ATLANTIC TREATY ASSOCIATION
Volume 4 - Issue 6 June 2014
Women in Security:
Effectively Recruiting and Engaging Women into Peace & Security Processes The landmark UN Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1325 from October 2000 is a powerful tool to protect women from physical violence in conflict situations and to actively engage them from early conflict prevention to post-conflict reconstruction. NATO has praised the accomplishments of women in peace and security since the release of the â€˜NATO Overarching Policyâ€™ in 2007 with its efforts to advocate gender equality and empowerment. Positive actions, such as integration of women into Kosovo Forces or the Afghan National Security Forces, are the key steps for
Soldier of German PSYOP forces supervising a shooting exercise. (Photo: Thomas Brandt)
filling the prevailing gap between the policy on
the paper and the reality on the ground.
Women in Security Sector Reform and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Processes
The successful inclusion of women into
Anna Lavizzari takes a look at Security Sector Reform and Disarmament, Demobiliza-
the military requires an output-oriented ap-
tion and Integration Processes and elaborates on the important roles women can play
proach beyond supportive positions of adminis-
in post conflict theaters as members of civil society or in the forming security sector.
trative service or medical assistance in the field. However, much more awareness and new poli-
Implementation of UNSCR 1325 in the Military and Police Structures of the Western Balkans: From National Training to Peacekeeping Operations
cies still need to be carried out in order to tackle
Klaudia Tani discusses the reestablishment of the security structure in the Western
the lack of understanding of different roles
Balkans after the war in reference to UNSCR 1325, while focusing on the responsibili-
women may play in a field traditionally domi-
ties of women in governance.
nated by men.
Women of the Alliance
Edited by: Magda Kocianova Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
Nathan Turregano analyses the policies and actions undertaken by NATO in order to successfully implement the aims and objectives of UNSCR 1325 and gender 1mainstreaming within the Alliance, across its Member States and in its missions.
Women in Security Sector Reform and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Processes By Anna Lavizzari
and understanding of why it is fundamental to incorporate women in SSR and DDR processes through gender mainstreaming policies and practices, their actual involvement is still marginal, mismanaged, and underestimated, as well as is the attention and resources devoted to womenâ€™s specific needs. What are the reasons and challenges to fully and effectively integrate women in SSR and DDR programs? To what extent can their involvement can increase the success of the peace building process?
he post-conflict period is an extremely complex reality and working to build peace, reestablish a secure environment, and heal from the horrors of the conflict entails many challenges that are often paradoxical and problematic to overcome. Among these, the most demanding and sensitive lays in attempting to carefully balance concerns and objectives of hard security while addressing On one hand, this paper highlights the imimportant issues of human security for all the memportance of womenâ€™s role in providing security within bers of the society. The Security Sector Reform (SSR) the communities of recipient countries undergoing and Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration SSR and DDR processes; on the other hand, it anal(DDR) are crucial processes of the post-conflict periyses the role of women in SSR agencies on the side of od as they call for the reform of the security sector, international organizations and donors, the obstacles often involved as the main actor in the armed conflict to their involvement and how this impacts the impleand responsible for various forms of violence, along mentation and programming of with the disarmament and reSSR and DDR programs for integration of ex-combatants in The opportunity for women to have an imwomen on the ground. the post-conflict society. SSR and DDR programs are broad pact in security services is therefore very limited, as numerous obstacles usually exist to processes that should be diWomen in SSR rected not only at the rebuild- their recruitment and advancement to higher positions. ing of the security apparatus Despite the acknowledgbut also at guaranteeing the ment of the importance to include women in the post different security needs of all individuals and commu-conflict security sector reforms, they remain remarknities. ably underrepresented in government security agenDuring the last decade, international organizacies dealing with SSR processes. In fact, men repretions have increasingly recognized the need to address sent the higher percentage of personnel in the security women, men, boys and girls specific post-conflict sector, from the designing to the implementation, needs differently and engaged in several efforts to with respect to both the international personnel and mainstream a gender perspective in SSR and DDR donors supporting it and of countries undergoing programs. Women play a crucial role in SSR and SSR. This is due to formal barriers within the securiDDR, not only as a target in countries undergoing the ty structures, and social barriers that typically identify processes, but also as active and critical actors in their security as a male domain but also to the fact that SSR implementation on the ground and in donor organizais seen as a process involving primarily the governtions. Women constitute in many cases the majority ment as the main actor responsible for its planning of the post-conflict society and can serve as valuable and implementation. Although it is legitimate to quespartners and allies to international organizations, tion the readiness of women themselves to participate providing detailed and exclusive information about in security and policy structures, more measures security issues concerning their communities and the should be taken in order to create a friendly and needs of local people. equally beneficial environment for women who want Although there has been growing recognition to pursue a career in the security sector. FurtherAtlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
