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CHILD PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT YOUTH WORK EXPERIENCES ACROSS THE WORLD Non-formal learning and educational resources on child protection and development

“The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsi­ble for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”


CHILD PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT YOUTH WORK EXPERIENCES ACROSS THE WORLD Non-formal learning and educational resources on child protection and development

This learning booklet aims to support the professional development of youth workers in the field of child protection and development. It focuses on how non-formal education and a child rights-based approach can be used to protect and promote the rights of the children in different community contexts and cultural settings around different regions of the World.

Edited by PRISM – Promozione Internazionale Sicilia – Mondo, Fausto Amico and Alessandro Melillo

In cooperation with: Resource Hub for Development (RHD), Peter Kosgey Okeyo New Beginnings Charitable Trust (NCT), Ravi Sebastian Federation Dimbaya Kagnalen, Baye MorTalla Ndiaye and Salif Kanoute Consulta Europa Projects and Innovation, Alessia Bertuca Inter Alia, Boyka Boneva Asociación de Comunicadores y Educadores Viator, David Cuenca Chamorro Erasmus+ Programme Key Action 2 - Capacity Building in the field of youth, N. 2015-3602 /001-001

“The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsi­ble for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”


INDEX INTRODUCTION

What’s up?...................................................................................................................................................................................... Target groups................................................................................................................................................................................ Learning objectives...................................................................................................................................................................... Learning approach........................................................................................................................................................................ Course structure...........................................................................................................................................................................

THE PROJECT “Child Protection and Development: Youth Work Experiences Across the World”

The project.................................................................................................................................................................................... The partnership............................................................................................................................................................................

NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND CHILD RIGHTS

Non formal education................................................................................................................................................................... A Child Right-Based Approach......................................................................................................................................................

6 6 6 7 7

10 13 19 21

CHAPTER 1_Learning Module 1: The UN Convention on the rights of the child

Introduction.................................................................................................................................................................................. Key concepts................................................................................................................................................................................. Activity 1: What does a child need?.............................................................................................................................................. Activity 2: Act it out...................................................................................................................................................................... Activity 3: Children’s needs and rights......................................................................................................................................... Activity 4: Children rights............................................................................................................................................................. Activity 5: Children rights cards................................................................................................................................................... Activity 6: The table leg test......................................................................................................................................................... TASK 1.1 - Understanding: 6 Closed-ended questions.................................................................................................................. TASK 1.2 - Reflection: 2 open-ended questions............................................................................................................................

CHAPTER 2_Learning Module 2: A Child Rights based approach for Community Development Introduction..................................................................................................................................................................................

Key concepts................................................................................................................................................................................ Activity 1: Get to know each other.............................................................................................................................................. ... Activity 2: Sharing rules................................................................................................................................................................ Activity 3: Expectations................................................................................................................................................................ Activity 4: Cultural diversity.......................................................................................................................................................... Activity 5: Learning to learn.......................................................................................................................................................... Activity 6: The Project Cycle.......................................................................................................................................................... Activity 7: Are you a midwife?....................................................................................................................................................... Activity 8: A child rights based analysis........................................................................................................................................ Activity 9: Duty bearers’ analysis................................................................................................................................................... Activity 10: The problem tree: analysis on the violation of children’s rights................................................................................ Activity 11: Internalized oppression and violation of rights........................................................................................................... Activity 12: The objective tree....................................................................................................................................................... Activity 13: Forum theatre: from problem analysis to the creation of solutions.......................................................................... Activity 14: Strategy analysis......................................................................................................................................................... Activity 15: The Logical Framework Approach: the Intervention Logic (first column).................................................................. Activity 16: The Logical Framework Approach: Indicators and Sources of Verification (second and third column)................... Activity 17: The Logical Framework Approach: The external conditions (fourth column)........................................................... Activity 18: The GANTT Chart........................................................................................................................................................ Activity 19: Relevance, feasibility, sustainability and coherence with the CRC’s 4 pillars............................................................. Activity 20: Your concept note...................................................................................................................................................... Activity 21: The spiral.................................................................................................................................................................... Activity 22: Final evaluation.......................................................................................................................................................... Case Study: Protection and development of Unaccompanied Refugee Children......................................................................... TASK 2.1 - Understanding: 8 Closed-ended questions.................................................................................................................. TASK 2.2- Reflection: 2 open-ended questions............................................................................................................................

