amalgamati ons. The speaker di scussed the role of typi cal water a uthority wh ich has responsibility for th e development, management and control of a ll aspects of water usage within its area. T hi s em braces water conservatio n, water supply (rura l, urban , industria l irri gati on), flood contro l a nd river regul ation , sewerage, wastewater treatment , water quality, land drainage, water recreat ion and inland fisheries.

TASMANIA BRANCH ACTIVITI ES A visit and inspection of the Turi ff Lodge Wastewa ter Trea tm ent Plant was carried out by m embers of th e Branch on Wedn esday, 16th Feb ruary, I 983 . Sewage enters th e plant from a 600 mm gra vity lin e and the trea tm ent process in vo lves scree ning and grit remo va l with di sintegrators a nd grit washing, two primary sedimentati o n tanks, two circul ar biological filters , second ary sed im entati o n and chlorin ation prior to di scharge to . th e Ri ver ,. Derwent. Sludge is a naero bi ca ll y di gested . heatin g utili zing the sludge gas and oil fu el, sludge drying is on cove red beds. The final effluent irri ga tes th e landscaped area of 2.34 ha before di scharge to the ri ver. On March 15th , John Bowen, Assoc iate of Scott and Furphy gave th e Branch a n insight into th e prob lems enco untered by Con sultants in overseas co untries and th eir so luti ons. John spent some tim e in Malaysia in 198 1 in vesti ga ting the feasibility of a reti culated water suppl y to so m e two-t hird s of the province of Kidda h and then followed up with th e preparation of a master plan a nd construction and ad mini strative progra mm e. The cost of th e scheme co uld be of the order of $70 million. Planning is proceeding for th e Branch 's Ann ua l Seminar wh ich , thi s year wi ll be held at the Rutherglen Holiday Village, Had spen. Th e them e will be 'Alternati ve Small -sca le Wastewater Trea tm ent Met hods' and our next iss ue wi ll carry the story.


CHAIRMAN'S COMMENT THE "LATE" AWCC I was saddened at the last meeting of the of Australian National Com m ittee IA WPRC to be an accessory to the passing of "a good idea" . I refer to the Co mmittee's pragmatic acceptance of the fact that the Australian Water Co-ordinating Co mmittee .(A WCC) was no longer servin g a useful purpose - or in fact any purpose at all. The A WCC was suggested by a meet ing of representatives of the Federal Co uncil of the A WWA and the Executi ve of the Australian National Co mmittee of IA WRP(C) early in 1979 and later agreed to by both organisations. It was created to " rev iew and co-ordinate conference programs in A ustralia and to act as a secretariat in matters relating to th e Australian Science and Technology

Counci l". The Co-ordinating Committee membership included representati ves from A WW A (which also represents WPCF and IWSA in Australia), IA WPR(C) and Australi an Acade my of Technological Sciences (AATC). The long term plan provided for the Committee to eventuall y co-ordinate the water interests of the scienti fic and professional societies in Australia and the Australian activities of internatio nal li ke organisations. The need for a committee to co-ordinate act ivities, but be remote from the on-going executi ve responsibilities, seems obvio us when it is realised th at there are - at th e last count - 38 organisations in Austral ia alone with water- related interests. One of the primary ro les of th e A wee to co-ordinate conference programs - is st ill an on-going necessity. In the current econo mi c climate it is not practical to ex pect sati sfactory attend ance at national symposia unless conferences are restricted to a maxim um of one per year for each major subj ect gro up. Even a cas ual glance at " Calendars of Even ts" wi ll illustrate dupli cation of effort and inefficient use of resources which cou ld be overcome by a willingness of organisations to be co-o rdinated . Such co mm ents co uld well app ly to literature review, research projects, so urces of research gra nts, etc. I also note th at at the 14th Biennial Congress and Exhibiti on of IWSA at Zurich in September 1982 consideration was given

to the need for co-ordinati on of the two internati onal bodies - IWS}'\ and IA WPRC by th e establi shment of a joint secretariat. I am still una ble to see anything but good com ing from a co-ordinating body, such as the A WCC, or by tapping an existing national body, say the Austra li an Water Resources Council but until we ca n accept that such co-ordination is necessary, we wi ll continue to operate in an inefficient and ineffecti ve way. My plea is thus to put as ide parochi al argum ent and at least to recons ider a new form of co-o rdinating forum - perhaps with an enlarged m embership embracing representati on from a number of our wateroriented learned societies. The application of good management principles by th e exec utives of our societies is surely ex pected by the members.





SAMUEL HARRY JENKINS (1901 - 1983) In the early ho urs of January 2 1, Samuel Harry Jenkins passed away. Well known to many Austra li ans as a good friend and source of ad vice, particul arly concerning international activities of IA WPRC and acti vi ti es ofa national character managed by Austra li an bodies under the auspices of IA WPRC. A gentle kindly man, he wi ll be sorely missed.


Darwin 4-9th September 1983 The water regime in relation to mining, milling, waste treatment and rehabilitation with emphasis on uranium mining. Over thirty papers by international and Australian speakers will cover a broad range relating to the areas of coal, bauxite, copper, beach sands and uranium. • • • • • • •

Dispersion of pollutants Water quality, analysis and environmental effect. Effects on groundwater and monitoring Pyrite oxidation and acid mine drainage rehabilitation Water management and regulation Dry tailings disposal The aquatic en vironment and heavy metals

VENUE: MINDIL BEACH CASINO Forms available from the Secretary , International Specialist Conference Committee, P.O. Box 37283, Winnellie , N.T. 5789, Australia. Registration by July 31st will ensure receipt of papers before the Conference.


WATER June, 1983


A Method for Estimating Odour Concentrations Around ·Wastewater Treatment Plants I

L. C. C. Koe and D. K. Brady




It is desirable to be able to quantify th e odorousness of wastewater faci li ties and to pin -point their major sources of odour. Previously, a qualitative method based on perceived da rkenin g of lead acetate tapes has been demonstrated (ref. Reinsch et al. , 1977) for mapping relative concentrations of gaseo us hydrogen sulph ide (H 2S). Commerciall y ava il a ble instrum ents which opticall y sca n movin g acetate tapes now permit continuous monitoring of H 2S concentration s up to 20 ppm , but do not provid e good resolut ion at low H 2S concentrations commonl y found in a mbi ent a ir near treatm ent units. By operating such instruments in a 'static mode', and appropriately calibrating their readings, the acetate tape method ca n now yield mapped contours of tim e-averaged H 2S concentration s as low as 0.2 ppm. These co ntours ca n then be con verted to equi valent sewage odour concentrati ons via a correlation such as that recently developed by the authors (ref. Koe & Brady, 1982). The co mpl ete technique is exemplified for a wastewater trea tm ent pla nt in Ipswich, Q ueensland. NOTATION Cn H,S

[H2SJ k

m n ppb ppm R SOU •

So T TOC TOC 0 wwtp X

standard odour concentration (so u/ m 3) hydrogen sulphide concentration of H2S (ppm) regression coefficient co nsta nt expo nent parts per billion (nL/L) parts per million (µLIL) = static reading H2S monitor (ppm) = standard odour unit = specific odour ca pacity (sou m - 3ppm - I) = tim e, exposure duration (min) = thres hold odour co ncentration (ppm ) = TOC for normal observer (ppm) = wastewater treatm ent plant = gaseous odorant concentration (ppm)

= = = = = = = =


Odours at a wastewater treatm ent plant (wwtp) arise simultaneously and di sperse togeth er from various so urces (e.g. inlet structures, sedimenta tion tanks, aeration units, sludge drying beds, etc). Rates of odour emi ssion depe nd primarily on the fo ll owing factors: (a) odorant concentration s in source liquids, (b) turbulence in so urce liquids, (c) di spersion in adjacent ambient air, (d) bulk tran sport (advection) by wi nd. Because all these factors tend to vary significant ly with tim e, quantification of odour concentration s near a wwtp is quit e difficult, and th erefore challenging.

Dr Lawrence Koeisagraduatefrom the University ofSingapore and a Ph.D of the University of Queensland. He is Lecturer in Civil Engineering at the University of Singapore. Dr Derek Brady graduated from the University ofAuckland N. Z., he is a M.Sc. and Ph .D of the John Hopkins University, U.S.A. He is a Senior Lectu rer at the Un iversity of Queensland. 12

WATER June, 1983

"""" ( \' ''\ \\ ·-,i

j ·

Dr. D. K. Brady

Dr . L.



2. ODOUR CONCENTRATION UNITS Th e concentration of odo ur in a n air sample is reflected by th e number of dilution s (with odo ur-free air) needed to render the odour barely detecta ble by a hum an observer. Beca use hum an sensiti vity to odour is exceedingl y vari a ble (among indi viduals) , a given odour sample may require man y dilutions to become imperceptible for a very sensitive person, but may need little di lut ion (if any) for a person with an inferior (or temporari ly impeded) seqse of smell. Unfortunately, thi s va riability among individuals cannot be circum vented by dev ising a machine to substitute for th e human nose (in th e same way that meters have already been developed for measuring light and sound, which can substitute for hum an eyes and ears). This is beca use certain odorants apparently interitct with ot hers in ways that are not purely additive (e.g. th e masking of one odour by another). Mach ines cannot replicate these peculiar effects, whi ch are apparently unique to the olfactory senses. Given that odour quantification must be based on the concept of dilution to thres hold levels using hum an observers, the most sensible way to achieve international communicability of odour survey results is to assume that there exists a statistically stabl e ' mea n odour sensiti vity' for the who le huma n popu lation , and that this ' normal ' sensi ti vity may be represented in any particular part of the world by test ing a sufficiently large sa mple of loca l peo ple selected randomly. Such testing wou ld normally invo lve determining th e average threshold odour concen tration (TOC 11 ) for a specific odorant of interest (e.g. H 2S). Similar tests on a particula r observer in volved in odour surveys wo uld th en esta blish hi s/ her TO C for th e same odorant, and thus indicate the factor by wh ich the obse rver's apparent odour observations must be tran sform ed into 'standa rd ' odour concentration s. A standard odour unit (sou) may be defin ed as th e amo unt of odorous substance whi ch, when di spersed in a unit volume (I m 3) of odour-free air, becomes barely detectable by a ' normal ' observer. (This mea ns that I so u/ m 3 = TOC 0 for that particular odorant.) A ' normal' observer is one whose sensiti vity to that odorant is eq ual to th e mea n va lue for th e whole populat ion. Of course, most act ual observers are not expected to be normal by this definition . If their sensiti vity is superior (i.e. TOC < TOC 0 ) , they ma y be useful for detecting and quantifying odours with concentrati ons less than I sou/ m 3. Thus, the most di lute odour that ca n be quantifi ed by a given observer is (TOC/ TOC 11 ) (sou/ m 3) .


l f

TABLE 2: EXPECTED ODOUR CONTRIB TIONS IN SEWAGE AIR Several interesting coro ll aries follow fro m the a bove d efinition: (a) If the odorant of interest is not identifiabl e (e.g. a mixture of gases Typical Expected TOCn* So from an industria l process), it is impossible to express values for Odorant physical Odour (ppb) (sou 111 - 1 TOCn in a bsolute concentration units (ppm). Nevertheless, if . pp111 - 'J concentrationt concentration/ samples of th e odo ur ca n be tested by a large random gro up of (ppm) Cn (sou/ 111 1) observers, the average number of diluti ons need ed to reach their threshold s becom es a direct m eas ure of the odo ur concentration Et hyl Merca ptan 0. 19 5263 0.02 100 ex pressed in (so u/ m 3) units. This is why the definition of so u does Hydrogen Su lphide 0.47 2128 1.00 2000 not specify ' the amount ofodoro us substance' in vo lum e or m ass Dimeth yl Sulphide 1000 1.00 0.02 20 units (because this may be indeterminable). Meth yl Mercaptan I. IO 909 0.02 20 (b) If, in som e non-m etric technology, it was decided to define a n Skatole 1.20 833 0.05 40 a lternative sta nda rd odour unit as ' the amount .. . dispersed in Aldehydes 7.15 140 0.03 4 som e unit volume other than I m 3 (e.g. I ft 3)', then it fo ll ows from Meth ylamine 47 21.00 0.02 1.0 item (a) that, for a given odour, the number of(so u/ vo lume) units Amm onia 37.00 27 0.1 3 representing its standard odour concentration would be the same Dim cth ylamine 4700 21 0.02 0.5 in both m etric and non -m etric system s! (c) For certa in identifiable odorous gases that a re avai la ble in pure * Extracted fro m WPCF ( 1979) and refe rs to the minimum phys ical co nce ntrati on tha t form at known concentrations in odour-free air (e.g. H 2S), results eli ci ts a 50% (detection) response. "' of TOC tests are already publish ed by va rious a uth orities (e.g. t From Table I. WPCF, 1979). The stronger th e odorant, the smaller is the TOC l Rou nd ed va lues. Extra prec ision not wa rrant ed. value. It is convenient to view the reciprocal of TOCn as a odorous component of sewage air, yields an expected odour m easure of the odorant's odour potential (per unit of ph ysical contribution of on ly 100 sou/ m 3 for eth yl m ercapta n, whereas the con centration). This is here ca lled the specific odour capacity, expected contribution from H2S is up around 2000 sou/m 3 (see S0 (sou m - 3 ppm - 1) , where Table 2). It is th erefore not surprising that the co ncentration of H 2S (!) S0 = 1/ TOCn has frequent ly been adopted as a co nveni ent indicator of the odorousness of a mbient air near wastewater faci lities. 3. MAJOR ODOROUS COMPOUNDS IN SEW AGE AIR

Air that co mes in contact with sewage (in sewers, pump stations and at wastewater treatment plants) beco m es odorous as it picks up traces of various volatile odorous compounds. A na lyses of samples of air co llected from wastewater transmission systems (Thistlethwayte and Goleb, 1972) and treatment plants (Bailey and Viney, 1979; Ando, 1980; Henry and Gehr, 1980) have identified the principal odorants that are emitted from these faciliti es. Table 1 lists the major odorous compounds so identified , together with their normal ranges of concentrations near wastewater faci lities. Typical va lues are highlighted , and these range from as high as 1000 ppb (i.e. I ppm) for hydrogen su lphide down to as low as 20 ppb for som e organic co mponents such as am ines and m ercaptans . TABLE 1: TYPICAL ODORO US COMPONENTS OF SEWAGE AIR


Alpeh ydes Amm onia Dimeth ylamine Dimethyl Sulphide Et hyl Mercaptan Hydrogen Sul phide Meth ylamine Meth yl Merca ptan Ska tole

Reponed Concentrations* Mini11111,n Tvpical Maxi1111111¡1 (ppb) (ppb) (ppb)

10 20 10 10 10 200 10 10

30 100 20 20 20 l000 20 20 50

100 2000 50 50 50 30000 50 50

* References: Thist lethwa yte and Go leb ( 1972) and Verschuercn ( 1977). The ra nge between th e min imu m and maximum values represents the usual ran ge of odo ran t concentration reponcdl y found in normal se we r ai r sampl es. Th e typi cal odora nt concen trati on represents the val ue frequentl y reponcd in th e li teratu re. Ext rem e values of odorant conce ntrati on reported from anal yses of abnormal air sa mple s arc no1 included .

