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ATLANTIC TREATY ASSOCIATION

Volume 4 - Issue 11 November2014

NATO & Counter Terrorism This month, Atlantic Voices covers the salient issue of counter-terrorism. Non-state actors and the changing nature of terrorism have called for another Western coalition and urged the Allies to develop their counterterrorism policies. As emerging threats, such as ISIL and lone-wolfs are threatening the already unstable security situation the Allies faces, this once again stressed that terror attacks are powerful instruments when it comes to getting the

attention

of

governments.

The

developments within modern terror attacks as asymmetrical threats have the potential to cause a lot of damage to the societies they target, and therefore this month's edition will focus on

(PakistanToday)

ISIL and the changing nature of terrorism that make terror attacks more likely to succeed than

Contents:

ever. Fortunately, NATO and the Allies have

The Changing Nature Of Terrorism In The Western World

developed

counter-terrorism

Mr. Fuhrmann explains how terrorism has evolved in the Western World: The

strategies in order to deter modern terrorist

emphasis on counter-terrorism seems to prevent large scale attacks, but “lone

threats. However, some Allies, more than

wolves” maintain a feeling of terror by perpetrating hit-and-runs and shift their

others are still facing new potential terror

focus onto highly populated regions of the South.

threats that impede their security and stability.

Uniting Against ISIS - Stakeholder Engagement & Strategy

extensive

Mr. Baltzer Rode examines the conflicting interests that stand in the way of - Flora Pidoux & Maria Mundt

building an organized strategy for NATO to fight ISIS, focusing on the case of

Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

Turkey, torn between the terrorist threat and toppling Assad’s regime.

1


The Changing Nature Of Terrorism In The Western World By Rasmus Fuhrmann

M

ore than a decade of exhaustive wars is coming to an end. American troops have left Iraq, hunted

down Osama bin Laden, and NATO combat forces are preparing to leave Afghanistan for good by the end

seem to be on a dangerous rise. Through constant propaganda on all different media outlets like YouTube and Twitter, these groups manage to spur on hit-andrun attacks in the Western world and convince mostly young men to join their ranks for the great cause of a Muslim empire.

of the year. New conflicts have emerged, states in the Middle East are losing control over their territory and battles are being fought among terrorist groups, rebels and national armies. The vacuum that was left by the US in Iraq has been quickly filled by the Sunni extremist jihadist organization called the Islamic State of Iraq and al-Shams (ISIS). ISIS has expanded its reach deep into Iraq from Syria, controlling now big parts of both states’ territories. There is no day when ISIS would not make it to the headlines. Just recently, it was reported that Egypt’s most dangerous militant group, Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, pledged obedience to

Woolwich, Great Britian 22 May 2013: Two British men of Nigerian descent, who reportedly converted to Islam, killed the

ISIS. A few months ago, the al-Qaeda branch in Syria,

Whilst ISIS is engaging in more or less conventional

the al-Nusra Front, reportedly joined forces with ISIS.

warfare, applying medieval-like tactics and strategies to

Following al-Nusra, the Pakistani Tehrik-i-Taliban

conquer cities and villages in Syria and Iraq, other ter-

soon pledged allegiance to the recently established

rorist groups like Boko Haram and al-Shabaab are using

caliphate of ISIS, or as they call themselves now, Is-

car bombs, suicide bombers and other methods to ter-

lamic State (IS). The caliphate, is an attempt to erase

rorize the population in the region. However, it needs

national boundaries and establish a transnational Mus-

to be noted that most of these “classic” terrorist attacks

lim state with IS as the leader of this movement. In

are almost always happening outside of the Western

Africa, terrorist groups, preaching similarly the Islam-

world - in the Middle East and Africa. Ever since 9/11,

ic radicalization, namely al-Shabaab in Somalia and

counter-terrorism moved rapidly into the focus of the

Kenya or Boko Haram in Nigeria, are striving to gain

Western public debate and up on the national and in-

more influence, killing countless people and kidnap-

ternational political agendas. One of the reasons for the

ping minors. Together with al-Qaeda in the Islamic

surprisingly small number of major terrorist attacks in

Maghreb (AQIM), which stretches from Algeria, Lib-

the Western world has proven to be the successful

ya, Mali and Niger, sectarian terrorist organizations Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