more, when included, women are frequently confined to therefore especially important to ensure and enhance perform ‘feminine’ issues, such as working in special the local ownership of the SSR processes. In order to units dealing with gender and sexual violence, or adminisefficiently target women on the ground, sessions may trative tasks, and thus ignoring the fact that the recruitbe organized to address women’s security concerns, in ment of women in the decision making and implementalanguages and locations that are accessible to women. tion is fundamental to Particularly, partensure a legitimate nership with civil and efficient security society organizations sector, reflective of and groups, includthe needs and pering women’s associspective of all sections ations, can be espeof the population. cially important to The opportunity for positively influence women to have an public perception of impact in security the police and the services is therefore military, as well as very limited, as nuto acquire legitimamerous obstacles usucy and consent from ally exist to their rethe community to cruitment and adsupport the reA female military official wearing the uniform of the Afghan National vancement to higher forms. The intropositions. Considering Security Forces (Photo: Parliamentarian Network for Conflict Prevention) duction of legislative women as being naturally capable to deal with issues of quotas to ensure women’s representation in the govsexual and gender-based violence against women is proernment’s parliament can be particularly important to foundly misleading since they need to be specifically apaddress women’s security issues but also to promote pointed and trained, along with their male counterparts, women’s right through the creation of laws concerning in order to properly attend to the victims. In order to property and land rights, protection against sexual vioincrease the impact and effectiveness of the role of womlence, social security and services, or employment open in the security sector, the acknowledgment of the opportunities for women. Furthermore, local women are erational advantage of women as valuable security providstrategically positioned to provide information about ers is crucial not only to their advancement in security the presence of weapons inside their community, in their homes and more generally about the territory and services, but also to the success of SSR in the long term. the security environment. During the conflict, women Women remain very vulnerable and are affected in may gain new skills, knowledge, and responsibilities in different ways in the post-conflict context. Being the order to ensure their own security and the security of main victim of sexual and gender-based abuses, some their family; it would be important to recognize these women’s situation may even be aggravated after the conskills in the post-conflict period and improve efforts to flict, when domestic and sexual violence not only continintegrate them in security services. This could prove ues but risks to increase, fuelled by the proliferation of even more importance since women may be better weapons still available inside and outside the domestic positioned at performing certain tasks, such as searchenvironment and the trauma experienced among male ing and assisting for female individuals in contexts relatives. Moreover, the lack of job opportunities and where women are segregated from men, and thus ensustainment make women and girls vulnerable to sexual suring that policing and security services are delivered exploitation from the part of members of the security to all citizens. sector as well as the international staff. Their daily workload is also greatly impacted by the circulation of weapons and presence of landmines, since women are for the majority farmers responsible for the gathering of water, food, and firewood, which greatly increases their probability to be injured while moving across different fields and routes. Women’s involvement on the ground is Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
Numerous practical challenges remain to the implementation of SSR in ways that are equally inclusive and effective for both women and men. The dependence on donors’ resources and external actors’ support implies that their own priorities, values, and security interests often influence the security sector 3
reforms so that local needs are rarely met or come Women in DDR as second issues only at a later stage. External actors are in fact prone to prioritize their own secuAlthough DDR programs are principally rity threats, often in line with the will of the local, planned and tailored to tackle male combatants, the political and economic leaderships, such as transinternational community has increasingly become national crime, smuggling, terrorism, and drug aware of the need to adopt a gender perspective in trafficking, thus marginalizing the security needs order to address the specific needs of female combatand priorities of the local community, especially ants. Nonetheless, the percentage of female soldiers of women. As in many peacebuilding and develinvolved in the conflict is always systematically underopment projects, the situation may be worsened estimated by international organizations. The misundue to the lack of resources and coordination derstanding of the status of women in conflict, and among international agencies, donors, and the their consequent exclusion from DDR programs in local government. Women in international organrecipient countries, frequently stems from the wrong izations have been increasingly included in SSR assumption that women