Assuming that reported TOC values for th e major odorous components of sewage air (WPCF, 1979) m ay be interpreted as normal TOCn va lues, it is possible to calculate co rresponding S0 values in accordance with Eq n (1). Table 2 ranks the nine major odorants according to their potential odorousness for a fixed physica l concentration . Et hyl m erca ptan easil y outranks the other odorants, and therefore might be expected to play a major role in determining the concentration of sewage odour. However, if X (ppm) represents the physical concentration of a n odorant present in sewage air (and if masking effects a re ignored), then th e expected odo ur co ntribution C 11 , due to the presence of thi s odorant, sho uld be given by: Cn = S0 X (sou/ m 3) (2) Applying thi s equation to the data from Tables I and 2, for each

4. FIELD CORRELATION BETWEEN H 2S AN D SEW AGE ODOUR Altho ugh sewage authorities have correctl y assumed for many years that gaseo us H2S co ncentration gives a reliable indication of sewage odour concentration (see conclusion of Sec. 3), nevertheless until recently no researchers have published a ny quantitative correlati on between these parameters. One possible reason fo r thi s m ay be that co mmercial o lfactometers , even when operated diligentl y, tend to yield quite va ri able results. (Dynamic olfactom eters permit adjustabl e dilution of a flowing sa mpl e of odorous a ir so that the observer breathing the diluted mi xture can obta in a quantified th reshold reading within I or 2 minutes' operation .) In attempting to correlate H 2S with sewage odour by mean s of multipl e repetiti ve sampling, the authors have eventuall y identified the expected central trend (see below) for certa in faci lities in Ipswich, Queensland. A lthough sewage odo ur concentration s were found to vary fru stratingly over nea rl y 2 orders of m agnitude at any particu la r si te when H2S co ncentration s remained sieady, nevertheless, by selecting sites where H 2S va lues ranged naturally from nearly zero to over 20 ppm at different times of day, it gradua lly em erged tha t mean odour concentration s tended to be larger than usua l whenever H 2S concentrations were high (and vice versa). It was concluded (Koe & Brady, 1982) that thi s central trend co uld be represented by a simple power function of th e fo rm: Cn = m [H 2S]n (3) where Cn is the sewage odo ur concentration (sou! m 3), [H 2S] represent s th e concentration of gaseo us H 2S (ppm) and the para m eters m and n have empiricall y determined va lues. Whereas pure H 2S diluted in odour-free air might be ex pected to yield a va lue of m as high as 2000 (so u m - 3 ppm - 1) (see Tab le 2) and n = I, the Ipsw ich study indicates that m probably lies between a bout 40 a nd 80 (i ndi cating a strong masking ofH 2S odour by sewage!) and values of n a re probably between 0. 7 and 1. 1. For purposes of d emon stration in this paper, a convenient simplification of t hi s power law will be used , VIZ.


5. MAPPING OF H 2S CONTOUR SHAPES: REINSCH'S METHOD At th e 1977 A WW A Federal Convention , Rein sc h et al. prese nted a very useful tec hnique for estimating the shapes of mapped contours of H 2S co ncentration around a wwtp site. Th eir met hod in vo lved ex posing pieces of dry paper fabric (pre-sat urated with 1.ead acetate) at fi xed locations around a pla nt site for the sa me fixed duration (3 hours) to a ll ow darkening of the fabric surfaces due to H 2S-induced formation o f lead sulphide. These researchers th en used a simpl e WATER June, 1983


6-point scale of visual colour comparison to permit relative H 2S concentration s at each loca tion to be estim ated (for the 3 hour survey period), and these enabled contours of iso-H 2S concentrati on to be deduced. Three major achievements of thi s technique were as fo llows: (a) Altho ugh H2S concentrations were not quantified in absolute terms, the contour shapes could be reliably inferred from the relative point comparisons, and these proved useful in identi fyi ng which parts of the plant were major so urces of gaseo us H 2S. (b) Beca use the paper darkening was all owed to accumulate over a 3 ho ur period, substantial differentiati on was possible wit hout optical ass istance, even though ambi ent H 2S concentrati ons around most wastewater plants (except very close to point sources) are commonl y less than I or 2 ppm. (Such low concentrations, though well a bove human threshold levels, are not ca pable of accurate measurement usi ng currently avai lable com mercial H 2S monitors such as that descri bed in Appendix A.) (c) By selecting a long exposure period of 3 hours, the resulting contour maps neatly integrate all the effects of atmospheric dispersion and wind movements throughout thi s period. Although, from a scientific viewpoint, thi s method is not useful for revealing short-term dynamic effects (such as wi nd direction changes), nevertheless, from a profess ional viewpoint, it concisely expresses the overa ll influence of th e plant on its atmospheric neighbourhood during this period.




H 2S

Now that commercial instruments for gaseous H 2S measurem ent (e.g. Append ix A) are capable of pro viding continuous records ofH 2S flu ctuations averaged over a few minutes, it is useful to consider how the mapping technique of Reinsch et al. can be refined.by substituting accurate optical densitom etry for their subj ecti ve eye assessm ent. U nfortunately, for the reason given in item 5(b), such instruments cannot be used in their norma l dyna mi c mode for thi s purpose, because the built-in rate of tran sport of th e lead-acetate tape (1.6 mm/ min) is too fast to all ow suffi cient darkening for accurate measurements at low ambient H,S concentrations. However, by operating an H 2S monitor of thi s type in its static mode (as for its zero calibration) short segments oflead-acetate tape that have been ex posed for 3 ho urs (as proposed by Reinsch el al.) may then be subj ected to accurate quantification using this instrument's sensitive photo-electri c system . Although the instrument's normal d ynamic m eter readings are ex pressed in units of ppm, these units are not meaningful when the device is used in a static mode. However, one wou ld ex pect the stati c meter reading, R, to depend on the duration of tape exposure, T (min), and th e average H2S concentrati on during thi s ex posure. For th e monitor described in Appendix A, calibration test s in vo lvi ng various du ration s of expos ure of tapes inside impermeable



R o,si [Hsj=0,4 T 2

IH 2S1

T (minutes I

Figure 1. Relationship between lead acetate exposure time T, H2S concentration and static meter readin g, R (ppm). 14

WATER June, 1983

Mylar bags contain ing vari o us samples of sewage a ir with di fferent H 2S concentratio ns yielded the resu lts presen ted it! Figure I. The central trend of these results indicates a power function relationship between time, T, and the rati o of the meter reading, R, to the concentration of H 2S, of the form : R/[H 2SJ = k T" (5) where k = 0.40 and n = 0.53, determined empirica ll y. Taking account of th e empiri cal va lues, Eq n (5) indicates that th e meter reading is proportional to th e co ncentrat ion of H 2S and to (roughl y) the square root of ex posure du ra tion . If T is abo ut 5.6 minutes, then the meter reading co rrectl y reflects t he H 2S concentrati on (i.e. R = [H 2Sl), but when T = 180 minutes (3 h), Eqn 5 becomes: [H 2SJ = R/ 6.3 (6) This indicates that when H 2S co ncen trati ons are hovering around I ppm where the accuracy of the H2S monitor (in dynamic m ode) is somewhat limited, the major achievement of transferring to the static mode and adopting an exposure time of 3 ho urs is- quivalent to a meter scale magnification factor of 6.3. Since the full-scale meter reading is 20 ppm, this means th at H2S concen trations greater than about 3.2 ppm wo uld ca use ta pes exposed for 3 hours to yield off-scale readings, but this problem is rarely enco untered in practice (except at locations very close to stro ng so urces of H 2S, when atm ospheric di spersion rates are unusuall y low).

7. TRANSFORMING H 2S OBSERVATIONS TO SEWAGE ODOUR VALVES In the preceding section it ha s been shown that very low concentrati ons of H 2S aro und wwtp sites can be reliab ly mapped in abso lute terms using a commercial H 2S monitor in a static mode to interpret 3-hour average values of H2S to which lead-acetate tapes have been ex posed. Since th e ultimate o bjective is to st udy and understand the di stribution of sewage odo urs aro und plant sites, it is now desirable to incorporate a method of converting H2S concentrations into eq ui va lent sewage odour concentrations via so me correlation between these varia bles such as th at reported in Secti on 4. For demonstration purposes, the simplified relationship represented by Eqn (4) wi ll be used here, beca use this has been shown to be reaso nabl y appropriate for application in the Ipswich area of Q ueensland (see fo llowing secti on). Fo r a pplicati ons in other areas, it wou ld be advisable to perform tests similar to those reported in Section 4 (ref. Koe and Brady, 1982) to eit her confirm or m odify thi s method. Eqn ~4) indicates that the magnit ude of the odo ur concentration (sou/m ) in sewage air contai ning H 2S would be expected to be close to 60 tim es greater than the concen tration ofH 2S exp ressed in ppm . (Note that this is much less odorous than if the H 2S were present by itself, as ind icated in Section 4.) Now, this resu lt can be com bined wi th Eqn (6) to yield: C0 =9.5R whi ch indicates that the norm al sewage odour concentration 3 (so u/ m ) is abo ut IO times grea ter than the static mode H2S meter reading for lead-acetate tapes th at have been ex posed for 3 hours. Since the max imum readable value of R is 20 ppm, the strongest sewage odour that can be quantified by this method is a bout 200 sou/m 3 (i.e. req uiring 200 di lutions to become undetectable by a normal hum an).


8. APPLICATION OF SEW AGE ODOUR CONTOURING METHOD IN QUEENSLAND The re fin ed techniques described in Section s 5, 6 and 7 were applied to a modest-sized wwtp at Tivo li near Ipswich, Queensland , in September and November, 1979. At that time, the plant was receiving mixed dom esti c and industrial wastewaters at an average rate of a bout 0.23 m 3/ s. Both primary and seco ndary treatment (invol ving primary clarificat ion and tri ckling filtration , sludge digestion and drying beds) are prov ided. The site is on the no rth bank of the eastward-fl owing Bremer Ri ver, which receives the treated efflu ent. The ground slopes down wa rd generally to the south-east, with about 6 m etres of fall between the in let struct ure and the seco nda ry sed imentation tanks (see Fig. 2). The nominal 3-hour period selected for exposure of lead-acetate tapes to the atm osphere aro und the plan t was 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. T hi s period was chosen partly to avoid suspected bleaching effects of



Contours tn m AH D



Figure 2. Map of Tivoli WWTP near Ipswich , Queensland, showing ground levels and layout of treatment units.

sunli ght on da rkened tapes, a nd partl y beca use th is peri od co mm onl y ex hibited atm ospheric temperature in ve rsions, very light winds, suppressed rates of odour di spersion, and (occas ionall y) complaints about odo urs from nearby res idents. A total of 55 sa mpling stati o ns aro und th e IO ha pla nt site were selected for placement of ta pe segment s, a nd a wooden post was erected a t each stati on on which short ta pe segment s (each mo unted on stiff ca rdboa rd) were suspended a t a height of 1. 2 m a bove gro und level. It too k abo ut 25 minutes (fro m 6.00 to 6.25 p.m .) to set o ut a ll 55 tapes in order, and a si milar peri od (sta rting at 9.00 p.m .) to retrieve them in the sa me order. Before being tested on the H 2S instrumeAt (at an odour-free locati on), ex posed ta pes were stored in dark sealed envelopes. Extra precauti onary tests were perfo rm ed to ensure that the ta pes exposed late (e.g. from 6.25 p.m. to 9.25 p.m.) yielded res ults negligibly di ffe ren t from the ir 6 p.m . to 9 p.m . counterparts. Alth ough the whole tet::hnique descri bed a bove was a pplied at th e Ti vo li site on three sepa rate occasions, res ult s of o nly two of these surveys are reported here. (During the unreported survey, an accidental electri c power fa ilure interrupted th e suppl y of raw sewage to the pla nt, rendering the survey res ult s of limited va lue.) Cond itions du ri ng th e two survey peri ods reported here are sum ma ri sed in Ta ble 3. Local wind speeds and directions we re observed with a ha nd- held a nemo meter every 30 minutes during both sessio ns, a nd th ese revealed that, alth ough both sets of conditions were relati vely calm, thei r do m ina nt air movements were signi fica ntl y d ifferent in both magnitude and d irection.

