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I 1ss N 03 10 - 0357 Official JQJJrnal of the

J

" M•I-ii;MMM~tJMi3;E,~I•) mii:f/Mi=i;'*i-i•XeJrtiit•J~1 Registmd by Au, tca lia Post -

publicaUon

no. VB P 1394

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Vol. 9, No. 1, March 1982-$2.00

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EDITORIAL Chairman, F. R. Bishop E. A. Swinton Mary Drikas Dr. Wayne Drew P. McKenzie. C. Tucak J. H. Greer R. McGrath J.E. Dymke D. Hammerton R. Camm R. Payne J. Paul Dr Barb. Bowles K. Hartley Editor: Publisher: G. R. Goffin A.W .W.A.

BRANCH CORRESPONDENTS CANBERRA A.C.T. J.E. Dymke 4 Story St., Curtin 2605 Office 062-81-9385 NEW SOUTH WALES P. McKenzie, Prine. Eng. Water Supply, P.W.D., State Office Block, Phillip St., Sydney 2000. 02-270-4561 VICTORIA E. A. (Bob) Swinton, C.S.I.R.O., P.O. Box 310, South Melbourne 3205. 03-699-6711 QUEENSLAND K. Hartley, Gutteridge Haskins and Davey, G.P.O. Box 668, Brisbane 4001 . 07-221 ·7955 SOUTH AUSTRALIA Mrs. M. Drikas, State Water Laboratories E. & W. S. Private Mail Bag Salisbury 5108. 08-258-1066 WESTERN AUSTRALIA C. M. Tucak, 18 Venter Ave., W. Perth 6005 09 -321-2421 TASMANIA R. Camm , Cl- Met. Water Board, Macquarie St. , Hobart. 002-30-2330 NORTHERN TERRITORY J. Paul, Water Div. Dept . of Transport & Works, P.O. Box 2520, Darwin 5794. 089 89 6077 EDITORIAL & SUBSCRIPTION CORRESPONDENCE G. R. Goffin, 7 Mossman Dr., Eaglemont 3084, 03-459-4346 ADVERTISING Mrs. L. Geal , Appita , 191 Royal Pde. , Parkville 3052 . 03-347 -2377

WATER

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Official Journal of the AUSTRALIAN WATER AND -WASTE WATER ASSOCIATION

Vol. 9, No. 1 March 1982

·coNTENTS Viewpoint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Association News, Views and Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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I.A.W.P.R. News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Symposia and Conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11

Aquatic Mercury Pollution Control A Review of Treatment Techniques - L.A. Nagy and 8. H. Olson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Development of the Water Resources of South-East Asia - D. G. Price and J. A.H. Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

17

Proposed Rehabilition of an Aquifer Contaminated with Cheese Factory Wastes - P. C. Smith and G. Schrale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Calendar . . . .. .. . . .... ... ... . ..... ... .. . . . . , . .. . . . . . .

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COVER STORY Singomerto Weir in Central Java, Indon esia, was constructed to divert the waters of the Serayu River to irrigate a previously cultivated area of 5 600 ha and a new irrigation scheme of 1 700 ha. It is of reinforced and mass concrete, 8.5 m high w ith a crest level of 535 m, and in corporates 6 s lide gates and 2 fixed -wheel gates . The Indon esian style of co n struction in mass concrete and masonry was used wherever possible. An undersluice is provided to pass river sedim ent and bed loads during medium s ized floods. Construction included rehabilitation of a 90 years old canal off-take structure. The weir was constructed by an Indon esian contractor, the gates and associated electrica l and mechanical plant being supp lied by an Australian manufacturer. The Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation designed the weir under the Australian aid program and also provided on -site assistance and advice during construction and commiss ioning.


All.three manufacturers of gas chlorinators make a high quality product. So how come two of them do such a big

spare pans business?

If we had to depend on spare parts sales from our Advance chlorinators, we wou ld go broke. That may explain why the other two chlorinator manufacturers are bigger than Capital. It may also explain why Capital is better than them .

quality and safety features than anyone . For example , on ly Advance gas chlorinators have solid si lver rate valves and seats. And Tanta lum alloy springs. And double-thickness main regulating diaphragms

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Not coincidentally, these are the key operating components of any gas ch lorinator. Not surprisingly, only the Advance gas ch lorinator carries an unconditional guarantee on them . You don 't offer that if you expect to do a big spare parts business.

That philosophy, in fact, led to Capital's development of the all vacuum system . . sti ll the safest way known to feed chlorine gas. After two decades we can no longer claim to offer this exc lusively.(Such is the nature of competition .) But we can , and do, offer more exclusive

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CALENDAR 1982 April 19, Sydney, Aust.

Symposium, Management of Estuaries, ¡ Water Res. Foundation. April 20-21, Bournemouth, U .K.

Meet in g on Data Processin g in the Water Industry . April 20-30, Monte Carlo , Monaco

Int. Hydrogra phic Conference May 10-12, Marseilles, France

10th Int. Confere nce on Planning and Managemen t of Water Reso urces. May 10-14, Hobart , Tasmania

Aust rali an Society for Mi crobiology Annua l Meet ing. May 10-14, Sydney, Australia

June 11-16, Bri sbane , Australia

Aug. 25-27, Newcastle, Australia

7th World Congress on Animal Plant & Mi crob ial Toxins.

2nd Co nfe rence on C~ntrol Enginee ring (I.E. Aust.).

June 15-17 , S tirling, U .K.

Aug. 31-Sept. 3 , Canberra, Aust.

Fluid Power in the Eighties . In t. Fluid Po wer Co nfere nce .

Conference on Ground water in Fractured Rock.

July 7-9, Adelaide, Aust.

Se pt. 5-11, Prague, Czechoslovakia 16th Co ngress, Int. Ass. of

Conference on Engineering Education (I. E. Aust.).

Hydrogeo logists.

Jul y 13-15 , London, U .K .

Se pt. 6-10, Zurich

Environ ment Eng . Toda y, Annual Int . Sy mposium.

14t h Co ngress In t. Water Supply Ass. Se pt. 8-10, York, U.K.

5 Int. Conference on Plastic Pipes.

July 19-30, Exe ter , U.K .

IAHS Symposium on Advances Hydrometry.

in

Se pt. 13- 17, Philadelphia, U.S.A.

3rd Int. Filtration Congress. Aug. 16.18, Co penhage n, Denmark

Int. Conference on Coal Fired Power Plants and the Aquatic Enviro nment.

Sept. 21-23, Berne, Switzerland

Aug. 21-23, Armidale, N.S.W.

WMD In t. Symposium on hydrological resea rch bas ins and their use in water resources planning.

Hydrology & Water Resources Conference (I. E. Aust.).

Co nference on Agr icul tural Engineering (I.E . Aust.) .

Se pt. 27-Oct. 2, Varna, Bulgaria

May 24-27, Bunbury, W. A ustrali a

Aug. 23-27, Melbourne, Aust. ARRB Elevent h Co nfere nce.

52nd ANZAAS Conference. May 11-14, Melbourne , Australia

Wo rkshop o n Evapotra nspirat ion from Plant Communities. June 7-11, Bri ghton , U .K.

Tun nelling Sy mposium. June 10-Aug. 10, Moscow, USSR

Int. Higher Hydro logy Course (UNESCO)

Int. Sy mposi um on co nsumption of groundwater balances (UN ESCO). Nov. 30-Dec. 2, Ca nberra , Australia

Aug. 24-26, Auckland,

ew Zea land

1982 N.Z. Water Co nfere nce.

Sy mposium on Pred iction of Water Qualit y (Aust. Ac. of Science).

Aug. 24-26, Bandung , Indonesia

3rd Congress of Asian & Pac. Di v. Int. Ass . Hyd . Res.

ENVIROSHIELD Laboratory (Queensland) For Independent Analysis of Water and Wastewater For further information: C.I.G. Enviroshield, 1688 Ipswich Road, Rocklea, Brisbane 4106 Phone: (07) 277-3455 Telex: CIGAS AA40498 WATER

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! AUSTRALIAN WATER ANDI !WASTEWATER ASSOCIATJONJ

FEDERAL PRESIDENT D. J. Lane , State Water Laboratori es , E. & W.S. Department , Private Mail Bag , Salisbury , 5108

FEDERAL SECRETARY F. J . Carter, Box A232 P.O. Sydney South , 2001.

FEDERAL TREASURER J. H. Greer, Cl- M.M.B.W. 625 Lt . Collins St. , Me lbourne, 3000.

BRANCH SECRETARIES Canberra, A.C.T. J·. E. Dymke, 4 Story St.,, Curtin , 2605. Of f ice 062 (81 9385)

New South Wa les D. Russe ll , Camp Scott & Furphy , 781 Pacif ic Hi ghway, Chatswood 2067. (02 -41 2-2688)

Victoria J . Park, S.R.W .S.C. Operator Traini ng Centre, P.O. Box 409, Werribee, 3030. (741-5844)

Queens land K. Strick land , C. I. G. Ltd. , P.O . Bo x 40, Ro cklea 4106. 07 (277 3455)

So uth Austra lia

VIEWPOINT THE IM·P ORTANCE OF WATER TO OUR DEVELOPING NEIGHBOURS In this iss ue, the Editor has kindl y published a paper written by a colleague and me a bout the development of th e water resources of South-East Asia . Although this topic may no t be of specific re levance to an Australian water association, the importance of th e welfare of our Asian neighbours I am sure will be well appreciated by A WWA members. How important water is to the developing world is reflected by th e United Nations General Assembly la unchin g on 10 Nove mber 1980 of the ' International Drinking Water Supp ly and Sanita tion Decade'. Its aims a re various and interlocked but co nstitute a rall ying call to bring safe water to a ll the wo rld 's poor and then drain it away safely - all by the year 1990. The massive task involved is shown by the fo llowing figures: more than fo ur billion people live on our water-rich planet but over a billion of them must drink dirty water. Nearly two billion have no toilet. The least-cost fi gures for reaching the challenging goals set for the Water Decade are US$30 000 million a year - fou r or five times the amou nt inves ted in 1979. Yet we are reported to be spending some US$500 000 million a year on weapons. Australia is already playing a leading role in the water busi ness. Although we are only a re latively small co un try on the international business scale, we rank 15th in the wo rld of the major suppliers of eq uipment a nd services for drinking water suppl y a nd san ita tion fin anced by the World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP (UN Development Forum, 30 November 1981) . Technologies·a nd eq ui pment to develop water sources to peak potential are vast in number. The challenge is to select from the wide range of options avai lab le and adapt to the specific needs of a particular co untr y. Australian consult a nts a nd suppliers have already participated significant ly, in aid programs to Third World co untries, involving water resources. These have been finan ced by the Australia n Development Assista nce Bureau, the World Bnk, Asian Development Bank, th e UNDP a nd other so urces. This has provided first hand experience of the benefits that th e co ntrol of a country's water reso urcep can bring to its people. I hope th at our paper in this issue wi ll make A WWA members more aware of th e ro le that can be played by Australia to assist our less fortunate nei ghbours to achieve ' a much higher stan dard of li ving . DOUGLAS G. PRICE Director-Snowy Mo untai ns Engi neering Corporation

A. Glatz, State Water Laboratories , E. & W.S. Private Ma il Bag , Sa lisbury, 5108. (258-1066)

Western Austra li a R. Loo , 455 Beac h Rd ., Carine. (09-447-6550)

Tasmania

P. E. Spratt , Cl- Fow ler, Eng land & Newton, 132 Davey St. , Hobart , 7000. (23-7591)

PAPERS INVITED FOR 'WATER' Members and 01hers are in viled 10 s ubmil papers or anicles or proposals for such for publica1ion in !h is Journal.

/'

Anicles sho uld be of original !hough! or repor/s on o riginal work in 1he fie lds of water and wastewa1er colleclion, s torage, treatmenl and dis tribution, including monitoring, design, construction and management . Article length should range f rom 1000 10 5000 words or equ ivalent including diagrams or photographs. De1ails and 'Advice 10 Au1hors' are available from Branch Correspondenls and !he Editor.

Nort hern Territory J. Kenwo rth y, G.H. & D. P.O. Box 351 , Darwin 5794. (089-81-5922)

WATER

The sta1emen1s made or opinions expressed in ' Warer' do 1101 necessarily re/leer rhe views of rhe Aus/ralian Warer and Wasrewarer A ssociarion, irs Council or commirrees.

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ASSOC/A TION NEWS VIEWS AND COlvfMENTS PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE C. D. Parker All Association members were saddened to hear of th e death in late December I 98 I of Mr C. D. (Guy) Parker. Deta ils of Guy's service to the A.W.W.A. and to the Australian water indust ry a re given later in these comments. I would lik e to comment on hi s sign ifi . cant invol ve ment in the formation a nd early growth of the Association. Guy was one of the small group of leading personalities in the water field who saw the need for a multidisc iplinary Associat ion to brin g together people wit h an interest in the technology of water and wastewater . A meeting to discuss the formation of th e Association was held in Melbourne on 25th March, 1961 during the Annual Conference of the Institution of Engineers Australi a. The meet in g was attended by almost 45 people a nd the proposa l was outlined by Mr Parker and Mr J. A. McIntosh. From thi s beg innin g sprang t he A.W.W.A . with Gu y Parker as Federal Secretary/ Treasurer a nd J . A. McIntosh, Dr M. Fl ynn, R . D. King-Scott , H. Hodgso n as Counci llors . Jim McInt osh was the first Federal President. Guy Parker cont inu ed to se rve the Association on Federal Co un cil and as C hairman of the Journal Committ ee a nd in rece nt years as a member of the Standing Co mmittee on Science & Technology. On behalf of all members I extended a message of sy mpath y to Mrs Parker a nd the Associat ion was represented at a Memorial Service held shortly after hi s death. During 1982 it is proposed to produce a 20t h Annual Report to provide an information brochure on th e Association, its o bjectives and it s officers. No one wi ll di sput e th e influence that peop le have on any organisation. Th e A. W.W.A., now 20 yea rs old , owes a lot to it s early leaders such as Guy Parker and it is to be hoped that there will a lways be more of such stature to work for a nd lead the Association on through the future.

The Journal We are all aware of th e continui ng need of the Journa l Com mittee for technical con tributions from members. Th ank s to th e untiring efforts of George Goffin th e Journal is now a publication of hi gh qualit y, very worth y of the effort that is required for the preparation of papers . T he Journ al is a lso a forum for members to air their views on a ny matter co ncerning the water industry but in th is area we seem to be

8

sadl y lacking. Letters to th e Editor or short art icl es on important iss ues are always welcome. In add ition to providing a communi cat ion link between members who never have the opportun it y to meet , this medium cou ld provide Counci l with viewpo int s augmenting th ose channell ed through State Counci ll ors. I look forward to seein g a spate of articles/ letters in the next iss ues . DOUG LAN E Federal President

DON MONTGOMERY RETIRES December last saw the retirement from battle of a doughty warrior in the Water and Wastewater field when Don Montgomery stepped down from the post of C hief Sewerage and Drainage Engineer with the M.W .S.S.&D. Board of Perth , a post he has filled with di stinction for man y years . Don fir st joined the Perth Board in 1937, moved to the P .W.D. then to Univers ity . The war took over and a sustained affa ir with corvettes from which he returned as a Lieutenant and completed his degree . For th e Board he se rved on numerous Standing Committees a nd he was a Member of the Swan River Conservation Board. The A WW A was launched in Western Australia in 1972 by Don who was the original Branch President and he se rved in that capacity until 1978. During thi s period he was a Councillor and Federal President in 1979-80. In 198 1 he chaired the Conve ntion Comm ittee for th e very success fu l Perth Federal Convent ion in 198 1. Both State and Federal spheres will miss Don' s contribution but, hopefull y will retain hi s interest.

TED WALDER NEW ROLE In the last iss ue, Life Membership Award to Ted Walder was announced, also hi s ret irement as President of the M.W.S.&D. Bd. Syd ney. Ted' s length y exper ience of publi c finance and economics of publi c sec tor utility organisations wi ll now be utilised in the role of specialist consultant to Camp Scott Furphy Pty. Ltd. and Camp Dresser & McKee In c. of Boston, U.S .A.

I i

GUY PARKER A TRIBUTE With the passing of Guy (C . D.) Parker in Dece mber last, the Association, alli ed organ isa tion s and the water indu stry ha ve lost a stalwart whose name has been at the forefront of wa ter ma tters in Austra lia for decades. So man y, active in the field both in Australia and abroad will miss both hi s competence and hi s friendship. In his earlier years with the Melbourne Board of Work s as C hi ef Chemist a nd Bacterio logist , hi s work, particularly in th e area of H 2S attack, a ttracted wor ld wide recognition. In 1961 he found ed the consulting organisation Water Science Laboratories which rapidl y beca me widel y known throughout Au stralia and overseas through hi s tenacity, enthu siasm and prodi giou s travelling. In the late 1950s, Gu y had the concept of a n Australian multi-di sciplinary organisation to further water and sewerage matters which led him to di scuss ion wit h the World Hea lth Organisation in 1960. That single-m indedness a nd dri ve whi ch a ll hi s associates kn ew so well resulted in quick fo ll ow-up a nd fruition with th e able contribution of Jim McIntosh , R . D . King-Scott , Michael Flynn and Harry Hodgson , and so 1961 saw the birth of the A WWA. Sad ly Harry Hodgson is now the only survivor of that founding group. Initially as Federal Secreta ry and th en as a Cou ncillor al}(! Committee ma n, Guy con tributed greatly to the Assoc iation in the Federal and Victorian sphere and chaired the Ed it orial Comm ittee from the incep tion of the Journal in I 974. In these areas he pursued objectives with th a t per sistence and determination so characteristic of hi s nature. In other and closely alli ed spheres he was just as active. He promoted A WW A affilia; tion with the WPCF and was an Austral ian Represe ntati ve on the Board of Control of that bod y. He acted as an original Representa ti ve on th e ad hoc Governing Board of !AWPR back in 1962 and was an offic ial A ustralian Representative on th e Board from 1970, he was al so a Director of the Na tional Committee. Thi s Associa tion of ours, th e A WW A , will always be a tribute to Guy Parker . As o rga nisation s progress and develop th e ea rly stru ggles and those who fou ght th em with un stinted tim e and effort, slip inev itably into the past and out of memory, but while A WW A contrnues, Guy and his co ntribution will always be prominent in th e reco ll ection of those knowing the ea rly hi story of the Assoc iat ion.