2


work of the intelligence services and surveillance systems

the smuggling of people, weapons and drugs, piracy

that were set up after 9/11. The new counter-terrorism

and terrorism. ISIS has managed to fill the vacuum the

strategies and laws that were implemented by many

civil war left in Syria and quickly conquered more of

Western governments granted states thorough and com-

the ungoverned territories, establishing their own cali-

prehensive authority to keep suspected terrorists under

phate.

surveillance, which in turn seemed to counteract and to nip possible attacks in the bud quite successfully. Although there is never 100 percent reliability on these systems, as the terrorist attacks in Madrid in 2004 and in London in 2005 clearly showed, hit-and-run attacks are replacing large-scale terrorist attacks in the West. The increasing focus on urban security has become

Hit & Run Tactics This tactical doctrine, which dates back to ancient warfare, is mainly used when fighting against superior enemies. The purpose is not to seize control of territory but to cause damage on a target and demoralize the enemy. Guerrilla fighters and terrorists often use hit-and-run tactics.

one of the key issues for counter-terrorism experts around the world. David Kilcullen, an Australian coun-

The possible future threat is therefore coming from

terinsurgency advisor and scholar, published a book re-

irregular actors using irregular methods, avoiding di-

cently in which he describes future scenarios of possible

rectly confronting military or police powers. Instead

threats in a highly urbanized world. Predictions about the

these irregular actors, whether they are terrorists, re-

future conflict environment are just as vague as climate

bels or guerrillas, typically make use of their competi-

predictions; however, Kilcullen offers some available evi-

tive advantages of stealth, small size, tactical initiative

dence that a few main drivers or trends will shape the

and local knowledge against conventional militaries,

conflict environment in the future. He believes that one

which though large and powerful, tend to lose their

big issue will be urbanization itself. Megacities that are

agility and situational awareness in the complex envi-

often located in the Global South will not be able to cope

ronment of the urban jungle. Another crucial factor

with the fast growing populations. Some of these cities

becomes apparent here: irregular actors - whether they

like Karachi or Mumbai and even Lagos have the infra-

operate in overcrowded and ungoverned urban territo-

structure of medium-sized cities and cannot deal with the

ries with little state control or in well-functioning cit-

huge influx of people; hence slums and the periphery of

ies with a high level of security in place – usually know

cities will be growing around the historical centers of the

how to make use of the city for their cause and merge

particular cities creating a parallel society of poor and low

into the respective society, making it hard to be dis-

-income people. Another big issue will be connectedness,

criminated from the regular citizens.

especially networked connectivity. The rapidly growing slums as well as ungoverned areas are likely to pose a possible threat to international security like Somalia that is known for harboring pirates and al-Shabaab. Some of these areas can actually become safe havens for non-state armed actors who can go about their illicit activities like Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

The Mumbai attack in 2008 serves as a perfect example for this new threat: a non-state armed group, the Pakistani terrorist organization Lashkar-e-Taliba (LeT), carried out an extremely sophisticated attack on the Indian city. Within the course of this raid, a group 3


of ten LeT gunmen killed 164 people and wound-

around the globe, avoiding being detected by remain-

ed 308 in several locations throughout the city.

ing beneath as well as within the “muddle” of dense

What is known today is that the group was alleged-

urban areas. In addition, the connectedness of the

ly trained and supported by some “retired” mem-

different threat networks as well as of the broader

bers of the Pakistani Inter-Service Intelligence

systems and infrastructures on which a city runs,

(ISI), who guided and mentored them prior to the

makes it virtually impossible to target these networks

attack and continued to act as mentors, supporters

without also harming the community into which they

and coaches during the raid. The group managed

merged, which deters some governments from taking

to get into the city from the waterfront, hijacking

harsh actions because of possible backlash of the popu-

fishing boats that took them to the dense and

lation.

crowded slum areas at Mumbai’s waterfront where they could get off board undetected. Once inside, the terrorists used the city to their advantage. The supporters back in Pakistan stayed in close contact to the terrorists, walking some of them through specific actions step by step over satellite phones. In addition, they monitored the Indian news and Twitter and made use of Google Earth to choose targets. The connectivity allowed the group to follow their plan because they knew from the live updates via phones from their supporters in Pakistan that the Indian police and counterterrorism