9. RESULTS Figures 3 and 4 show ma pped conto urs of average sewage odo ur co ncentrati ons at Ti voli WWTP between 6 p.m. a nd 9 p. m. on 6/ 9/7 9 and 15/ 11 /7 9 respecti vely. Th e co ntours are based on po int values deri ved by appl ying Eqn (7) to meter readings fro m th e H 2S monito r when opera ted in th e stati c mode on lead-acetate ta pes ex posed at th e indi ca ted locati ons for the stated 3 hour peri od. Both these fi gures ex hibit the fo ll owing features: (a) A small central region (near the prim ary clarifiers and inlet structure) with in which sewage odo ur concentrat ions pro bab ly exceeded 100 so u/ m 3 (i.e. requ iring 100 d ilu tions to be rendered imperceptible to a normal observer). (b) A m uch more ex tensive region (occupying a bo ut 7 ha in each

Figure 3 . Contou rs of sewage odour concentration Cr (S04/ m3 ) at T ivo li WWTP , 6/ 9/79 , 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. session .

case) within which odour concentrati ons probably exceeded 10 so u/ m 3 (a nd wo uld therefore be noti ceable to mo st human s, including th ose with relati ve ly weak senses of smell). (c) A tendency for th e di spersion pattern to be influenced by th e do minant directi on of whatever sli ght winds occ urred during the survey periods, as in d icated by the lower-valued contours tend ing to be so mewha t di storted in the direction indicated as downwind. Two furth er poi nt s are worth noting a bout the co nto ur pattern s: (i) T he 10 sou/m 3 odour co ntour in Fig. 3 ex hi bits a fin ger- li ke protrus ion ex tending eastward along th1talignment of a gull y (see gro und co nt ours, Fig. 2). T hi s suggests th at H2S may have been ca rri ed by a convecti ve fl ow of dense a ir migrating down th e gull y under the evening atm osph eric temperature in versio n. Such a flow is a pparentl y not evident in Fig. 4, perhaps because it was suppressed by th e then easterl y wind drift. (ii) Thi s method ca nnot relia bly identify th e odour contours for I so u/ m 3, which probabl y would have been extended outside the site bo und ary fe nce on both occasio ns. When Cn = I so u/ m 3, a bo ut half th e po pulati on perceives no odo ur (but very sensiti ve people may detect odours even ten tim es less concentrated) .

IO. CONCLUSIONS T he ma in concl usions whi ch may be drawn from thi s paper a re: (a) It is unli kely that the hum an nose will ever be superseded by a m achine for qua nti fy ing odours, beca use of masking effects. (b) U nfo rtunately, hum an sensiti vit y to odo ur va ri es enorm o usly a mong indi viduals, but a suita ble reference sta ndard fo r co mpa ri son purposes is the average se nsiti vit y for th e whole population , whi ch may be estimated by testing a large random local sa mple. (c) Th e co ncentration of a n odo ur (Cn) in standard odour units per unit vo lume (so u/ m 3) is the number of odour-free diluti ons needed to reach the threshold of a no rmal o bserver, i. e. an observer with average sensiti vity. (d ) In sewage air fro m m uni cipal sewerage fac ilities, alth ough the most potenti a ll y odoro us substa nce (per unit) is eth yl merca ptan, th e phys ical concentrati on of gaseo us H 2S is usually so much grea ter tha t sewage odour is domin ated by H 2S. W AT E R June, 1983


VERSCH UER EN, K. (ed .) ( 1977) ' Handbook of Environm ental Data on O rgan ic Chemicals.' Van N ostrand Rein~ old, New York, U.S.A. W PFC (Water Polluti on Control Federati on) ( 1979) Odour control ¡ fo r wastewater facilities. ' Manual of Practice No. 22', Washington, D.C. , U.S.A.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th e a uth ors are indebted to the Ipswich City Council, particula rl y to the Sewerage Engin eer M r D . R . W hittle and his sta ff, fo r their interest, ass istance and co- operation throughout thi s proj ect.

APPENDIX A Hydrogen S ulphide M onitor

Figure 4. Contours of sewage odour concentration Cr (Sou/ m3) at Tivoli WWTP , 15/ 11 /79, 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. session .

(e) Notwith standing the hi gh variability of standardi sed od our concentrations in sewage a ir, the cep tral trend of this domin ance may be represented by Cn (sou/ m ) = 60[H 2SJ, for the types of sewage tested near Ipswich, Queensland. . (f) The od our associated with H, S in sewage air is much less tha n 1t would be if the H2S (as measured) were there by itself, i.e. sewage air conta ins other substances which apparently mask some of the odour due to H 2S. (g) Wh en segments of lead -acetate tape suitable for use with a commercial (UE l Model 7010) H2S monitor are exposed fo r T minutes and then tested on the machine under static condition s, the m eter reading R is given by R = 0.40T 0 ¡53 [H 2SJ. (h) Low a mbient H2S concentrations a round a wwtp may .be quantified using th e method mentioned in (g) above by ex posing tape segments fo r 3 ho urs, in which case [H 2S] = R/6.3. (i) Coupling the relationships identified in (e) and (h) above, average 3-hour sewage odo ur concentrations around a wwtp may be deduced from static mode H2S meter readings of lead -acetate tapes using Cn = 9.5 R. (j ) Two applicati ons demonstrating odour contours around a m odest- sized wwtp near Ipswich, Queensland reveal concentrati ons of 100 sou/ m 3 near the primary clarifiers, and indi cate that easily detectable od ours probably extend beyond the site boundary under typi cal fa irly calm evening conditions.

REFERENCES AN DO, S. (1 980) Odor control of wastewater treatment plants. Journ . Wa ter Pollution Control Fed. , Vo l. 52, N o.5, pp. 906-9 13, ~ ~.


BAILEY, J. C. and VINEY, N. J. ( 1979) Gas chromatographic in vestigation of odours at a sewage treatment works. Water Research Centre Technical Report TR1 25, Stevanage La boratory, U .K. H ENR Y, J. G . and GEHR, R . (1 980) Odor control : an operator's guide. Journ. Water Poll. Control Fed. , Vol.5 2, No. JO, pp.2523-2537 (Oct). KOE L. and BRADY, D. K. (1982) Quantification of sewage odours. R ~search Report N o. 40, Dept of Civ il Engineering, U ni vers ity of Queensland. REINSCH , D . A. , PARR-S MITH G. A. and CORNELL, M . A. ( 1977) 'Odour Assessment and Control in Sewage Treatment Works', Proc. 7th Fed. Convention, Aust. Water & Wastew. Assoc. , Ca nberra, Australia. (Sept.). THISTLETHWAYT E, D. K. B. and G O LEB, E. E. (1 972) Th e composition of sewer air. International Association on Water Pollution R esearch, pp.28 1-288 . 16

W A T ER June, 1983

A co mmercia lly ava ila ble hydrogen sulphide (H 2S) monitor (M odel 70 10, manu factured by U ni versal nv iro.nmental Instrum ents (U. K.) Ltd.) utili ses th e principle of co lour densito metry to meas ure the concentration of H,S in a mbi ent a ir. The instrum ent compri ses a sm a ll electric-powered a ir pump, a flo w meter, an electro ni c module, an alarm system , a dual ph otocell unit and a system of mechanical gears arranged to tran spo rt, a t a fi xed rate, a continuo us strip of chem icall y im pregnated paper tape fro m a replaceable cassette. All th ese components are housed in a meta l box measuring 25.4 cm x 42 cm x 28 cm. Th e dev ice requires a 240 volts AC ma ins suppl y and weight approximately 11.5 kg. Operation of t he instrum ent is based on th e lead -acetate/ sulphide co nversion principle, by which a stream of sampl ed a ir conta ining H2S reacts with a specia lly impregnated lead -ace.tate paper tape t.o produce a co loured stai n (lead sulphide). The optica l denslly o fth1 s sta in is proportiona l to the H2S concentrati on. A photo-electric cell monitors the d egree of da rkening on the ta pe a nd converts the milli-volt response to read directl y in H2S concentration units (ppm). . . Fo r continuous operati on, the lead-acetate pa per tape 1s m the form of a long reel of pa per tape (sufficient fo r one wee k's operation) conta ined in a pl astic cassette. The tape is 2 cm wide and is tran sported past a sensing head at a speed of 10 cm/ hour. Sa mpled air is d rawn into the instrum ent by the sma ll air pump at 150 m L/mm, a nd passes th rough a defin ed area on the top ha lf of th e moving tape width. T he other (lower) ha lf of the tape is shi elded fr.o m the gas and is used to prov ide a reference meas urement. Both th e sta in ed and ' reference' portions of the ta pe ta ke about 2.5 mins to arri ve at the centre o f the optica l scanner. H ere, each half of the ta pe is illuminated from a co mmon light sp urce over a square area of a bout 4 mm x 4 mm , and th e refl ecti ons from the sta in ed and reference portion s of the tape are monitored by a matched pa ir of photocells. The refl ecti ve difference between the exposed and the reference ta pe causes a signal to be fed (via signal amplifiers) to the readout meter on th e front pa nel and to the ala rm system . (The alarm system is a utom atically triggered when the H 2S concencentratio.n exceed s a preset value.) Th e same signal sent to the readout meter 1s a lso transmitted to a set of output termina ls where a chart recorder may be attached . The reado ut m eter is calibrated a nd scaled linea rl y from 0-20 ppm. The max imum readout poss ible under the manu facturer's reco mmended operati o n o f the H2S monitor is therefore 20 ppm, with an accuracy of abo u.t 5% at mid-scale.

ERRATA In th e Index published on page 22 of the March issue, th e li sting of papers under ' No. 4- December' o f Vol. 9 - 1982 is in correct. The correct listin g is as foll ows:

N o. 4 - DECF.MBER Recent Overseas Deve lopm ents in Biological Surve ill ance ..... .... ... ... ... ..... ................. ] . F. Skidmore Yo ur Federal Co nventi on - April I Ith- 15th Intern ati ona l Co ntent Ex tended Aeration T reatment of Saline Wastewaters ..... .. .......... ...... ............... ..... .. ...... .. L. Applegren Water Filtrati on Usin g Loca ll y Ava il able Sand . ...... .... ... .... ..... ................. ... Oluso la Ogedengbe

I 1



THE HAPPENING Our Tenth Federal Conventi on has come and gone a nd leaves so many of us techni ca ll y better in formed a nd with o ld fri endships and acqua intances refreshed and new, formed. As a venue, Sydney has so much to offer and its adva ntages were used to th e full by the Organising Co mmittee. The Ci ty itself, the harbour a nd en virons and the attracti ons to the north , so uth and west. Th e progra mme followed has becom e so mewh at tradition al. The Opening Cock tail Party, techni cal papers with a mid-week break for field visi ts and so me social activities, m ore papers, th e Co n ven ti on Dinner and a fin al half da y on techni cal matters concluding with the Farewell Luncheon and providing an opportunity for th e num erous presenta tion s and acknowledgements of services rendered. The Conference attracted a to tal of 3 10 Registrant s includin g 29 from overseas, 93 Dail y Registrants a nd so me 100 "accompan yin g persons" (th ere should be a better phrase!). A very respecta ble attendance having in mind th e tim es and severe pressures in man y areas. The Sheraton-Wentworth Hotel provided fi rst class facilities and coped successfull y with the proble ms of two " streams" of lectures and the necessa ry quick change-overs for Iunch eo n se rvi ce. Th e exce ll ent manu facturers' ex hibition constituted a co nsi derable space demand, which, hopefull y, will increase with future conferen ces. This factor, with the growth and ex pansion of th e Assoc iat ion , wil l present future organising committees with food for thought in the matter of venues. The Keynote and In vited Speakers, Maarten Schaleka mp (Switzerland), John Stacha (USA), Dr. Ron Pack ha m (UK) and Robert Ca nham (USA) introduced a rewarding international touch to the activities and complemented the presenta ti on of over sixty wide ranging techni ca l papers in "Clean" a nd "Wastewater" strea m s. Official guests of the Associa tion included Mr. Schaleka mp. Mr. a nd Mrs. Jo hn Stacha, Mr. and Mrs. Dave Preston and Mr. and Mrs. Robert Ca nh a m . The Co nference Organising Co mmittee under the Chairmanship of Tim Sm ythe and with the able support of me mbers and wives ca n look back on th e most sati sfactory culmina tion to the tremendous amount of organisation and effort invol ved in the staging of the Tenth Federal Convention .




OPENING A large audi ence of Delegates and visitors attended th e official opening of the Co nvention on Monday Apri l 11th, commencing with a welco me by AWWA

Federal President , Frank Bishop, th e opening address by the Governor of New So uth Wales, His Excell ency Air Marshal Sir James Rowland th en fo llowed by the Keynote and Invited addresses.

Hi s Excellency emphas ised that acti on in water supply matters cannot awa it until th e problems have become intractable. The first essen ti al is understanding and where this is achi eved act ion , planning and implemen tat ion , mu st fo ll ow.




KEYNOTE AND INVITED ADDRESSES MAARTEN SCHA:LEKAMP "Water S upply and Water Disposal Problems of our Spaceship Earth"

In introducing th e Governor, Frank Bishop pointed out th at the drought whi ch had taken such extensive toll th ro ughout Australia hi ghlighted the necessity for co ncent ra ti on upon water management and research. He stressed His Excellency's engineering qualificati ons, hi s wart ime interest in Bomber Co mmand 's .. rea rrangement" of water facilities in Ge rman y a nd suggested the Govern or qualified for AWWA membership.

Mr. Schaleka mp is a Civil Engineer and is Genera l Manager of Water Suppl y Zurich, acti ve in the Interna tional Water Suppl y Association over man y years, he is President of that organi sation , President of the Swiss Gas and Water Industry Associati on, Pres ident-elect of International Ozone Association-World and has recentl y vacated pres id enci es of international wo rking parties dealing with Rhin e waterworks.



Sir Jam es hail ed the occasion as a mil estone in th e growth of th e A WWA. the I 0th Biennial Conventi on and the 21st yea r of th e Associatio n - the co ming of age' The presence of distinguished int erna ti onal speakers, he sa id , was fitting. co min g to give a nd to lea rn in technica l intercha nge in thi s the dri est of th e co ntin ents with wea th er cycles of as yet, unknown durati o n and severi ty.