Editor WATER

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ASSOC/A TIO N NEW SOUTH WALES

NEWS

VIEWS

WESTERN AUSTRALIA

BRA NCH ACTIVITIES

BRA NCH ACTIVITIES

Th e Bra nch has suffered success ive chan ges in Officers due to locat ion shi fts thi s requirin g the addi tion of new st rength to th e tea m. Dav id Ru ssell of Ca mp Sco tt and Furph y has stepped into the breach as Sec retary, Peter MacKe nzie of th e P.W.D. is still Branch Co rrespo nd ent. Act ivities received a fl yin g start on February 3rd with the sc hedul ed visit to th e Australi a n Coal Industry Research Laboratori es Ltd. , when 35 members hea rd Dr. No rbet Kelvin describe th e broad activ iti es of th e A.C. l.R .L . and in particular the coal hydroge nat ion progra mm e with which Dr. Kelvin has been assoc iat ed almost since in cept ion . This progra mme form s 10 per cent of th e Laboratory acti vities, th e remainder bei ng chemical a nd ph ys ical services and coal resea rch. Th e hydrogenat ion research progra mm e is directed at producing sy nth eti c transport fu els from Au stralia' s abunda nt hi gh vo lat ile coals, using a 2 kg/ hour co ntinu ous reactor un der recycle solve nt co ndition s at hi gh temperatures and press ures. During th e tour, Dr. Kelvin highli ghted so me of the problems in operating such a unit. At a later Februa ry meeting on the 22nd, John Browne, Investi gat ing Engineeri ng Sewage and Bill Haze l, Pollu tion Contro l Engineer of th e Sydney Board gave an interestin g and we ll illustrated talk on inves tigat ions carri ed out durin g September and October last in th e U.K . and U.S.A. Th e visit was made to a tt end the I. A.W.P.R. Specialised Co nference on th e Disposal of Sludge to Sea and the joint talk was enti tled "Sludge-to Sea or not to Sea" (with or without apo logies to W .S. !) Th e talk covered the Conference topics, legislati on , pract ice and viewpoints, technical co ntrol , monitorin g and environmental effec ts. The Regional Co nfere nce at Nowra, March 12- 14 wit h the Th eme "Coastal Developments - Opportunities and Problems" will occ ur as thi s iss ue goes to press .

Takin g th e fina l flu tter of 198 I fir st , th e Christmas party at the Room With a View was well attended with a ro ll -u p of 80 members and guests and, to coin a phrase? a good tim e was had by all. Th e year start ed well by ca tching on the wing, a visitor to Perth from U.S.A . who ob liged with a ta lk to th e Branch on February 18th. Bill Konrad is Vice-President International and Business Developm ent of Envirex and he was both instructive a nd ent ertainin g on 'Recent Developments in Equipment Design for the Wastewater Treatment Industry'. On Apri l 2 1st a joint meetin g of A WW A and the Hydrology and Environment Branches of I. E.Aust will hea r Keith Lindbeck and Brian Sadler of th e P.W.D . o n 'Harding River Dam Environmental Study'. Further deta ils will du ly appear in 'Waisted Warters' . Talking of meetin gs, a National Co nference on Environm ental Health is schedul ed for Perth in October 1983 by th e Austra li an Institute of Health Surveyors with a post-co nference Conven tion in Kua la Lum pur and Sin ga pore - interesting! Further to th e overseas aspect, Hugh Rule of the M.W .S.S. & D.Bd . is seeking in formati on as to possible interest of A WWA members in a technical/s ocial visit to Hon g Kon g in 1983. Poss ible candid a tes should contact him. The Branch is also pondering the pros and co ns of a se min ar in th e S.W. or N.W. or in Perth with a mu lti-di sciplinary approach to water and wastewater mat ters. Th e reaction of members is sought.

NEWCASTLE SUB-BRANCH

End of th e year act ivities were: • Inspection of oxygen in main s trea tm ent installation at Shoal Bay with Mr R. Anderson of C. I. G. on November 30th. • Inspectio n of Burea u of Metero logy weat her sta tion at RAAF Base William town on February 9th. Progra mm e for th e immediat e futur e includes: • April 19t h - Mr. G. Tay lor, to speak on Water Pollution and Aluminium Smelters. • May 24t h - Water and Wastewater Practices in Japan, Mr. W. John so n. • Jun e 2 1st - Mr. F. Kalf will spea k on Gro undwater Resources of the Coastal Sandbeds in the Lower Hunter. WATER

STATE NEWS

Don Montgomery, for so lo ng a lead in g fi gure of the Wes t in th e wastewa ter fi eld and in the A WW A, retired in December from the post of Chief Sewerage and Drainage Engin eer with the Perth Board . His co ntribut ion in th ese a reas will be missed. With hi s retirement , th e West will in part lose a staunch advocate, we are sure he will sustain hi s int erest in A WWA affair s. Furth er co mm ent on hi s var ied ca reer and acti viti es appears elsewhere in thi s iss ue. We un derstand hi s immedi ate plans include an attack on hi s go lf handi cap and some overseas touring with wife Lyn.

SOUTH AUSTRALIA BRA NC H ACTIVITIES

The yea r's acti viti es in So uth Au stra li a co mm enced with a mee tin g on 26t h February when three spea kers combin ed to present 'The River Torrens Flood Mitigation and Linear Park Schemes'. Mr. R. Bock, Project Man age r, Constru cti on Services Bra nch of th e E. & W .S. Department introd uced th e topi c, and Mr. C. Wren of Lana Syst~rn ,, Land scape Arch it ec ts, North Ade laid e

COMMEN'f'

discussed th e lin ea r park scheme providing a valu able recreation area fo r the public. Mr. I. E. Lain g, Senior Hydrological Engineer, Water Reso urces Branch of the E . & W.S. Departm ent di sc ussed the flood mitigation proposals. The proposed meetin g progra mme for I 982 is as follows: • April 30th : 'Odour Control at Sewage Treatment Works' - Mr. M. A. Connell , Caldwell Co nnell Engineers, Melbourne. • June 11th: 'Limnology of the Antarctic Lakes' - Mr. M. Burch, E. & W.S. Department. a. • Jul y 21st: Seminar on 'Disinfection of Water Suppliers ' programme and spea kers to be advised later. • Sept . 24th: 'Water Filtration Plant Operating Performance Compared with Design' - Mr. B. G. Stone , Perth. • Nov. 12th : Guest Night: 'Construction of Road s in Arid Regions' - Mr . L. Beadell. STATE NEWS The water filtration programme is the major in vo lvement of the E. & W .S. Dept. at thi s tim e. Hope Valley and Anstey Hill plants are now operational and Barossa Fi ltration Plant is nearl y completed, outstanding items are minor. Th e $ 16 m fi ltration plant at Little Para Reservoir is 40 per cent complete and should be fini shed lat e in 1983. The reservoir and plant will on ly operate when demand is hi gh, and will serve the Para Hi llsParafield -Salisbury South area normall y suppli ed by Barossa Reservoi r. Th e larges t proposed plant, at Happy Va ll ey Reservoir , is estim ated to cost $50 million and wi ll serve a large proportion of the south ern metro;:,olita n area. Detailed des ign has co mm enced. Selection of the treatm ent process for Myponga Reservoir is still to be decided. Alt ernatives include the Sirofloc process and disso lved air flotation. Cost will approx imate $18 million. Two fi ltrat ion plants are planned for the northern town s, estimated cost $3 4.5 m. One plant will be loca ted on each of th e pipelin es from the Murray servin g the north, midnorth and York e Pen insula . A draft conce pt design for the Morgan plant submitt ed to the Department by Consult ant s Camp, Scott and Furph y Pt y. Ltd. and is being rev iewed . Detailed designs should be co mpleted by November 1982. Prelimina ry in vest iga tion s to choo se a sit e for the Swa n Reach-Stoc kwell pipeline plant are virtu all y co mpl ete and a dec ision is expected short ly.

QUEENSLAND BRAN CH ACTIVITIES The Use and Abuse of Water Quality Models was the subject of the fir st meeting :·or ihe year on 24 February. Chri s Joy of Co nsultants, Ca tchm ent Ri ver a nd Coastal 9


ASSOC/A TJON Engin~ering discussed the strengths and shortcom ings of various-water quality models used to predict the conce ntrati o n of quality parameters in rivers, est uaries a nd lakes . The mee tin g programme for th e rest of th e year is as follows: • 28 Ap ril: To be adv ised . • 30 June: Presentation of Operators' Certificates. • 14 July: Presentat io n ' of Operators' Cerrifica tes. • 18 August: A nnu al General Meeting. Speaker: Fred Greenha lgh . • 20 October: V. E. Schmidt on Experiences in Papua New Gui nea in Organi zing Water and Wastewater Treatment . • 17 Nove mber: To be advised. Other speakers have yet to be co nfirm ed. STATE NEWS

·

Th e Quee nsla nd Water Reso urces Co mmiss ion are organizing a three day semina r for water supply, sewerage and swimming pool operators to be held in In gham, 18-20 May 1982. Furth er information can be obtain ed from Norm W hyte (07) 224 6746. There is a reluctance on the part of Local Authorities in Queensland to allow the use of UPVC pipe for grav ity sewers because of th e frequency of blockages a nd deformation and mi sa lignment of pipes resulting from poor lay in g practices. A ma nu fac tur er ha s respo nded by holding a fi eld day to demonstrate correc t a ppli cation procedures .

NORTHERN TERRITORY BRA NCH NEWS

Branch attention has been concentrated on the o rgan isation of the September I 983 Specia list Co nference o n the Water Regime in Relationshi p to Mining, M illing and Water Treatment, incl udin g Rehabilitation, wit h Emp has is on Uranium Mining. With preliminaries completed the Branch will retu rn to normal acti vities . Eve nts programm ed for the remainder of the yea r in clude a tri logy of talks on the P almerston Township Development, a visit to th e Leanyer Sewerage Treatment Lagoon s, and hopefull y a paper o n the cont inu ed environmental monit oring and control of th e Ura nium provinces in t he Alligator Rivers region. A lo ng time member of th e Association, Mr. Bob Morrision has departed from t he Water Division of the Department of Transport a nd Works and taken up a new position with co nsultant s in P erth . TERRITORY NEWS Tennant Creek

The Tennant C reek commun ity held th eir firs t regatta/ca rnival over the Aus trali a Day weekend on the Mary Ann Dam. It was a huge success with over 75 per cent of the town populat ion participating. Altho ugh small, with a surface area when full of less than 40 ha the dam has added considerably to the recreati o na l aspects of life in Tennant Creek.

10

NEWS

VIEWS

Darwin - Water Supp ly and Sewerage for Palmerston

Works on the initial stages of Water Supply and Sewerage are progressing rapid ly. T he bow l to t he elevated water tank has been raised in to positi on and is in its co mpleti o n stages. The main trunk sewer to se rve the fir st suburbs is nearly complete as are the sewerage treatment lagoons. Tenders are to be called shortly for a further trunk sewe r in volving 3 km of 1350 mm diameter plastilined concrete pipes. Darwin Facilities

Augmentation

of

Existi ng

The co ntinuin g expans ion of the rural areas to the so uth east of Darwin , together wit h a decision to upgrade se rvices to these communi ties has in vo lved t he Water Division in furt her water su pply works. The fir st of these projects is to go to Te nder soon and includes the constru ction of 3.5 km of 375 km diameter water main to Humpt y Doo Vi llage.

VICTORIA BRANCH ACITIVITES

Activities for I 982 comme nced in fine fashion with a well organised site visit to the MMBW Winneke Reservoir and Water Treatment Plant on February 23rd by 75 members. Bill Duffer Ch .E ng.W .S. with Board a nd Cont rac tor staff prov id ed guida nce. T he 450 ML plan t treats water pumped from th e Upper Yarra using conventio nal processes. Equipment suppl y and civil construction was by contract. The Board designed the civil works. An interesti ng day co ncluded with a chicken a nd champagne meal. For March 23rd, as we go to press, the Branch has sched uled a talk by Mr. R. P. Turrell of the National Water Council, U.K. His topic wi ll be 'Overseas Manpower and Development' . Programme for the remainder of the year includes : • March 23rd - To be a nn ou nced. • Apri l 2 1st - Joint se minar with I. E. Aust. 'Energy Dissipation in Hydra ulics'. • May 25th - to be advised. • June 22nd - "Acceptance and Inspection of Pipes and Fittin gs for Salin e Water Pipeline' , L . A . Reill y and M. E. HannanSmith. STATE NEWS

In Feb ru a ry, the well known Consu lta nts Gu tteridge Hask in s and Davey experienced a maj o r tagedy when their offices in Lo nsdale St reet, Melbourne were gutted by fir e. Damage to the office and it s co ntents was extensive and the fine library built up over the years was tota ll y destroyed. With extraordinary expedition the firm was set up and in action in new and permanent premises only one day after the ca tastrophe - the new address is 97 Frank lin Street, Me lbourne 3000, (03) 347 0322 .

COMMENT

The work of improving the wa ter a nd sewerage faci li ties of Victor ia 's count ry towns proceeds stead il y. Major projects for I 98 1-82 include complet ion of the $3 million treatment plant fo r Traralgon an d the $2 mill ion pla nt for Maryborough. Still under co nst ructio n is the Cobra m plant ($ 1.8 million) and pla nning for Warrnambool has commenced, wit h the first est im ates being of the order of $2 .8 million. Both Traralgon and Cobram are direct filtration plants, the co nsu ltant engin eers being John Scroggie. Bairnsdale is build ing a $3.3 million pipeline a nd pumping tation from a diversio n weir higher up the Mi tchell River; by contrast, Port land has put down a third we ll to tap the deep aquifer. This is 1200 met res deep, at a cost of $425,000. A storage for Macedon is costing a bo ut $ 1. 5 milli o n . At th e o th er end of the systems, a caro use l treat ment plant has been built fo r Mi ldura , wit h a ca pacity of 48,000 ep, wit h capa bility for augmentation by anot her roto r to 72,000 ep. Experimentation of reuse cont inues, o n trees and pastures rather than o n t he pa rk s and ova ls because of costs of reticulation; whereas Redcliffs is now irrigating Quandong Park with reclaimed effluent. Cowes, a holiday resort, has to cope with a sudden popul a tion increase each December from 2000 to about 12,000. They a re now co mm issio ning a n aerated basin treatment plant, with floating aerators which ca n be geared to the influx.

l I

!

'PLANT OF THE YEAR' SIROFLOC -

MIRRABOOKA, W.A.

Th e Society of Chemical Industry of Victoria has chosen as it s 'Plant of th e Year' for 1982 th e SIROFLOC plant at Mirrabooka , W .A.-a mod el o f cooperat ion betwee n Government , a Publi c Authority and private compan ies . Th e Society of Chemical Indu stry of Vi ctoria has chosen as its 'Plant of th e Year' for 1982 the SIROFLOC plant at Mirrabooka , W .A.- 'a model of cooperat io n between Governm en t , a Public Authorit y and private co mpanies '. The SC IV Annual Award has been presented sinc e 1962 to plants all over Australia invo lved in chemica l, mining and process ing industries for merit ranging from novel processes to exce ll ence in eng in ee ring . On March 17th, at a dinner, th e Soc iety prese nted a plaque to the Minister of the Dept. of Scie nce & Technology and praised AUSTEP, the CSIRO and th e Perth Board for the achievement . With co ntracts pending , Sirofloc should have overseas in co me for Au stralian technology.

WATER

i I

I

·f


NEWS

water treatment techniques such as Sirotherm desalination of which he is co-inventor, magnetic polymers for ion exchange and other purification processes, and the role of polyelectrolytes in Sirofloc clarification and decolorization. In 1981 the University of W.A. awarded him a D.Sc. for this work. He is a former chairman of the RAC! National Polymer Division, and was elected a Fellow of the Academy of Technological Sciences in 1978.

CHAIRMAN'S COMMENT

STUDY TOUR

Elsewhere in this Journal is reference to the passing of Guy Parker, members of IAWPR in Australia and overseas will have been saddened by this news . Guy was a founding member of the National Committee, and had given long service as a Director of that Committee and as a member of the Governing Board of the International Organisation. Capetown Conference is shaping up very well . The Australian members of the Governing Board, Messrs . Walder, Jude!! and Henry will be attending and a substantial contingent of members from Australia is anticipated . The Association continues to grow. Brazil and Portugal have both now formed National Committees and their addition to the International Association is expected at the meeting of the Governing Board in Capetown .