24 25 28 30 32 34 37 39 42 46 50 52 55 56 57 59 61 63 66 69 72 75 78 81 83 86 88 91 95 98 100 103 105 108 110 114 121


CHAPTER 3_Learning Module 3: Child rights-based approach: turning principles into practice

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................. Key concepts................................................................................................................................................................................. Activity 1: Get to know each other................................................................................................................................................ Activity 2: Sharing rules and expectations................................................................................................................................... Activity 3: A plunge in Childhood.................................................................................................................................................. Activity 4: Understanding Children............................................................................................................................................... Activity 5: Refreshment on the UN Convention on the rights of the Child (UNCRC)..................................................................... Activity 6: Child rights country context analysis: child protection and challenges in Senegal.................................................... Activity 7: Identification tools (Body, classroom and school mapping)........................................................................................ Activity 8: Focus group................................................................................................................................................................. Activity 9: Field visits.................................................................................................................................................................... Activity 10: Analysis tool “Problem tree”....................................................................................................................................... Activity 11: Components of a child protection system.................................................................................................................. Activity 12: Making change happen .............................................................................................................................................. Activity 13: Final evaluation.......................................................................................................................................................... Case Study: Exploitation and abuse of talibè children in Senegal............................................................................................... TASK 3.1 - Understanding: 6 Closed-ended questions................................................................................................................. TASK 3.2 - Reflection: 2 open-ended questions..........................................................................................................................

124 126 130 132 134 136 138 140 143 147 149 151 154 156 160 162 165 170

CHAPTER 4_Learning Module 4: Child poverty and vulnerability

Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................. 174 Key concepts................................................................................................................................................................................. 176 Activity 1: Get to know each other and expectations.................................................................................................................... 180 Activity 2: Understanding the UNSDGs......................................................................................................................................... 182 Activity 3: Child rights context analysis: child protection and challenges in India and Andhra Pradesh..................................... 184 Activity 4: Poverty: a threat to Childhood..................................................................................................................................... 186 Activity 5: Development strategies to fight against extreme poverty and child trafficking........................................................ 188 191 Activity 6: Networking, cooperation and partnership.................................................................................................................. 194 Activity 7: Final evaluation and follow-up..................................................................................................................................... Case Study: Prevention, protection and rehabilitation of children and young people that are victim of trafficking in Andhra Pradesh, India................................................................................................................ 196 TASK 4.1 - Understanding: 4 Closed-ended questions................................................................................................................. 198 TASK 4.2 - Reflection: 1 open-ended questions .......................................................................................................................... 202

CHAPTER 5_Learning Module 6: The role of education in child protection and development

Introduction................................................................................................................................................................................. Key concepts ............................................................................................................................................................................... Activity 1: All about You! ............................................................................................................................................................... Activity 2: Expectations and fears, norms and responsibilities .................................................................................................. Activity 3: Definition of a child ..................................................................................................................................................... Activity 4: Children’s Needs ......................................................................................................................................................... Activity 5: Human rights .............................................................................................................................................................. Activity 6: Child rights context analysis: child protection and challenges in Kisumu region ...................................................... Activity 7: Introduction to Life-Skills ........................................................................................................................................... Activity 8: Categories of Life Skills .............................................................................................................................................. Activity 9: Child protection .......................................................................................................................................................... Activity 10: Field visits .................................................................................................................................................................. Activity 11: Focus group ................................................................................................................................................................ Activity 12: Final Evaluation ......................................................................................................................................................... Case Study: Child Rights Abuses and Violations in Kisumu region, Kenya ................................................................................. TASK 5.1 - Understanding: 4 Closed-ended questions ................................................................................................................ TASK 5.2- Reflection: 1 open-ended questions ...........................................................................................................................

206 208 214 216 218 220 222 224 226 228 232 234 237 241 243 249 252

CHAPTER 6_Workshop “Designing a project concept note”

Designing a project concept note.................................................................................................................................................

256

RESOURCES

263

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

276


What’s up?

The e-learning course covers a range of non-formal learning modules related to child protection and development. The learning modules derive from a concrete experimentation and sharing of learning practices between different local communities in Italy, Senegal, Kenya, India, Peru, Spain and Greece within the Erasmus+ project “Child Protection and Development: Youth Work Experiences across the World”. The main aim of the e-learning course is to replicate the learning experiences developed and tested within the project, and thus spread the knowledge produced and aquired on child protection and development throught the capacity building programme.

Target groups

The e-learning course is intended as an open learning resource for community leaders, educators, trainers, facilitators, young leaders, social workers, intercultural mediators to be put into practice in their daily work with and for children. The platform could also be used in formal settings such as schools, colleges and universities addressing development challenges as well as for project managers and experts engaged in the design and implementation of development programmes and initiatives addressing children rights. The e-learning course is also intended for other interested users who are either new to the field or have limited experience and who have a need for developing their competences in the field of youth work a nd non-formal education.

Learning objectives

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Participants and interested user will be introduced and learn: about the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and its principles; - about the basic concepts and practical tools related to “child rights-based approach” in order to analyze the children’s needs by reference to their rights, to develop, implement and evaluate community projects that contribute to improvements in the fulfillment of children’s rights to participation, protection, survival and development; - about a rights based approach in action: learning from community approaches and experiences in child protection and development from different regions of the World: Italy, Senegal, Kenya, India, including references and direct web-based links to useful sources of information and field reports from Greece, Spain and Peru


The course is based on active and individual learning approach, with emphasis on self-awareness and critical consciousness. Participants will go through the learning modules, do on their own the required readings, learn about the key concepts, learning activities, tools, case studies, including self-reflection on how to use the learning module/s in their own community. At the end of the course participants are invited to develop a concept note with the possibility to upload a project and receive an assessment.