In an address topi ca ll y built around "Spaceship Earth" a nd what ma nkind is doing to it. Mr. Schalekamp tra versed the ge neral world wa ter problems and en vironm en tal pollution, treatment processes in the waterworks of the River Rhin e and its catc hm ent , the lakewater trea tm ent processes in Swi tzerla nd and co ncluded with a summ ary of th e problem s of wa ter suppl y bodies in Swi tzerland a nd in Europe, past a nd present. The address co nstituted one of the maj or papers of the Conventi on, it was libera ll y illustra ted with photogra phs, charts and gra phics of great int erest a nd sta ti st ics with grea t impac t. Much of th e graphic illustra ti on. whi ch combi ned arti stry and humour wi th techni cal impact was the Auth or's own work - congra tulation s Maarten. Th e address is reproduced in full in the Papers of the Con ve ntion as are the oth er in vited addresses. WATER June, / 983


• • •


JOHN H. STACHA "An Overview of Water Quality and Water Treatment Activities in the United S tates"

Mr. Stacha is Ass istant Director of the Water Utilities Department of the City of Dallas, USA.. Active in the American Waterworks Associati on, he assisted in the fo rmation of the Texas Section in 1974 and became its Chairman and Director. From 1973 to 1980 he served on various Councils of the AWW A and is now President of that organisation.

Opening his address with comment upon the similarities and differences of the USA and Australia, Mr. Stacha spoke of the Mississippi R iver system and of the more than 220,000 public water supply system s in the U nited States and of costs. Water quality objectives and standards were commented upon, leading to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 and developments ari sing from th e Act. Treatment plant practice, design and trends were mentioned briefl y being covered in detail in the written paper. Mr. Stacha then described aspects of the American Waterworks Association acti vities, its publications, standards and conference progra mm es, the Waterlit computer base and the AWW A Research Foun dation. After description and illustration of the Dallas supply system he listed the immediate challenges as operator training, public and media appreciation, adequate charges for supply and maintenance of an ever growing system.

• • •


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remarks to the health im plications of d rin king water quality in the UK in the context of environm ental effects upon health and increasi ng info rm ation on the trace components of drin king water, an area in which acti vity has been reinfo rced by the pro mulgati on of an EC Directi ve on the quality of water for hum an consumption.

Difficulties in some areas in complying with the max imum levels fo r lead and nitrates have led to detailed surveys and in vestigati on of remedi al measures. Also, the relationship between water softness and cardiovascul ar di sease and the effects of wastewater reuse and of th e products of chl orination are the subj ects of considerable research. Dr. Packham concluded by saying that even small risks must be in vestigated to ensure a sensible balance between the protection of th e public health and heavy expenditure on rather intangible improvements of drinking water quality.

ROBERT CANHAM "Current Initiatives and Direction of Wastewater Treatment in the USA"

His address commenced with a brief recountal of th e treatm ent situation in the USA up to the time of " th e famou s or in fa mous Act of 1956" which contained the first grants fo r publicl y owned plants. U p to 1972 fundin g had grown to some $250 million per year, then came the legislation known as the "Clean Water Act" with a marked change in phi losoph y from requiring the most cost-effecti ve means of achieving a technology based efflu ent standard to demandin g secondary treatment irrespecti ve of the receiving waters, and if necessary, furth er treatm ent. In the last decade, some $34 billion has been appropriated fo r these purposes and th e co mpliance dates have been steadi ly advan ced. The large fund requirement is forcing re-appraisal of plans and will mean greater contribution by the local communities. The legal requirements will stay but the bodies concerned will have to initiate more meaningful enforcement programmes. Mr. Canham concluded with reference to recent EPA turmoil in the USA relating to toxic waste di sposal and to his anticipations fo r the near future.




TECHNICAL SESSIONS T he sixty one techni cal papers presented, together with the keynote and in vited 11ddresses, provid~d a comprehensive and wide-ranging programm e of high standard. The sessions were divided into two parallel streams, clea n and wastewater and this operated well. Chairing and organisati on was smooth and attendance was well maintained over the'- entire period of the Convention with good audience participation and di scussion. The single bound volum e of papers is a high quality production in every respect, the quality is reflected in the weight of the volume which is formidab le. The volume is avai lable from th e A WWA Federal Secretary, P.O. Box A232, Sydney South, 2001. Price, surface mail is $47 to N.S.W., $49.50 to other States and $45 Aust, plus postage overseas.





"Drinking Water Quality in Relation to Health - Current Issues in the UK"

18 WATER June, 1983

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Dr. Packham is Assistant Director of the Water Research Centre, Stevenage U.K., he is a member of the Interdepartmental Committee on Medical Aspects of Water Quality and of the Council of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists. In his address, Dr. Packham directed his


Mr. Canham is the Executive Director of the Water Pollution Control Federati on in the United States and has length y association with and wide knowledge of wastewater treatm ent in th at country.

The Northern Foyer of the Opera House pro vided a dra matic setting for thi s, th e fi rst fo rmal event of the social programm e although an informal, Sunday evening get-together at the venue hotel started the renewal of old acquaintances. The Opera House settin g needs little comment. With its striking architectural surrounds and the magnificent terrace outlook over the harbour with its lights, its boating traffic, the glamour of the night scene

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- a delightful evening, thoroughl y enjoyed by a large attendance of th e Conventi on personnel.

DINNER DANCE This fun ction at th e Shera ton -Wentworth provided a happy combination of dinn er table compan y and dan ce - suffi cient o f each and not too much of ei ther. Formalities were brief. Frank Bishop welcomed all, presented the Keynote speaker Maarten Schalekamp with a commemorative plaque and made special mention of th e co mpany of representati ves of overseas organ isations, Dave and Loui se Preston & Bob and Margie Canham . He paid tribute to th e Authorities who had contributed so much to th e Co nvention and to mark the occasion, presented co mm emorati ve plaques to Eric Warrell, Sydney Board, · Dav id Anderson, Hunter Distri ct Board, Wal Pilz, PWD and Bill Dulfer for the Melbourne Board. Frank concluded with thanks to the comm ercial organisations and exhi bitors for th eir contribution s in cash and in effo rt. Maarten Schaleka mp replied for th e visitors with complim entary comment upon Sydney and the A WW A and presented President Frank wi th a silver medal of Zurich. Tim Sm ythe then introduced th e after-dinner spea ker Dick Taylor, Engineer and well known yachting enthusiast who provided a co mprehensive talk on th e Ameri ca's Cup - its history, Australian efforts in thi s area, the chall enger " Advance"and all that goes to the mounting of a challenge for the elusive " mug". With V. President Bob Lloyd's thanks to Mr. Taylor, the rest of th e co mpany sett led down to dancing and conversation - a good night.

FAREWELL LUNCHEON The concluding luncheons are now a traditional fina le to A WWA Conventions and Sydney li ved up to precedent. Tim Sm ythe, Convention Committee Chairman ex pressed the mood of the luncheon, a mi xture of pleas ure in completion of a sati sfyi ng meeting and the nostalgia acco mpanyi ng its conclusion. With special mention of Michael Durea u, unavoidably absent in Switzerland, he expressed warm appreciation of contributions by the Committee, the num erous helpers, the ladies who assisted, the SheratonWentworth staff, all too numerous to list here. Donors and supporters, he advi sed would be receiving plaques to commemorate their involvement in the Conventi on. Mementos, plaques or A WW A ti es, were presented by Pres ident Bishop to Messrs. Preston , Canham, Packham and Haughey, and to the numerous session chairm en. Winners of the Association's major awards - the Michael Flynn and the G uy Parker were ann oun ced, as reported

. 1983 .

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elsewhere in this issue and the Golf trophy winner, Marshal Wh yte. At thi s juncture, the A WW A's Twenty Fi rst Birthday was suitabl y celebrated with a cake - candles and all - suggested by Mickie Bishop and cut by Margot Montgomery, a long time "associate" . Frank Bishop wound up the proceedings with a warm tribute to the Organising Committee, to Lance Bowen, Tas Twyman, Mike Dureau, to th e many others involved and to the ladies - Christin e Smythe, Fay Bowen, Caroline Small, Grace Dureau and Ann e Hodges and finall y to T im Smythe for his leaders hip and management and to the joint contributi on by Tim and wi fe, Chri stine. This was followed by presentation of an inscribed sil ver tray to Tim and Christine as a memento and in appreciation . The Convention closed with reminders to all of events to co me, The Darwin International Speciali sts Conference in September, the Can berra Summ er School in 1984 and the 11th Federal Con venti on in Melbourne, April l 985.





guard agai nst possible attack by the " Ru ssians". Complete wi th extensive armory and hefty cast cann on - and never a shot fired in anger! Contrary to local belief, there never were any con victs at the Fort and the relics displayed are interesting but (disappointingly) not gruesome. The visit wound up with a short harbour crui se and tea an d biscuits, courtesy of the N.S.W. ladies. A tour or the Blue Mo untain s did not attract sufficien t participants for a bus load and the twenty or so concern ed joined a regular tourist trip, and enjoyed it greatly. As the week passed, interest in tours did abate a little as visitors felt 'at home' and made their own arrangements. The post-convention tour of the Hunter Valley with its techni cal and social content was cancelled . The dedicated Ladies Committee contributed greatly to th e social activities and th e Secretari at staff with the ever-willing help of Janet from Kent's and Michelle from the Sydney Board was always on the spot to sort out problems. Finall y - a merit badge to Paul Dougas who shouldered the burden of orga ni sation.

TOURS AND HOSPITALITY A co nvenient and co mmodious " hosp ita lity room" was pro vided for the ladies - and others - at the venue hotel and proved a great asset. After th e Monday Opening, a " brunch" mustered so me sixty ladi es and provided a fl ying start for the Ladies Commi ttee and registrant s. A bus tour of the City covered the historic aspects and extended out to the sceni c aspects of the so uth side of the harbour with its suburbs ranging fro m the excl usive to the " trendy" . In spite ofa lost bus, there always has to be one, th e tour was an excellent introduction to Sydney. A visit to and ex ploration of the Opera House was a " must" for a number as was a guid ed stro ll through th e histori c " Rocks"; area, souvenir opportunities an' all. A dinner cruise of th e Harbour on the " John Cadman"; proved very popular, the A WW A having the entire ship for eating, drinking and making merry. A good night, gentle crui sing, harbour lights, great fl ocks of floodlit gull s accom pany ing the boat, music and dancing - what more could be asked? For those not cruising the Sydney Tower with its rotating restaurant provided a continuing panorama of the City's night lights, good company and an enjoya ble meal with the usual accompaniments. The floor's rotation and the tower height were, of co urse, th e only reasons for th e occasional symptoms of vertigo. Historic Fort Denison on its rocky islet just off Circular Quay provided a deli ghtful and informative vis it. Referred to locally as " Pinchgut", thi s fascinating stone fort was completed in the mid-eighteen hund reds to

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GOLF A blustery wind and the demanding Bonnie Doon Golf Co urse provided a testing morn ing for a field of twenty fi ve stalwa rts including two ladi es. Marsha l Whyte, a local, playing off 16, ca me in with the top Stabl efqrd score, a very co mm endable 32 points and so emerged as trophy winner. Meg Hewitt collected the Associates award with a respectable 26 points wh ich placed her tenth in the overall field. ,. A late and ample luncheon and award of a plethora of prizes co mpl eted a most satisfying day for the players and organiser, Graham Douglas.

SAILING Sydney, of course, offers unique opportunities for those addicted to the sea and ships and a couple of dozen " conventi oners" took adva ntage of the hospitality offered by the sailing fraternity. Six craft and crews experienced the delights of the Harbour in a very stiff southerly, sailing from the Middle Harbour Yacht Club after a very pleasa nt luncheon. A very pleasant innova tion and a congenial way to investigate th e poll ution aspects of a major port.






TENTH FEDERAL CONVENTION A welcome to the ladies by Christine Smythe

Nada Aubrey , Nan Hughes , Teresa Varjavandi

Jocelyn Dulfer , Gladys Wilks , Sheila Strom , Nancy Rogerson , Jill Bolio , June Osland Karin Trope, Mickie Biship , Mary Hewitt , Betty Fitzmaurice , Susan Parker

June Osland, Louise Preston , Margie Canham

Pat Volk , Betty Browning , Pip Stanley


LADIES GATHERING J ulie Iverson, Nicholes Boston , Robin MacDonald

Richard Conolly , Nar111a and Ted Walder


Marg. Pettigrew and Wal. Whiteside 20

WATER June, 1983

Jack and Dolores Davis, Pat Volk , Pip Stanley , Betty Howard


He nry McFie , Doug Peck , Don Walters

ON CANDID CAMERA Leon Henny , Chris Davis

George Goffin , Karin and Jonathon Trope

Allan Strom , Christine Smythe , Rosemary Tseng , Tim Smythe , Sheila Strom

Julie Twyman , Graham Montgomery , Margot Montgomery , Tas Twyman

Bob Canham and Grace Dureau Maarten Schalehamp and Anne Warrel

Mok Ah Kow , Frank Bishop , Mrs Mok


J lJ


Fay and Bill Rees , Shirley Mackay

In well meritted appreciation . Bob Lloyd (left) and Frank Bishop (right) present a silver tray to Christine and Tim Smythe

Peter and Grace James

WATER June, 1983


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Trevor Judell with Margie Canham , Bob Lloyd and party

Kiwi John Fitzmaurice amongst the ladies

Julie Iverson , Bob Swinton , Graham and Margot Montgomery - all doing well!



Sue Meek , Peter Scot! and Roger Vass

THE FINALE: Margot Montgomery cuts the AWWA 21st Birthday cake at the farewell luncheon Sorry -

no names!

Ruth a nd J o hn Bristow a nd company


WATER June, 1983


Ian and Val Lowther , Geoff and Jean Earp

J ocelyn and Bill Dulfer , Glad and Chas Wilks


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MANUFACTURERS' EXHIBITION A striking feature of the Convention was the ex hibiti on of plant, processes and eq uipment by twenty-six companies. The standard of displays was high and the various companies maintained manning of their exh ibits during most of the acti ve hours. A large number of delegates utilised the opportunity offered to obtain firs t hand and up-to-date information. In declaring the Exhibition open , Mr. Arthur Haughey of the Auckland Regional Authority pointed out that whilst engineers and consultants design , it is the manufacturer who translates designs into reality. He produces, installs and commissions and, if it doesn't work, he fixes it. Australian manufacturers are inn ova ti ve · and inventi ve. They have to be to compete successfull y with external competi tion . Mr. Haughey concl uded wit h comment on the range of plant and equipment, on the contribution to the Convention by the organisations involved in time, staff and expense.