Mumbai 26 November 2008: The Pakistani terrorist organization Lashkar-e-Taliba ended its raid with taking hostages in the Taj Mahal Palace Hotel. (New York Times)

units were not able to respond to the attack in time. Hence, the attack of Mumbai might actually

Future threat scenarios like the Mumbai attack

represent one of the possible threat scenarios: A

certainly are appalling. However, as already men-

terrorist organization, sponsored by some state-

tioned before, they seem to be happening in rather

actors, attacked national and international targets

overpopulated and ungoverned urban areas. Of

and leveraged both local and remote networks for

course, illicit networks will be able to nest within

support. They managed to stay undetected for

Western societies too, but stockpiling weapons, try-

quite some time because they knew about the lim-

ing to acquire material to build bombs as well as com-

its of the overstretched public safety and policing

municating with other networks and supporters poses

infrastructure in dense and heavily populated are-

a high risk to get detected by the functioning security

as.

systems that are in place. In Germany for example, the intelligence services of the USA and Germany, Under these previously mentioned circum-

according to official statements, managed in close

stances, non-state armed groups will be able to

concerted action to prevent several planned attacks

merge into the complex environments of big cities

through careful monitoring and intercepting of phone

Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

4


calls and email communications of different terrorist networks. Hence, urbanization might rather be a bigger problem and possible threat scenario for the Global South because the cities are not able to cope with the high influx of people. Connectedness – as good as it is – poses a threat to everyone if used wrongly or for any illicit cause. ISIS for example manages to create new Twitter accounts as soon as the current ones are deleted. They have a plethora of supporters on YouTube and Twitter who share their videos, tweet and spread the sectarian propaganda globally. Likewise, al-Qaeda, the Taliban and other extremist groups made use of the social networks to promote their worldview. Videos, statements and

tional coalition against ISIS certainly serve most perpetrators of recent attempted and successful hit-andrun attacks, and terrorist attacks as a plausible reason to take revenge for the continuous violence by Western states against Muslim civilians. Although it is certainly true that the ideology of radical Islam plays a vital role in making young people willing to fight and die for the perceived just cause, the proximate cause of the attacks are plainly political grievances. The belief that engaging in violence against aggressive Western nations is the only way to avenge Western violence, which is portrayed as continuously killing Muslim civilians, seems to be spurred on by propaganda videos and tweets.

tweets are not only aiming at recruiting new fighters – they manage as well to radicalize younger people quite fast, who in turn commit hit-and-run terrorist attacks but have neither met nor have had any personal contact with the terrorist groups. In 2004, one of the first reported hit-and-run inci-

Lone Wolf Terrorists: A lone wolf is usually someone who acts alone and independently of other terrorist affiliates, outside of any command structure and without material assistance from any group. Radical preachers and Islamic propaganda often spur them on over different media outlets like YouTube and Twitter.

dents occurred in Europe. Theo van Gogh, a provocative Dutch filmmaker, was stabbed and then shot

Take the London knife hit-and-run attack from

several times by a man who arrived on a bicycle as the

2013 as another prime example to understand the

filmmaker was cycling to work in the Amsterdam

future security threats the Western world needs to

East borough. Mohammed Bouyeri, a 26-year-old

take into consideration but can do little about: Two

man with dual Dutch and Moroccan nationality, ar-

men ran over a British soldier with a car, then used

gued during his trial: “In the fight of the believers

knives and a cleaver to stab him to death. The men

against the infidels violence is approved by the proph-

did however not run away but stayed with the dead

et Muhammad.” Van Gogh directed a movie about

body and told bypassing people that they had killed a

violence against women in Islam, which aired just a

soldier to avenge the killing of Muslims by the British

few months before his assassination. Dutch officials

armed forces. These hit-and-run attacks, committed

believe that the attack was a direct result of the film

by so-called lone wolf terrorists happen in an uncon-

whilst other sources made claims about possible re-

ventional manner by people who are nesting within

venge for the Dutch involvement in the Operation Iraqi

the society or have just recently returned from the

Freedom.

The US-led Global War on Terror

battlefields in the Middle East where they have been

(GWOT) and now the recently established interna-

further radicalized. The ideology of the ISIS caliphate

Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

5


has further inspired individuals across the world.

attacks, stability needs to be re-established within the

The attack at the Jewish Museum in Brussels, Bel-

region by actively supporting the coalition against ISIS

gium, in May this year, highlighted the threat

and its affiliates.

posed by homecoming European foreign fighters. Furthermore, recent hit-and-run attacks against the Canadian parliament and the New York Police Department show the spread of lone wolves in the Western world. Conclusion The conflict-ridden regions in the Middle East and North Africa, vulnerable due to rapidly growing populations and high unemployment rates of especially young people, are prone to get caught up in an ongoing fight against radical terrorist organizations that want to stretch their influence.