are naturally more peaceful processes through gender balancing and gender than men. Women are not recognized in their role as mainstreaming practices, and particularly through fighters, as well as in the establishment of the range of different special gender units supporting roles that across several organithey perform during zations. However, the conflict â€“ such as these units have often cooks, slaves, medical little human and fiassistants, and translanancial resources tors among others. with respect to their Indeed, female commandate, a fact that batants, including frequently results in girls, present a differthe impossibility to ent profile, with difeffectively implement ferent characteristics gender-sensitive proand needs, from male grams and therefore combatants and should to relegate womenâ€™s Female police officers being sworn into the new positions unbe targeted accordingly der the UN supervision (Photo: PeaceWomen.org) needs on the backthrough DDR programs. ground. Moreover, gender-sensitive policies are Selection criterions to participate in DDR prooften developed and put into practice in very difgrams constitute a first and major obstacle to female ferent and incongruous ways across organizations, fighters, since eligibility is frequently tailored to male leading to substantial and problematic gaps becombatants. Female combatants are in fact discrimitween policy and practice. Particularly, specific nated against their male counterparts when, in order security services, fundamental to the reconstructo benefit from DDR, they must be able to surrender tion of post-conflict society, such as the judicial their weapon, after having demonstrated the ability to sector, and especially transitional justice mechause it, and proving their military rank or recruitment nisms, are often excluded from the implementain the armed groups during the conflict. This is probtion of gender-sensitive policies due to the lack of lematic given that women are often forced to hand coordination, human and financial resources. The back their weapon to men before demobilization, and set up of an inter-agency organizations able to are usually not formally recruited into military ranks. supervise the work of the different agencies and Moreover, the practical ways in which demobilization services in order to ensure that gender policies are is implemented, namely through demobilization applied on the basis of a common approach would camps, frequently do not meet the specific, basic be a step forward towards the closing of the gap needs of women, such as sanitary supplies, bathing between policy and practice, as well as towards a facilities, health care, or childcare. Psychological fear, more efficient allocation of available resources. Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
social stigma, and physical security, especially the risk About the author of being sexually abused, constitute a major problem in demobilization camps, due to the presence of a Anna Lavizzari is a PhD student specializing in Inlarge number of male ex-combatants. In numerous ternational Relations. She earned a BA in Internationcases, being a female ex-combatant associated with an al Relations from the University of Geneva and a MA armed group who participated in the conflict may in International Concause her to be vicflict and Security from tim of grave social the University of Kent stigma within the in Brussels. Her recommunity. If not search interests incarefully reintegratclude social moveed, female combatments, gender and ants will therefore women's movements, risk being socially political Islam, and marginalized, or foreign and security even resort to compolicy in the MENA bat again in the region. She gained months and years to experience working come after the confor the Swiss Federal flict as the only mean Department of Forof sustainment for Members of the Disarmament Demobilization and Reintegration eign Affairs at NATO them and their fami- Committee in the Sudan Armed Forces (Photo: DDR Committee) headquarters ly. (Brussels) and as a Research Assistant at the Barcelona There is a primary need to broaden the definiCentre for International Affairs (Spain). tion of combatant beyond the soldier and fighting duties and recognize the status of female combatants in Reference order to ensure their inclusion in DDR programs. Moreover, female combatants and women in the post Bastick, Megan (2008) Integrating Gender in Post-conflict society should be targeted in specific ways – Conflict Security Sector Reform, DCAF, Policy Paper assistance packages for women, camps for ex female No. 29. combatants – according to the local context. In fact, Farr, Vanessa (2003) “The importance of a gender beyond their role in the conflict, women are also burperspective to successful disarmament, demobilizadened with the responsibility of taking care of a relation and reintegration processes”, Disarmament Forum, tive male ex-combatant, a psychological, physical and No. 4, Gender, Peace and Disarmament, 25-35. economic challenge that often lacks the necessary reHeyzer, Noeleen (2003) “Gender, peace and dissources and assistance. Furthermore, during the reinarmament”, Disarmament Forum, No. 4, Gender, Peace tegration process of women, it would be necessary to and Disarmament, 1-16. acknowledge their willingness to change their personal situation, especially for women who do not want to Mobekk, Eirin (2010) “Gender, Women and Secureturn to the same reality as previous conflict and rity Sector Reform”, International Peacekeeping, 17:2, have decided instead to gain independence. Indeed, 278-291. the content of DDR and SSR programs can be identiO’Neill Jacqueline, Jarad Vary (2011), “Allies and fied only by women and men on the ground, who Assets: Strengthening DDR and SSR Through Womshould have equal opportunity to raise their concerns en’s Inclusion”, in Civic and Miklaucic (eds.), Monopoand needs, and thus cannot be imported or applied ly of Force: The Nexus of DDR and SSR, Washington: systematically from the outside. NDU Press.
Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
Van Ween, Eric (2008) “Reverse Stakeholder Mapping: On the Need for Actor-Based SSR Strategizing in Post-conflict Environments”, Journal of Security Sector Management, 6:2, 1-13. 5
Implementation of UNSCR 1325 in the Military and Police Structures of the Western Balkans: From National Training to Peacekeeping Operations By Klaudia Tani “The [UNSCR 1325] resolution reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace negotiations, peace-building, peacekeeping, humanitarian response and in post-conflict reconstruction and stresses the importance of their equal participation and full involvement in all efforts for the maintenance and promotion of peace and security.”
post-conflict Western Balkan states and the implementation of gender mainstreaming into their national militaries and specifically the inclusion of women from the region in peacekeeping operations. Henceforth, the countries analysed in this paper are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), Croatia, Kosovo, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia. UNSCR1325 and the Implementation of National Action Plans (NAPs)
hen entering a post-conflict stage, war“Recognizing the urgent need to mainstream a gender perspective into peacekeeping operations, and in this retorn societies experience an increase in gard noting the Windhoek Declaration and the Namibia donor support which, was and still is, Plan of Action on Mainstreaming a Gender Perspective in pivotal for their reconstruction and development. Multidimensional Peace SupOne of the main port Operations (UNSCR trends to be eligi1325).” ble for receiving In addition to the adopaid and donor suption of UNSCR 1325, port nowadays is the UN Secretarythe introduction General’s report of 13 of gender mainOctober 2004 urged streaming regulamember states to draft tions and policies. NAPs in order to enInternational orsure the proper impleganizations have mentation of the abovebeen urging for mentioned Resolution the implementa(Fritz, 2011). NAPs tion of UNSCR present priorities at the 1325 since its national level which unanimous adopassist governments with tion by the United the implementation of Nation Security UNSCR 1325. NAPs Council, on Octoare not mandatory for ber 31 2000 as 47 countries that have implemented a National Action Plan to date the implementation of well as related (PeaceWomen.org) the resolution but are resolutions such as tools that assist national Resolution 1261 institutions. They develop comprehensive gender (1999), Resolution 1265 (1999), Resolution 1296 mainstreaming policies by identifying priorities, setting (2000) of and Resolution 1314 (2000) (Peace Wombudgets, regulating timelines and assessing progress by en) and the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Acestablishing monitoring and evaluation committees. To tion (A/52/231); including and the most recent ones, date only 47 countries have adopted a NAP. Resolution 1820 (2008), Resolution 1888 (2009) and Resolution 1889 (2009). The themes included in a NAP may be: protecGender mainstreaming refers to “the process of tion of civilians, humanitarian response, early recovery, assessing the implications for men and women [boys peacekeeping, peace building, transitional justice, rule and girls] of any planned action, including legislation, of law and access to justice, governance and state buildpolicies or programmes in all areas and at all leving, Security Sector Reform (SSR), community securiels” (Sticks Stiehms, 2011). This paper focuses on the Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
ty; Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR), access to services (health, education, water), gender equality and peacekeeping missions (Lukatela). NAP’s are extensive documents with a variety of topics including implementation and monitoring mechanisms, thus the sole focus of this paper, is the implementation of gender mainstreaming policies into the militaries and police organizations of the Western Balkan states and specifically the progress of women’s inclusion in peacekeeping operations. Implementing Gender Mainstreaming in the Militaries and Police Structures of the Western Balkans Out of seven countries in the Western Balkans, Albania and Montenegro lack a NAP. In addition to that, the government of Kosovo has drafted a NAP which currently awaits government approval (Raifi, 2013 ). Despite a missing national plan, Albania has adopted the National Strategy for Gender Equality and the Fight against Domestic Violence while the government of Montenegro has signed the Action Plan for Gender Equality 2013-2017, which highlights NAP the importance and C ou n try A lba n ia No need for a NAP in B iH Ye s order to implement C roa tia Ye s FY R M a ced o n ia Ye s SCR 1325.