The National Committee is arranging a study tour of Water Resources Management in the U.K. from September 5th to the 18th this year. Visists will be made to research organisations, plants and establishments . The Committee will arrange accommodation, travel etc. in the U .K . and cost will approximate $600 . This tour will be of great interest to engineers visiting and will have income tax benefits for the costs of the tour and travel from Australia. Further information from the Chairman, Leon Henry, GPO Box 2454,

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL COMMITTEE OFFICERS More information for members about the Associations Officers . JOHN McCANN -

DIRECTOR

One of the founders of the Australian Committee, John has served as a Director from the year fo llowing. An Engineering Graduate from Melbourne, he commenced his professional career in 1947 with Gutteridge Haskins and Davey in N .S.W. and is still with that organisation of which he is now a Director . He has been associated with the investigation and implementation of many water supply and sewerage schemes in N .S.W. and with environmental matters . John attended the 1972 IAWPR Conference in Paris and was prominent in the 1974 Conference in Sydney. He has also been a very active member of A WW A and is one of the N.S.W. Federal Councillors on the Association of Consulting Engineers, Australia. BRIAN BOLTO -

DIRECTOR

Currently Assistant Chief of CSIRO's Division of Chemical Technology, where he is in charge of research on water and wastewater purification, Brian has been a member of the Australian National Committee since the departure of Don Weiss from the scene in early 1979. He is also a member of the A WW A Standing Committee on Science and Technology, and of the AWRC Water Quality Management Committee. Originally a Ph.D . graduate from the University of W .A ., he has been active in research into the use of polymers in new WATER

4001.

L. HENRY Chairman

UNIVERSITY Of= Q'LAND SPECIAL EDUCATION COURSES 'Principles of Wastewater Treatment Design and Operation' - June 28th to July 2nd. 'Sludge Management and Disposal' - June 30th to July 2nd. The courses are jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemical Engineering , Univers ity of Queensland and School of Civ il Engineering, Univers ity of N.S.W. Princ ipal lecturers will be Prof. Wes Eckenfe lder, U.S.A., Dr. P. Coack ley, U.K., Dr. D. Barnes , U.N.S.W. and Dr. P. Greenfie ld, Univ. Old. The locale is Chevron Hotel, Surfers Paradise. Further details from Dr. P. Greenfield, Dep. of Chem. Eng. Univers ity of Q' ld. 4067 or Dr. D. Barnes, School of Civil Eng., University of N.S.W. , P.O. Box 1, Kensington 2033.

A.W.W.A. With I.E. Aust. & Inst. Mining & Metallurgy SPECIALIZED CONFERENCE ON WATER REGIME - MINING, MILLING AND WASTEWATER TREATMENT - EMPHASIS ON URANIUM MINING. DARWIN -

SEPT. 9TH, 1983

CALL FOR PAPERS Papers not to exceed 5000 words and to be submitted by Oct. 31st, 1982. Enqu iries to: Secretary N.T. Branch A.W.W.A. P.O. Box 37283, Winnell ie, N.T. 5789 AUSTRALIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCE

SYMPOSIUM ON PREDICTION IN WATER QUALITY

I.W.S.A. SPECIALISED CONFERENCES SEPT. 1983

CALL FOR PAPERS Three Specialised Conferences will be held in conj'unction with the AQUA EXPO in Brussels, Sept. 12th-16th, 1983. Topics are: • Water supp ly with in national and internationaf legislation. • Security in water supp ly. • Distribution problems in water supp ly. Summaries of about 500 words with three i l lustrations requ ired before May 1st to : Secretary General, Int. Water Supp ly Assoc iation, 1 Queen Anne's Gate, London SWIH 9BT. Further deta il s from Hon. Sectretary, A.W.W.A. , Box A232 PO Sydney Sth. 2001 .

Canberra, Nov. 30th-Dec. 2nd, 1982

Invited speakers wi ll provide a comprehensive coverage of the topic. The f irst circu lar is avai lable with details and part icu lars of accommodation.

CHANGING YOUR ADDRESS?

Initial enquiry and accommodation advice is required by May 28th.

YOUR BRANCH SECRETARY

Further detai ls from: Sympos ium on Pred ict ion of Water Quality, P.O. Box 783, Canberra City, A.C.T, 2601.

ADDRESSES PAGES 1 & 7

PLEASE LET US KNOW! NOTIFY ADDRESS CHANGES TO

OR THE EDITOR

11


Aquatic Mercury Pollution Control A Review of Treatment Techniques L.A. Nagy and B. H. Olson SUMMARY Studies indi cate that there are treatment opt ions present ly avai lab le for the removal of both organ ic a nd inorgan ic mercury from drinkingwater . As long as the levels of mercury in raw water remain low (approximately 2-4 ppb), gran ular or powdered activated carbon will provide the most suitable treatment. Furthermore, activated carbon would also facilitate the removal of other heavy metals as well as ch lorinated organics. Treatment techniques for the removal of mercury from domestic wastewater are also avai lable and frequently in use. Although not designed, or until recently, recogni zed for their mercury removal capabi li ties, activated sludge tank s provide adequate mercury contain ment as long as they are not subjected to frequent shock load s of heavy metals. Mercury removal from indu stria l wastewater is relatively well developed with a large number of different recyclin g techniques currently in operation , and an even larger number under laboratory invest igation. Treatment methods at the laboratory stage show promise of further reducing the econom ic costs of mercury removal and recycling.

INTRODUCTION The extent and nature of mercury pollution in aquatic environments has been well documented in a general review of the publ ic health impacts of the mercury pollution problem, together with other aspects of mercury contamination in the aquatic environment, presented previously in this journal (Nagy and Olson, 1980). The present article contains a comprehensive review of treatment techniques available for the control of aq uati c mercu ry pollution a nd emp has izes the treatment of drinking-water, domestic wastewater, and indust rial wastewater. Where appropriate, treatment techniques currently in use, techniques at pilot stage and those under laboratory investigation are described with respect to each of the above three water categories.

TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DRINKING-WATER General Information

The discharge of mercury-containing domestic and industrial wastewater has resulted in elevated mercury levels in some raw drinking-water sources and some natural sources are contaminated by leac hate from mercury minerals. An investi gation of mercury leve ls in raw a nd fini shed drinking-water in various locat ion s throughout the United States (Hammerstrom et al., 1972) indicated that most supplies contain less than l ppb (part per billion) mercury. The current allowable United States limit for mercury in drinking-water is 2 ppb and approximately one per cent of supplies tested exceeded this standard. Although this is an extremely low percentage, increases could resu lt if low but constant discharges of mercury-containing compounds continue Lo enter into aq uatic environments . The possible contamination of drinking-water by mercury has prompted the exploration of var ious treatment options to remove this metal (Logsdon and Symons, 1973; Sigworth and Smith, 1972; Thiem, Badorek a nd O'Connor, 1976). Thus far, activated carbon is the most promising procedure for removing the relatively low levels of mercury currently present in raw waters. Treatment of drinking-water for the elimination or reduction of mercu ry has been limi ted LO laborato ry

Loslo A. Nagy is an Honours Graduate of A.N. U. and Graduate Student and Teaching Assistant in Social Ecology ar the Unversity of Californ ia, Irvine, USA. Dr. Belly Haak Olson is Assistant Professor, Program in Social Ecology, University of Caljornia. An earlier paper by the Co-Authors, Mercury in Aquatic Environments - A General Review, was published in the September issue of 'Water' 1980, Vo l. 7, No . 3.

12

studies, because the potential problem has on ly recently been recogni zed and remedies have been regarded as unnecessary due to low leve ls of mercury in raw waters. Treatment Techniques at the Laboratory Stage

A number of processes have been investigated and evalua ted for their potential to remove mercury from drinking-water. Although mercury in natural waters may exist in the meta lie, inorganic or organic form, it is unlikel y that different treatment techniques will be needed for each form.

TABLE I. LABORATORY STAGE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR THE REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM DRINKING-WATER Process activated (powdered) + alum activated (powdered) activated (powdered) activated (powdered) + EDTA activated (powdered)

+

Chem. Form of Hg

%

Ref

Rem.

carbon carbon carbon carbon

HgCl, Hg'¡ Hg"

9 10 10

70 30 80

(a) (b) (b)

Hg'•

10

70

(b)

Hg'' HgCI, C H, HgCl HgCI, C H, HgCI HgCI, CH,HgCI

10 20 20 100 20 3 3

70 80 80 40 20 40 40

(b) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a) (a)

HgCI, CH,HgCl HgCI, CH,HgCl

3 2 2

70 "40 70 0

(a) (a) (a) (a)

carbon

tannic

activated (granular) carbon activated (granular) carbon clarification + centrifugation clarification + centrifugation coagulation with alum coagulation with alum coagulation with ferric sulfate coagu lation with ferric sulfate softening so ftening (a) (b) -

Cone. of Hg in warer - ppb

Logsdo n & Symons, 1973. Thiem, Badorek & O'Connor, 1976.

A summary of treatment processes, along with the chemical form of mercury, concentration of mercury, and percent removal is prese nted in Table I. In a study by Logsdon and Symon s (1973), four general processes were investigated (Table I); (i) coagu lat ion (with alum or ferric sulphate) plus clarification, (ii) clarification, (iii) softening, and (iv) activated carbon (granular or powdered). Of these processes granular activated carbon provided the most cons istent results, with approximately 70 per cent and 90 per cent removal of inorgan ic and organ ic forms, respectively. Although granu lar activated ca rbon removed more organic than inorgan ic mercury, the reverse co ndition was observed with some other treatments. For exa mple, softe nin g whi ch removed 70 per cent of mercuric chloride, was totall y ineffective for removal of methylmercury chloride. In a subsequent study , Thiem, Badorek, and O'Connor (1976) invest igated the mercury removal capaci ty of powdered activated carbon along or in conjunction with organic complexing ::igents such as 1:: DT A, tannic acid, and citric acid (Table I) . Of the processes tested, powdered activated carbon, together with small quantities of tannic acid, provided the best removal of mercury. It appears from the above laboratory investigations that some form of activated carbon treatment may provide the most promising stra tegy for reducing mercury levels in drinking-water. WATER


TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR DOMESTI C WASTEWATER General Introduction Mercury and mercury contain ing compounds a re co mm o n in our in dustria lized so ciety. As a res ult o f thi s a. low but steady bac kgro und level of mercur y is found in raw dom esti c wastewa ter usuall y ra nging betwee n 0.1 and 10 ppb (Eva ns, Sull iva n a nd Lin , 1973) . T he o ri gin of thi s mercury may be deri ved from a number o f sources such as agri cultural or urban runoff, paper products, paints, therm ometers, or pumps . Although con ve nti o nal was tewa ter treat ment pl a nts a re not designed for mercury remova l, th ey neverth eless achieve acce ptab le levels in the efflu ent.

Treatment Techniques Currently In Use Th e primary and seconda ry treatm ent processes employed a t most dom es ti c wastewa ter plants remo ve a co nsiderabl e fr ac tion of the mercury as well as o ther metals present in th e was tewa ter. During prima ry treatment , inso lu bl e mercury and parti culat e associa ted mercury settl e out from th e was tewa ter and durin g secondary treatm ent , di ssolved mercur y is ex tracted from solution (Bro wn a nd Les ter, I 979) . Seco ndary trea tm ent , especiall y when acti vat ed sludge ca n be used, is mo re important in meta l remo va l th a n prim a ry treatm ent (Chen , et al. , 1974; Ol iver a nd Cosgro ve, I 974) , because it removes a la rger pe rcentage of th e tota l metal cont ent of the wastewa ter. During ac ti vat ed slud ge treatm ent mercury o r mercury-co nta inin g compo und s a re eith er adsorbed or absorbed by bacter ial fl oes wit hin th e sludge . Bacteri al extra cell ul ar pol ymers play a n impo rta nt role in flo cc ulation and co nsequ entl y also in th e mercury ex tracti on process . When th e flo cc ul a ted bacteri a se ttl e a nd a re removed fro m th e liquid fraction, th e mercury assoc ia ted with these bacteri a is also removed . Apa rt from mercury, a number of oth er heavy meta ls ca n also be separat ed from th e wastewat er by th e utilizat io n of bacteri a l extracellul ar polymers (Brown a nd Lester, 1979).

TABLE 2. TR EATM ENT TECH NIQ UES CU RR ENTLY IN USE FOR TH E REMOVAL OF MERCU RY FROM DOMESTIC WA STEWAT ER Process prima ry treat ment prim a ry treatm ent prim a ry + seco nd ary treatm ent second ary (ac ti va ted slud ge) second a ry (acti vated sludge) seco nda ry (ac ti vated sludge)

Chem . Form of Hg

Co ne. of Hg in wa1er- ppb

Rem.

N.R . N. R .

3 20

60' 60'

(a) (b)

N. R . N .R . N .R . N. R.

20 2 9

80' 60' 50' 70'

(b) (a) (b) (c)

%

Ref.

N .R. = not repo rt ed. ' other meta ls a lso removed = aluminium , bari um , beryllium , bism uth , cadmium , chro m ium , co ba lt, co pper , iro n , lead , ma nga nese, mo lybdenu m , nickel, sil ver, str ontium , vanadium and zinc.

' other metals a lso rem oved - cadmi um , chromi um , coba lt , copper, iron , lead, manga nese, nickel an d zinc. J

oth er metals also removed -

cadmi um , chromi um, copper, iron , manga nese,

ni ckel a nd zinc. (a) Oli ve r & Cosgro ve, t 975 . (b) Oli ver & Cosgrove , 1974 .

(c) C hen et al., I 974.

A summar y of processes currentl y in use for the removal of mercury from dom estic wastewa ter, togeth er with chemi ca l form of mercury, con ce ntra tion of mercur y, and percent remo val , is present ed in T a bl e 2 .. For th e pu rposes of this prese nta ti o n, dom esti c wastewater pla nts wi ll be regard ed as on es rece ivin g more th a n half th eir influent fr o m dom estic as opposed to indu str ial sources. Act ivated sludge tank s ma y be ad versel y a ffected when a signi fica nt portion (20-40 per ce nt ) of th e trea tm ent plant 's sewage influ ent is derived from indu str ial sources . Was te efflu e nt from th ese so urces ca n contain relat ive ly hi gh levels of metal s includin g merc ur y a nd ca n produ ce toxicity proble ms in the biologica l ecosystems o f ac ti va ted sludge and anaerob ic d iges te rs . Furt hermore, indu str ia l sources usuall y release their wa stes in bat ch , thereby creatin g sudden large increases of meta l input s whi ch can produ ce biol ogica l tox icity, a nd ultim a tely res ult in plan t in effi cency a nd inferior efflu ent qualit y (Oli ve r a nd Cosg rove , I 974 and I 975). WATER

Alth o ugh con venti o nal wastewat er plants perfo rm relati vely we ll in term s of redu ci ng t he mercury co nt ent of th e efflu ent waters, th ey do so a t th e ex pense o f concent ra tin g mercury in thl resulta nt sludge . (Jorgense n, 1975; Van Lo on , 1974) . Th e ultim ate fate of sludges containing eleva ted levels of hea vy metals is still unreso lved, although la nd disposa l is viewed as th e most effi cient a nd practi cal mea ns presentl y availa ble in the Uni ted States and th e United Kingdo m .

Treatment Techniques at Pilot Stage Relatively little info rm at io n is availab le on pilot stage treatment techniqu es for the remova l o f mercury from domestic wastewa ter . The per for ma nce of a pil o t pl a nt was evalu ated by Argo a nd C ulp (1972), a nd since th eir first repo rt t he pilo t pl a nt has become full y operati onal, process in g 57 ML/ day (Argo , 198 1) . Th e trea tment, used for heavy metals remova l, con sists of sedimentation, a mm onia stripping, recarbonati o n , mixed media filtr ation , and acti vated ca rbon adsorption (Argo and C ulp , I 972). Result s with res pect to mercury removal were som ewh a t difficult to evalu ate, a nd even wit h th e now fu lly o pera tional plan t, thi s eva lu a tion is st ill prob lemil'tic because of the ex tremely low leve ls of mercur y ente ring thi s pl a nt (Argo , 1981).

Treatment Techniques at the Laboratory Stage T here are a number of techniqu es for la boratory testin g of mercury removal fr o m domes tic was tewa ter. Th ese fo cus on two broad treatment st rateg ies : mi cr o biol og ica l or ph ys ical /c hemi cal. Th e microbi o logical effo rts a re con cerned with the role of activa ted sludge bacteri a a nd th eir ex tracellul ar po lymers in the remova l of mercury a nd th e role o f bacter ia in th e tran sformation of mercury under both aerobi c a nd an aerob ic condi tio ns . But th ese topics have been recentl y rev iewed a nd described in term s o f current research (Brown and Lester, I 979; Summers and Sil ver, I 978) . Th e ph ys ical/ ch emical la bo ra to ry stage treatm ent st ra tegies for do mes ti c wastewater a re th e same as th ose for industri a l wastewater and are con sequentl y presented under th a t secti o n.