FIELD VISITS The Authorities and organisations invo lved gave great attentio n to the planning of inspections and were genero us in the of guides, commentators, provision information sheets and brochures - also, where oppo rtunity offered, in the provision of hospitality. Most projects available for visits were well established and in some cases, not of recent vintage and so not new to many of the delegates. This in some cases limited the interest and the attendance.

NORTH RICHMOND WWTP PROSPECT RESERVOIR The No rth Richmond WWTP has a capacity of 45 ML/d and takes water from th e Hawkesbury River, an increasingly polluted source necessitating the use of activated carbon in the filters. The water supply system dates back to 1892 and the installation now provides chemical treatment, clarification and the dual media filters with chlorination. En route, the Horsley Road Powder Feed Fluoridation Plant was visited. The plant is located at the terminal point of the twin Warragamba Pipelines and is designed to feed up to 4620 kg/d of powdered sodi um silicofluoride into the system. At Prospect delegates were interested in a new rotary screen ing installation and a demonstration of the artificial turn -over of the reservoir and the fish monitoring faci lity for detecting toxic contaminants. Board' s staff assisting included Messrs. Coffin , Fraser, Young, Petrie, Radovanovic and Ms. von Winterberg.

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NORTH HEAD WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PLANT The present plant receives sewage from the Northern Suburbs Ocean Outfall Sewer, N .S.O.O.S. at an average dry weathe r flow of 300 ML/d and provision has been made for amplification to 550 ML/d. Flow passes through five screens in an underground chamber at about sea level and is then discharged through a cliff face outlet to the ocean. Screenings are pumped to a multi-hearth incinerator at the surface. Work now in hand will provide full primary treatment. Pumps will lift the screened sewage 60 metres to pre-aeration, grit removal and four sedimentation tanks. Effluent will pass via an existing drop shaft to th e present ocean outlet until completion of a 4 km sub marin e outfall. Sludge and grease will be pumped to the Materials Handling Building for thickening and incineration. The work has required large scale excavation and the submarine outfall is a major project estimated to be completed by 1990 at a cost of some $33 million. Colin Brodie and Norm Reynolds of the Board's staff guided the tour.

MALABAR WATER POLLUTION CONTROL PLANT This is a primary treatment plant receiving adwf of 450ML/d from the Southern and Western Outfall System. The plant effluent discharges by gravity through the S.W.S.O.O.S. to the ocean. The ultimate design is for a 3 million equivalent population with a submarine outfall discharging 2500m offshore. After screening and gri t removal, the sewage is pumped to six pairs of mechanically cleaned sedimen tation basins. The installation is roofed , covered with soil , landscaped and planted. Ex hau st gases are treated for odour removal by passage through plastic media scrubbers. Sludge is digested in three tanks which, with a multi-hearth incinerator are installed above ground. Digested sludge is screened and discharged to the S. W.O.O.S. , sludge gas is used in the plant and the surplus flared off. The visitors were well cared for by Messrs. Hope, Ya len ti s and Rosen from the Board.

MANLY DAM AND HYDRAULICS LABORATORY This complex consists of laboratories of the Sydney Board, the P.W.D. and the State Water Resources Commission. The visit provided an outline of the model investigations, past and present, carried out at the laboratories and an opportun ity to see


• • •

the post-tensioning operation necessary to up-grade the design of the dam. The work was preceded by feasibility studies and long-term tests and implementation involved the installation offortysix Y.S.L. tendons down through the mass gravity wal l into the foundations. A fi lm of the operation was shown by the Board. This work has res ulted in adoption of similar proposals for the Cataract and Co rdeaux Dams to co unter uplift forces not anticipated in the original designs. During the visit delegates received information on the Water Resources Commission in vestigations for the Glenbaun and Split Rocks Dam and the P.W.D.'s fluorescent dye work on dispersion effects at outfalls. David Snape led the tour.

WARRAGAMBA A small group of Convention delegates were th e guests of th e Sydney Water Board on a tour of some of th e headworks facilities associated with Warragamba Reservoir, the pipeline to Prospect and new works around Prospect Reservoir. A technical highlight of the tour was the inspection of the new 13.8 ML/d Warragamba water treatment plant which treats water drawn from the Warragamba to Prospect pipelines. It will eventually replace the existing plant which supplies local towns around Warragamba which is approximately 55 km east of Sydney. The plant provides coa*ulation, floculation , filtration, disinfection, pH correction, fluoridation and waste water treatment. After alum dosing and flash mixing, the dosed water passes to dual media filters using the variable level df:clining rate method of filter flow rate control - the first usage by the Board, which is expected to yield considerable savings in back wash usage. Process con trol is based on a microprocessor system permitting the operator control over all processes with graphics and alarm feedbacks. The plant is in a wooded residential area and the plant appearance has been designed accordingly. Apart from an external chlorine tank and some pipework, the remainder of the installation is housed in buildings resembling modern residences. En route a stop was made at the Pipelines Ch lorinati on Plant. This is the Board's largest installation and is designed to produce a 3 mg/L chlorine dose in a flow of 2600 ML/d. Located at the upstream end of the pipelines, the scale of the plant is impressive. Six chlorinators are install ed and chlorine arri ves at the plant in liquid form in 12.5 tonne tankers. The return route took the tour along the 3000 and 2100 mm pipelines with stop at points of interest. Messrs. Brownjohn, Trickett, Ridley and Conley, all of the Board's staff, guided the activities. WATER June, 1983


• • •


WYONG WWTP AND KINKUMBER WQCC The Water Treatment Plant at Wyong, com missioned last year, uses the direct filtration system and treats 100 ML/d which wi ll increase ultimately to 400 ML/d. The direct filtration process proved of considerable interest to the visitors and Messrs. Toop and Boake of the Council, and Long of the P.W.D. provided plenty of information .

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After a pleasant luncheon break at the Gosford Leagues Club, the tour moved to the Kinkumber Water Quality Control Centre. This centre at present serves an equivalent population of 30,000 which ultimatel y wi ll reach 4-500,000. The installation is designed as a conventional activated sludge plant wi th surface aerators but as now constructed will operate as an extended aeration plant. Temporary treatment facilities have been comm issioned using the sludge lagoo ns as an aerated lagoon system. The effl uent will discharge by gravity to a near-shore ocea n outfa ll. Gosford Shire personnel acted as guides and informants and lun ch time was spent at the Gosford Leagues Club.

CASTLEREAGH LIQUID WASTE DEPOT AND PENRITH LAKES SCHEME The Waste Depot of the Metropolitan Waste Disposal Authority accepts liquid wastes for disposal in a special landfill. The operation will eventuall y be replaced by a plant using physical/chemical processes to produce an effluent acceptab le in the Board's

Kinkumber WQCC


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sewers and a dewatered filter cake a nd oily sludge residue. The wastes received wi ll be separated into two main streams, the bulk with pH greater than 5.5 and the balance of acidic wastes. The general plan of treatment proposed is screening, stirred storage tanks, tanks for mixing with reagents, centrifuging, air flotation , thickening, filter pressing and polyelectrol ytic preparation. The interim facility consists of disposal of liquid and solid wastes in cells bounded by and covered with clay barriers and the site is loca ted in a clay basin. The si te and surrounds are monitored by bore samples to determine any movement of waste from the site. Messrs. Samuel, Trevitt and Townsend from the Authority provided guidance during the first part of the tour. After luncheon at the Penrith Leagues Clu b, Peter McGhee of the Penrith Lake Development Corporation led the group on a tour of the scheme. The area has been a sand and gravel site for over 40 years and the Corporation of quarrying co mpani es was formed as the result of action by the Penrith City Co un cil and planning and environmental interests to achieve planned operations and acceptable rehabilitation of the area where extraction will continue for some further 20 years.

HI-AWWA-THA THE SONG OF CONVENTION '83 From the tepees by the Harbour, To the limits of the Nation , Went the call to all the tribesmen, 'Come together, smoke the Peace-Pipe, Bring your science and bring your wisdom, Bring your squaws and bring your wampum. Thus the message from the Cornstalks, To the Land of all Sandgropers , To the homelands of Crow Eaters, To the Apple Eaters ' Island, Summoned also all Gum Suckers, And the Big Banana Benders, With Top Enders from the Hot Lands, Signalled too the A. C. T. Further still then went the summons, Flying swiftly on the wild winds, O 'er the land and salty waters, To the shores of Ancient Britain, To the far United States, To the Kiwis ' Long White Cloud Land, To the East and Africa, 'Come all braves and bring your missus, To our lodges here Down-Under. ' When the braves were all assembled, With their squaws in raiment fine , From the rostrum, Big Chief Bishop, 24

WATER June, 1983

Gave his welcome to the Nations, This, he said, will be our watchword, Ever onward - HI-AWWA -THA , Braves and Squaws then rose in answer, Took the message and returned it, 'Hail Oh Big Chief - HI-AWWA -THA. ' Then the wise men met in council, Shared their knowledge and their secrets, Spoke of wonders of the waters, Magic words and incantations, Bio-filters , sludge digestion, Eco-systems, activation, Ozonation, chlorination, Trihalom ethanes and the rest. Later, Braves in friendly tepees, Pipe of Peace and glass in hand, Shared the inner tribal secrets. Talked with Shamans from afar off, Talked with Schalekemp, Robert Canham , Talked with Stacha, Ronald Packham, Talked with others, fellow Aussies, Feasts there were and happy laughter, Sipping too of fiery waters, Old friends greeting, new friends making, Memories taken out and savoured. Then the closure and nostalgia,

Thanks to Braves and Squaws in numbers, Smyths and Dureaus, Rees and Lloyd , Twymans , Bowens, Jude/I, Lawson , Dougas, Smalls , the Whytes, and others. Then in parting Big Chief Bishop, Stood erect and called the Nations, 'Go back to your homes and people, Live among them, toil among them, Cleanse the earth from all that harms it, Clear the fishing grounds and rivers, Tell the tale of Minnehaha , Tell the tale of HI-AWWA -THA. Th en the Braves and Squaws departed, Journeyed once more to their homelands, There to tell in lodge and wigwam, Tell of knowledge, learning gathered, Tell of spoiling of the rivers, Tell of fouling of the oceans, T ell of gross and wide pollution , Then with joy how skill and effort, Changes fouled to laughing waters, This the tale of Minnehaha, This the tale of HI-AWWA -THA ,

G . R. G. with grateful acknowledgement to H . W. Longfellow

AWWA INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE - DARWIN MINING AND THE WATER REGIME Darwin on September 4th-9 th wi ll see thi s m ost interesting Con fe rence directed to th e wa ter regime in relati on to minin g, millin g, waste trea tm ent a nd reha bilita ti on in th e a reas o f coal , ba uxite, copper, beach sa nds and pa rti cula rly o f ura nium . Presenta tion s by spec iali sts fro m ove rseas a nd A ustra li a will pro v ide a forum for eva lua tion of ca uses. e ffects and solution s. The coverage will ran ge from th e d eterminati o n of background radi o-acti v it y to th e assessment o f e ffiu ent guidelin es, m onitorin g procedures, predi cti ons o f perfo rm a nce o f radi o-ac tive wastes, tox icit y process considera tion s and th e trea tm ent o f uranium mining waste wa ter and the reha bilitati o n o f ura nium min es. Wa ter regim e m anagem ent a nd its rela ti on to th e scientific and techni ca l principles in vo lved in th e aspects o f th e va ri o us ex tracti ve industri es have comm on facto rs. U ra nium minin g has th e added co mplexi ti es int roduced by rad io-active wastes, tox icity process co nsiderati o ns and th e trea tm ent o f uranium mining waste water and th e rehabilita ti on o f ura nium min es. Wa ter regim e managem ent a nd its relati o n to th e scientific and tec hni ca l principl es in vo lved in th e aspects o f th e va riou s ex tracti ve industri es have common fa cto rs. U ra nium minin g has th e added co mpl ex iti es introduced by radi o-acti ve e lements. In A ustra li a under env iro nm enta l co nt ro ls appli ca bl e to the di sposa l of ta ilin gs from ura nium mill s, it is no longer accepta bl e to leave the sea rch fo r sati sfa ctory rehabilitat ion stra tegies to th e end of th e producti o n period when th e o utput o f ta ilings ceases. U ranium projects currentl y p roducing a nd th ose pro posed a re stringentl y regula ted by the a ppro pri a te A uth oriti es cha rged with th e importa nt responsibilities o f assess ing pro posed developm ents, ensuring the fo rmulation of suita ble waste ma nage m ent plans prior to auth ori sa tion of th e proj ect a nd a lso ensuring th at th e approved plan s a re fo ll owed. Pl annin g of waste m a nage m ent mu st embrace all th e site and spec ific fa ctors relatin g to th e project and hav ing bea ring upo n th e proposa ls. The dec ision -makin g ro ute is not simpl e; dem a ns can be confli cting and res ultin g pl ans in vo lve co mpro mi se - ' th e best practi ca ble techn ology' is th e descripti ve term . Th e fac to rs co mpri sing th e sit e specifi c ad va ntages and di sad va ntages mu st be so co- ordina ted a nd ma naged as to ensure th a t future ge neratio ns a re not encumbered with th e respo nsibil ity of co ping with o nerous pro blem s as a legacy fro m th e benefit s ga ined by the earli er co mmuniti es. Ac hi evem ent of a n acceptable ¡wa lk away' situa ti on in vo lves th e se lecti on o f suita bl e d isposa l sites. d es ign for long term cont a inm ent