Learning approach

The e-learning course is composed of six thematic and self-paced learning modules: - Learning Module 1: The UN Convention on the rights of the child - Learning Module 2: A Child Rights based approach for community development - Learning Module 3: Child rights-based approach: turning principles into practice - Learning Module 4: Child Poverty and vulnerability - Learning Module 5: The role of education in child protection and development -Learning Module 6: Workshop “Designing a project concept note” Each module introduces ‘key concepts’ and consists of a series of samples of non-formal learning activities, educational tools, background texts, references and direct web-based links to useful sources of information, analysis of case studies on child protection and development that incorporate community practices and approaches of youth leaders and organizations involved. The learning activities are structured to be simple and practical, along with concrete guidelines and samples that users can put into practice in their daily work and adapt to a variety of educational and community contexts in the World. Each of the learning activities in all educational modules leads on from the previous one in a logical progression.

Course structure

The different educational modules are designed to be used independently of each other. However, it is recommended that the educational modules 1 and 2 are reviewed first as they define key concepts and set out key parameters for applying the tools and interventions in subsequent modules.At the end of each learning module users should complete a self-evaluation and reflection tasks, including closed-ended and open-ended questions.

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THE PROJECT CHILD PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT: YOUTH WORK EXPERIENCES ACROSS THE WORLD


THE PROJECT

The project supports capacity building of youth workers and young leaders working for and with vulnerable children. It proposes an integrated approach to launch, test and develop an international capacity building program that seeks to expose target groups to various aspects of youth work and community approaches related to “child protection and development”. The project includes a rights-based approach and is grounded in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC). By creating a consortium of complementary experiences, the project encourages mutual learning, exchange of good practices and cooperation between different organizations and youth workers from Italy, Greece, Spain, Senegal, Kenya, India and Peru in the area of rights of the child.

THE DATES

02/03/2016 - 01/03/2018

PROGRAMME

The project is funded by the support of the “Erasmus+ programme” of the European Union, under the Key Action 2 “Cooperation for innovation and the exchange of good practices: Capacity Building for Youth in ACP countries, Latin America and Asia”.

CHILDHOOD UNDER THREAT

According to the UNICEF, poverty, wars, displacement, social exclusion, economic exploitation around the World deprive millions of children of the capabilities needed to survive, develop and thrive as well as access to adequate nutrition, safe drinking water, sanitation, healthcare and education. Children experience poverty with their hands, minds and hearts. Material poverty – starting the day without a nutritious meal or engaging in hazardous labor – hindered emotional capacity as well as bodily growth. Living in an environment that provides little stimulation or emotional support to children, on the other hand, can remove many of the positive effects of growing up in a materially rich household. By discriminating against their participation in society and inhibiting their potential, poverty makes children suffer and feel vulnerable and disempowered.

COUNTRIES INVOLVED

Italy, Greece, Spain, Senegal, Kenya, India, Peru.

TARGET GROUPS

Youth workers and young leaders who work with vulnerable young people and children in community activities.

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GENERAL OBJECTIVE

To promote the role of young people as community ambassadors able to communicate with their peers and increase their leadership and active participation in the sustainable development of their local communities.

SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE

To engage youth workers to protect and support the well-being of children and young people, with a view to make sure that children’s rights are respected, protected and fulfilled.

EXPECTED RESULTS

- Launched, tested and developed a capacity building program on “child protection and development”, targeting youth workers and young leaders from EU, African, Asian and South American countries. - Increased socio-professional development of youth workers and young leaders that are equipped with knowledge, key competences and employable tools related to “child protection and development” through different cultural perspectives, educational approaches and community experiences from different regions of the World. - Increased transnational cooperation, exchange of good practices and capacity building between youth workers, organizations and NGOs active in the child protection and development field from different World context.

THE CAPACITY BUILDING PROGRAM ON CHILD PROTECTION AND DEVELOPMENT

The project proposes an international capacity building program that engage participants in youth work related to child protection and development. It includes training courses in Italy, Senegal, Kenya and India and job shadowing activities in all participating countries.

THE TRAINING COURSES IN ITALY, SENEGAL, INDIA, KENYA

The training courses aims to provide youth workers from Italy, Greece, Spain, Senegal, Kenya, India, Peru with knowledge, key competences and tools related to “protection and promotion of the rights of the child” that are analysed from different community approaches and from different regions of the World. Through using a non-formal, intercultural and creative learning process, each training course engages participants in peer and cooperative learning, analysis of community experiences and case studies, field visits, dialogue and intercultural exchange, theatre and arts.

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THE JOB SHADOWING ACTIVITIES IN ALL PARTECIPATING COUNTRIES

Job shadowing activities are implemented in Italy (Caltanissetta), Kenya (Kisumu), Peru (Lima), India (Vijayawada), Greece (Athens) and Spain (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria), involving youth workers and young leaders from all participating countries. The job shadowing activities offer an opportunity for youth workers to gain a cultural and practical learning experience into the daily activities of the hosting organization. Participants are equipped with valuable knowledge and practical experiences through the involvement in local community projects related to child protection and development.