conflict and post-conflict stages; the practical implementations of those documents lack considerably. In fact, gender mainstreaming should not just belong on a checklist national governments need to fulfil in order to satisfy international organization requirements. Furthermore, the inclusion of both genders should not just be a matter of quota. Data and estimates show only a small part of the process. In order to better understand the obstacles portrayed at a national level the following section will briefly elaborate on the participation of women from the Western Balkans and the importance of their inclusion in peacekeeping operations. Inclusion of Women in Peacekeeping Operations – Success Stories and Setbacks “Recognizing also the importance of the recommendation contained in the statement of its President to the press of 8 March 2000 for specialized training for all peacekeeping personnel on the protection, special needs and human rights of women and children in conflict situations “(UNSCR 1325).
The training of peacekeeping personnel is the responsibility of national institutions. Since the adoption of SCR 1325, Year international or2010 ganizations have 2011 been urging to 2013 implement poliK oso v o D ra ft P en d in g cies in national The compre- M on te n eg ro No Ye s 2011 militaries and hensive implemen- Serb ia police in order to tation of a NAP has have a larger pull to be measured in a List of the Western Balkans countries with the National Action Plan of candidates for variety of ways. That peacekeeping operabeing said, most of the countries in the Western Balkans tions. If gender mainstreaming in the national militaries have come across difficulties in increasing the number of is not implemented and training is not sufficient or the women in their military and police structures. Setting policies are still discriminatory in terms of women’s quotas has been one of the tools used by national governinclusion, then balancing gender participation in peacements. Albania even without a NAP has set its quota to keeping operations cannot be achieved. When the need 15%, Serbia 20%; Article 2.12 of the Kosovar Constituarises, because of time constraints, there is a tendency tion sets a remarkable rate of 40% participation of one for departments responsible for peacekeeping operagender in all military and police organisations tions to choose from an already established pool of mil(Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo). BiH has reitary and police personnel. Usually, this pool is highly duced the years of working experience required from masculine and therefore fails to address the reasoning women from 8 to 5 in order to boost willingness for parbehind the adoption of SCR 1325. ticipation and gender mainstreaming. Whereas, Croatia has no quota for female participation, it still has very high In the case of the Western Balkan, women’s parinvolvement from female officers in the military and poticipation and inclusion in peacekeeping operations lice, counting 12.6% (Croatian NAP). remains dubious. In fact, the only two countries that The extent to which, SCR 1325, has been adequately implemented in the Western Balkan (WB) states remains debatable. Gender mainstreaming in the WB’s has not yet been institutionalized and most of the times, especially in post-conflict states, is seen as one of the least worrying issues. Even though all NAP’s include, in writing, the importance of women and their involvement in Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
specifically mention the training of women for purposes of increasing the numbers that join peacekeeping operations is BiH and Croatia. The NAP of FYR Macedonia highlights the significantly low turnout of women in training and peacekeeping operations, while Albania, Montenegro and Serbia’s policies do not sufficiently address the issue. Nevertheless, there are small per7
centages of women from the aforementioned countries currently participating in peacekeeping operations. Kosovo still does not have a military and the Kosovo Security Force (KSF) still remains an emergency response force with a limited mandate, therefore is excluded from this section. Some of the challenges that arise in regards to the comprehensive implementation of NAP policies, which affects the equal representation of men and women in the military and police structures and thus prevents their participation in peacekeeping include: awareness-raising, implementation and monitoring, lack of indicators, political reasoning behind the adoption of SCR 1325, acknowledgment for the need of a NAP and of course constraint budgets.
toring of the implementation of gender mainstreaming policies and practices, but the level of collaboration with the national bodies responsible for the implementation of the NAP is unknown. Since, most of the Western Balkan states adopted a NAP during a period of economic stagnation throughout Europe and the region, budgetary constraints need to be considered a significant obstacle too. In fact, only in the draft NAP of Kosovo it is mentioned that 51% of the budget will be covered by the government and 49% from donations and sponsors, while most of NAP’s do not even mention a specific budget attributed to gender mainstreaming initiatives (Raifi, 2013). The budgeting of NAP’s is therefore subjective, and since these policies are not on top of the political agenda’s anymore they are downgraded because other significant national matters need to be addressed.