TREATMENT TECHNIQ UES FOR INDUSTRIAL WA STEWATE R General Introduction Until th e lat e 1960s a nd ea rly 1970s the main source of mercury ent ering aq ua ti c environm ents was mercury-containin g industrial wastewa ter. Mercury released from industrial sources has been drasti ca ll y redu ced due to stri ct a nd rap id governm ent environmental regulati o n (Ka tz, 1972) . One compa ny reduced it s di scharge of mercury fr om 90 kg/ day to a pproximately 0. 2 kg/day (Rosenzweig, 197 1) . O t hers were threatened with court a~ ion , while sti ll ot hers were fo rced to termina te th eir opera tion s (Katz, I 972; Krenk e!, 1974). In the chloralk ali industry th ere has been a swing away from mercury cell s to th e newer po lymeric diaphragm cells . Th e treatm ent of mercury cont ainin g wastes at the industri al site has res ul ted in a number of treatm ent methods (Pa tterson, 1975) as well as con siderable ongoing pi lot plant a nd la boratory stage research.

Treatment Techniques Currentl y In Use There a re at least 20 different pa tent s for processes that remove mercury fr o m liquid indust ria l was tes (Jones , 197 1; Sittig, 1975; Yehaskel, I 979), a nd a pproximately one half of th ese tech niques a re actuall y in operati o n. About I 0-1 2 treatments currentl y in use have been described in th e published lit erat ure (Ta ble 3) . All use a series of procedures to progress ively lower th e level in th e effluent, and most can handl e wastes ori ginating from a variet y of industrial sources . A process developed by the Osaka Soda Ltd . of Japan (Gard in er and Munoz, 197 1), utili zes two different ion ex change resins to reco ve r mercury fr om wastewat er or brine slurries (Tab le 3) . The procedure was developed in the ea rl y 1960s and has been operat iona l since th at tim e at va rious Japa nese chl o r-alk ali plan ts. First the wa ter is pH adju sted and chlorinat ed , th en it is filt ered fo r float ing insolubles, reducing th e mercury cont ent of the water from an initia l level of 20 ppm to 5 ppm . Fo ll owing thi s, the wastewat er is passed through an io n exchan ge to wer and then throu gh Osak a Soda' s MR resin tower, such that the level of mercury in th e fin al efflue nt is reduced to 5 ppb (Gardiner and Munoz, 197 1). Th e Akt iebolaget Billings for s- La nged Compa ny of Sweden has also develo ped a n ion excha nge method (Brownin g, I 97 1) to recove r mer-

13


cury from industrially contaminated wastewater (Ta ble 3). The process, lik e the one above, uses an initial pH adjustment followed by passage through two resin s. The fir st resin (Q- 13) reduces mercury from 20 ppm to JOO ppb, whereas the second res in (Q-Sorb) furth er reduces the mercur y content to 5 ppb.

TABLE 3. TREATMENT TECHNIQUES CURRENTLY INUSEFORTHEREMOVALOFMERCURYFROM I DUSTRIAL WASTEWATER Process acti vated carbo n (TNO Company) ion -exchange (Akzo IM AC-TMR) ion-exc hange (Osaka Sod a) ion-exc han ge (AB- L) re-elixirization (Nippon Electric) sodium boroxide (Ventron Corp.) sulfide precip. (GeorgiaPacific) sul fide + roas ting (Georgia. Pacific) vaccum filt er ext ractio n (FMC) (undisclose, Bunker-Hill) N.R. = not reported. 1 other metal s also removed lead, ma nganese a nd zinc .

(a) (b) (c) -

Rosenzweig, I975. Gardiner & Munoz, 1971. Browning, 197 1.

Chem. Form of Hg

Cone. of Hg in water - ppm

Rem.

N. R.

50

99

(a)

N. R. N .R . HgCI,

IO 20 20

99 99 99

(a) (b) (c)

N.R.

7

99'

(d)

N. R.

20

99

(e)

N.R.

4

99

(d)

N.R .

300

99

(d)

HgS N. R.

100 100

99 99

(d) (t)

%

Ref.

arsen ic, cadmi um , chrom ium, copper, iron,

(d) - lammartino, t975 . (e) - Rosenzweig, 197 1. (t) - A non , 1972c.

A technique fo r mercury remova l established by th e Ventron Corporation (Rosenzweig , 197 1; Anon, 1972a; Anon , 1972b), and current ly marketed by Thiokol/ Ventron Division (Medding, 1981) uses sod ium borohydride (NaBH ,) to precipitate mercury from industrial wastewater (Table 3). The process is ca pable of removing both in organic and organic forms of mercury a nd has been utilized in continuou s or batch treatment sys tem s by the International Minerals a nd Chemicals Co rporation (Carr , l 980). The Bunker Hill Co . has developed a process that comb ines both chemical and physical techniques to lower the mercury in sulfuri c acid waste from I 00 ppm to I ppm (Anon, 1972c). Other details of the method are un avai lable, but it is co mmercia ll y fea sible a nd is used in a sulfuric acid process ing plant in Kellog, Idaho, United States (Anon, 1972c). Engineers at th e Industrial Chemi cals Division o f the FMC Corporation have produced a mercury treatment techn ique for the firm 's 175 ton/ day chloralkali plant in Sq uam ish , Canada (Iammartino , 1975). T he method uses a combi nation of precipita tion, extraction, and rotary vacuum filtration (Anon , 1973; lammartino, 1975). Mercury removal is said to be better than 99 per cent a nd the wastewater leaving the plant co ntains a n average concentration of 3 ppb mercury (Ta ble 3) . A re-eli xiri zation technique for the removal of mercury , as well as o ther heavy metals from sc rubbin g tower wastewater, has been perfected by the Nippon Electric Co mpany of Japan (Iammartino, I 975). The metal s in the wastewater are mi xed wit h a d ivalent ferrous salt , then neutrali zed with alk ali, oxidized and finally magnetically separated (Table 3) . Geo rgia-Pac ifi c has developed a mercury recyclin g system for both the treatment of liquid a nd slud ge wastes (lammartino, I 975) . The li quid sys tem uses sulfide precipitation , whereas the sludge system uses a multiple-hearth roast ing furnac e (Perry, 1974). Operated effectively, both processes remove 99 per cent of the mercury prese nt in the wastes (Table 3). The TNO Organisa tion in The Net herlands has produced an activated carbo n mercury treatment method (Table 3), designed specifically for mercury adso rpti on (Rosenzweig, 1975). Alth o ugh primarily developed for organic mercury compou nds, the system , 14

used by severa l co mpanies in the The Netherlands, is also suitable for inorgani c and metallic removal (Rosenzweig, 1975). Another Dut ch co mpany , Akzo, has been mark eting an ion exchange process for mercury remova l from chlor-a lkali plant wastewater (Rosenzwe ig, 1975). The exc ha nge res in is a po lymeric merca pta n with high thermal stability and a wide pH range . Of the processes currentl y in operation, the sodium borohydride method appea rs to be the most cos t effective, part icul a rly in th e batch for m (Carr, 1980). Int ernational Minera ls & Chemicals Corporation has successfull y utili zed the batch sodium boroh ydride process in it s Ashtabu la, Ohio, C hlor-A lkali plant. Operatin g costs for th e sys tem ap pear highly co mpetitive and will be di sc ussed in more detail und er Economic Considerat ion s.

.

Treatment Techniques at Pilot Stage Several treatm ent techniques at the pilot stage have been reported in the literature (Ta ble 4). These treatments have co n isted of chemi cal absorpt io n (Environmental E ngin eerin g: Rosenzwe,ig, 197 1) , fi lt rat ion (Ecotech: Rose nzweig, 197 1), rotary filtr at ion and roast ing (G eo rgiaPacific: Perry, 1974), redu ct ion by zin c du st beds (New Jersey Zinc: Krenke!, 1974), a nd filtration by zi nc dust (Ma ll ory & Co.: Bro and Lang, 1974). It is probab le that most of these trea tm ents ha ve become fully operational si nce their origina l mention in the above literature. A summary of the treatment s , togeth er with chemica l fo rm of mercury, co ncentration of mercury and per ce nt remova l, is presented in Table 4.

,

TABLE 4. PILOT STAGE TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR THE REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER Process chem ical absorbent (Environ. Engin.) filtration (Ecotech.) rota ry filtration + roasti ng (G-P) zinc dust beds (New Jersey Z in c) zinc dust fi lters (Mallory & Co.) N.R.

=

Chem. Form of Hg

Cone. of Hg in water - ppm

Rem .

N.R. N.R.

1000 .R.

99 83

(a) (a)

N. R.

N.R.

99

(b)

Hg'"

IO

99

(c)

99

(d)

Hg'•

%

Ref.

not reported.

(a) Rosenzweig, I 971. (b) Perry, 1974.

(c) Kre nk el, 1974. (d) Bro & Lang, 1974.

'

Treatment Techniques at the Laboratory Stage Th ere is co nsiderable information on laboratory stage treat ment techn iques for th e removal of mercury and merc ury-co ntaining co mpound s from industrial wastewaters. A genera l summary of th ese techniques, together with chemi cal form of mercury, co ncentrati o n of mercury, a nd percent remo val, is presented in Tab le 5. A number of processes have been in vest iga ted using co ncentration s of mercury common ly found in indu stri a l and dom estic wastewaters. Most ex periments in Table 5 tested and compared a number of different processes a nd compounds. These processes have included adsorption by acti vated carbo n (Mc Kaveney, Fass inge r and Sti vers, 1972; Wheeler a nd Hamdy , 1977), chelatin g resins (Fr iedman a nd Masri, 1973; Mu zzarell i and lso lat i, 197 1) , a nd iron sulfid e (Brown et al., 1979). Adsorbing co lloidal flotation (Huang a nd Wi lso n, 1976), anion exc hange resins and meta lli c all oy exc han gers (McKaveney, Fassinger and Stivers, 1972) have also been tested. However , the largest number of met hod s under la boratory in ves tigation in volve the adsorpti on or a bsorption of mercury by organic pol ymers th at a re rega rded as agricultura l or indu stri al wastes. Materials tested have includ ed : bark (Henderson et al., 1977), cellul ose (Marchant, 1974), chi ti n or chitosan (M as ri a nd Friedman, 1972; Mu zza rell i and lsolati , 197 1), corn cobs (H enderso n, Li ght sey and Poonawa la, 1977), cotton (Roberts and Rowland, I973; Synder and Vigo , I974), peanut hulls (H ~nd erson et al. , 1977) , rubber (Henderson , Lightsey and Poonawala, 1977; Ra ma moorth y and Miller , 1979; Wheeler and Ha md y, 1977), sa wdust (H enderson, Light sey a nd Poonawala, I 977) a nd woo l (Freela nd , Hoski nso n and Mayfi eld, I 974; Friedman a nd Masri, 1973; Friedman a nd Waiss, WATER

i


TABLES. LABORATORY STAGE TREATMENT TECHN IQ ES FOR THE REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATER Process activated carbo n (Darco-G 60) activated carbon anion exc hange resin (R-h , !RA-93) bark (as received) bark (composted) cellulose (VDT) chelating resin (Dowex A-1) chelatin g resin (Dowex A-1) chelat in g resin (Dowex 2 x 8) chelatin g resin (Dowex I x 2) chelating res in (Dowex I-A) chitin c hitin c hitin c hi tosa n c hi tosan c hitosan co llodial notation with Al (O H ), co lloidal no tat ion with Fe (O H), coll oidal notation with FeS colloidal notation with CuS corn cobs (as received) co ll on (chemica ll y modified CPEI) collon (c hem icall y modified DEAE) collon (chemicall y mod ified AE) conon (chemicall y modified PE I) conon (chem icall y modified AEAC) conon (chemical\y modified AEAC) conon collon high mol-wt amine (336-S-Cl) iron sulfide (adsorpt io n) iron sulfide (ad sorption) iro n sulfide (adsorption) metallic (alloy) exc hangers AISi metallic (alloy) excha ngers MgFeSi

Chem. Form of Hg HgCI, Hg'' HgCI, HgCI, HgC I, HgC I, C H, Hg' Hg' HgCI, HgCI, H gCI, C H , Hg' Hg" HgCI, CH, Hg' Hg'" HgCI, Hg'"

. Cone. of Hg in waler - ppm

%

Ref.

98 16

(a) (b)

20 11 2 11 2 20 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 4000 600 600 4000

96 I

(a) (c) (c) (d)

20

75

20 0.5

6 99 89 86 47 42 38 29 22 33 47 92 99

(e) (e)

(f) (f) (f) (e) (e) (g) (e) (e) (g)

(h)

Hg'" HgS HgS HgCI,

20 20 20 11 2

75 99 99

(h) (h) (h) (i)

H gCI,

4

96

U)

HgCI,

4

99

U)

H gCI,

4

99

(j)

HgCI ,

4

96

(j)

92

(k)

90 13 68 99 95 98 83

(k) (k) (k) (I) (m) (m) (m)

HgCI, HgCI, HgCI, HgCI, HgCW Hg'' Hg'" Hg•

0 .60

3 0.60 200 20 100 30

N.R.

II

89

(n)

N.R.

II

93

(n)

(a) McKaveney, Fassinge r & Stivers, 1972 (b) Wheeler & H amdy, 1977 (c) Henderson el al., 1977 (d) Marchant, 1974 (e) Muzzarelli & lsolati, 197 1 (f) Friedman & Marsi, 1973

(g) Masri & Fri edman, 1972 (h) Huang & Wi lso n, 1976 (i) Henderson, Lightsey & Poonawala, 1977 (j) Roberts & Rowland , 1973 (k) Snyder & Vigo, 1974 (I) Moore, 1972

1972; Fri ed ma n et al., 1973; Laurie a nd Barraclough, 1979; Masri and Fri ed man, 1972 and I 973). The ge nera ll y low to average (7-50 per ce nt) mercury uptake levels by these waste polymers can be in creased to 95-99 per ce nt mercury uptake simpl y by modifying the material; usually achieved by gr in d ing or chemica l reduction (Table 5) . Of th e a bove agricultura l a nd industri al o rga ni c was tes, rubber a nd wool appear to show the most promisin g resu lts not only in term s of mercur y upta ke, but also in term s o f overa ll eco nomi c cos ts. Future techniques of mercury remova l from industrial and domestic wastewaters may include employing so me of these organic polymers a nd in the process utili zing one type of waste to clean up a nother. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS

T he recycling of a n environmental pollutant incurs certain economic costs. In the case of mercury, these costs a re the capital and operating costs of mercury treatment techniques. With current pro-

WATER

Process

Rem.

Chem. Form of Hg

metallic (alloy) exchangers CaSi, meta llic (alloy exchangers CaSiBa metall ic (a lloy) excha ngers SiFe peanut hu lls (as rece ived ) peanut hulls (80 mesh) peanut hulls (150 mesh) precipitation notation rubber (ground) rubber (ground) rubb er (as received) rubber (ground 80 mesh) rubber (ground 150 mesh) rubber (ground) rubber (ground) softwood sawdust (as received) softwood sawdust (80 m es h) softwood sawd ust (150 mes h) starch-xa nth ate (catronic polymer) starch-xanthate (PVBT MAC) wool (fibre) woo l (reduced) woo l (reduced) woo l (intact) woo l (in tact) wool (reduced) woo l (reduced) wool (S-pyrid ylethyl akylated) woo l (S-pyrid ylethyl alkylated) wool (reduced) wool (reduced N-vinylpyrrolidone) wool (reduced N-vinylimidazole) woo l (reduced 2-vin ylpyridine) wool ( + NaHSo,) wool (KM nO, ox idized) wool (po lyet h ylen imine modified) woo l (m) Brown el al., 1979 (n) McKaveney, Fassinger & Stivers, I 972 (o) Henderso n, Lightsey & Poonawa la, 1977 (p) Ra mamoort hy & Mi ller, 1979 (q) Swanson el al., 1973

Cone. of Hg in wa1er - ppm

%

Ref.

Rem.

N.R.

II

93

(n)

HgCI,

20

99

(n)

98 13 22 43 99 60 45

(n) (c) (c) (c) (h) (b) (b) (o) (o) (o) (p) (p)

HgCI, H gCI, HgCI, HgCI, Hg'" H g'" H g'" HgCI, HgCI, HgC!, H g'" C H, Hg'

20 11 2 11 2 112 20 0.05 0.50 I I~ 112 112

5 5

HgCI, HgCI, HgCI,

I 12 11 2 11 2

7 39 46 95 75

2

0 4

(i) (i) (i)

HgCI, HgCI, HgCI, H gCI, C H, HgCI HgCI, C H, HgCI HgCI, HgCI,

100 100 4000 600 540 600 540 100 1000

99 99

(s) (t) (t) (u) (u)

HgCI,

100

99

(u)

H gCI, HgCI,

1000 600

98 98

(u) (f)

HgCI,

600

99

(f)

HgCI, HgCI, H gCI, HgCI,

600 600 600 600

97 68

(f) (f) (f) (f)

H gCI, H gCI,

1000 100

98

99 99 58 98 94

55 30

92 70

90

(q) (r) (g) (s)

(v) (w)

Wi ng el al., I 974 Friedman & Waiss, I 972 Friedman el al., 1973 Masri & Friedman, 1973 Freeland, Hoskinson & Mayfield , 1974 (w) Laurie & Barraclough, I 979

(r) (s) (t) (u) (v)

cedures, ca pita l costs are variab le and highl y dependent on plant size and treatment technique (Patterso n , I 975). Operating costs, although dependent on the chemica l nature a nd ini tia l co ncentrat ion of mercury, a re less variable . The operating costs of mercury treatment for industrial wastewater in 1970 were approxi mately $2-3 / 10,000 litres of effl uent treated, or $2/ kg of mercury recove red (Rosenzweig, 197 1) . The corres po nd ing costs in 1980 were $ 14-20/ 10,000 litres of efflu ent treated , or $4-9/ kg o f mercury recovered (Carr , 1980; Cook , Lander and Littlehale, 1981, Medding, 198 1). This represe nts a 12- 17 per ce nt annua l increase in t he numerical cost of mercury control measures, which is comparab le with the an nua l increases in ot her polluti o n contro l costs (Bruvo ld, 1981). More detailed in forma tion co ncerni ng the cap ita l and operating costs of vario us mercury control measures can be obtain ed from t he Chlorine Institute, which in 1975 and in 1980 con du cted a n indu stry-w ide survey of the eco nomi c im pact of mercury po ll ut ion con trol (Laubusch , 198 1) .