THE FINAL SEMINAR IN GREECE

A final seminar is implemented in Greece involving youth workers from Italy, Kenya, Peru, India, Greece and Spain, aiming at presenting results and outputs of the project between key stakeholders and a wider international audience.

THE E-LEARNING PLATFORM

The e-learning platform aims to support the professional development of youth workers in the field of child protection and development through non-formal education and a child rights-based approach. It is intended as an open learning resource for community leaders, educators, trainers, facilitators, young leaders, social workers, intercultural mediators to be put into practice in their daily work with and for children. The platform could also be used in formal settings such as schools, colleges and universities addressing development challenges as well as for project managers and professionals engaged in the design and implementation of community projects and initiatives addressing children rights. The platform is complemented by an e-learning course that covers a range of non-formal learning modules related to child protection and development. In concrete, the e-learning course is composed of six thematic and self-paced learning modules consisting of a series of samples of non-formal learning activities, educational tools, background texts, references and direct web-based links to useful sources of information, analysis of case studies on child protection and development that incorporate community practices and approaches from youth leaders and organizations involved. Link: http://www.childprotectionanddevelopment.eu/

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THE PARTNERSHIP PRISM - PROMOZIONE INTERNAZIONALE SICILIA MONDO

PRISM provides an innovative and creative laboratory involving both local public and private actors in the decision-making process and development of sustainable strategies that combine social, economic, cultural and environmental interventions. PRISM supports the professional development of social workers, educators, project managers, adults and young people by enabling them to acquire key competences and knowledge in the frame of learning experiences in both European and international countries. Location: Via Falautano, Palazzo Grimaldi, 94100, Enna, Italy Contact: Fausto Amico, info@associazioneprism.eu Link: www.associazioneprism.eu

FEDERATION DIMBAYA KAGNALEN

Federation Dimbaya is a child centered organization working for community development. It aims to help deprived, excluded and vulnerable children have the capacity to improve their lives and the opportunity to become young adults, parents and leaders who bring lasting and positive change in their communities.Federation Dimbayapromotes societies whose individuals and institutions participate in valuing, protecting and advancing the worth and rights of children. Local partner of ChildFund, the Federation Dimbaya is composed of 114 areas (26 urban districts and 88 villages), gathering over 320,000 inhabitants with at least 4,000 children directly benefitting from the organization’s programs and projects. Location: Boulevard 54m Tilène, 1188, Ziguinchor, Senegal Contact: Msr Haby Diallo, hdiallo@dimbaya.sn Link:https://www.facebook.com/pg/Federation-Dimbaya-628215440588651/ about/?ref=page_internal

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NEWBEGINNINGS CHARITABLE TRUST

NewBeginnings Charitable Trust (NCT) is a developmental organisation working at the grassroots level to create and transform into a better and collaborative society for everyone to live in. NCT primarily focuses on communities that are economically and socially marginalized irrespective of caste, religion, race etc. NCT is committed to work to eradicate poverty, social and gender inequalities in all its forms and dimensions; to stand up and uphold human rights; to tackle poverty and hunger by empowering unskilled and unemployed youth with employable skills to earn and live, creating employment opportunities for rural women and young people living in rural and urban slums Location: Do.No 53-1-275, Christurajapuram, Vijayawada – 520008, Andhra Pradesh, India Contact: Mr. Ravi Sebastian, ravi.seb@gmail.com Link: http://www.nctindia.org/

INTER ALIA

Inter Alia is a not-for-profit private organization & think-tank, established in March 2013 in Athens, Greece. Inter Alia’s central aim is raising awareness of the EU citizens on available channels for acting, participating and shaping Europe. Inter Alia’s activities are grouped in the following categories: - Analysis: publishing original analyses that touch upon contemporary developments & concepts - Research: multidisciplinary research pieces related to cultural, political and social issues of Europe; - Debate: promoting interaction between experts and the public through workshops & seminars with the underlying goal of making our notion of Europe more popular & understandable; - Networking: supporting and promoting views &activities of organizations that share our vision for an active and assertive European demos. Location: 38-40 Thrasyvoulou Str. Athens, Greece Contact: Boyka Boneva, boneva@interaliaproject.com Link: http://interaliaproject.com/

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RESOURCE HUB FOR DEVELOPMENT

Resource Hub for Development (RHD) is a registered national, non-governmental, non-profit, non-religious, non-political, humanitarian and development organization founded in 2010. It has a mandate in partnering with communities, local and international institutions and organizations in alleviating poverty through socio-economic empowerment and humanitarian aid in poor marginalized rural and urban slums in the Kisumu county. RHD stand to change the lives of individual and families in the poorest communities in Kenya by promoting initiatives and sustainable development solutions which advocates facilitating lasting change, strengthening development capacity for self-help, providing economic, social opportunities and relief to the poor. Location: Makogilo Road, Off Kisumu Northern Bypass, Kisumu, - Kenya Contact: Peter Ochieng Kosgey, kosgey@kenyadev.org Link: www.kenyadev.org

CONSULTA EUROPA PROJECT AND INNOVATION S.L.