The political reasoning behind the adoption of gender mainstreaming policies Another obstacle is an important facto the Western Balkan tor for its longstates is that they do not term success. The have the aptitude to train enlargement packtheir military and police age of the EuropeNorwegians Peacekeepers (UN Norway) personnel. They bring an Union (EU), as experts from abroad in order to train school trainers one example, has as a prerequisite the introduction and organize workshops and sessions for their staff. of gender mainstreaming policies. Therefore, the Considerable help has, in some cases, been received Albanian Ministry of Defence is now trying to infrom international organizations. In the case of FYR troduce a comprehensive policy document (EU Macedonia the EU and NATO were both involved, Enlargement package) as did the government of the same applies to Kosovo and BiH. The NATO HQ FYR Macedonia. In a similar vein, Serbia develin Bosnia and the Kosovo Forces (KFOR) base in Kooped some of its policies on gender mainstreaming sovo have promoted gender mainstreaming throughin order to gain visa-free access to the Schengen out the national military and police structures also by zone. Also, in most post-conflict areas the introincluding Gender Advisers in their ranks duction of gender mainstreaming policies, as afore(Lackenbauer and Langlais). mentioned, is a prerequisite for financial support. However, this fast-track brings up the question of traditional roles and identities. How does the local Why is Gender Mainstreaming in Peacekeeppopulation cope with the change? In such patriaring Missions Important? chal societies, as in the Western Balkans, does the comprehensive implementation of gender mainIn most war-torn societies both genders suffer streaming policies a chance in advancing? equally, most men go to combat, get injured, tortured, sexually violated and most of the times killed. In addition to the political reasoning behind On the other hand, roles of women have transformed. the adoption of a NAP, transparency and civil sociThey become protectors of their households; women ety participation in the final draft has been considand children also compose the vast majority of disered a welcomed practice for the governments placed persons. If captured they are tortured, used as which apply it. BiH, Croatia, Kosovo and Serbia sex slaves and most of the times recruited as active made their draft NAP available for comments and combatants. Men on the other hand are rarely identifeedback before its adoption. However, Serbia fied as vulnerable or as “victims” of conflict, even chose very few CSO’s making the process less parthough they account to the majority of casualties. In ticipative (Odanovic and Bjelos, 2013). Some CSO’s are also responsible for independent moniAtlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
the same vein, women have not consistently been identified in literature as active combatants. It is therefore pivotal to identify and most importantly understand the multifaceted roles of both genders, men and women, boys and girls during conflicts and post-conflict periods because “gender is socially constructed, [in] that it changes, and that war creates a dynamic environment in which all social roles, responsibilities, and expectations can be dramatically altered” (Gizelis, 2009; Mackay, 2003). In conflict and post-conflict periods, women are very active and mainly engage at the grassroots level. They use informal structures for communication whereas men use more formal types. When mobilization of different constituents takes place, usually women are the first to know. Also, because women inherit traditional male roles during conflict ex. they cultivate land, fetch water and travel long distances in order to obtain supplies etc. They also know which areas are occupied by opponent groups and where paramilitary groups hold their position as well as their camps. In post-conflict periods, the inclusion of local women is paramount as they are aware where guns and artillery are hidden and are a proven driving force for fighting groups leaving the bushes and giving up arms. It is also more common, but not explicitly in all cases, that women are more likely to trust female soldiers if they have been survivors of an attack or have been sexually abused. It is imperative that women and/or men receive treatment after an attack within seventy-two hours, but because of the stigma in traditional societies women are reluctant to share their experience, especially with men soldiers. It is thus more likely, that female bystanders will trust a woman peacekeeper with such information. Let us not forget though that in some cases, ethnic or religious group identities might clash with gender initiatives in theater operations, in which case a peacekeeping operation may fail (Gizelis, 2009). It is also important to acknowledge that by putting so much emphasis in the inclusion of women in peacekeeping operations might alienate male troops and create cleavages between male and female peacekeepers. Therefore, training plays a pivotal role in the understanding of local identities which are always gendered and thus complex in the eyes of a soldier that comes in contact with them for the first time, but also creates an inclusive environment for both genders during operations. Hence, the institutionalization of gender mainstreaming can alter the face of peacekeeping operations. It increases the potential for a better underAtlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
standing of complex and multidimensional conflicts. Also, by balancing gender representation in peacekeeping operations, goals are set beyond the traditional security issues, as they evolve into all-inclusive missions (Gizelis, 2009; Mackay, 2003; Byrne, 1995).