15


Part of the cost of recycling an environmenta l pollutant may be offse t by the va lue of th e recycl ed compound. This is tru e in th e case of mercury, which presentl y costs a pprox imatel y $ 120- 140/ kg. In th e past , increases in the operating costs of mercury recycling have been cou nterbalan ced by increases in the va lue ·of th e recovered mercu ry, and thi s trend will probably persist in th e future. With co ntinu ed research into the removal of mercury from industrial wastes, a nd th e impl ementation of some of th e research presented in Ta bl e 5, more economical method s of mercury recycling may be deve loped. P a rticularly promisin g, fr om the economic point of view, are methods that use agricultural or indu strial wastes such as pea nut shell s, waste wool, or rubber to remo ve the mercury from th e efflu ent. Future methods may conside rab ly red uce the economic cost of merc ury remova l a nd recycl ing. However, eve n if the eco nom ic -:osts of mercury recyclin g increase signifi ca ntl y in the future, th e relaxat io n o f the present environ menta l regul atio ns for mercury appear unlikely. The enforcement of these strict standards is essential a nd req uired , as the econo mi c cost of recyc lin g mercury are co nsid erabl y less than th e social costs of not recycling thi s pollutant.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Th e a uth ors th ank Marton A. Nagy, Water Contro l Officer , Stromlo Water Treat ment Pl ant, A .C.T., Australia, and Harry F. Ridgway, Post-Doctora l Fell ow, Program in Social Ecology, Un iversii y of California, Irvine, USA, for comme nting on previous drafts of this manu script. The a uthors wou ld also lik e to thank Ed mund J. Laubusch , Techni cal Ma nager, Th e C hl o rin e Inst itut e , In c., USA, a nd George L. Medding, Product Manager, Thiokol/Ventron Division , USA, fo r prov id in g current informat io n on t he economi c costs of mercury recycl ing .

REFERENCES ANON . (1972a ). New process removes mercury fro m li q uid s. Hydrocarbon Processing. (April): 13 & 15. ANON . ( 1972b). Mercury remova l process licen sed . Chem. Engin eering 19 (Jan . 10) : 43 . ANON. ( 1972c). A process th at removes mercur y from co nce ntrated sulfuric acid . Chem . Engineering 79 (Oct. 16): 5 1. ANO . ( 1973) . cw technology 10 keep mercur y from escaping in chlorine-caustic-plant e rnu enlS . Chem . Engineering 80 (Feb . 5): 27. A RGO. D . G . ( 1981) . Perso nal commu nica1ion. ARGO , D. G . a nd CU LP, G . L. (1972) . Heavy metals remo va l in was tewa ter trea1ment processes: part 11 . Wat er, Sewage Works 11 9 (9) : 128- 132. BRO, P . a nd LANG , K. C. (1974). Press ure drop an d corrosio n in zi nc filt ers fo r merc ur y removal fro m waste s1ream s . En v. Sci. Technol. 8 ( 10) : 925-930. BROW , J. R., BRA CROFT , G . M .. FYFE , W . S. and Mc LEA , R. A . . (1979). Merc ury remo va l from wa ler by iro n sul fat e mine ral s: an elect ro n spectroscopy fo r chemica l ana lys is (ESC A) 51 ud y. En v. Sci. Technol. 13 (9) : 1141 - 1144 . BR OWN, M . J . and LESTER , J . . ( 1979) . Me1al remova l in ac1i va1ed sludge: 1he rol e o f ba cterial extra ce ll ular pol ymers . Water Research 13: 8 17-837. BROW N! G, J . E . (197 1) . Winnin g heavy meial s fro m wa ste sludge. Chem. Engineering 78 (A pril I 9) : 62 & 64 . BRUVOLD, B. ( 1981). Perso nal comrnuni ca1i o n . CA RR . G . D. ( 1980) . Rem o val of merc ur y from wat er usin g sod ium bo ro h ydride. The C hl o rine lnstitut e's 23rd Pl a n! Ma nage r's Semin a r, Feb . 6. 1980, New Orlea ns, US A . C H E , K. Y., YOU G, C. S .. JA , T . K. a nd ROHATGI , . ( 1974) . T race me1a ls in waSIC· wa ter e fnue nts. W. P.C. F. Journal 46: 2663 -2675. COOK. M . C ., LAN DE R. J. A. and LITTLE H AL E . D.S. ( 198 1) . Ca se hi s,o ri es : review o f th e use o f sodium boro hydr ide for contr o l o f hea vy metal di scharge in indust ria l waste wat ers (unpubli shed ma nusc ript) . D' ITRI, F . M . ED . ( 1972) . The En vironmemal Mercury Problem. C. R.C. press, O hio. EVANS , R. L .. SU LLIVA N , IV. T. a nd LI , S. ( 1973). Mercury in pub li c sewe r sySle ms. Wat er. Sewage Works 120: 74-7 6. FREELA D, G . N .. HOSK INSON , R . M . a nd MAYFIELD. R. J . (1974) . Ad sorption o f merc ury fro m aqu eous so luti o ns by po lye1hylenimine- m od ifi ed woo l fi bres. En v. Sci. Tec/1110/. 8: 943-944 . FR IEDMAN, M., H ARR ISON, S. C .. WA RD , W . H . and LUNDG RE N. H . P . (1973) . So rption beha vio ur of mecuric and meth ylm ercuric salt s o n woo l. J. Appl. Poly mer Sci. 17: 377- 390. FRI EDMA , M . and MA S RI , M. S. (1973). So rpli on behavio ur o f rn ecuric sal lS o n chemi cally mo difi ed woo l a nd pol ya min o acid s. J. Appl. Poly mer Sci. 17 : 2 183-2 190. FR IEDMAN , M . and WA ISS . A. C. JR . ( 1972) . Me rcury upt a ke by se lected ag ric ul tural products a nd by- prod ucts. En v. Sci. Technol. 6 : 45 7-458. GARD ! ER, W . C. an d M UNO Z, F. (1 97 1) . Mercur y removed fro m waste efflu ent via io n exc hange . Chem. Engin eering 78 (Au gust 23 ): 57~5 9. HA MMERSTROM . R. J ., HI SSO G. D . E .. KOPFLER, F. C .. MAYE R , J ., McFA RR E N. E . F. and PRI NGLE . B. H . ( 1972). Mercur y in drinking- wa ler suppli es. J .A . W.A .A. 64 (!) : 60-61.

HARTU G , R. and DI MA , 8. D. EDS. (1972 ). En vironmental mercury co11tami11atio11 . Ann Arbo r Publi shers, Ann Arbor , Mic hi gan .

16

HE N DERSO N: R. W .. A DREWS, D.S. , LI G HTS EY, G. R. an d POO AIVALA , A. (1977 ). Redu cti o n of mercury, coppe r. ca clm h,m , a nd zinc levels in solu t io n by co mpet it ive adsorp tion o nto pea nut hulls, a nd raw an d aged bark-1u//. Env. Com. Toxit ol. 17: 355-359. H E DERSO , R. IV .. LIGHTSE Y, G . R. a nd POO AWALA. . A . ( 1977). Compe1iti ve adso rption o f metal io ns fr o m so lu t io ns by lo w-cost orga nic ma teria ls. Bull. En v. Corl/ . Toxicol. 18: 340-3 44. H UA G, S. D . a nd WILSON , D. J . ( 1976). Foam sepa ra1io n o f merc ury It a nd ca dm ium 11 fo rm aqueous systems. Separation Science II (3): 2 15-222. IAMMART! 0 , N. R. (1975 ). Mercury clea nu p rou ies- 11. Chem . Engin eering 82 (Feb. 3) : 36-37. JO ES, H . R. ( 197 1) . Mercury pollution com rol. ayes Da la Co rpora1io n, Park Ridge , ew J ersey. JORGEN SEN , S. E . ( 1975). Do heavy meta ls preven t th e a gri cultu ra l use of muni cipal slu dge (zi nc, nick el, mercur y, lead , cad mium , co p pe r , ch rom ium)? Wat er Research 9: 163- 170 . KATZ, A. (1 972) . Mercury po llu t io n: the ma king of a n enviro nme nt a l cr isis. C. R.C. Critical Reviews in En vironmental Com rol 2: 5 I 7-534 . KRENKE L. P . A. ( 1974) . Mercur y: environme nt a l consid erati o ns Part I I. C.R .C. Critical Reviews in En vironmem al Con trol 4: 25 1-3 39. LA UBUSC H , E. J . ( 198 1) . Perso na l co mmuni catio n (Tech nical Manage r , C hl or in e Inst itut e . 342 Ma di so n Ave., cw Yor k . Y. 10 173 ). LA U RIE , S . H. and BA RRA C LO UG H , A . ( 1979) . Use o r waSle woo l for lh e rem oval of merc ur y from industri a l e fnu ents, pa rtic ular ly th ose fro m the ch lo r-a lk a li indu str y. In t. J. En viron. Studies 14 (2): 139- 149. LEO G, L. , OLSON , B. H. a nd COOPER . R . ( 1973 ). Melh ylm ercu ry a nd e nviro nmen1 a l hea llh . J . En v. Health 35 (5) : 436-442. LOGS DO . G. S. an d S YM ONS , J . M . ( 1973 ) . Mercur y remova l by co nve nti o na l wa ter1rea1 men1 1echni q ues. J .A. IV.A.A. 65 (8): 55 4-562. ~·IAR C HA T , W . N. ( 1974). Mod ified cell u lose a bsorbent for remo va l of merc ury fro m a qu eo us solut io ns. En v. Sci. Technol. 8: 993-996. MA S R I, M . S. a nd FR IE DMA N , M . ( 1972) . Merc ur y up1ak e by po lyam in e-car bo h ydra1cs. En v. Sci. Technol. 6: 745-746. MA S RI , M . S. a nd FR IEDMA , M . ( 1973) . Co mpe1i1 ive bindi ng of merc uric ch lo ride in dilut e so lu1ions by woo l a nd po lyet hle ne or glass co111a in ers. En v. Sci. Technol. 7: 95 1-953. MEDDI G. G . L. (1 98 1) . Perso na l co mm u ni ca ti o n . (P rodu ct Ma nager, Boro h yd rid e Ap pli cat io ns, Vent ron Di visio n , 150 Andover St ., Da nvers, MA . 0 1923). McKAV E E Y, J . P .. FASS ING E R, \V . P . a nd STIVERS. D. A . ( 1972). Removal of hea vy meta ls fro m wa ter a nd br in e usin g sili co n all oys . En v. Sci. Technol. 6: 11 09- 1113 . MOORE , F. L. ( 19 72). So lvent ex tracti o n of merc ury fr o m brin e solutio ns with hig hmo lec ul a r weig ht am in es. En v. Sci. Technol. 6 : 525-529. M UZZ AR E LLI . R. A. A . a nd ISO LA T I. A . ( 197 1) . Me1hylm ercury ace1a1e remova l fr o m wa1ers by ch ro ma1og ra ph y o n ehela ting po lymer . Water A ir Soil Poll. I : 65-7 1. AGY , L. A. and OLSO N, B. H . (1980) . Mercury in aqu a1ic envi ro nme nts: a ge neral rev iew. Wat er (J. Aust. Water Wastewater Assoc.) 7 (3) : 12-1 5. NAS- RC PA EL O N M E RCU RY (1 978 ). A n assessment of mercury in the environmem. AS Prin ti ng Publi shin g. Was hin gto n, D.C. O LI VER , B. G . and CO SGROV E , E . G. (1974) . The e ffi cie ncy o f heavy me1a l remova l by a co nve nti o nal ac 1i va1ed slu dge 1reat ment pla nt. Water Research 8: 869-87 4. OLIVER , 8 . G . a nd C O SG ROVE , E. G. ( 1975). Meta l conce n1 rat ions in 1hc sewage, e fnu en1 s. a nd slu dges o f so me So ut hern O ntar io was1ewa1er t reatmen1 pl an ts. Enviro n . Le11ers 9 (I): 75-90. PATTE RSO N, J . W . (1975 ). Waste water Trea tment Technology. Apn Ar bo r Sci ence , Ann Arbor, USA. P E RRY , R. A . (1974) . Merc ury recove ry fro m process slu dges. Chem . Eng. Progress 70 (3): 73-80. RAMAM O ORT H Y, S. a nd M ILL E R. D. R. (1979) . Remova l o f mercur y a nd me1 h ylmercur y fro m was1ewa ters by sorp lio n . Bull. En v. Cont. Toxical. 22 : 196-20 1. ROBERTS, E. J . a nd ROWLA D , S. P . (1 973). R,.,1 ova l of merc ury fr o m a q ueous so luti o ns by nitroge n contai ning chemica ll y modi fi ed cot1011 . Env. Sci. Technol. 7: 552-555. RO SENZ WE IG. M. D. (197 1). Pari ng mercury po llu1i o n . Chem . En~ineeri11g 78 (Feb. 22) : 70-7 1. ROS E Z WE IG , M . D . (1975 ). Merc ury cleanu p roui es- 1. Chem. Engineering 82 (J a n. 20) : 60-6 1. S IGWORTH . E . A . a nd SM IT H , S. B. ( 1972 ). Ad so rp1i o n or in o rgani c compo und s by ac 1i va1ed carbo n . J.A . W. IV.A . 64 (6) : 386- 391. S ITTI G , M . (19 75 ). Resources ReCO\'ery and Recycling Nandbook of Industrial Wast("S. oyes Data Corpora1ion, Pa rk Ri dge, cw Jersey. S NYD E R. S. L. and VI GO , T . L. (1974) . Remova l o f merc ury fro m aqu eo us so lution s by m-2-a min o eth yl, amin o d coxycell ulose co u o n . En v. Sci. Technol. 8: 944 -946 . STOPFORD , W . a nd GOLDWATER, L. J . {1 975 ). Me1hylmercu ry in th e environm ent : a revie w of c urrent un dersta nd ing. En v. I-lea/th Perspectives 12: I 15· 11 8. S UMM E RS, A . 0 . a nd SILV E R. S. (1 978 ). Microb io log ica l tran sform a ti o n of metal s. Ann. Rev. Microbial. 32: 63 7- 672. S WA SO , C. L., W I G, R. E ., DOA NE. W . M . and RUSS ELL. C. R. (1973 ). Merc ur y remova l from waste·wa tcr wi1h sta rc h xan 1ha1c cat ionic po li mer-comp lex. Evn. Sci. Techn ol. 7: 6 14-61 9. TSUBAK I, T . a nd IRUKAYAMA. K. ED S . (19 77 ). Minam ata Disease: Methylmercury Poisoning in Minamata and Niigara, Japan . Kod a nsha Lld. , T o kyo, Ja pa n . T HI EM , L .. BADOR EK. D. a nd O' C O NOR , J. T . (1 97 6). Remova l o f merc ury fro m dri nkin g-wa ter u'ii ng ac1iva1ed ca rbon . J.A. W . W. A. 68 : 447-45 1. VA N LOO N , J. C. ( 1974). Mercury in pu t 10 e nvironment res ultin g fr om prod ucts and efflu ent s from muni cipal ~ewage 1re,11me n1 pl a nt s. En vironment Pollution "1( 2): 141 - 147. WHEEL E R. S. R. a nd HAM DY. M . K. ( 1977). Remova l of so lu ble me rcur y fro m water by rub ber . 8111/. En v. Cont. Toxicol. 17(2): 150- 158. WI NG, R. E .. S WAN SO N, C. L .. DOA NE . W . M .. an d RU SS E LL. C. R. ( 19741. Hea vy meta l remova l with sia rch xa111h a1c-ca ti o nic po lymer com pl e'.:eS. W. P.C. F. Jour. 46 : 2043 -2047. YE H AS KEL , A . (1 979). Industrial IVaste,,·ater Cleanup - Recem De\•elopments. oycs Data Co rpo rati o n, Pa rk Rid ge. cw J cr~ey.

WATER


DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATER RESOURCES OF SOUTH-EAST ASIA D. G. PRICE and J. A. H. BROWN SU MMARY

.,,

The magnitude o f the water resources of South East As ia is described a nd compa risons made with Australi a . In for matio n is presented on do mestic water suppl y, sewerage, floo d da mage, a nd th e hydroelectric a nd irrigati o n potential of th e count ries in o rder to illust rate the need fo r development a nd co ntrol. So me o f th e practi cal as pects o f wo rk ing in the reg ion a re di scussed a nd exa mples giv1;n of a few typica l projects.