Consulta Europa is a SME specialized in smart, sustainable and inclusive strategies of territorial development. With this mission in mind, we have been developing and managing since 2009 European projects for research, innovation and education, in relation with the various sides of the territorial development. Settled in Canary Islands with the objective to act as a catalyst of ideas and trigger of initiatives and innovative policies matching the specific needs of this outermost region, we have been learning from other experiences and have been able to apply ours to others territorial contexts. The territorial model that we offer is focused on three key elements: “social innovation”, “participative approach” and “circular economy”. Location: Parque Científico y Tecnológico. Campus Universitario de Tafira, 35017, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain Contact: Michelle Perello, michelle.perello@consulta-europa.com Link: http://consulta-europa.com

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Asociación de Comunicadores y Educadores Viator - ACEV

The Asociación de Comunicadores y EducadoresViator (ACEV), born in 1997, is an education institution, based on Christian values o​​ f social justice and solidarity for the poor. Nowadays ACEV is a recognized community institution that contributes to improve the quality of life of the young people, adolescents and children in Lima, Cutervo and Yungay through education and vocational training, involving committed educators, communicators and youth workers. Furthermore, it promotes participatory democracy, social inclusion, gender equality and youth entrepreneurship. ACEV’s projects and services are designed not only for children, but also involve the participation of their parents and the cooperation of other key members of the Peruvian society and volunteers of the whole world as well. Location: Av. Revolución 2539 – 4ta Zona de Collique – Comas, Lima, Peru Contact: David Julio Cuenca Chamorro, dcuencach@gmail.com Link: https://www.facebook.com/CentroSanViatorPeru/?fref=ts

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NON FORMAL EDUCATION AND CHILD RIGHTS


NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

Education, as a lifelong process which enables the continuous development of a person’s capabilities as an individual and as a member of society, can take three different forms: • formal education: the structured educational system usually provided or supported by the state, chronologically graded and running from primary to tertiary institutions; • informal education: learning that goes on in daily life and can be received from daily experience, such as from family, friends, peer groups, the media and other influences in a person’s environment; • and non-formal education: educational activities that are not structured and takes place outside the formal system. According to a definition of the European Youth Forum, “non-formal education corresponds to a collection of teaching tools and learning schemes that are seen as creative and innovative alternatives to traditional and classical teaching systems. Via personal interaction and flexibility in problem solving, people can discuss matters of relevance to their lives as citizens in society and integrate their knowledge. Different sorts of people take part in this process but the majority is to be found in non-governmental organisations involved in youth and community work”1. Non-formal education refers to “any planned programme of personal and social education for young people designed to improve a range of skills and competences, outside the formal educational curriculum It can be defined as an organized educational activity outside the established formal system - whether operating separately or as an important feature of some broader activity - that is intended to serve identifiable learning clienteles and learning objectives”2 . Young people and children must be supported to develop skills and attitudes to act together to promotea global culture of human rights and express theirpower to transform the reality. Non-formal educators and young leaders play a key role to fight existing forms of oppression and to build social cohesion and inclusive communities. The e-learning platform is inspired by the following educationalapproaches and sociological theories: “Experiential Learning” emphasizes the central role that experience plays in the learning process draws from young people’s own experiences and knowledge. According to Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model, an initial experience or activity (phase 1 “experiencing”) is followed by a debriefing (phase 2 “reflecting”) and evaluation on how what people have learnt relate to the World and the reality (phase 3 “generalizing”). Final- Experiential ly,people apply and put their learning into practice (phase 4 “applying”).

Learning

1- Non-formal education - Council of Europe, http://www.assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/X2H-Xref-ViewHTML.asp?FileID=8807&lang=en 2- Compass: Manual for Human Rights Education with Young people, http://www.coe.int/en/web/compass/approaches-to-human-rights-education-in-compass

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Co-operative learning The pedagogy of the oppressed The reciprocal maieutic approach

Dram in education The UNESCO four pillar of learning

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Non-formal learning is a social and cooperative experience that combines learning at individual and group levels.In co-operative learning people learn to relate to their peers and together to achieve common and shared goals. The learning process of one member is an essential part of the input into the learning processes of the other members of the group. Education is a weapon for social change, it is a practice of freedom that involves the development of critical consciousness by which people can perceive, interpret, criticize and finally transform the reality and create a democratic society. “Leaders who do not act dialogically, but insist on imposing their decisions, do not organize the people--they manipulate them. They do not liberate, nor are they liberated: they oppress.Paulo Freire”3. The Reciprocal Maieutic Approach (RMA) is a “dialectic method of inquiry and a popular self-analysis for empowerment of communities and individuals and it can be defined as a “process of collective exploration that takes, as a departure point, the experience and the intuition of individuals. It fosters the development of everybody’s potential to discover, it pushes for essential exchange in order to analyze, imagine and experiment the capacity to change the reality and act nonviolently4” . “If the eye does not strain, it doesn’t see. Skin that does not touch, doesn’t taste. If we do not imagine, we die. Danilo Dolci5” . Drama in Education adopts play as a significant learning medium in the educational and professional development process. Through role-play and stories young people and children become actively engaged in a deeper analysis of our contemporary world and empowered as active and critical thinking citizens. The four pillars of learning are fundamental principles related to non-formal education: - Learning to know: to provide the cognitive tools required to better comprehend the world and its complexities, and to provide an appropriate and adequate foundation for future learning. - Learning to do: to provide the skills that would enable individuals to effectively participate in the global economy and society. - Learning to be: to provide self-analytical and social skills to enable individuals to develop to their fullest potential psycho-socially, affectively as well as physically, for a all-round ‘complete person. - Learning to live together:to expose individuals to the values implicit within human rights, democratic principles, intercultural understanding and respect and peace at all levels of society and human relationships to enable individuals and societies to live in peace and harmony6 .