About the author Klaudia Tani is a PhD candidate at the University of Kent – Brussels School of International Studies, her research focuses on displaced populations from the Western Balkans and Sub-Saharan conflicts. She read for her Masters in International Conflict and Security at the aforementioned University and studied for her Bachelors in International Business and European Affairs at DEREE-The American College of Greece. References European Commission, Commission Staff Working Paper Albania 2011 Progress Report, 12 Oct. 2011. Fritz et al. Women, Peace, Security and the National Action Plans, Journal of Applied Social Science, Spring 2011 Gizelis, Theordora-Ismene, ‘Gender Empowerment and United Nations Peacebuilding,’ Journal of Peace Research, 2009, 46: 505. Lukatela, Ana, ‘Regional Women’s Lobby For Peace, Security and Justice in Southeast Europe,’ Policy Brief No. 3, Regional Women's Lobby for Peace, Security and Justice in Southeast Europe. Mackay, Angela, Training the Uniforms: Gender and PeaceKeeping Operations, Development in Practice, 2003, 13:2-3. Sticks Hiehms, Judith, Women, Peacekeeping and PeaceMaking: Gender Balance and Mainstreaming. Stojanović Gajić, Sonja et al, Women, Peace and Security in the Western Balkans: Independent Review of Translation of UNSCR 1325 into Policy in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Macedonia and Serbia, Belgrade Centre for Security Policy, 2013. The Government of the Republic of Croatia, National Action Plan for the Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (2000) on Women, Peace and Security, and Related Resolutions. The Government of the Republic of Kosovo, The Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo, 15 June 2008. 9
Women of the Alliance By Nathan Turregano
Since the original adoption of the resolution, six United Nations Resolutions have complemented UNSCR 1325. Altogether these policies make up the Women, Peace and Security Agenda, which has been widely implemented across European states and international organizations such as NATO.
he North Atlantic Treaty Association (NATO) throughout the course of history has taken on ever-changing roles in the world of collective security and transatlantic relations. Its initial purpose of collective defense up until recent years NATO’s Implementation of UNSCR 1325 has become outdated and obsolete. The ever-shifting focus of the Alliance serves as no detriment to the From the ratification of the United Nations purpose NATO serves in the security world today, Resolution 1325, NATO has been on the forefront of and has made it possible for the organization to be on policy implementation and practical application across the cutting edge of defense, public policy and diplothe globe, backing the solid policy base that the UN macy. The advancement of human rights in the past provides to NATO. The Alliance led the way in gencentury has become the focus of many international der mainstreaming across the entirety of its organizaorganizations and nontional structure and will governmental organicontinue to do so. zations focusing in NATO has drafted and many issues areas, inratified its own policy in cluding modern day order to successfully slavery, religious disachieve the mission set crimination and the forth by UNSCR 1325. emancipation of womst NATO and its Allies en. Within the 21 and Partners within the century one of the Euro-Atlantic Partnermost important pieces ship Council (EAPC) of legislation in regard drafted and agreed in to women's equality is December 2007 to a the United Nations formal ‘NATO OverSecurity Council Resoarching Policy.’ The A female soldier in the ISAF mission reaching out to the local lution 1325 (UNSCR women. (NATO Council of Canada) suffering and harm to 1325). NATO has takwomen within conflict situation is widely known en this piece of legislation and applied it with tremenacross Europe and especially to the EAPC. They dous results towards women participation within the strove to install a policy that would properly enact Alliance, on the battlefield and within leadership posiresolution 1325 and its attitude towards gender, in tions. EAPC and NATO policy areas, as well as in a broader In order to fully understand the implementaframework of cooperative security and NATO-led tions and goals of UNSCR, a brief explanation is remissions, specifically in KFOR and ISAF. NATO quired. The resolution 1325 was signed and ratified in Overarching Policy led to multiple operational changOctober 2001. It is a legally binding resolution that es within the framework of NATO missions. The operates along two major principles relating to wommost visible has been the increase of women in both en within combat areas. The first highlights the inconthe civilian and military arms of NATO during operavenient truth that women and children are more setions, both foreign and domestic. A more behind the verely affected by conflicts. In modern days the death scenes implication of the policy is an increased toll of women compared to men is marginally higher, amount of pre-deployment gender training of both as well as number subjected to sexual violence and/or troops and commanders in order for them to more war crimes. In juxtaposition, the role of women on easily identify and suppress dire gender implications the other side of the battlefield is the topic of the secduring conflict. ond main focus of the resolution. It calls for the inIn September of 2009 a supplement was added creased participation and engagement of women, to the NATO Overarching Policy, Bi-strategic Comthrough effective empowerment, in order to facilitate mand Directive 40-1. This directive targeted all levels their role in promoting peace and security, as well as of military structure, including national armed forces. operating in areas ranging from early conflict prevention to post conflict reconstruction. Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