a nd the fin a l enca psul ati on in pro perl y enginee red fac ilities ta lking into acco unt th e pro ba bl e routes to th e en vironm ent of tailings includin g rad on ex ha lation , radi ati o n emi ss ion , seepage, erosion, geo techni ca l fac tors, chemi stry, natura l and geomorphological facto rs. Reha bilitation by minin g a nd milling operators should be underta ken to standa rds a ppro ved by th e a ppropri a te Authoriti es a nd to ensure th e standa rd s are achieved requires appropriate admini strati ve a rrangem ents th ro ugh techni ca l committees and the impos itio n of fin ancia l bo nd s. A t th e Darw in Co nference, pa pers will ex plo re the wide-ranging influence of the aquati c en vi ronm ent upon pl anning, research a nd deve lo pm ent of a ny m odern mining ventu re a nd the impact of m inin g upon the water system s. To pi cs will includ e th e influence of surface a nd gro und wa ter hyd ro logy, di spersio n m echa nisms, the aquatic b io logica l path ways, wa ter qua lity chemi stry and managem ent a nd fin a ll y, reha bilitati o n. Pyriti c ox ida ti o n and its influence on wa ter reso urces ha s gain ed in creas ing a ttenti on in recent years. Dr R. T . Lowson of the Ph ys ics of the Env iro nm ent Section o f th e Au stra lian Atomi c En ergy Co mmi ss ion will be spea king on thi s subj ect a nd identifying needs for resea rch. Th e ox id ati o n o f pyrite ca n lead to hi gh acid leve ls and conce ntrati o ns of trace m eta ls in wa ter a ft er contact with pyriti c materia ls. This situat ion has ari sen a t th e now-aba ndon ed Rum Jungle U ranium M in e where pyritic ox ida ti on in th e waste rock dumps has led to po lluti on of th e nea rby East Breach of the Finni ss Ri ve r with trace elem ents o f co pper, m anganese and z in c. In th e aquati c considerati ons, th e upta ke to hea vy m eta ls, includin g th e radio-acti ve m a teri a ls will be di scussed in a paper by Dr C. H. Watola Jr. , Vi ce- Pres ident, Western Region of Camp Dresser a nd Mc Kee In c. Dr M . Tsezos, Assistant Professo r of th e Depa rtm ent of C hemi cal Energy, McMa ster Uni versit y, Canada , will be discussing th e ferm entati o n process and th e biol ogical treatm ent of radio-acti ve aqueo us so luti ons as a m ean s o f waste ma nage m ent. Ove r thirt y papers will be present ed a t the Conference and site visits will be m ade to th e A lli ga tor Ri ver region , site o f th e Ranger a nd Marbl e X Mines a nd to Rum Jungle where th e reha bilitation has comm enced. Th e Conference and its subj ect matter a re in man y ways unique for a ' lea rn ed soc iety' a nd m ay well prov(! to be a trend setter for Governm ent s a nd fo r industry. Registrati o n deta il s a re given in th e notice in thi s issue.






Complete in one volume High quality production

Theme: Water and Wastewater Past-Present-Future


Full record of Keynote and invited addresses and the 66 Convention Papers.

Wastewater Treatment Water Pol lut ion Problems Water Supp ly Issues Management and Operations

Sponsors: Dept. Chem. Eng ., O ld University, School Civi l Eng. , University of NSW.

Surface mail e d to NSW $ 4 7 .00, other stat es $ 49 .50, ove rseas $ 45 .00 Aust . plus postage as require d .


Princ ipa l lecturers Prof. Wes Ecke rfe lder, USA, Dr Peter Coak ley, UK Prof. Steve Hrudey, Canada, Dr D. Barnes, Un iv. NSW , Dr P. Greenfield , Univ. O ld .

Correspondence to: 11th Convention P .O. Box 3, Armadale , 3143

Details from Dr P. Greenfield, Univ. Old., St. Lucia 4067 or Dr. D. Barnes, Univ. NSW, P.O. Box 1, Kensington 2033.

Apply with cheque to T . Twyman, PWD NSW , GPO Bo x 2626 , Sydne y, NSW 2001 .

Sydney, July 18-22, 1983

WATER Jun e, 1983



-The companies and their products Acromet (Aust.) Pyt. Ltd. Pumps , metering and ch lorination equipment Aquatec Engineering Pty. Ltd. Advanced wastewater treatment equ ipment Austep Sirof loc and Sirotherm water treatment , systems Butterworths Pty. Ltd. Textbooks on water and waste management CIG Ltd. Oxygen systems for su lphide contro l and sewage treatment Environmental Engineering Pty. Ltd. Physica l/chemical treatment systems EUWA Australia Pty. Ltd. Industria l and munic ipal water treatment systems Flygt Australia Ltd. Submersib le pumps and mixers Forrers Pty. Ltd. Submersib le and other pump systems Frings Australia Immersible aerators Gatx-Fuller Australasia Pty. Ltd. Blowers and water treatment plants Hawker Siddeley Engineering Pty. Ltd. Diffused air, sludge dewatering and incineration equipment lnterox Chemicals Ltd. Hydrogen peroxide treatment systems


James Hardie & Co. Ply. Ltd. Asbestos cement and plastic pipes Kent Instruments (Aust.) Pty. Ltd . Process contro l and instrumentation equipment MAN-GHH Australia Pty. Ltd. Ion exchange and reverse osmosis equipment Memtec Laboratories Pty. Ltd. Large ultra-filtration systems Mono Pumps (Aust.) Pty. Ltd. Pumps and ultra-violet punfication systems Prominent Fluid Controls Ply. Ltd. Chemical dosing systems and feeders Russell Armstrong Ply. Ltd. Instrumentation and contro l systems Tubemakers of Australia Ltd. Ductile iron pipes and fittings Ultra Violet Technology Ultra-violet disinfection equipment Wallace & Tiernan Pty. Ltd. Chlorination , instrumentation & metering equipment F.S.E. Scientific Measuring instruments and titration equipment William Boby & Co. Australia Screening , flocculation, filtration and wastewater treatment equipment Wright & Company Pty. Ltd. Odour control and water purificat ion equipment




' ' __





Services to or products for water, sewerage, sewage treatment or pollution control industries such as: Alarms Analysers Analytical Services Blowers Centrifuges Chemica ls Ch lorination Equipment Comminutors Compressors Computers Conductivity Meters Contro l le rs Density Meters Diffusers Disintegrators

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Miss Ann

Sykes, Commercial Manager, c/- Appita, Clunies Ross House, 191 Royal Parade, PARKVILLE, Vic. 3052, Australia. Telephone (03) 347 2377

In-main Oxygen Treatment of Domestic Sewage Boulder Bay Sewerage System R. Hemmings, R. Anderson and R. Shaw INTRODUCTIO During 198 1 and 1982 the Hunter Di strict Water Boa rd and The Co mm onwea lth Industrial G ases Limited carri ed out a j o int tria l of in -main trea tm ent of d omesti c sewage in th e Boa rd 's Bould er Ba y sewerage system . As a result of th e success o f th e tri a l, the system is to become a perm anent installati o n a nd a full scale (6,000 E. P.) treatm ent fac ility is to be con stru cted at Bo ulder Bay in !983. This a rticle exa min es th e process kin eti cs o f in-m a in treatment and sum ma ri ses t he trial whi ch was conducted over a peri od o f twelve mo nth s.

THE PROCESS In -main trea tm ent can be described as a process encou ragin g the rapid growth a nd fl occulation o f bac teri a in fl owing sewage by regul arl y sa tura tin g th e sewage with oxyge n, so that by the end o f the sewer, precipitated soluble and colloida l pollutants ca n be remo ved by sedim entation. This slu dge can then be treated se parately with th e relati ve ly clear supernatent availa ble for di sposa l. Th e purifica ti on achi eved in in -ma in treatm ent can be directl y related to acti vated sludge treatm ent pro vided the acti vated sludge theory is ca refull y appli ed. T he pollutants in sewage are in three major portions: settl eabl e, colloida l a nd soluble. Rapid ra tes o f absorpti o n o f co lloida l BOD 5 and suspended so li ds have been achi eved in acti va ted sludge system s such as the contact stabili sation process. Th e removal by sedim entation of soluble BOD 5, however, requires ce ll growth at a so mewhat slower rate and thi s a ppea rs to be th e important rate limiting step in in-main trea tm ent. Cell growth rates have bee n studi ed in some deta il by many in vestigators, th e m ost renowned be in g Monod. Monod 's growth model can be written math emati ca ll y as: dX v _ - Y.dS and dS _ - K X,, S at - dt dt - (K, + S) - Equa ti on (I) Where, X v is th e ce ll populati on (mg/ L VSS) t is tim e (days) S is th e substrate con centration (mg/L) Y is th e yield coeffi cient (mg YSS/ mg BODs) K is th e reaction ra te con sta nt (day - I) K, is Monod 's half velocity con stant (mg/L BOD 5) Both the cell growth a nd substrate

remova l rates are directl y propo rti ona l to th e cell populati on. In acti va ted sludge models, VSS determin ation s have been used as a crude measure of ce ll po pu la tion . Th is ass um es th at other non-cell orga nic matter is at a relati vely low leve l whi ch is largely th e case in con ventiona ll y rated activated sludge pl a nts. It is not the case in raw sewage. Models based o n VSS determ inati ons wo uld be very mi sleading and a mea ns of estim atin g the initial we ight of ce lls in sewage based on oxygen upta ke rates has been develo ped. Thi s meth od uses the va lues o fK, K, and Y (Metca lf and Edd y), meas ured values of S and th e approx im a tely co nsta nt ra ti o between oxygen used a nd ce ll VSS synthes ised. Math ematicall y ex pressed: d Xv = Y.dS a nd dO, = a '.ds (Th e ~a lues o f Y a nd a' are simil ar in size (Eckenfelder) so th a t dX v =:. d O 2.) It should be n oted a t thi s stage o f th e developm ent o f a mod el that th e effect of endogenous decay in in-main treatm ent is very small and , unlike acti vated sludge theo ry, it can generall y be ignored. Th e va lue o f K is typica ll y 2- 10 day - 1, whereas Kd (th e end ogeno us decay coe ffi cient) is typi ca ll y 0.04-0.075 day - 1 at 2o¡c. (Eckenfelder.) Integration of Equation ( I) gives: Kt = K, Ln (X v0 + S0 Y - SY) X vo + S0 Y S


+ y Ln (Xvo + S0 Y - SY) - Equati on (2)

I - yLn Xvo Where, when t = 0 , S = S0 , Xv = Xvo and if values ofX vo, S0 , K,, Y, Kare known or ca n be ex perimentally determin ed by use of a chemostat reactor, th en it is possibl e to predi ct from Equati on (2) th e tim e requi red to achi eve a given degree of treatm ent with a given wastewater stream . To adopt a less math emati ca l approach, it is possible to achi eve quite hi gh efflu ent

Ron Hem m ings is Investigating Engineer, Sewerage with the H unter District Water Board (N.S. W.). Ray A nderson is Sales Ma nager, En virosh ield N.S. W. , Common wealth In dustrial Gases Ltd and Robert S haw is Consultant 10 that organisation.

qua li ties by in -ma in trea tment wi th sed imenta ti on with simila r retent ion tim es as norma ll y fo und in co nventi onal acti vated sludge aerati o n tank s. Although the initia l cell population in sewage when estimated indirectl y is onl y a ro und 60 mg/ L equi va lent VSS, th e d isso lved a nd co ll oida l substrate leve ls are high, 100- 200 mg/ L BOD 5 at least initia ll y, and sewers a pproach perfect plug flo w to mainta in th ese hi gh levels for as lo ng as possi ble. By th e Monod relation ship growth rates in in -main treatm ent are likely to be more than 50% o f the max imum unlimited substrate gro wth ra te sin ce K, for sewage is genera ll y in th e ra nge 25- 100 mg/ L BO D5. In a typi ca l plug fl ow act ivated sludge plant the feed sewage BOD 5 is diluted approxim ately on e to one with low BOD 5 recycle acti va ted sludge strea m and dilution with the low substrate level aeration tan k co ntents occurs very qui ckl y. Fo r perhaps 6 o ut o f th e 8 hours A DW F aeration period , substrate leve ls are o nl y around 5 mg/L BOD 5. All the cell growth (and hence pollutant precipitation) occurs in perhaps 25% of th e tank at a rate considera bly limited by substrate co ncentra tion (s ubstrate levels initiall y 50-1 00 mg/ L BOD,5 falling to 5 mg/ L BOD 5). Although MLSS levels are high, growth rates a re low. Th e treatm ent tim e of course is related to both growth rates and cell population. In-m a in treatment compensates for low cell populati on (60 mg/ L VSS equi va lent ri sing to 120 or hi gher) by much higher cell gro wth rates. In -ma in treatm ent with oxygen can be liken ed to an aeration tank with the follo wing three ma in exce ptions:(a) Th e sewage is not continuously aerated but is saturated with oxygen in di ssol vers at one or more points. Due to th e press ures whi ch ex ist in mo st pumped ma in s a nd using Hen ry's Law to ad va ntage with pure oxygen, high levels of di ssol ved oxygen ca n be achieved and stored in th e sewage. (b) The process does not ta ke place in th e presence of a large mass of mi cro-organi sms but re li es on a high growth rate of th e mi cro- organism s. The process ca n be likened to an ultra high rate acti va ted sludge process. (c) Sewer ma in s, beca use o f th eir con fi gurati on, approach perfect plug fl ow conditi ons.

PILOT PLANT STU DIES To demonstrate th e process a nd to determine des ign criteri a, C. I. G . in th e la te 1970s undertook a seri es o f pil ot pla nt tri a ls WATER June, /983


usin g dom estic sewage with vary in g doses of ox yge n. Aft er several ho urs retention the samples were subj ected to simul ated primary sedi menta ti on . Ox ygen was seen to stimu late rap id fl occulat ion of suspended solids by bacteria. No n-settl eable co ll o idal matter was in co rporated into la rge fl oe co nglo mera tes whi ch sett led easily in th e simulated sedimentation stage. Approxim ately 50-75% red ucti on of BOD 5 and NFR occ urred in this way. It was demonstra ted th at substa nti al fl occulat ion co uld be ac hi eved wi th o nl y re lat ive ly small oxygen co nsumpti on, 20 mg/ L in summ er a nd 50 mg/ L in wi nter. Alth o ugh th e in-main process a ppeared pro mi sing as a res ult of th ese pi lot studi es, it remain ed to be proven in actua l full-sca le conditi ons.