About the author Rasmus Fuhrmann is a German-Swedish political consultant, currently working in Berlin, Germany. He previously worked at the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in Stockholm. He holds a BA in Peace and Conflict Studies from MalmĂś University and an MA in Political Strategy and Communications from the University of Kent. During his academic and professional career, Mr. Fuhrmann has lived, worked and studied in Sweden, Jordan, Belgium and Germany.

The global security is interdependent and the Western world can only imagine what the consequences of the rise of extremism in the Muslim world could mean. The lack of predictability of future hit-and-run attacks in the Western world by lone wolves calls for a re-thinking of how to counteract these threats without interfering too much in the lives of the regular citizens and the sovereign states of the Middle East and North Africa. Constant anti-Western sectarian propaganda makes it almost impossible to win the battle of ideologies between the Western values and the extremists’ worldviews. Weak and failed states, such as Syria and Iraq, serve as a breeding ground for future radicalized fighters. ISIS and affiliated terrorist organizations are only a part of a bigger problem of ongoing civil wars and ungoverned territories, allowing them to challenge the national borders and to intensify the humanitarian catastrophe. In order to manage and eliminate the transnational jihadist radicalization and thus prevent random hit-and-run Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

6


Uniting Against ISIS – Stakeholder Engagement & Strategy By Carsten Baltzer Rode

O

abrupt shift” (The Guardian) and a “rare sign of hope

n Wednesday 22-October, the

for saving Turkey’s moribund peace process with its

Turkish parliament reached an

own Kurds” (Freizer, 2014). Common for most of

agreement on allowing Iraqi Pesh-

these accounts was the emphasis on the positive char-

merga (Kurdish militants) to cross from Turkey into

acter of Ankara’s announcement.

the Syrian town of Kobane, which has become a

Turkey’s relationship with the PYD, the main po-

stronghold against the advance of ISIS (Islamic State in

litical party in Kobane, remains, however, imbued

Iraq and Syria). The Turkish decision came as a sur-

with suspicion. The PYD is an affiliate of the PKK,

prise to many observers, who believed that Prime

who was engaged in a lengthy armed struggle with the

Minister Erdoğan would block any initiatives aimed at

Turkish state until 2013, and remains to this day con-

assisting the Kurds in Kobane. Although encouraging

sidered a terrorist organization by NATO, the United

to many, the announcement should probably neither

States and the EU. Given the historic relationship be-

be interpreted as a radical shift in Turkish strategy nor

tween Turkey and the Kurds, it appears at least sur-

as a turning point in the Kurdish resistance.

prising that Turkey should come to the aid of the

First in this article, I seek to map the Turkish agen-

Kurds in this crucial moment.

da on the situation at Kobane and the wider anti-ISIS efforts. Second, I examine this supposed change of attitude by placing it in a larger international context,

Prime Minister Erdogan has repeatedly stated that getting rid of Assad should be the first priority

chiefly impacted by American policy objectives. I then briefly turn to the role of NATO in this conflict, and

There is at least one other reason Turkey is reluc-

conclusively reflect on the performance of current

tant towards aiding the Kurds, namely the larger ob-

policies. The main contribution of this article is to

jective of imposing a regime change in Syria. Prime

give a better understanding of the political objectives

Minister Erdoğan has repeatedly stated that getting

at play for relevant stakeholders in the conflict with

rid of Assad should be the first priority. Although ISIS

ISIS.

may be a potential threat to Turkey, toppling Assad is

The Turkish Position

an important political aim in which they are more or less aligned. Turkey has in several occasions been ac-

On Monday 20-October, Turkey’s Foreign Minis-

cused of covertly or at least indirectly aiding ISIS in

ter Mevlut Cavusoglu declared Turkey’s allowance

Syria, or at the very least refusing to respond pro-

and assistance of Peshmerga forces to cross into Koba-

actively to ISIS’ advance near the Turkish border.

ne. The announcement was consecutively labeled a “major shift” (India Times), an “ Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