3- Paulo Freire, 1968,Pedagogy of the Oppressed 4- EDDILI – To Educate is to Make Possible the Discovery of Life, http://reciprocalmaieutic.danilodolci.it/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/English.pdf 5- Danilo Dolci, 1984, The World is only one creature 6- The UNESCO four pillars of learning, http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/networks/global-networks/aspnet/about-us/strategy/the-fourpillars-of-learning/


A CHILD RIGHT BASED APPROACH

A child rights-based approach is a conceptual framework that identifies and evaluates children’s needs by reference to their rights under international legal instruments. A child rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, programmes and projects directed to promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) 7 is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights, including civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Signed in 1989, the Convention offers a vision of the child as an individual and as a member of a family and community, with rights and responsibilities appropriate to his or her age and stage of development. Children need to be recognized as active social, political and economic actors in their own right, playing a key role in shaping tomorrow’s society. The near-universal ratification of the CRC reflects a global commitment to the principles of children’s rights. By ratifying the CRC, governments state their intention to put this commitment into practice. State parties are obligated to amend and create laws and policies to fully implement the Convention; they must consider all actions taken in light of the best interests of the child.8

7- A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf 8- Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/

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CHAPTER 1 Learning module 1: The UN Convention on the rights of the child


Course organizer Course Introduction Learning Objectives

Contents

Structure of TC

Training Methods

Suggested Reading

Futher informations

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PRISM – Promozione Internazionale Sicilia Mondo, Italy This course aims at providing youth workers and young leaders with knowledge and key concepts related to the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Participants will learn: - about the difference between needs and rights - the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC); - about a ‘child rights-based approach’ to plan and develop community interventions and projects addressing children rights. - The difference between needs and rights - The relationship between rights-holders and duty-bearers - The articles and main principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) - Introduction to a Child Rights based Approach - The ‘table leg test’ and the guiding principles of the CRC This introductory learning module introduces the key concepts and principles related the UN Convention on the rights of the child. The learning contents and activities proposed in this module are propaedeutic to the subsequent modules of this learning programme, providing afirst introduction and practical guidance on how tointegrate a rights-based and child-focused approach to the analysis and planning of community projects addressing children rights.Each of the activities in this learning module leads on from the previous one in a logical progression. All learning activities are based on non-formal education. All the activities in the e-leaning course are built on the Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model. An initial experience or activity (phase 1 “experiencing”) is followed by a debriefing (phase 2 “reflecting”) and evaluation on how what people have learnt relate to the World and the reality (phase 3 “generalizing”). Finally, people are supposed to apply and put their learning into practice (phase 4 “applying”). - Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/ - A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www. unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf - General Comment No 13 of the UN Committee on the rights of the child, para 59, definition of a child rights approach, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922.html - EU-UNICEF Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating Child Rights in Development Cooperation, https://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Child-Rights-Toolkit-Web-Links.pdf It is recommended to read the suggested documents and links as in the paragraph below. They are a very important guide for the whole learning success in the subsequent learning modules.


KEY CONCEPTS HUMAN RIGHTS

“Human rights are those rights which are essential to live as human beings – basic standards without which people cannot survive and develop in dignity. Human rights are inherent to the human person, inalienable and universal. As part of the framework of human rights law, all human rights are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. The United Nations set a common standard on human rights with the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948. The United Nations has since adopted many legally binding international human rights treaties and agreements1”. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law2. They provide an international guide for common standards of conduct, which can be expected from all governments, societies, communities and individuals. It is the duty of States to promote and protect all human rights and fundamental freedoms, regardless of their political, economic and cultural systems.