IN-MAIN TREATMENT TRI AL AT BOULDER BAY T he Hunter District Water Board in 1979 and l 980 had been in vo lved with C. I. G . Ltd. ·in the oxygenati on of sewerage ri sing mains in its Boolaroo and Jesm ond system s for th e purpose of hydrogen sulphide control. On the Boolaroo rising main in parti cula r the fl occul ation effect of oxygen in-main treatment was observed .


,, -,,








Oxygen dissolver at Fingal Bay No I P.S.

Assessment of all the Board's major transportation systems was then carri ed out to determine which were suita ble for the use of th e in-main oxygenation system . A trial was th en proposed o n th e Bo ulder Bay system whi ch was selected for the fo ll owing reasons: • it in volved a long seri es system with considera ble detenti o n tim es in its three major rising main s. • th e system was small enough to keep the cost of the tria l to an accepta ble fi gure. • sewage is discharged to the ocean virtuall y untrea ted. . The contributing area of th e Boulder Bay wo rks is shown on Figure I wi th system criteria set o ut on Table I. Th e syste m services a residenti al popu lation of approxim ately 4,900 whi ch in creases to 10,000- 12,000 during holiday peri ods. The oxygenati on syste m consists of:l. Oxygen inj ecti on of the Shoal Bay No. 5 rising main by diffuser inj ection at the No. 5 Stati o n whi ch is located in Gowrie Street, Halifa x Pa rk. With this meth od, oxygen is introduced as very small bubbles at th e base of th e pump ri ser. 30

WATER June, 1983


--+- -






( '?J,-4.




Boulder Bay



/ l,

Wastewater Treatment Works

Fig. 1










I -


Stat ion

Shoal Bay No.5 ( SB 5) Shoal Bay No. 3 ( SB 3) Fing al Bay No. I (FBI)





SCHEME Retention Times at ADWF (Hrs ) Winter Summer

25 60 100

10-2-81 to 16 ·9·81 BOD


of Tota l F low

225 540 9 00




Winter Flow (kl perday)

Table Parameters


61 53 5 ·7

9 1 8-4 10 4



b. Non-Oxygenation Period


20-11-81 to 12 - 12-81

13·12·81to 5·2·82

16-9-81 to10-11-0I


Influent Efflu ent (mg/L} NFR Influ ent Eff lue:nt

184 67

138 77

13 0 86

2.53 172

241 68

251 52

314 69

220 89

51 31

55 24

55 23

84 64

72 20

84 20

86 25

74 48

Grease ( mg /L) Inf luent Eff luent Turbidity (N .T. U.'s ) Influent Eff lu ent

O nl y part o f th e oxyge n is di sso lved at th e inj ection po int with th e rest tending to fl ow in a gas space o n top of th e sewage. repl eni shin g the sewage with oxygen a long th e length o f th e m a in . 2. Oxygen injecti o n o f th e Shoa l Bay No. 3 ri sing m a in by use o f a n in- lin e di sso lve r at the No. 3 Sta ti o n whi ch is loca ted in Ho race Street, Shoa l Bay. Thi s in vo lved th e altera ti on of th e ri sin g m a in pipewo rk so th at th e entire sewage fl ow co uld be di verted througho ut th e di sso lver be fore bein g return ed to th e m a in . With thi s technique, th e o xygen is a ll di sso lved a t on e po int and , properl y cont ro ll ed , no free gas enters th e m a in. With sufficient sta ti c head in thi s ma in th e oxygen rem a ins in so luti on. 3. O xygen inj ecti o n o f the Finga l Bay o . I ri sin g m a in also by use o f a n in -lin e di ssol ver at th e No. I Sta ti on whi ch is loca ted adj ace nt to th e Fin ga l Bay Surf Club. A hopper-bott o med sedim entati on tank was insta ll ed a t Bo ulder Bay itself, adj acent to th e ex isting fl oa ta bl es rem ova l box, to assess th e prim ary sedimentati on e ffi ciency of oxygenation . A we ir box was in co rporated to accept a ll in co ming fl ow fr om whi ch 1/ 8 o f th e fl ow is di verted to th e sedim entati o n ta nk a nd the rest return ed to th e fl oa tabl es box. Settl ed sludge fro m th e hopper bo tt o m s is al so returned to the fl oa ta bles box. The total sys tem is shown di agra mmati ca ll y on Fi gure 2. The required oxygen inj ec ti o n ra te is effected a nd co ntro ll ed by pump o pera ti on a t

th e three pumpin g sta tions in vo lved . Tha t is, oxyge n inj ecti on is onl y ca rri ed o ut whil e th e pumps a re ope ra tin g, th is be in g th e m os t effi cient meth od o f d isso lving th e gaseo us oxyge n a nd th e m ost acc ura te m eth od of uni for m a nd adeq uate dosage leve l co nt rol. As part o f th e tri a l, a m obil e la bora tory was set up at th e Fin ga l Bay No. I Pumpin g Sta ti on in o rd er to have test ing fac iliti es in close prox imit y to th e tria l system . T he laborato ry was m a nn ed j o intl y by bo th th e Hunter Di stri ct Wa ter Boa rd a nd C. I. G. personnel for th e peri od o f th e trial. Th e sa mplin g programm e co nsisted pri maril y o f 24 ho ur co mpos ite a nd grab sa mpl es int o and o ut o f th e cla rifi er. In additi o n, gra b sa mpl rs we re taken a t oth er loca ti ons th ro ugho ut th e sys tem . Sa mpl es FR, were ro utinely tested for BOD 5, turbidit y, alkalinit y, grease and pH , and less frequentl y for N/ N H 3 a nd settl ea bi lit y. Pri or to th e trial co mm encing, sewage in th e Boulder Bay system conta in ed hi gh leve ls o f hyd rogen sulphid e. O do urs we re quite noti cea ble a t th e Shoa l Bay No. 3 a nd Finga l Ba y No. I Pum p ing Sta ti o ns indi catin g the build-up o f sulphides, and at th e Boulder Bay trea tm ent site ex tre mely high sulphide levels we re ev ident with th e sewage bein g in a bl ack, hi ghl y septi c co nditi on. G as attac k to co ncrete and m etal fittin gs at th e concrete fl oata bl es re m ova l ta nk has occurred . Th e bay itse lf to whi ch thi s untrea ted se wage is di sc ha rged was under som e stress du e to th e blac k co lourati on and septi c nature o f th e di sc ha rge.

O xygena ti on o f th e syste m commenced o n th e I 0th Febru ary, I 98 I. The peri od o f th e tri a l was se t a t one yea r to enco mpass va ri o us o pera ting co nditi ons within th e system , th at is ' summ er a nd wint er, holi day and non-holiday peri od s. Addition a lly, a two m o nth peri od be tween m id-Se ptember and m id- No ve mber was set as ide as a peri od wh rn oxygenati o n was not ca rri ed out in order to o bta in in fo rm a ti on on the system a nd th e tri al sedi m enta ti on ta n k under norm a l o peratin g conditi o ns. RES U LT S OF THE TRI AL Th e tri a l bega n with oxygen injecti o n ra tes set a t 22 mg/ L a t No. 5 Sta ti o n, 30 mg/ L a t No. 3 Sta ti on a nd 60 m g/ L a t No. I Sta ti o n, givin g a we ighted average d ose rate of approxim ately 80 m g/ L ta king into consid erati on the re lati ve flo w contributi ons. Of th e qua ntity inj ected at No. 5 Stati on o nl y a bo ut IO mg/L was di sso lved a t th e inj ecti o n po int with a n estim a ted additi ona l 3-4 mg/L be in g di sso lved a lo ng th e m a in. A t No. 3 a nd No. I Sta ti ons a ll o f th e oxyge n was di ssolved in th e di sso lve rs loca ted adj acent to the pumping sta ti ons. Bein g th e m ost criti ca l leg of th e system , samp lin g points were in sta ll ed a long th e No. I ri sin g m a in in ord er to assess oxyge n co nsum pt ion rates. In th e warm er peri od s (sewage tem pe ratures 24-28'C), th e di ssolved oxyge n in the No. I ri sing m a in was fo und to be complete ly con sum ed betwee n 1/ 2 a nd 3/ 4 of th e di sta nce a lo ng th e ma in (a pp roxim a tely 4-6 ho urs). Thi s co rres pond s to a WATER Jun e, 1983


sewage res pi rati on rate o f I 0-14 mg/L/hr. In the co lder periods ( l 6-20°C) the oxygen was not a lways full y co nsumed a nd th e respi ra ti on rate during thi s peri od was · estim ated at 6-8 mg/L/hr. The average of the res ul ts of th e major parameters in vestigated th ro ugho ut the tri a l are shown on Ta ble 2. Over the period of the tri al the syste m prod uced an average BOD 5/ NFR effl uent of 69/ 65 mg/L in the non-ho lid ay winter period and 76/ 69 mg/L in th e higher loadi ng summer period. For these corres pond ing peri od s grease levels o f 30 mg/Land 23 mg/L were achieved (th e average grease concentration in the raw sewage in the non-oxygenati on periods was 84 mg/L). T here was a dra mat ic improvement in the turbidity, or cla rity, of the sewage which had a marked effect on the appearance of the bay. T urbidity levels were. reduced fro m 48 NTUs in the settled non-oxygenated sewage to 20 NTUs with oxygenati on, a 58% red uction. In additi on, sul phid es which varied fro m · 1evels of 4 mg/L to IOmg/L a long the system , and subsequent ly odo urs, have been elim inated in the system and at the treatment work site. If another dissolving stati on was to be install ed ha lf-way along the F ingal Bay No. I ri sing ma in, where oxygen is presently being ex ha usted , it is considered th at th ese result s co uld be further improved. SUMMARY OF THE TRIAL

T he res ults obta ined dem onstrate that in- main treatment shows great potenti al for eliminat ing the aeration units in activated sludge treatment pl ants but not fo r eliminating nitrificati on/ denitrificati on facilities and sludge d igesters. Co ntrol of odo urs and corrosion in the collection system is an inh erent benefit of the system . T he process appears pa rti cularly suita ble in cases of ocean di scharge where efflu ent standa rds are not so stringent, but where physical a ppearance indicated by surface grease a nd turbidity are o f more concern . THE FUTURE

In the case of the Bo ulder Bay system the H un ter Di stri ct Water Board is to implem ent the oxygenation system as a permanent insta ll ati on and is proceeding with C. I. G. Ltd. to provide a 6,000 E.P. treatm ent facility at Bo ulder Bay in corporating sedim entation and p ure oxygen sludge d igestion. Further 6,000 E. P. stage additi ons to t he works are proposed fo r the future. REFERENCES:

METCALF AND EDDY - 'Wastewater Engineering: T reatment D isposal Re use' . Seco nd Edition pp.434. ECKENFELDER - 'Wastewater Management', pp.252.

BOOK REVIEWS HYDRAULICS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH ENGINEERS-R. E.·Bartlett and W. Magill Applied Science P ublishers Ltd., U.K., 1982 . 16 pounds.

The stated intention of thi s small book is 'to provide answers to day-to-day prob lems without the need to refer to more detailed textbooks on hydrauli cs'. The aim is achieved. The wide range covered includes fi ve chapters of the basics of fl uid statics and motion and a number of brief chapters (usua lly less than ten pages) on the main aspects encountered in hydrauli cs incl uding aqui fers, unsteady ph enomena, meteri ng, modelling, pipes, pumps a nd channels. The coverage is basic but prov ides the essential fo rmulae with supporting com ment on th eory and application. T hi s is a 'first stop' handbook for daily use. An unusual situation could require supplementary references . The presenta ti on is clear, terms used are adequately defi ned. Much of the mathematics used can be easily hand led by simple calculations fo r ' in-field ' applicati on . S.l. units are used throughout and an appendix provides useful examples . In summary, a useful and recommended handboo k which could advantageously be produced in pocket size . R. VASS WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: MONITORING PROGRAMS AND DIFFUSE RUNOFF-Ed. by Barry Hart. Water Studies Centre, Chishoim Institute of Technology, 1982, 158 pp ., $10.00 (Postage $1.00).

Th is book contains the procee dings of a symposium run by the Water Studies Ce ntre at the Chisholm Institute of Technology in Fe bruary 198 1 on water quality ma nage ment issues . Th e symposium cove red two broad areas of current conce rn to those responsible for water quality ma nage ment: • the role, planning and place of wate r quality monito ring, surve illance and in vestigational programs; and • aspects of diffuse or non-poin t sources of pollution . Pape rs cove ring both these a reas are included fro m local experts a nd by a Canadian scie ntist, Dr. Ongley. Local, coupled with ove rseas expe rie nce in this book foc uses atte ntion on designing monitoring programs to meet manage me nt nee ds rather than scientific desire to know more about the system and on the futu re importance of bio logical monitoring as a direct means of protecting the be ne ficial uses of water reso urces. In summary, this volume is considere d an esse ntial addition to a practitioner's library. W. M. DREW

PREDICTION IN WATER QUA.lITYEd. Dr E. M. O'l.oug hlin , P. Cullen. Australian Acade my of Scie nce, Canberra, 1982. 453 pages.

This volume co mprises the Proceedings of a symposium on the Pred iction in Water Q ua lity spo nso re d by the Austra li a n 32

WATER Ju ne, 1983

Acade my of Scie nce and the In stitution of Engineers, Australia and held in Canbe rra Nov. 30 to Dec. 2, 1982. The symposium was organise d around the the me of wate r quality changes in the various compartme nts of the hydrological cycle and the necessity to pre dict such arising from the deve lopme nt of water storages, changing land use, multiple reservo ir and catchment use and th e manage ment o f nutrients in aq uatic systems. Twe nty one papers are prese nted by a widely ranging a uthorship and accompanied by extensive refe re nces. G . GOFFIN DESALINATION TECHNOLOGYAndrew Porte us (Ed.). 27 0 pages, 26 pounds, Applie d Science Pu blis hers, London .