Supporting this allegation, United States Vice President Joe Biden described the Turkish position 7


leading up to the rise of ISIS as one which had poured

and the Kurdish resistance thus resembles that of an

vast amounts of money and weaponry into anyone

effective ground resistance unlikely to be found else-

who would fight against Assad, which then later back-

where. The region of Kurdistan comprises only a

lashed into the formation and strengthening of ex-

small part of northern Syria and northern Iraq, and

tremist elements of jihadists – a statement he later

thus, should the Kurds at Kobane prevail, they are

had to withdraw because Erdoğan required him to do

unlikely to take the fight as far as will be needed to

so. Supporting the Kurds in Syria is perceived to

defeat ISIS. So while Kobane may not be at the top of

counter the objective of getting rid of Assad, seeing

the long-term strategic agenda for the United States,

that the Kurds have shown promising signs of stop-

it certainly has become a vital immediate goal.

ping the advance of ISIS at Kobane. From the Turkish point of view, what it comes down to is essentially this: Turkey’s main objective remains imposing systemic change in Syria, and neither aiding the Kurds nor deterring ISIS is forwarding this agenda. By all means, this is not to say that Turkey’s goals are identical to those of ISIS, because for obvious reasons they are not. Rather, what should be stressed is that it is impracticable to believe Turkey Cartoon of a gun suggesting that Turkey and ISIS are one

will pursue a policy likely to indirectly favor the

(aratnews.am)

Kurds or Assad, especially if it applies to the latter. Understanding these policy objectives is essential in order to engage Turkey in the anti-ISIS coalition. The ‘abrupt shift’ ascribed to Ankara’s announcement may seem to discredit what I have just said. However, this altered attitude marks only a small and fairly insignificant step, which is probably best ascribed to U.S. pressure and the significance of Kobane in international media.

However, political tensions are showing between the United States and Turkey on what to do with Kobane. In response to the recent U.S. airdrop of military material to the Kurds, Erdogan made it clear that Kobane was not a strategic place for the United States, but if anything, for Turkey. Yet, U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry stressed that it was the objective of the coalition effort to degrade and destroy ISIL, which was significantly present in Kobane.

ISIS has emerged as an international concern and

There appears to be a certain mismatch between the

thus elevated the attention on the Turkish-Kurdish

expectations of Ankara and the objectives of Washing-

conflict with it. The extensive media coverage of Ko-

ton.

bane and the indications of its resilience towards ISIS have made Kobane a symbolically and politically im-

To ‘Degrade And Destroy’

portant stronghold. Very few stakeholders, including

In August this year, President Obama announced

Turkey and the United States, are interested in send-

that he would launch air strikes to “degrade and de-

ing in military forces to deal with ISIS on the ground,

stroy” ISIS in Syria. Simultaneously, he remarked that

Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

8


the United States “don’t have a strategy yet”. President

entities, because they are unable to establish and main-

Obama has promised the public not to put boots on the

tain a new political agenda. This perhaps unjustly sim-

ground, thus obliging him to seek partners who are will-

plistic account is not aimed at discrediting the potential

ing to engage in such ground confrontations with ISIS.

situational benefits of airstrikes – such as the positive

Stopping ISIS at Kobane is an important immediate goal,

contribution made by U.S. airstrikes in Kobane – but

but does not “degrade and destroy” them as the coalition

to highlight that in the long run, they are simply not

has set out to do. In Syria, the coalition against ISIS cur-

adequate.

rently comprises the U.S. and the U.K. along with Bah-

In many ways, the current situation in Syria resem-

rain, Jordan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab

bles a failure of strategy, as it is clear that airstrikes

Emirates. The past sets understandable limits for the fu-

against ISIS are inadequate in reaching overall objec-

ture, as Americans do not long for another war. Ameri-

tives. In the West, most seem to agree that ISIS needs

can hubris has in many ways paralyzed action in the pre-

to be abolished, but the wraiths of previous interven-

sent, as previous efforts have generated massive public

tions has put comprehensive actions to a deadlock.

distrust in the outcomes of war. American, and perhaps Western publics more generally, do not favor an all-in military intervention in Iraq (or in Syria for that matter), making it extremely difficult to do what many deem necessary in order to effectively combat ISIS. Instead, we are left with airstrikes – much easier to digest for the public and much too short of destroying ISIS. According to Washington Post, in September this year, 71 % of Americans supported air strikes in Iraq and 65 % in Syria, whilst the support for a military invasion in the affected areas is likely to receive much less support. It would appear that although a majority believes ISIS is a threat to be dealt with, doubt remains as to how