ME

I. INTROD UCTIO N Th e deve lop mem of the wa ter reso urces of So ut h-East Asia is descri bed by d rawin g upo n the experience of t he Snowy Mo unta in s Engin eering Co rpora ti on (SMEC). T hi s o rgan isati o n, which was estab li shed by a n act of P a rli a ment in 1970, is empowe red , in ter ali a, to carry out in ves ti gation s a nd furn ish adv ice in rela tion to water re o urces in Au stra li a a nd ove rseas. It is thi s fi eld , the deve lopm ent o f water reso urces , tha t co nstitut es the la rges t single act ivity of SM EC. The ty pes of projects tha t have been carried o ut in cl ude: • water resources pla nnin g • fl ood miti gation • hyd roe lect ri c projects • d ra inage • irr igati o n sc hemes • th e locati o n , design , • wa ter sup pl y for industri a l co nstructi o n , a nd operati o n develo pm ents (h ead work s of hydro met ric networ ks in vesti ga ti o ns) • specia lised hydrol ogic • village wa ter su ppli es in ves tigati o ns P rojects have been carried o ut in abo ut 30 co untri es although the grea ter pa rt o f th e wo rk has been ca rri ed o ut in So uth -Eas t Asia. Exa mples of spec ific proj ects undertaken by SM EC a re give n la ter in thi s paper.

3. TH E NEED FOR D EVELOPM EN T 3.1 Electricity, Water Supply , and Sewerage

Th e need for wa ter develo pm ent projects in th e countries o f South Eas t Asia is generally well kn own alth o ugh it may not be so o bvio us to the casual tourist who stays a t int ern a ti o nal ho tels in capit al citi es .

Th e authors are, respectively, Director, and Executive Engineer, Hydrology, of the Snowy M ountains Engineering Corporation. WATER

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2. TH E WAT ER RES OU RCES OF SOUTH- EAST ASIA

So uth -Eas t Asia is o ne. of the most well end owed regio ns of the wo rld fr o m t he poi nt of view o f its wa ter reso urces. Ma ny of th e la rgest ri vers in the wo rld fl ow th ro ugh the regio n as show n in Figure I . It is onl y necessa ry to look as far as Pa pua New Guinea to co mpa re the a bundant wat e r resources of som e of th ese countries with th ose o f Austra li a (Fi gure 2). For exa mpl e, th e runoff fr o m Pa pua New G uinea is es tim a ted to be a bo ut th ree times greater th a n th at fr o m the who le of A ust ralia (B rown , I 973). Th e Fly Ri ver (est ima ted mea n discha rge 6 000 m 3 / s) a nd Sepik Ri ve r (6 800 m 3 / s) ra nk a mong the majo r ri vers o f the wo rld bein g compa ra ble to th e Da nube (6 400 m' / s), th e Niger (7 000 m'l s), a nd th e Co lumbia (7 500 m' l s) - (data from Cot ill on , I 978). Th ese la rge disc ha rges , coupled in ma ny in sta nces with high heads, give ri se to ve ry la rge hydroelectric pote nti als; fo r exa mpl e, it has bee n estim ated th at th e po tenti al of the Kik o ri Ri ve r in Pa pu a New Guinea is a t least 8 000 MW a t a load fac to r o f 80 per ce nt (Comm o nwealth Depa rt ment of Wo rk s, I 972). In a rev iew o f th e wo rld 's water powe r reso urces, Coti ll o n ( I 978) listed th ose countries hav in g th e greates t hydroelectri c potenti a l. Data for co untries in th e So uth-East Asia n regio n together with da ta fr o m ce rtain other co untri es for comparati ve purposes a re in cl uded in Figure 3. Th e to ta l in stall ed capacit y (h yd ro a nd therm al stat io ns) in Australi a in I 978 was 22 400 MW a nd the energy genera ted 66.5 TWh . The correspo nding fi gures for Pa pu a New Guinea in 1977 were 135 MW a nd 0.303 TWh .

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This need can be demonstrat ed very effecti vely by comparing statistics of per cap ita electricity con sumption, percentage of houses with piped wa ter suppl y, and excreta di sposal fa cilities for these countries with the corres ponding statisti cs o f deve loped countries (Figures 4, 5, and 6). So me Afri can co untries have been included o n these drawings for compa ra ti ve purposes . 3.2 Irri gation

On e of the most pressing needs of most countries in Asia is for addi tional a nd mo re assured sources of food because of their alread y high popula tion s and th eir hi gh ra tes of popula tion growth coupled with 17


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relatively in efficie nt means of produ cti o n a nd dist ribu tio n . In many of th ese co untri es, however , th ere is co nsiderab le sco pe for greatly increas ing the product io n of food through irrigat ion as illu,t rated by th e figures given in Table I . Whil e these data are based on in formation published in 1969 (a revision of this publica ti on is now being prepared - In ternat iona l Com miss ion for Irrigation and Drainage, 1978, p A l 14) and in many instances refer to 1966, it is considered that they are st ill of relevance in showing the need and scope for new irrigation schemes and the relative sca le of development of different countries. 3.3 Flood Damage

Many countries in Asia are particularly prone to fl ood damage. Th is is caused by the combination of a number of circumstances in cluding:

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the locatio n of many of the co untries in the zones most affected by cyclones; for example, the Ind ian and Bangladesh coastlines bordering the Bay of Bengal, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Ta iwan • the very high population densities in the fertile river valleys • large areas of low lying coasta l lands li ab le to be flooded by cyclone induced surges and tsunami s • the intense convective storms, steep catchm ent areas, and hi gh populations in some river va lleys within the region on either side of the eq uator that is not affected by cyclones, for example, J ava.

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WATER


TABLE 1. IRRIGATIO Country

Area under irriga1ion

ha Afgha nista n Ban gladesh Burma Ca mbodia India In donesia

Kenya Korea Mala ys ia

Nepal

Pakistan Philippines

Sri La nk a Tan zania Thailand

Uganda Za mbia Austra lia USA

DEVELOPMENT AND POTE NTIAL Potential irrigable area ha

400 000 900 000

2 840 000

37 640 000 3 797 000

80 940 000 9 050 000

5 060 763 000 127 500

162 000

8 13 572 729 74

T he additio na l potentia l irri gable area only included Suma tra a nd Kalim a nt an. India

In do nesia

Houses damaged or destroyed (number)

Crops damaged or destroyed (ha)

2 347 188 88 622

3 808 000 9 1 127

703 II

68 678

19 990

10.3

301 000 7 11 883 , 207 000 889 000 990 000 111 000

700 579 989 I 390 I 330 735

Estimated total/food damage (US$ x

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

2 225 77 103 733

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

393 685 204 848 5 10 634

I 9 2 3

I I 3 I

746 793 499 540 768 3 19

3 2 7 7 9 2

709 704 728 357 589 124

...

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

244 135 59 385

Korea

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

185 78 485 297 130 390

Philipp ines

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

600 33 I 347 138 I 057 137

Thai la nd

1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

38 3 14 57

298 17 89 1 749

92 3~ 1 308 7 12 IO I 405

19 52 6

106 42

4 98 1 3 7 14

I 790 002 60 351

450

A further 634 000 ha was planned fo r the ne xt fo ur yea rs.

146

5 53 1 14 37 18 I

98 993

448 178 749 746

61 583 164 671 25 73 1 3 1 000

2 43 2 7 19 I 11 3 2 168 2 413 8 043

I 928 660 I 934 2 028 I 146 7 7 I5

I 600 000 A furt her I 400 000 ha was planned fo r the next 10 yea rs. 303 500 4 860 000 30 240 000

NOT ES: (!) Data fro m Framj and Mahajan (1969). (2) Da ta on the a rea under ir rigat ion -were ge nerall y fo r 1966. (3) Data o n potential ir ri ga ble area not ava ilab le for a ll cou ntries .

Very high loss of life and enormou s dam age to crops, dwell ings, a nd co mmuni cat ions accompany cyclo nes in countries such as Banglades h. Sta tistical da ta on flood da mage are difficult to obtain but reaso nab ly consistent information is ava ilab le for a number of co untri es and is summ a ri sed in Table 2. 4. WORKING CONDITIONS 4.1 General Living C onditions

As fa r as everyday living is co ncerned , th e main facto rs a re the di fference s in climate, health a nd hygiene, food, tra nsportation, a nd social life. These a re a ll magnified for personn el on long term as signm ents who are no rma ll y accompa ni ed by th eir families . Throughout most of So uth -East Asia th e climate is humid a nd tropical with the dail y max imum temperature averaging about 30° C a nd the daily m inimum a bou t 23 °C. Humidit y is invari ab ly hi gh . Th ere are ge nera ll y di stin ct wet a nd dry seaso ns, alth o ugh in so me areas the term 'd ry' is a relative o ne as ra infalls are hi gh by A ustralian sta nd a rd s . For exa mp le, a t Tabub il , the wo rk s centre for t he Ok Tedi copper project in wes tern Papu a New Guinea , the mean a nnual rain fa ll is a bo ut 8 000 mm a nd th e average number of days of ra in per year is 337. In the nea rb y mo unt ains the mea n annua l rainfall is in excess of IO 000 mm makin g th e regio n o ne of th e wettest in the world . The sta ndards o f hea lth and hygiene are different to those prevailin g in Australia a nd , special precautio ns have to be ta ken to maint a in the hea lth of sta ff. Care has to be tak en to avoid trop ica l di seases a nd rabies dema nds sa fegua rd s. Loca l foo ds are usually an acquired taste, being hi ghly sp iced, a nd foreign to the taste of Australia ns . Water ge nerall y has to be steri lised before dr ink ing - eith er by boi ling or by the addition o f chemicals . Iso la ted locat ion s place extra dema nds upo n staff, wives a nd children . Ava ila bi lity of se rva nt s invo lves spec ial attenti on to soc ial act ivit ies to relieve boredom . P aid leave breaks in Sin gapore, P enang, or Bali are provided. Where warran ted , sc hoo l teachers a re engaged ; otherwise lesso ns are conduct ed by correspondence. Where th e proj ect headquarters are located in a large city, forei gn sc hoo ls a re ava ila bl e. 4 .2 Technical Aspects

Logist ic and techni ca l as pects assoc iated with projects ca n be different from th ose in more develo ped co untries ; th ese include: WATER

Human

Ill')

Bang ladesh

A n a dditional 240 000 ha we re included in two new projects under construction . An add itional 2 16 000 ha were planned for the next five years .

333 000 40 000 I 900 000

Year

lost (number)

An add itional 200 000 ha we re planned.

11 398 000 960 000

03 5 070 000 000

Co untry

lives

2 730 000

58 900

3 6 I 170 16 930

Remarks

TABLE 2. FLOOD DAMAGE STATISTICS

42 11 8 35

237 124 784 998

15 16 27 112 56 373 50 9 82 269 208 56

3

NOTES : (I) Data taken from the Water Reso urces Jou rn a l (Economic and Socia l Commission fo r Asia and th e Pacific, 1975 + ). (2) - indicat es th at data are not avai lab le. (3) Th e flood damage costs are no t adjusted for inflati on.

... •

Co mpu ting facilities : often not ava.ila ble a nd small mac hin es have to be provided o r less elaborate meth ods used. When com put ers are ava il a bl e access is often no t good a nd co nsiderable effort has to be placed in th e co nversion or adaptation of programs • Imparting knowledge to the local staff: this is normall y done through a system o f co unt erpart staff. Each specialist is usua ll y assigned a co unterpa rt ; fr equentl y these counterparts a re brought to Austra lia for fu rth er training • Co mmuni ca ti ons : th ese can be tenu o us a lth o ugh telex faci lit ies are ava ilable in most of the large cities. At remote camps radio tra nsmitt ers are usuall y installed for contact with the nea rest la rge tow n or cit y for relay to Au stra lia by telex or cable. Travel can be slow in ma ny areas because of poor roads. The rivers ri se a nd fall frequent ly a nd rapid ly and genera ll y carry high sedim ent loads. The latter a re a result of the intense rainfalls, the steep topography, intense cultiva tion, and absence of so il co nservati on practices. Denudation rates of 5 mm per annum a nd greater are not un co mmon. After leaving the mo untains, the ri ver channels are often braided and co ntinually shiftin g. A hi gh incidence of earthqu a kes and land slid es ma kes th e wo rk cha llenging from th e geotechn ica l po int of view. In man y co untries th ere are la rge a reas of karstic lim eston e which pose problems for the foundat ion of dam s a nd th e preventi o n of leakage from reservo irs. There is a need to use local techno logy a nd practi ces if these are in keeping with th e o vera ll objectives of the projects in order to ass ist in eas in g unemployment and under-employment. Moreover, ski ll ed techni cian s a nd fac il ities a re often no t avai lab le for the servicing of complex equipm en t a nd in struments .

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5. EX AMPLES OF PROJ ECTS 5 .1 H ydroelectric Projects

Because of th e rising o il prices ove r the last few years, the dema nd for th e inves tigat ion of h ydroelectr ic proj ects has in creased. A ll stages of these proj ec ts, from surveys o f overall h ydroe lect ri c potential , prefeas ibi li ty studi es, full feasib ilit y studies, design, a nd supervision of con stru ction, as well as rev iew studi es are carried o ut. Two ex, a m pies a re give n below. A review was ma d e of a feas ibilit y study of th e Chisapa ni Proj ect on th e Ka rn a li Ri ve r in W estern Nepal for the Un ited Natio ns Development Plan . This was a ve ry la rge proj ect , th e dam havin g a catchm ent a re of 42 890 km ' wit h a mean di sc harge o f I 360 m' Is (des ign flood 38 000 m 3 /s ) and the po wer stati on a ca pacity of up to 3 600 MW. A team of fi ve spec ia lists s pe nt a bou t two a nd a half mo nth s in Nepa l a nd Indi a in 1968 in spect in g th e site and co ll ectin g an d review in g data. Th e o ut co me of th e review was a recommendation for th e full invest igat ion of a grave l fill dam at a new site so me di sta nce d ow nstream o f th e previou s sit e for whi ch a co ncrete dam had bee n proposed. Se ri o us do ubt s were raised abo ut th e fo undat ion s fo r th e la tt er and a lso its sp ill way a rra ngeme nt s. T hese recommendation s were subsequent ly accepted b y the UNDP. T he fea sibi lit y stu dy , d etai led design, a nd preparation of cont ract d oc um ent s were carr ied out for th e Kha o Laem Project in Western Th a ila nd an d now it s co nstruction is being supervised fo r th e Energy Qe nerat in g Au th o rit y of Thai la nd . Thi s is a medium sized proj ect, the dam co mmandin g a catchm ent of 3 720 km ' with a mean di scha rge of 175 m' / s . Th e dam will be rock fill wit h a concrete face and a height of 114 m. T he power sta tion will have a capacity of 300 MW. Beca use of th e widespread occu rrence o f limesto ne in th e vic inity of t he dam a nd proposed reservo ir , ex tensive geologica l exp lorat ion and inves ti gati o ns have been carr ied o u t. It is o f hi stori ca l interest in that it is located in th e sa me valley as the ill-famed Burma ra il way of Wor ld War 2 a nd is on th e sa me ri ver as t he 'Bridge over the River Kwa i'. 5.2 Water Resources Planning

These are studi es whi ch in vo lve the assess ment of th e wa ter resources o f a who le ri ver bas in and th e id entifi cation of feasible projects within it (th ey a re som etimes referred to as 'master pla n studi es'). Usua ll y th e out co me of such a study is th e select io n o f th e m ost a ttracti ve proj ects (fro m th e econ o m ic view point) and the reco mmendatio n of more deta il ed in ves tigation s of th em. Th e project s a re usua ll y irrigat ion, hydroelectr ic, flo o d co ntrol , o r mu lt i-p urpose project s . Such studi es have been ca rried out in In donesia, Malaysia , a nd Nepa l. Exa mpl es are give n below : • Serayu Basin St ud y, Ind onesia: thi s stud y o f a 3 700 km ' river bas in in ce ntra l Java with a mea n di scharge of 280 m 3 /s and a popul a ti on of 2 500 000 was ca rri ed o ut fo r the A ustralian Develo pm en t Ass ista nce Burea u (ADAB). A tota l of 10 possible projects were in vesti ga ted . T wo of th ese were fo und to be more fa vo ura bl e a nd we re exa min ed in d eta il (the Mrica a nd Maung Proj ects). Both these proj ects co mbine hydroelect ri c power wit h irri gation benefit s a nd are now being designed by Ru ssian and Japan ese cons ult a nts. Dur ing th e course of th e stud y a detailed in ve ntor y was mad e of a ll th e irr igati o n systems in the ba sin (a tota l of 132 000 ha) a nd reco mm end at io ns we re made for va ri o us im pro vement s . Ex tensive land use, agri culture, a nd socio-economic st udi es were a lso ca rri ed o ut. • Ga ndaki Basin St ud y, Nepal: Thi s stud y, co mmi ssio ned by th e United Nation s Deve lo pm ent Programm e, started with a review of a ll dam sites in the 32 130 km ' catc hm ent to d eter mine th e total potentia l of th e bas in . The init ia l emph asis was to identify projects of up to 200 MW ca pacit y tha t co uld readi ly be added to the exist in g generati on system . A feas ibilit y stud y o f the m os t s uit ab le -site to sat isfy Nepa l' s needs in th e near fu t ure recommend ed t he construct io n of a 90 MW power sta ti o n. At the sa me t im e, a prefea sibil ity stud y of anot her site co ncl uded th at th e power su pp ly co uld be la ter su pp lem ent ed by the impl ementation th ere of a fur ther 150 MW sc he me. A noth er aspect of the stud y a imed at establi shin g th e bes t sequ ence of co nstruction of further projects to sa tisfy th e fo reseea ble requirements for elect ri ca l energy in Nepa l and fo r poss ib le ex port to neigh bo urin g countri es. (Th e tota l potenti a l of a lmost 30 000 MW is over 50 times the prese nt co nsumpti o n o f e lectri cit y in Nepal). 5.3 Irri ga tion