A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH

A human rights-based approach is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights. It seeks to analyze inequalities which lie at the heart of development problems and redress discriminatory practices and unjust distributions of power that impede development progress3. A human right based approach means analyzing, formulating, implementing and evaluating projects by identifying claim-holders (and their entitlements) and corresponding duty-holders (and their obligations). A human rights-based approach also encourages the co-development of strategies for empowerment over charitable responses. They focus on beneficiaries as the owners of rights and the directors of development, and emphasize the human person as the center of the development process (directly, through their advocates and through organizations of civil society)4. The instruments of the international human rights framework are the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the six core human rights treaties: the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Convention on the Rights of the Child; the Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment; the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. These treaties are important tools for holding governments accountable for the respect for, protection of and realization of the rights of individuals in their country. As part of the framework of human rights law, all human rights are indivisible, interrelated and interdependent. Understanding this framework is important to promoting, protecting 1- UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_framework.html 2- The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights. aspx 3- UNICEF, Human Rights-based Approach to Programming, https://www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/rights/index_62012.html 4- UNICEF, Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention 2009, Part A: ‘UNICEF position on a human rights-based approach to programming in relation to children’, https://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_55653.html

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and realizing children’s rights because the CRC—and the rights and duties contained in it—are part of the framework5. Child rights education and the child rights approach fall under the broader scope of human rights education and the human rights-based approach, but they specifically apply child rights provisions and principles Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) .

THE UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)6 is the first legally binding international instrument to incorporate the full range of human rights, including civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Signed in 1989, the Convention offers a vision of the child as an individual and as a member of a family and community, with rights and responsibilities appropriate to his or her age and stage of development. Children need to be recognized as active social, political and economic actors in their own right, playing a key role in shaping tomorrow’s society. The CRC has 54 articles that include the full and wide range of rights – civil, political, cultural, social and economic, and they all serve as a framework for the protection of the rights of human beings under 18 years of age. The near-universal ratification of the CRC reflects a global commitment to the principles of children’s rights. By ratifying the CRC, governments state their intention to put this commitment into practice. State parties are obligated to amend and create laws and policies to fully implement the Convention; they must consider all actions taken in light of the best interests of the child7. To help stem the growing abuse and exploitation of children worldwide, the United Nations General Assembly in 2000 adopted two Optional Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child to increase the protection of children from involvement in armed conflicts and from sexual exploitation. On 14 April 2014, a third Optional Protocol was adopted, allowing children to bring complaints directly to the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The Committee will then investigate the claims and can direct governments to take action8. The articles of the Convention may be grouped into four categories of rights and a

The guiding set of guiding principles. By clicking on any of the categories below, you can link to principles a plain-language explanation of the applicable articles in the Convention. Additional under the provisions of the Convention (articles 43 to 54) discuss implementation measures Convention for the Convention, explaining how governments and international organizations like UNICEF will work to ensure children are protected in their rights. on the The guiding principles of the Convention include: non-discrimination; adherence to the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and the right Rights to participate. They represent the underlying requirements for any and all rights to be realized. Survival and development rights are rights to the resources, skills and contributions necessary for the survival and full development of the child. They include rights to adequate food, shelter, clean water, formal education, primary health care, leisure and recreation, cultural activities and information about their rights. These rights require not only the existence of the means to fulfil the rights but also access to them. Specific articles address the needs of child refugees, children with disabilities

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5- UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_framework.html 6- A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf 7- UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/ 8- UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_protocols.html


and children of minority or indigenous groups. Protection rights include protection from all forms of child abuse, neglect, exploitation and cruelty, including the right to special protection in times of war and protection from abuse in the criminal justice system. Participation rights:  children are entitled to the freedom to express opinions and to have a say in matters affecting their social, economic, religious, cultural and political life. Participation rights include the right to express opinions and be heard, the right to information and freedom of association.  Engaging these rights as they mature helps children bring about the realization of all their rights and prepares them for an active role in society. The equality and interconnection of rights are stressed in the Convention. In addition to governments’ obligations, children and parents are responsible for respecting the rights of others—particularly each other9. CRC constitutes a common reference against which progress in meeting human rights standards for children can be assessed and results compared. Having agreed to meet the standards in the Convention, governments are obliged to bring their legislation, policy and practice into accordance with the standards in the Convention; to transform the standards into reality for all children; and to abstain from any action that may preclude the enjoyment of those rights or violate them. Governments are required to report periodically to a committee of independent experts on their progress to achieve all the rights10. Every 5 years, country signatories to the CRC have to report back to the Committee on the Rights of the Child on progress made in ensuring respect for the rights included in the Convention. Other organisations are also encouraged to submit reports, and NGOs will very often pick up on possible violations of the Convention which have not been mentioned in the Government’s official report11.

How does the convention on the Rights of the Child protect childrens’s rights?

- You can see the full text of the CRC by clicking on the link below:http://www.ohchr.org/

Documents/ProfessionalInterest/crc.pdf

- You can see the summary of the rights under the CRC by clicking on the link be-

Links

low:https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf

WHAT IS CHILD RIGHTS EDUCATION?