Turkish President Erdogan with American President Obama at NATO Wales Summit (Reuters)

comprehensive the efforts should be. The current course of action can be summed up as this: in lack of strategic clarity, ad hoc solutions (airstrikes) are employed so as to at least do something to ISIS, which Steven Coll has labeled a “part terrorist network, part guerilla army and part proto-state”. Regardless of whether this is the most suitable definition or not, there is no doubt that ISIS constitutes a geographical and political coherence, which makes it distinct from alQaeda or the like. Airstrikes alone cannot deal with such

NATO’s Role In Backing Iraqi Forces At the recent Wales summit, the NATO alliance acknowledged that a coordinated international approach is required. It reaffirmed its NATO-Iraq commitments towards building more effective security forces. However, in the context of Kobane, NATO has not contributed significantly. This is likely to stay unchanged, as long as Turkey is not directly involved with ISIS. As argued above, typical counter-terrorism efforts, such as those employed against al-Qaeda for

Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

9


example, will not do if isolated. What is needed is

needs to be shattered. But domestic political contexts

a much more comprehensive approach, in which

have made it difficult for Washington to employ ade-

multi-stakeholder agreements need to be in place.

quate means, whilst Turkey remains split by opposing

At the Wales Summit, Obama defended his cur-

interests. Understanding the larger array of interests

rent position by saying that his approach would be

at play is essential to building a comprehensive re-

similar to that applied against al-Qaeda. Such an

sponse to ISIS, and this article has merely contributed

approach fails to acknowledge that ISIS is not a

with a few aspects of it. What is required is indeed

fragmented terrorist group, but indeed a type of

effective collective action, and identifying shared po-

‘proto-state’. The distinct character of ISIS is

litical grounds as well as obstacles is a pivotal back-

surely well known to the Obama Administration,

drop for such an endeavor.

and thus better signifies the aforementioned fail of strategy caused by a lack of incentive and support to deal with ISIS effectively.

About the author Carsten Baltzer Rode is an MA student at Copenhagen University, studying Security & Risk Manage-

NATO’s key contribution remains to rehabili-

ment under the Department of Political Science. Be-

tate the Iraqi army, as this aligns with the long-

sides, he is a member of the Youth Atlantic Treaty

term coalition strategy of defeating ISIS. Enhanc-

Association (YATA) in Copenhagen, which is a youth

ing regional cooperation and empowering those

forum for the learning and discussing of contempo-

present groups willing to pick a fight with ISIS, is

rary NATO and other relevant international security

key to reaching the overall strategic objective. It

issues.

is a long and uncertain haul, something which all stakeholders are equally aware of. Whilst the impact of NATO efforts to this point seems limited, they may become crucial in the long run. Conclusion The Kurdish resistance at Kobane has challenged what previously seemed like an unstoppable rampage of ISIS. Turkish announcements of aiding the Kurds should not be mistaken for an altered course; rather, it represents merely tiny steps, which are probably best ascribed to external pressure. Simultaneously, the resistance at Kobane has gained extensive global attention and thus become a symbolically and politically urgent issue. Yet, efforts to combat ISIS remain to this point rather vague. The overall strategic aim seems to be clear for most stakeholders – ISIS Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

Bibliography Al Jazeera (2014). “Getting rid of ISIL or Assad”. Available at: http://www.aljazeera.com/programmes/ insidestory/2014/10/getting-rid-isil-assad201410141511554376.html Coll, Steve (2014). “In Search of a Strategy”. Published in The New York Times. New York: September 2014. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/ magazine/2014/09/08/return-war Filkins, Dexter (2014). “When Bombs Aren’t Enough”. Published in The New York Times. New York: October 2014. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/ magazine/2014/09/29/fight-lives Freizer, Sabine (2014). “Turkey Moves Towards Helping Syria’s Kurds – And Calming Its Own”. Available at: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/blogs/new-atlanticist/ turkish-government-moves-toward-helping-kurds NATO (2014). “Wales Summit Declaration”. Available at: http://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/ official_texts_112964.htm The Guardian (2014). “Ten questions Nato faces in its fight to combat Isis”. Available at: http:// www.theguardian.com/world/2014/sep/06/10questions-nato-faces-fight-against-isis 10


Atlantic Treaty Association & Youth Atlantic Treaty Association General Assemblies On December 1st, delegates from more than 25 member countries of both the ATA and YATA network will gather in Brussels, Belgium for their respective General Assemblies. This event will further motivate discussion among members about the future security challenges for the Alliance and how to better prepare to face them in the coming year.