Irriga ti o n develop ment s are frequ ent ly associated with hydroe lectri c sc hemes in mul ti-p u rpo se p roj ects . Beca use of th e dense popul a-

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tio ns in part s of So uth -East Asia, for exa mp le in Ja va a nd pa rt s of the Phi lippines, th e develop ment of new irrigatiou.. schemes a nd th e rehabilitation of o ld sc hemes a re of vital importance to th e maintenance of adequ ate food su ppli es . It is fortunat e that it usua ll y is poss ibl e to ob ta in two crops per yea r in much of the region . In ad d ition to the developme nt of irrigation in conj un cti o n wit h hydropower , separa te irrigat io n developments ha ve a lso been studied. One such exa mpl e is the Sibu guey Project o n the island o f Min danao in the Phi lippin es as descri bed be low. In Ma lays ia, where th ere has bee n less developmen t of .irrigation, p rojects o fte n invo lve the clea rin g and drainage of new lands as in the case of th e End a u Mersing Proj ec t. •

Sibuguey Project , Min danao, th e Philip pines: T hi s project be in g carr ied o ut fo r the A DAB in vo lves the des ign a nd con struction of a sys tem o f wei rs and cana ls to service a n irrigat io n area of 3 000 ha . Achi evement s to date have been the co mpl etion of the Dipili Weir and Des iltin g Bas in , the Dipo ri Siphon, sect io ns o f the main conveya nce ca na l, a nd areas of terti a ry d evelo pm ent ; work has commenced on th e Si bug uey Wier; some 410 ha.o f the sc heme a re ava ilab le for irrigation with th e initi a l 183 ha in full prod ucti o n. Fa rm er ex tension se rvices have been o rga ni sed with eight irrigators' associat io ns a lready esta bli shed a nd act ive. Th ese irrigation wo rks a re being underta ken in co-o pera ti on with officers a nd field staff of the Nat io nal Ir rigat io n Adm ini stration o f the Ph ilippines. Endau Mersing P roject, Jo hore, Ma laysia: A stud y of th e suitability for ir rigat io n and other agr icultura l deve lopment o f so me 27 500 ha o f fore st la nd s and the rehab ilitation , drain age, an d irrigat ion o f 950 ha of ex isti ng lan ds is bein g ca rri ed o ut fo r the Eco nomi c P la nnin g Un it of Malaysia. The stud y inclu des the in vest iga ti o n of: storage reservoirs; th e water demand for irri gat io n , domest ic a nd in du st rial use; flo od prot ecti o n work s; suitab le crop types; set t lement pattern s, m a rketing a nd process in g requirement s of th e agr icult ural o utput s; and th e necessary infra st ru cture.

5.4 Water Supplies

Wh il e la rge water supply p rojects have not bee n carried o ut in South -Eas t Asia, exam pl es can be given fro m Africa. As shown in Figure 5, th e rura l populat io ns in man y develop in g co untries have ve ry poo r access to wa ter su ppli es, espec ia lly in th e dry seaso n . It is not uncommo n , fo r exa mple , for th e vill age wo men in parts o f Ta nza ni a to have to walk up to eight km to draw water from wells or ot her sou rces and then return to their vill ages . In a sur vey,of a di stri ct o f 140 km ' in northern Tan za nia , Shapiro ( 1979) found that a n average of90 minutes per day per hou se ho ld was spe nt in fetchin g water . In ord er to improve such a situation a project has bee n unde rway o n a vill age water suppl y sc heme in T anza ni a since I 97;, A so mew hat simi lar proj ec t was carried o u t in P ak ista n a nd a ma nu a l on small fa rm d a ms comp il ed for Kin g Bumiph o l of Tha ila nd . As poi nted o ut ea rl ier , h owever , mos t o f So uth -East Asia is we ll endowed with water a nd in rural areas the ma in need is often to improve the quality o f th e water in o rder to redu ce the ri s k of wa ter born e diseases whil e in urban a reas th e need is fo r reliable piped supp lies . Min ing a nd in d ustri a l ve ntures often need a la rge a nd reliab le so urce of supp ly, a n exa m ple being the Ok Tedi copper proj ect in weste rn P a pu a New Guinea. It is so mew ha t pa radox ica l that th is reg io n , o ne o f the wett es t in th e wor ld , was the subj ect of a wate r suppl y stu dy co mmi ss ioned by the Da mpi er Mining Compa ny, a subsid ia ry o f th e Broken Hill Proprietary Co Ltd. Preparatory studi es carr ied o ut in thi s area in vo lved th e es tab lishm ent of a netwo rk o f h ydro met ric a nd meteorologic station s . Dat a from thi s networ k were used in a number of stud ies includin g a n exa min a ti o n of a lternat ive wate r s u ppli es for the coppe r co nce ntrator a nd then a more de tai led stud y of the favou red sc hem e - se lect ion of pipelin e route , pre limin a ry des ign of pumpin g stat io n , se lec tio n o f pump types etc. 5.5 Flood Mitiga ti on

Ma ny cou ntries in So uth-East As ia are pron e to seve re losses from flood s (Ta bl e 2). In J ava t he pro bl em a ri ses becau se th e na tura l fl ood pla in s are c ul tivated ex tensively beca use of th e en orm o us po pulat io n pressures a nd th e co nsequ ent dem a nd for rice. Floods tend to ca use the river cha nn els to shift, d a mage irri ga tion systems, inund ate low lyin g areas o f tow ns, a nd ge nera ll y ca use d a mage to road s, bri dges, a nd o th er ut ilit ies . Sim ila r probl em s ar ise in th e more den sely popu la ted river va ll eys of Thailand and th e Philippin es. In th e la tt er the prob lem is co mpounded by the occu rrence of devas tatin g typ hoo ns . WATER


In th e last few yea rs co nt racts have been wo n fro m the Worl d Ba n k in co nj u nct ion with o th er A ust rali a n co nsul ta nt s fo r the in vest igat io n a nd des ig n o f large fl ood miti gati o n p roj ects in J ava. Th ese incl ud e t he Lower C im a nuk F lood Co ntrol P roj ect a nd the Sera ng Project. A fl ood fo recasting syste m was developed fo r the fo rmer project a nd work is a bo ut to sta rt o n o ne for th e la tt er. O n beha lf of th e A DA B, a flo o d fo recas tin g system was deve lo ped a nd a m a nu a l pre pa red fo r forecas ting fl ood s in th e P a ha ng Ri ver Bas in in Ma lays ia . An int eres tin g st ud y was ca rri ed o u t for th e Net herl an ds M inistry of Fore ign A ffa irs; thi s was a im ed al reducin g fl oods in th e coastal town o f lndram (ly u o n th e nor th coast of J ava. Several a lt ern ative pl a ns for improving th e d rai nage sys tem to a llev iate the seve re local floo din g pro blem in Indramay u were in vest iga ted. Th e tow n is less th a n 2 .5 m above MS L a nd is a bo ut 4 km fro m th e sea . P art of th e tow n is su rroun ded by levees enclos in g the C im a nuk Ri ver a nd a m a n-m a de bypass cha nnel. T he perform a nce of eac h pla n was eva luated with th e aid of a rain fa ll-run off m o d el a nd econo mi c a na lys is was used to ass ist in the se lec ti o n o f th e best a lt ernati ve. Deta iled design of th e selected p la n was ca rri ed o u t.

5.6 Wat er Qua lity Studies Frequentl y proj ects are loca ted cl ose to th e est ua rin e reaches of rivers or in vo lve the di vers io n of water fr o m ri ver sys tem s t hus increas ing th e li mit s o f sa lin e intrusio n. In such insta nces it is necessa ry to predi ct the effect of ch a nges in the fl ow regime upo n sa lini ty. T hi s is d o ne b y using a sui te o f full y im p licit o ne-d im ensiona l unstead y n¡on -uniform fl ow m ode ls that predi ct water levels , di scha rges, water qu a lit y, a nd sedim ent t ra nsport a lo ng a s in g le ri ver cha nn el or a network o f in ter-connec ted r iver cha nnels. A two-dim ens io n a l m o del is a lso avail a ble fo r m o re co mpl ex fl ow situati o ns . Th ese m odels have been used to p redi ct sa linit y va ri a ti o ns a lo ng th e lower Tre nggan u a nd Rompin Ri vers in M a lays ia . Sed im en t tran spo rt studi es have been ca rried o ut fo r a number of ri ve rs in J ava a nd a lso fo r the Fl y Ri ver in Pap ua New G uinea.

S. 7 Specialised Hydrologic In ves ti ga tions A number o f stud ies have bee n ca rri ed o ut fo r mining compa ni es in P a pua New G uinea, Bo uga in vill e, a nd Fij i; these usua lly have in vo lved th e esta bli shment o f sm a ll netwo rk s o f hyd ro m etric a nd m eteo ro logic sta t io ns fo ll owed by the a na lys is o f the d a ta coll ected from th em. Ass ista nce in th e estab lishm ent a nd o peratio n o f h ydrologic d a ta network s has bee n give n to th e hyd ro logic a ut ho ri ties in Indon es ia, P apua New G uin ea, a nd Ma laysia. Th e tra in ing o f loca l a nd sta ff a nd p rovision o f operat io na l m a nu a ls a re impo rta nt feat ures o f th is class o f wo rk .

6. SU MMARY AN D CONC LUS IO NS Th e need for the deve lop m ent o f th e wa ter reso urces of So u th-East A sia has been dem o nstrated by fi g ures o n t he consumptio n of electri cit y, th e num ber o f d we ll ings w ith o ut a dequ ate water supply a nd sewerage fa cil ities, a nd irr igati o n a nd fl ood dam age sta ti stics. It is hi g hlig hted by the frequ ent occ ur re nce of natu ra l di sasters - fl ood s, d ro ugh ts, fa m ines, ea rthqu a kes, tidal waves, cycl o nes etc. - in t he

coun t ries o f the regio n co mbin ed w ith th e fr equ ent po liti ca l and social u pheavals w hich o ften lead to m ass m ovem ents o f ~e fu gees . P er ca pita fig ures o f Gross Na ti o na l Product a nd d a il y ca lo ri e in ta ke are ot her in d ices w hich po int to th e sa m e needs . For a ny develo pm ent , the po ten tia l m ust be present. It was shown that the p rincip a l natural reso urce , wa ter, required fo r water development proj ects was a bund a ntly ava ila ble in m a ny o f the co unt ries . In deed th e irr iga ti o n a nd hydroelectri c po te ntia l o f m a ny A sian co un tri es are mu ch g reater t ha n th ose o f Au st rali a. Th e resources th a t a re lack ing a re usua ll y capit a l a nd tec hni cal s ki ll s. Th e form er is provided by loa ns o r gran ts fro m intern a ti o na l age ncies a nd more d eve lo ped co un tr ies; the lat ter to a large extent b y firm s o f co nsultin g engin eers fro m western Euro pe, th e USA a nd Ca nada , J apa n , A ustra li a , and certa in o th er co un tries. As t he co un tri es of t he reg io n ga in more tra in ed a nd ex perienced engin eers, it is inev ita ble th a t mo re a nd more of t he wo rk a sso ciated with th e deve lop ment of th eir wa ter reso urces w ill be per form ed by t heir ow n na ti o na ls. T hi s trend is a lread y qu ite a p pa rent in such cou ntries as Korea a nd Ta iwa n . O rga n isatio ns fr o m hese coun tri es are a lready co m peting successfu ll y in th e less develo ped countri es . If A ust ra lia n fi rm s a re to co ntinue to o perate they must be pre pa red to develop specia l s kills a nd impro ve th eir e ffi ciencies. In t he long term it will be m a inl y as co nsu lta nt s fo r th e m o re tec hnica ll y difficult proj ects that they will be engaged .

7. REFERENCES AITK EN, A. P ., RIBENY , F. M. J . and BROW N, J . A. H. (1972), 'The Estimation of Mean Annu al Rain fa ll and Runoff over the Territory of Papua New Guinea'. lnst. Eng. Ausr., Civ. Eng. Trans. CE 14 ( l): 49-5 6. AUST RALI AN WAT ER RESOU RCES COUNC IL (1978), 'Review of Au stralia's Water Reso urces 1975. Australia, Dep. Natl. Resour'. (Aust. Gov. Pub!. Serv.: Canberra). BROWN , J . A. H. (1 973), Di scussion on Editori al by C. Toebes . J. Hydro!. (N.Z.), 12 (2): 139- 141. COMMON WEA LTH DEPARTMENT OF WO RKS ( l972), 'The Hydroelectric Potent ial of Pap ua New Guinea'. Vol. I - the hydroelectric potent ial of the Ki kori Ri ver Basin. COTILLON, J . (1978), ' L'hydroelectricite Dans le Morrde' . la Houille Blanche 33 (1/2): 7-86. FRAMJ I, K. I. and MAH AJAN, I. K. (1969), ' Irr igation and Drainage in th e World: A Global Revjew'. (Intern ational Commission on Irrigation and Drain age : New Delh i). INTERNAT IONA L CO MMI SS ION ON IRRIGAT ION & DRAINAGE (1978), An nual Report 1978. (!CID : New Delhi) . P INEO, C. S. and SU BRAHM AN YAN, D. V. ( 1975), 'Community Water Supply and Excreta Disposal Situation in the Developin g Countries' . World Health Organizat ion, WH O Offse t Pub!. 15. SHAPIRO , K. H. (1979), ' Water, Women, and Development in Tanzan ia' . Proc. Ill World Congress on Water Resources, Mex ico City. Vol. 2: 951-960. UN IT ED NAT IONS, ECONOM IC AND SOC l.t L COMM ISS ION FOR ASIA AN D T HE PAC IFIC (1978), ' Elect ric Power in Asia and the Pacific 1975 and 1976. UN ITE D NAT IONS, ECONOMI C AN D SOCIAL COMM ISS ION FOR AS IA AN D TH E PAC IFIC (1975 + ), Water Resources Journal, June 1975 , June 1976, J une 1977, June 1978, Jun e 1979.

Proposed Rehabilitation of an Aquifer Contaminated with Cheese Factory Wastes P. C. SMITH and G. SCHRALE ABSTRACT Prior to the S .A . Water Reso urces Act , in trodu ced in 1976, large vo lu mes of wa stes were di sc ha rged into th e lim esto ne so lut io n feat ures in the Sout h East area . From res ults of two res ist ivity surveys a nd four yea rs o f g round wa ter m o nito rin g a 380 ML plum e of cheese factory waste has been

Mr. Peter Smilh is Regional Geologisl, S.A. Department of Min es and Energy, Moun/ Gambier. Dr. Gerri! Schrale is Senior Research Of ficer (lrrigalion), S.A . Depar1111en1 of Agricuilure, Adelaide, Soulh Auslralia. WATER

deli neated in th e un confi ned a qu ifer. It is calcu lated that the plume may reach Mo unt Gambi er in 70 years. T his town is so lely dependent upon g roundwater fo r its ret iculated supply. T he calcul ated load of so lu bl e conta minants in the plume is a sm a ll fracti o n of th e waste disposa l und erg round over the 40 years of fac to ry operation . One of th e ex pla nations given is that the wastes have been deposited in th e imm ed iate vicin ity of th e disposa l well. In future such acc umul a ted wastes may beco m e remobilized d ue to reverse cation exc hange a nd bacteriologica l tra ns forma ti on . It is suggested that the loca lly contaminated aqu ifer be reha bilitated b y g roundwat e r w it h d ra wa l from s tr a t e g ica ll y p lace d irrigation wells.

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INTRODUCTIO N Th e locati on of the cheese factory rela ti ve to Mount Ga mbi er is shown in Fig ure I. For more than 40 years th e was tes from .this cheese facto ry were di scharged underground through a nearby dra in age we ll. Thi s led to severe polluti on of th e loca l Gambier lim es ton e aq uifer. O ver the yea rs it beca me necessa ry to reloca te th e facto ry water supply well s at in creas in g d ista nce from the disposa l s it e. U ltimately an ex pens ive supply well ha d to be co nstru cted to the I00 m dee p con fin e aq uifer (Barnett 1976). After the introdu cti o n o f th e Wat er Reso urces Act in 1976 th e m a nage m ent of th e cheese fac tory was required to prov id e a n a lt ern at ive meth od o f waste disposa l. Resul ts from Schr a le a nd Magarey ( I 979) show t ha t the an nu a l vo lum e o f was te from the cheese factory co nsists of a bout 15 ML of whey a nd 55 ML of was hdown water. T he a nnual chemi cal load of t he waste is abo ut 270 tonn es of di ss olved sa lt s, wh ich in clude 50 ton nes of (mainly organ ic) n itroge n , 12 to nn es of pho spho rus and 35 ton nes of potassium. · Land treatm ent was selected as th e least costl y m ethod of waste wa ter di sposa l. Th e wastes are di lu ted with co nta min ated wate r from a form er water s uppl y well pri o r to irr igati o n o n ag ri cultura l la nd. The orga ni c matter is tra nsform ed; th e nu tr ients become avai lable for p lant uptak e a nd th e sa lts a re leached to the water ta b le. Ini tia ll y the la nd treatme nt area was 40 ha . Th e area co ul d be doub led after ad jacent far m ers had seen th e bene fit s of was te water irri gati o n for in creased pastu re production . Th e ave rage rainfa ll is about 75 0 mm yr- • and pan evaporation is about I 500 mm yr- • in th is region. Ra in fa ll exceeds pa sture water use bet ween Ap ril a nd September . Th e thin permeabl e so il s with limit ed storage ca pacit y readil y tra nsmit surplu s wa ter to the water table. Schrale and Magarey (I 979) ca lculated tha t waste water irri gat ion in the wint er seaso n in crease d th e average ground water recharge from 300 to 400 mm yr-•. Th is paper d eals with t he use of surface res istivity techniques for the delin ea tion of th e pollution p lum e resultin g from direct und erground waste di spo sa l. Th e resistivity res ul ts combined with the groun dwater observation s have been used t o assess th e di stribu ti on of th e co ntaminants in th e aq uifer. Pum pin g for irri ga ti o n is proposed fo r the reha bil itat io n of th e local gro und water qua li ty.

subregio na l net wo rk was rea d quart er ly a nd pumped water samp les we re obta in ed qua rt erly . Th e di lution wa ter pumped from th e pollut ed Gambi er Limeston e well ha s been a na lysed period ica ll y. C hemi cal para m eters ana lysed in clude Na, Ca, Mg, K, H CO,, SO ,, C l , NO 3 , NO,, NH ,, TKN , Tot a l N, Tota l P , So lu bl e P , pH and E lect ri ca l Co ndu ct ivity.