This supplement outlines a key rationale in implementing UNSCR 1325 in the field, and that is to increase operational capability. Through gender perspective you identify an overlooked populace, in order to acknowledge their specific needs and taking action to meet them. Thus, the mission’s environment is positively influenced and the operation or mission gains a greater opportunity for success. NATO is always striving towards successful missions and is still working towards greater integration of Directorate 40-1 across the full scope of the Alliance. NATO Operational Capabilities
Some of the most important positions in NATO held by women: (as of June 2014) - Helle Thorning-Schmidt; Head of Government, Denmark - Angela Merkel; Head of Government, Germany - Laimdota Straujuma; Head of Government, Latvia - Erna Solberg; Head of Government, Norway - Vesna Pusic; Foreign Minister, Croatia - Federica Mogherini; Foreign Minister, Italy - Mimi Kodheli; Minister of Defense, Albania - Ursula von der Leyen; Minister of Defense, Germany - Roberta Pinotti; Minister of Defense, Italy - Jeanine Hennis-Plasschaert; Defense Minister, Netherlands - Ine Marie Eriksen Soreide; Minister of Defense, Norway - Amb. Kolinda Grabar-Kitarovic; NATO Assistant Secretary General, NATO PDD - Mari Skare, NATO Secretary General Special Representative for Women, Peace and Security
With its forward thinking and leadership of adopting UNSCR 1325, NATO has since developed multiple opConclusion erational entities that are being used to further the It is no illusion that the world is progression of women constantly changing around us. and human rights across Modern society is basing its valthe entire organization ues more of capability rather and the globe. than socioeconomic political The most visible norms. The advancement of of these additions is the women in today’s society is crucreation of the new percial to reaching the full potenmanent position of From left to right, NATO Minister of Defence of Albania, tial of the labor force. This is NATO Secretary GenNetherlands, Germany, Norway and Italy. (NATO.int) exemplified in NATO’s push eral Special Representafor the advancement of not tive for Women, Peace and Security. This position was only women within their ranks, but the concept of genestablished in August 2012 and operates out of NATO der relativism as an operational tool that seeks to expeHQ. This office is the connection between NATO’s dite the positive outcome of any mission. With future Allied and Partner governments and continues to work implementations from NATO it will be clear that the closely with international organizations, including but security force is not just a place for men and that the not limited to the African Union, Organization for Seconcept of gender hierarchies will be an idea of the past. curity and Cooperation of Europe (OSCE), United Nations and the European Union. This seat is currently chaired by Mari Skare, who today is the united face of About the author NATO when promoting and advocating for gender issues. Nathan Turregano is a bachelors student at American Another invaluable operational capability creatUniversity in Washington D.C. studying international ed is the position of NATO Gender Advisers within relations and Arabic. He is currently a Program Assistant Allied Command operations. Commanders in mariat the Atlantic Treaty Association Secretariat in Brussels, time, land and air components are alerted to gender Belgium. He will be studying Intensive Arabic in Amissues by these advisers who are specifically trained to man, Jordan, for the next two collegiate semesters. evaluate and limit the impact on women and children during any form of NATO operation. The future challenge of these adviser posts is to place them within the national levels of military, which is still an ongoing *This article was prepared with the assistance of Magda Kocianova, project. Program Assistant at the Atlantic Treaty Association. Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 6
Atlantic Voices is the monthly publication of the Atlantic Treaty Association. It aims to inform the debate on key issues that affect the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, its goals and its future. The work published in Atlantic
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Council of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in partnership with NATO PDD and with the assistance of ATA, will organize for the first time a Summer School titled ‘The Balkan Success Story – Maintaining Regional Security and Enhancing Stability’ from 14 July to 18 July 2014 in Neum, BiH.
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6 July 2014 at Aalborg
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Published on Jun 27, 2014
Anna Lavizzari, Klaudia Tani and Nathan Turregano look at the roles women take in security in the 21st century. while Lavizzari and Tani ela...