Th e editor has asse mbled eight practis ing experts from UK, Europe and Australia, to each write a chapter on an aspect of desalination . The book is only 27 0 pages so eac h chapter is brief and to the point. The overall approach is to stress the enginee ring and chemical fund amentals of each technique, so that the reader can obtain a ba lanced ove rview of the curre nt state of the an . Th e we llse lected re ferences cove r up to 1982. Chapters dea l with the economics and therm o d yna mi cs of seawa ter di s till a ti o n , chemistry and scale contro l, M.S .F. distillation, vapour compression , nuclear powe red plants, solar energy sys tems, reverse osmosis and electrodia lysis. E. A. SWINTON ARTIFICIAL SUBSTRATES John Cairns Jr. (Ed.) Ann Arbor Science PublisheI>s Inc., Michigan 1982, 279 pp. (Australian Agents : Butterworths Pty . Ltd ., P.O. Box 345, N.S.W. 2113). Rec. Price $39. 00 (Aust.) . This book present.s a collection of research papers delivered to a symposium sponsored by the American Microscopical Society. The book aims to illustrate the potential fo r using A rti ficia l Sub st ra t es (A.S.) in bo th t heo reti ca l a nd a pplied resea rch a nd consid ers both marine a nd fres hwater environments incorporating microbial and macroinvertebrate species. In my opinion the book successfull y achieves these objectives. The use of arti ficia l substrate samplers (A.S.S. ) , d efi ned as: " dev ices ofte n unnatural in composition, location, or both , placed in an aqu atic ecosystem to study colonization by indigenous organisms", confers a number of advantages over a lt ern a ti ve sa mplin g m et h o d s. T hese advantages are comprehensively discussed and bala nced against the di sadvantages of the method. The presentation clearly illustrates for potenti al users the correct application of artificial substrate sampling with established research objectives. The pitfalls fo r incorrect use are also highlighted. For those invo lved in A.S.S. programmes and for those contemplating becoming involved , I would recommend this bo ok as an essential reference tex t. G. L. BENN ISON

CALENDAR 1983-1984 Jul y 18-23, Sydney, N .S. W. Co urse - Managem ent of T ox ic, Hazard o us and Int ractable Waters. August, Newcastle, N.S.W. Co mputers in En gineering H ydra uli cs and Fluid Mecha ni cs. August 14- 19, Perth, W. Australia Sol a r World Con gress August 14- 20, Mass. U .S .A. 3rd Int. Symposi um on Aero bi c Digesti on. August 17- 19, Melbourne, Australia 4th Int. Con gress on Pla nt Path ology. August 17- 19, Plow, W. Germany Mi crobia l Acti v it y in Ca rbon C ycles in Fres h Water. August 21-28, Lyon, France In vestigati on and Scienti fic Ma nagem ent of Fresh Waters. August 29-September 8, Misasa, Japan 4th Int. Sympu sium o n Water-rock Interaction . S eptember 3-25, China Water in China - Professional S tud y Tour. S eptember 4-9, Darwin, Northern Territory Spec ia li sed Conference on Water Regime a nd th e Uranium Industry. S eptember 5-8, Coventry, U.K. IWPC Co nference September 5-9, Moscow. U.S.S.R. 20th !AHR Congress - Hydrauli c Research.


October 3- 6, Tel Aviv, Israel Agritech '83 . October 5-7, Amsterdam, Netherlands O xid ation Ditch T echn ology. October 6- 8, Stuttgart, W. Germany Int. Semin ar, Rotating Biolgica l Discs. October 10- 19, Moscow, U .S .S.R. Water Ma nagem ent. October 25-27, Innsbruck, Austria 5th Int. Sy mposi um on Intern a l and Ex ternal Protecti on of Pipes. October 25-27, Capri, Ital y Int. Co nference on the Mod ern A pproach to Gro undwater Ma nagem ent. October 27- 29, Vancouver, Canada Lake Restorati on Protecti on Con fe rence November 8- 10, Hobart, Australia H ydrology and Water Resources Sy mposium. November 8- 10, Jakarta, Indonesia As ia Pacific Water Suppl y Co nference. November 20, Cambridge, U.K. Conference on Wa ter a nd D evelo pm ent in Asia.

S eptember 27- October 2, Varna, Bulgaria Int. Sy mposs ium on the Co mputa tion of G round water Ba la nce.






The closing date is •now Sep. 1st, 1983- one month earlier than announced

December 5-9, Sydney, .S.W. Int. Co nference - Ground water and Man.

Correspondence : Direct6r, Int. Activities , Dept . Science and Technology , P.O. Bo x 65, Belconnen , ACT 2616

1984 April 9-13, Sydney, Australia 38th Annual Co nference of Appita.

September 26- 28, Paris, France En ergy Sav in g in Waste Pollution Control.

Enquiries: G. B. McBride , NZWSDA Jubilee Conference , Water & Soil Science Centre, Ministry Works & Development , Private Bag Hamilton

November 30- December 2, Canberra, Australia Sy mposiu m on Predi cti on in Wa ter

September 13- 15, London, U .K. H ydra ulic Aspects of Floods a nd Flood Co ntrol.

September 19- 25, Toulouse, France 4th Int. Conference on C hemi stry for En vironmenta l Protecti on.

Venue: University_of Waikato, Hamilton On-campus accommodation available


February 6- 10, Canberra, A.C.T. 5th A WWA Summ er School.

September 19- 23, Vienna, Austria D esign and Operation of La rge Wa stewater Treatm ent Pla nts (I A WPRC).

History and development of the Association Water-collection , treatement and distribution Wastewater-treatment and disposal Control - management , protection and allocation Workshop - Discussions

November 22-24, Canberra, Australia Workshop on Water Reso urce D ata.

September 12-16, Brussels, Belgium Aqua-Expo, 1983 & IWSA Ex hibition.

S eptember 19-22, Brisbane, Queensland 2nd N ational Local G overnm ent Engin eering Conference.


April 16- 18, Adelaide, S th. Australia 5th Int. Co nference on Ex pansive Soils. May 54th ANZAAS Congress. May 22-26, M unich, W. Germany Euro pea n Sewage and Refuse Sy mposium (EAS). September 17-20, Amsterdam, Netherlands 12th Interna ti onal Co nference on Water Pollution Resea rch a nd Co ntro l, IA WPRC.





UNCONVENTIONAL WATER TREATMENT Twelve papers, 117 pages of proceedings on variety of topics including , coag. recovery , direct filtration , pilot plant justification Price $15 U.S.

September 17-20, Amsterdam, Netherlands AQ UAT EC H ' 83 - Int ern ati ona l Wa ter Technol ogy Ex hibiti on.

Eng . Publications Office, University of Illinois, 1308W Green St. , Urbana, Illinois 61 861 , U.S.A. WATER Jun e, 1983


WATER SAMPLER FOR TOXIC SUBSTANCES ISCO MODEL 2100 The new Model 2100 Sampler has been specifically designed for sampling all types of effluent for priority pollutants and suspended solids, but is equally well suited for general applications. The sample is co llected in individual 350ml glass bottles and does not contact any substance that can contribute to the background. 1000ml polypropylene bottles are also available. Sampling is accomplished by the use of a high speed peristaltic pump. The 3000ml per minute pumping rate and the elimination of secondary distribution systems makes it ideally suited for suspended solids sampling. There are no cumbersome metering chambers or valving systems to clean or cause cross-contamination. The Model 2100 Sequential Sampler features microprocessor-based electronics that provide a new dimension in programming versatility. Any sample volume from 10 to 1000ml can be collected onIa timed or flow proportioned basis at heads to 22 feet and line lengths over 44 feet.


Stansen Scientific

Melbourne Sydney Brisbane Adelaide Perth

419 4399 772 4055 52 5141 212 5700 446 9455

FLOW INJECTION ANALYSER for the automation of wet chemical pro~edures


The Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) technique can be used for the automation of any wet-chemical reaction. The product of the reaction is detected by standard analytical methods such as • Photometry • Ion-selective electrochemistry • Fluorimetry • Atomic absorption The Tecator 5020 Flow Injection Analyser offers, • High sampling rate - up to 300/h • Simple conversion from one analysis to another • Small sample volumes - typically 30 J,tL • Microprocessor control - automatic calculation of results - digital readout - automatic recalibration - stopped flow and intermittent pumping • Low reagent consumption • Low carryover • Short start-up time • Compact, bench-top unit

SELBY SCIENTIFIC Melbourne 544 4844 34

WATER June, 1983

Sydney 888 7155

Brisbane 371 1566

Perth 451 2577

Adelaide 51 4651

Hobart 28 4691

An aeration SfStemis only as good asthe fineness of its bubbles *

* *

* * *

System establ ished since 1919, with many hundreds of plants in sta ll ed throughout the world. Aeration tanks fl ex ibl e in design up to 9 metr es depth offering ma ximum use of ava ilabl e area. Fine bubbles of 2 mm diameter give high oxygen transfer efficiency. Uniform mixing . Simp le construction in uPVC and non-co rrod ibl e materials. Diffusers tructib le.

virtual ly


* necessary Drainag e of tanks rare ly . * Ma intena nce minima l. * Civi l construct ion simp lified and costs reduced. * No surge flows on fin ! I tanks. * Low noise va lu es. * control Automatic Disso !ved Oxyge n systems ava i!able.

Please send for Brochu re No. FBOO 675

,._, Hawker Siddeley Engineering Pty. Limited In corporated in

N.S.W. Head Office: 262-284 Heidelberg Road. Fairfield , 3078. Branches : Sydney , Brisbane, Perth and Auckland (N.Z. ) Hawker Siddeley Group supp lies electrical and mechanical equipment with world -wide sales and service. Agents for: Hawker Siddeley Water Engineering Ltd . (Templewood Hawksley Activated Sludge)


WATER June, 1983



SIMMONDS & BRISTOW PT". LTD. WATER & WASTEWATER CONSULTANTS ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATIONS Wat er Sewag e & Industrial Wastewater Scal es & Co rrosion Produ c ts POLLUTION PREVENTION Proces s & Pilot Plant Inve stigation s Treatm ent Plan t Operati o ns & Co ntro l WATER MICROBIOLOGY Alg al & Bac terial Identificati ons ENVIRONMENTAL SURVEYS CORROS ION As sess ment & Prevention 30 Shottery St., Yeronga -

Chem ical

~ ~ Biolog ica l

Phone: (07) 48 7699

Flow rates from .630 litres per second to 504 .6 litres per second


Ultraviolet Technology of Austra lasia 1 Home Avenue, G lynde, S.A. 5070 Telex No.: 88602 Telephone No.: (08) 337 9898 Outside S.A. , free call by dialling (008) 888 234

north queensland WATER QUALITY TESTING

Agents : " A.M.D .E.L." Townsville North Queensland (077) 75 1377 " B.H .T." Sydney New South Wales (02) 517 1600

BIOLOGICAL. BACTERIOLOGICAL and CHEMICAL techniques for the analysis of nalural and lrealed waters. trade wasles and effluenls. CONSULTATION on methods of treatment and EVALUATION of water and sewage treatment plant operation . To obtain a brochure describing our service in greater detail . or for further informa tion. please write to: 27 FLEMING STREET. AITKENVALE, TOWNSVI LLE, Q . or PHONE (077) 75 1377 (Other labora tori es located in Adela ide. Perth and Melbourne) •


44 Koornang Road

Scoresby 3179 Telephone 763 898p



filter media

ACTIVATED CARBON powdered and granulated

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Industrial waste water, sewage and process water analysis. Waste d isposa l investi gations to M.M.B.W. and E.P.A. requirements.

ACTIVATED ALUMINA DESALINATION EQUIPMENT vapour compression and multi-effect distillation reverse osmosis

ZEOLITES iron and manganese removal

GARNET 3 EDEN ST. CROWS NEST 2065 PHONE: (02) 929 0393



FILTER MEDIA Manufacturers at REDLAND BAY ROAD CARBROOK, QUEENSLAND 4130 Telephone: (07) 209 8344

If it goes

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Kent Flow Products Can Measure It ....

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When everyth ing is considered we have: The widest range of flow primary devices including: magneti c fl owmeters , Dall and Venturi tubes , variable area meters, mechanical water and oil meters , Pitot tubes , turbine meters, irri gation meters , steam meters , orifice plates and open channel flow meters . The best support from an Australia wide organisation supplying and servicing precision equipment much of which is manufactured locally . The depth of our commitment to you is demonstrated by the maintenance of a NAT A registered flowmeter calibration laboratory at our Caringbah plant . And the most knowhow - having been leaders in the flow measurement business for over 1 00 years our app lications experti se is second to none. So when yo u want a solution to your fl ow measurement problems come to Kent .


Call for our comprehensive flow products catalogue .


Kent Verif/ux Bectromagnetic Flowmeters.

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Sydney (02) 525 28 1 1 Brisbane (07) 369 13 11 Adelaide! (08) 352 1 455 Melbourn e (0 3) 87 4 1233 Perth (09) 277 5377 Launceston (003) 8 1 1222 Townsvi lle (0 77) 72 55 75

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If you are currently using other products make sure you know the facts about the benefits of the world's premier water and sewage pressure pipeline material.

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ver 9 million Australians currently have the safety and reliability of ductile iron pipelines in their water supply systems. Even at lower pressures ductile iron pipe can be cost justified against other products because of its: 1. Larger internal diameters. 2. Lower testing costs. 3. Longer life. 4. Lower construction costs. 5. Lower maintenance costs. 6. Strength and reliability. GM + ASSOC/ TS / 83

Contact T ubemakers at Sydney (02) 922 1200, Melbourne (03) 309 4888 or Brisbane (07) 229 06ll for technical advice and literature.

Ductile Iron Pipelines by Tubemakers 80 Alfred Street, Milsons Point, NSW 2061.