INV EST IGATION METHODS

Resi stivit y Survey

T he la nd di sposa l in vest igation is bein g und erta ken by a multi -d isciplin ary team from seve ral Gove rnm ent Departm ent s . A va ri ety of meth od s a re used in th e project. These include gro und wa ter monitoring, soil a nd herbage a na lyses, e fflu ent sa m p li ng, lys im etri c a ssess ment of th e water , sa lt and nutri ent ba la nces, and surface res isti vit y surveys. Onl y th e res ults of groundw ate r mon itorin g and surface resisti vit y sur veys a re used for the a spects covered in thi s paper .

Gro undwater Monitoring Prior to la nd di sposa l, local and subregiona l network s of observat ion well s are estab li shed to mo nit o r gro undwat er leve ls a nd qua li ty. Th e water leve ls in the local network we ll s were ob se rved m ont hl y, th e

22

N

Fig. I. Loca lity plan.

The Sc hlumberger Ve rti ca l E lect ri c So unding (V .E .S.) a rray (Fi gure 2) was used to defin e th e ex tent of th e po lluti o n plum e. Th e s urface resi st ivit y method ca n be app li ed in situ at ion s where there is a signifi ca nt contrast between th e res isti vit y o f the a m b ient gro und wate r a nd th at of the introduced was tes. Th e res isti vit y of th e wa ste wa ter was known to be lower by up to o ne order of magnitud e. Other requirement s for th e method to be successful are a measurab le thi ck ness of po llu ted groundwater a nd a relat ive ly sha ll ow water tab le. A res isti vit y survey was fir st at tempt ed in th e a utumn o f 1979 . H oweve r, th e dry soil profi les gave hi gh surfa ce res isti vit ies whi ch produ ced poor res ult s . A sur vey was successfu ll y compl e ted in late sp rin g 1979. It was

I

repeated in November 1980 to ve rify th e ea rli er res ult s . Bot h sur veys were done in th e dir ec tion of gro und water fl ow a nd in th e direction of suspected regio na l j o intin g whi ch co ntrol so lu tion activity in th e lim es tone aq uifer. Th e solu tion fea tures trend NW-SE as indi ca ted in Fi gure 3.

RESULTS

Grou ndw ater Flow T he co nfi g ura ti o n of th e gro und water co nto urs ct.id not c hange over the obse rvati o n peri od. Th e hydrauli c gradi ent s rem a in ed essenti a ll y un a ltered . H owever, indi vidu a l well hydrogra ph s showed th e regio na l declin e in wa ter leve ls ca used b y past dr y wint ers. Th e regiona,I wa ter ta ble co ntours are show n in Figure I. Th e average gradi ent betwee n th e factory sit e a nd Mo unt Gamb ier is about 7 x 10-' . Th e di rec tion of gro un dwater fl ow o n the sub reg io na l scale is SS W. Usin g th e su bregio na l hydra uli c gra di ent , and a ss um in g a poro sit y of 0. 25 a nd a hydra uli c co ndu ct ivit y of 10 m da y- ' (Wat erhou se, 1977), th e parti c le ve loc it y was es tim a ted at 0.1 m day- •. Thu s imm ediat ely down gra di ent of th e facto ry, th e po ll ution

WATER


groundwater withdrawal could have affected the rate of movement in the concentrated part of the plume. The long'ltudmal cross section of the plume is shown in Figure 5. TABLE 1. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN TOT AL NITROGEN* CONSTITUENTS Well

/+-- - - - -

¥

Sampling 4/ 8/76 23/ 3/ 80 27/7/76 28/ 5/ 80 Date NH,-N 7.5 244 85 58 mg L- 1 N02 -N 0.01 0.05 0.02 0.03 mg L- 1 NO,- N 0.3 3.9 1.5 0. mg L- 1 TKN 258 JOI 91 8.6 mg L- 1 259.5 101.3 91.3 9.5 Nro1al 'Total Nitrogen = N, • ., = TKN + (NO, - N + NO, - N).

- - - - - - +I

Spread Centre

pa pa

= TT

T (AB/2 + MN/2JN (AB/2 -

MN/2}

A p pa rent

Re s i st ivity

V

-

M easured

Potentia l D i fferen c e

I

-

Input C urr en t

GAMJIJ GAMJIJ Dilution Dilution Well Well

Estimated Soluble Load of Plume Fig. 2. Schlumberger V .E.S. configuration.

plume is expected to move about 40 m year-'. Similar calculations for the groundwater movement between the cheese factory and Mount Gambier gave a particle velocity of about 0.3 m day-' . At this rate it would take the pollution plume abo ut 70 years to travel the 7 km to Mount Gambier. Resistivity Results

The interpretation of the resistivity surveys (Cockshell, 1980, 1981) is summarised in Figure 3. The survey showed a pollution plume, ovoid in shape, which extends in the direction of groundwater flow for about 1 700 m and is up to 750 m wide. Although not shown for the sake of brevity, the maximum thickness of the plume near th e factory had decreased from IO to 8 m between the two surveys. The areal extent of the plume had increased from 97 to 104 ha. The volume of contaminated groundwater was estimated as about 380 ML. An overall displacement of the plume between the two surveys was about 55 m, in agreement with the value computed earlier using hydraulic parameters.

From the limited record available for GAMl 13, it appeared that Total N and conductivity had an annual fluctuation. The Total N concentration declined since early 1978 and the decrease in conductivity began in mid 1979. From this it seems that ammonia is more mobile than the other ions in the waste . Since land treatment of the waste began four years ago, a volume of 403 ML of groundwater has been used for dilution. As a consequence, about 400 tonnes of salt and 9 tonnes of nitrogen have been removed from the aquifer. The cone of influence created by

The mass of dissolved solids in the plume was assessed by extrapolation from resistivity survey results and water quality data for the two wells. In Table 2 the mass of the total dissolved solids and main nutrients is given for each isopach interval drawn in Figure 3. Taking an ambient groundwater quality of 400 mg L- 1 then the plume contained 150 tonnes of naturally occurring salt and about 300 tonnes of salt introduced by underground disposal. The N and K load were each about 14 tonnes; the P load appeared insignificant. From the hydraulic gradient determined near the factory the rate of groundwater movement was calculated to be about 40 m year-'. This particle velocity is substantiated

-----+----z

Groundwater Quality

Water quality data for the Gambier Limestone we ll and observation well GAM 113 are shown in Figure 4. The well locations are shown in Figure 3. Table 1 gives the composition of Total N for both wells for mid 1976 (when underground disposal ceased) and mid 1980. From Table 1 it can be seen that the values of · Total N for both wells have decreased markedly with time. The major component of nitrogen is ammonia which means that the anaerobic activity has not ceased in the waste plume. This aspect is discussed later in the paper. The conductivities plotted against time in Figure 4 have decreased, from about 2. 7 to 1.6 mS cm- 1 for the dilution well and from 5.7 to 4.2 mS cm- 1 for GAM113. The Total N and conductivity of the dilution water have remained almost constant since mid 1978.

4 Gro undwate r Flow D irecti o n

Hou se Polluted Aquifer lsopac h (m)

l sopach Int er vat Volume

i a

-s13 ML

0

200

400

Met res

Fig. 3. Pollution plume isopachs. WATER

23


QB$

WEL L GAMl13

DILU TION

WELL

---------¡ -

0- -

-

-

-

0"

0

---o--c,.,-~ ---o- -

-

-

-

-

-

-

O

Nrou1/ 15

1g77

1Q76

HH8

1979

1980

Fig. 4. Diluti on water pumpage and water qualit y data.

â&#x20AC;˘

.,$ z 0

~

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Fig. 5. Long itudin al cross sec tion of plume. by res ult s of th e resisti vit y surveys , whi ch were carr ied o u t four yea rs a ft er und ergrou nd di sposa l was ceased. Th e resistiv it y result s ind icated th at during th e four yea rs th e most co nce ntrated portion of the pollu ti on p lume had moved 180 m down gradient from the disposal well. The di spl acement of the plume occurred a long the nowline and was apparent ly not markedly affected by co nduit now tocou gh solution feature s. When the estimated particle ve loc it y was extrapo lated over the 40 years of und ergro und wa ste di sposa l th en the down grad ient boundar y of the plum e shou ld be a t

TABLE 2. DISSOLVED CONSTITUENTS I

24

mani a and potass ium ion s usuall y become bound by io n exchan g a s th ey are rno ved through th e formation. Desp it e th e fact that the initial rates of disposal were lower, the d etected qu a ntit y of soluble waste is a small fra ct ion of th e total quantit y discharged underground. Thi s rai ses th e following iss ues : (a ) Whether th e assess ment procedure for the so lubl e load in th e plurn e is correct. Aft er all, the estimat e in T a bl e 2 is derived by ex trapol a tion of th e re lat ions hi p between the resist ivity and water qua lit y obse rved in on ly two we lls, which were situat ed relat ive ly close to the di sposa l sit e. (b) If major waste acc urnul at ion had occur red in the irnm ediat e vicinit y of th e di sposa l well, these wastes cou ld becorn e remobili zed by reversin g of th e ca tion exchange and bacteriologica l tran s forma tion. Thu s, nutri ent release would co ntinue for a lon g time a ft er th e ex istin g solub le slu g has been repl aced . In conc lusion, it is clear that further work is required to reso lve th e iss ues rai sed. Irrespect ive of the a bo ve, the in ves ti gation s have de li nea ted a large volume of co ntaminat ed gro undwat er in th e area of th e fa ctory m ovi ng in the direc tion of Mo unt Gam bier, a cit y whi ch is sole ly depend ent upon gro undwa ter for it s reticu lated water suppl y. It is proposed by the authors that' two or more production well s be constructed cl ow n grad ient of the fo rm er di sposa l well. Th e sa lini ty of the extracted gro undwater should not exceed 2 000 m g L - , for irri ga tion of pasture. Th e nutri ents in the wat er shou ld decrease th e requirement for ferti li zin g the pasture. The sitin g a nd required rate of pum pin g of the we ll s ha s ye t to be determ ined.

lsopach Interval

Volume of Groundwater

(m)

(ML)

0- 1 1- 2 2- 4 4- 6 6-8

85 116 113 52 13

0.9 2.6 5.0 4.2 1.6

Total

379

14.3

Nr.,,.. ,

abo ut I 600 111 d istance from th e di sposal well. Th e resis tivit y res u lts indi cated th e d ow n gradient boundary was at I 700 111 from th e we ll. Thi s co uld impl y the delineated plume should contai n a ll the wastes dis posed und erground, either di ss o lved, precipitat ed or elec tro-stati ca lly bound to th e formation. The detected load of di ssolved sa lt s in the plume (Table 2) a pproximates the current a nnual salt output of the factory. As anticipated , phosphoru s is removed from solu tion in th e a lk a lin e e nvironrnent. The di sso lved nitroge n and pota ss ium in th e plume are less than ha lf th e annua l factor y output. Am-

THE PLUME (NOVEMBER 1980) p

K

T.D.S.

0.02 0.04 0.03 0.01

0.8 2.6 5.0 4.0 1.9

76.5 116 135.6 90.5 36.4

0. 1

14.3

(10/llleS)

445

Th e proj ec t was initi a ted by SEWR IC wh ich is an interdepanme,nta l working gro up with membership from the Engineer in g a nd Water Supply, th e Min es and Energy a nd Agric ulture Depa rtm ent s of South Au stra li a. Ana lyses of the water samples by the State Wat er Laboratofi es at Bolivar is gra te fully acknow ledged . This study could not ha ve been co rnpl eted with out th e va lu ed co-operat ion of th e cheese factor y manage ment.

REFERENCES BARNETT S. R. (1976) , Kni ght Group Aquife r Test - Kraft Food, Mil- Le i. S.A. Dept. Mines. Repo rt R. B. 76/ 55 (Unpublished). BAR ETT S. R . et a l. (1977), Di sposal of Efnucnt a t Kraft C heese Factory, Mil -Lei, Mt. Gambier. S.A. Dept. Min es. Report R. B. 77/ 2 1 (Un published). COCKS HELL . D. (1980) , Resist ivi ty Sur vey at Mil -Le i, Mt. Gambier . December, 1979. S.A. Dept. Mines and Energy . Report R. B. 80/ 53 (Unpublished). COC KSH E LL C. D . ( I 98 1), Resistivit y Surveys at Mi l-Lei a nd Mi llicent, November, 1980. S.A. Dept. Mines a nd Energy. Report R.B. 8 1/ 84 (U npublished) . SC HR ALE G. and MAGAR E Y A. A. (1979) . Determinin g C rit eria for Land Disposa l of Wastewa ter from a C heese Factory near Mt . Gambier. So uth Australi a. Proc. Grou nd water P o llutio n Confere nce, A.W .R .C. , Dept. of at. Dev. a nd Energy pp. 437-453. WAT E RHO USE J. D . (1977), The Hydrogeology of the Mo unt Gambier Area. Rcpt. of Invest No . 48. Dept. Min es S. Au st. pp. 50 .

WATER


CALENDAR 1982 Apri l 19, Sydney, Aust. Sy mposium, Management of Estua ri es, Wat er Res. Foundation. April 20-21, Bournemouth , U. K. Meetin g on Data Processin g in the Water Indu try. April 20-30, Monte Carlo, Monaco Int. Hydrographic Conference May 10-12, Marseilles, France 10th Int. Conference on Planning and Manage ment of Water Resou rces. May 10-14, Hobart , Tasmania Austra li an Society for Microbio logy Annual Meet in g. May 10-14, Sydney, Australia 52nd A ZAAS Confere nce.

June 11-16 , Brisbane, Austra li a 7t h World Congress on Animal Plant & Microbial Toxins.

Aug. 25-27, Newcastle, Australia 2nd Confere nce on Co n140I Engineering {I.E. Aust.).

June 15-17, Stirling , .K. Flu id Power in the Eighties. Int. Fluid Power Confere nce.

Aug. 31-Se pt. 3, Canberra, Aust. Conference on Groundwater in Fractured Rock.

July 7-9 , Adelaide, Aust. Con ference on Engi neering Ed ucatio n {I. E. Aust.).

Sept. 5-11, Prague , Czechoslovakia 16th Co ngress, Int. Ass. of Hydrogeo logists.

Jul y 13- 15, London, U.K. Environ ment Eng. Today, Annual Int. Symposium .

Se pt. 6-10, Zurich 14t h Co ngress Int . Water Supply Ass .

Jul y 19-30, Exe ter, U.K. IAHS Symposium on Ad va nces Hydrometry.

Se pt. 8-10, York, U.K. 5 In t. Conference on Plastic Pipes . 111

Aug. 16. 18, Co penhage n, Denmark In t. Conference on Coal Fired Power Plants and the Aq uat ic Environment.

May 11-14, Melbourne, Austra li a Hydrology & Water Resources Co nfe rence (I. E. Aust.).

Aug. 21-23, Armida le, N.S.W. Conference on Agri cu ltural Engineer ing {I.E. Aust.).

May 24-27, Bunbury, W. Austra li a Work shop on Evapo transpiration from Plant Com muniti es.

Aug. 23-27, Melbourne, Aust. AR RB Elevent h Conference .

June 7-11, Brighton , U.K . Tunnelling Symposi um. June 10-Aug. 10, Moscow, USS R Int. Hi gher Hydrology Course (UNESCO)

Aug. 24-26, Auckland, New Zealand 1982 N.Z. Water Conference.

Se pt. 13-17, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 3rd In t. Filtration Co ngress . Se pt. 21-23, Berne, Switzerland WMD Int. Sym posium on hydro logical research basins and their use in water reso urces planning. Se pt. 27-Oct. 2, Varna, Bulgaria Int. Symposium on consumption of grou nd water balances (UNESCO). Nov. 30-Dec. 2, Canberra, Australia Symposium on Predi ction of Water Quality (Aust. Ac. of Science).

Aug. 24-26, Bandung, Indonesia 3rd Congress of Asian & Pac . Di v. Int. Ass. Hyd. Res .

ENVIROSHIELD Laboratory {Queenslalld) For Independent Analysis of Water and Wastewater For further information: C.I.G. Enviroshield, 1688 Ipswich Road, Rocklea, Brisbane 4106 Phone: (07) 277-3455 Telex: CIGAS AA40498 WATER

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Water Journal March 1982  

Water Journal March 1982