The ATA members will gather for their annual General Assembly. Among other topics, reports from the President, the Treasurer, the Secretary General Designate and YATA President will be presented to the participants. The ATA will also elect three new vice-presidents and formally elect the President and Secretary General during the Statutory Assembly. This Council Meeting will focus on the future of the Atlantic treaty Association, its plan and priorities for 2015.

YATA delegates will also gather for their General Assembly. They will first have their Council Meeting led by their President, Executive President and Secretary General Secretary. YATA International report will be then presented to the delegates, followed by the presentation of each chapters’ report. Elections of local bureaus will take place before moving on to YATA’s action plan for 2015. The second part of the day will be dedicated to workshops that aim to provide guidance on fundraising, leadership, building partnerships and communication. The day will end with a reception at the Embassy of the Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia*. *Turkey recognizes with the constitutional name

Atlantic Voices, Volume 4, Issue 11

11


ATA Programs On November 26th, in collaboration with the Belgian Royal Military Academy, the Atlantic Treaty Association will present the Global

Atlantic Voices is the monthly publication of the Atlantic Treaty Association. It aims to inform the debate on key issues that affect the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, its goals and its future. The work published in Atlantic Voices is written by young professionals and researchers.

Terrorism Index in Brussels, Belgium. This index will be presented by

The Atlantic Treaty Association (ATA) is an international non-

Mr. Killelea, founder of the Institute for Economics and Peace. The

governmental organization based in Brussels working to facilitate global

Global Terrorism Index entails 162 countries over the last 14 years (from

networks and the sharing of knowledge on transatlantic cooperation and

2001 to 2014). It scores countries by aggregating the number of terrorist

security. By convening political, diplomatic and military leaders with

incidents, number of fatalities, injuries and the amount of property dam-

academics, media representatives and young professionals, the ATA promotes

age, and then weighting the results over five years .

the values set forth in the North Atlantic Treaty: Democracy, Freedom, Liberty, Peace, Security and Rule of Law. The ATA membership extends to 37 countries from North America to the Caucasus throughout Europe. In 1996, the Youth Atlantic Treaty Association (YATA) was created to specifially include to the successor generation in our work. Since 1954, the ATA has advanced the public’s knowledge and understanding of the importance of joint efforts to transatlantic security through its international programs, such as the Central and South Eastern

The Global Terrorism Index will be used to explore significant correlations with other important indicators such as education, poverty, governance, etc. Moreover, it will uncover trends in terrorism over the last 14 years, allowing analysis of which regions and countries have seen to biggest growth/reduction in terrorism.

European Security Forum, the Ukraine Dialogue and its Educational Platform. In 2011, the ATA adopted a new set of strategic goals that reflects the constantly evolving dynamics of international cooperation. These goals include:

the establishment of new and competitive programs on international security issues.

the development of research initiatives and security-related events for its members.

Atlantic Voices is always seeking new material. If you are a young researcher, subject expert or professional and feel you have a valuable contribution to make to the debate, then please get in touch. We are looking for papers, essays, and book reviews on issues of importance to the NATO Alliance. For details of how to submit your work please see our website. Further enquiries can also be directed to the ATA Secretariat at the address listed below. Editors: Flora Pidoux & Maria Mundt

Images should not be reproduced without permission from sources listed, and remain the sole property of those sources. Unless otherwise stated, all images are the property of NATO.

the expansion of ATA’s international network of experts to countries in Northern Africa and Asia. The ATA is realizing these goals through new programs, more policy

activism and greater emphasis on joint research initiatives. These programs will also aid in the establishment of a network of international policy experts and professionals engaged in a dialogue with NATO.

The views expressed in this article are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the Atlantic Treaty Association, its members, affiliates or staff.

This publication is co co--sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Atlantic Voices Vol. 4, No. 11 (November 2014)  

NATO & Counter Terrorism

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