Child Rights Education is about teaching and learning on the provisions and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the ‘child rights approach’ in order to empower both adults and children to take action to advocate for and apply these at the family, school, community, national and global levels. Child Rights Education aims to build the capacity of rights-holders - especially children - to claim their rights, and the capacity of duty bearers to fulfil their obligations. It helps adults and children work together, providing the space and encouragement for meaningful participation and sustained civic engagement of children. By learning about child rights and the child rights approach children and adults are empowered to bring about change in their immediate environment and the world at large to ensure the full realization of the rights of all children12. 9 10 11 12

UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30177.html UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30225.html COMPASS Manual for Human Rights Education with Young People, http://www.coe.int/en/web/compass/children UNICEF, Child Rights Education Toolkit, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/UNICEF_CRE_Toolkit_FINAL_web_version170414.pdf

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1.What does a child need? Type of activity Objectives Focus Duration Materials

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Workshop

To facilitate a reflection about needs of children Analysis and understanding of children’s needs

45 min Flipcharts, papers, pens

Description

1. Split participants into smaller groups of maximum 3 or 4 people. 2. Invite participants within their groups to draw a large outline of a child and then decides on the physical, cognitive, emotional and social / moral character qualities they would like this child to have as an adult (e.g. good health, sense of humour, kindness, education, etc..). 3. Outside the outline of the child, invite the group to list the human and material resources the child will need to achieve these qualities (e.g. food and healthcare for physical development, good role models for social development, etc..). 4. Get participants to stick the picture of their child to the wall and briefly introduce their work to the other groups.

Tips and Tricks

Let participants discuss and express freely within their goups. Do not interfere.

Variations

Participants could draw a symbol to represent the qualities inside the outline of the child.

Resources

Adapted from the UNICEF Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention (2009), https://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_55653.html and Nancy Flowers, Human Rights Educators’ Network, Amnesty International USA, http://www1. umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hrhandbook/activities/22.htm


Variations

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Support the group in discovering what they have experienced.

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2.Act it out Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop To explore the general idea or concept of human rights Through drama participants share their perceptions on the general concept of human rights 1. Explain that the purpose of the exercise is to come up with a dramatic representation of the general idea or concept of human rights that is understandable to people of different cultures, and who may speak different languages. 2. Explain that they will not be allowed to use words at all: this must be a mimed presentation. However, groups may make use of some of the materials or props, if they wish. 3. Ask people to get into small groups of between 4 and 6 people, and give each group a large sheet of paper and a set of crayons / markers. 4. Give the groups 10 minutes first to brainstorm all their ideas about human rights and then to identify two or three key ideas that they would like bring out most strongly in the mime. 5. Now give the groups 30 minutes to design and rehearse their mime. Explain that this must be a group effort and everyone should have a role in the production. 6. After 30 minutes are up, gather the groups together so that everyone can watch each other’s performances. 7. Give a few minutes after each performance for feedback and discussion. 8. Ask the spectators to offer their interpretations of what they have just seen, and to try to identify the key ideas that the performance attempted to portray. 9. Then give the group itself a chance to explain briefly any points that did not emerge during the feedback. Repeat this for each of the performances.

Duration

60 min

Materials

Props: dressing-up clothes, toys, household items, paper and coloured markers, crayons, glue, string and card

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Tips and Tricks

Unless people are entirely ignorant about the concept of human rights, it is more interesting to carry out this activity with a minimum of initial guidance from a facilitator. The main purpose is to draw out the impressions and knowledge about human rights that young people have already picked up in the course of their lives. It is worth emphasising this point to the group before they begin work, so that they do not feel constrained by not “knowing� exactly what human rights are.

Variations

If you want the groups to focus on certain concepts, you can cut out stages 3 and 4 of the instructions and give the small groups key words, for instance, equality, peace, poverty and solidarity.

Resources

Adapted from COMPASS - Manual for Human Rights Education with Young People, http://www.coe.int/en/web/compass/act-it-out

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Than ask the following questions: How did people feel about this activity? Were there similarities and differences in the different presentations? Were there any fundamental disagreements over the idea of human rights within the group? How were these resolved? Based on the presentations, what do participants think are the most important and shared characteristics of human rights?

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3.Children’s needs and rights

Type of activity

Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop To clarify key differences between children needs and rights Analysis and understanding of children needs and rights 1. Hold up a glass of water and say to participants: “I am a child. I need a glass of water.’ ‘I have a right to a glass of water.’ What is the difference between these two statements? Which is stronger? Why?” 2. Divide a flipchart sheet into 2 (needs and rights) and note key points from participant feedback. 3. Summarise key points that emerge within the activity and compare them with the table below.

RIGHTS

NEEDS

Universal; apply to everyone

Not universal

Imply obligations and responsibilities

No obligation or responsibility

Entitlements which can be demanded

Cannot be demanded

Explain that this concept of rights will be adopted forward in the next activities and throughout the learning programme.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks 32

30 min Glass of water, flipchart and pens If necessary, prompt participants with the following questions: “Who can I rely on to give me a glass of water if I need it? Do I have a right to it?”; “What is the relationship between a child and the person who has an obligation to fulfil my rights as a child (which I am entitled to demand)?”


Variations

/

Resources

Adapted from the UNICEF Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention (2009), https://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_55653.html

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process. Support the group in discovering what they have experienced.

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4.Children rights Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

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Training activity To introduce children rights and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Context analysis the following video “Celebrating 25 years of the Convention on the Rights of the Child”: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m4_onMGeQTE 1. Ask participants feedback on the video. A good point to point out is that children in the video are directly involved and questioned as presenters, reporters and the persons who are interviewed. This is in line with the specific CRC principles related to: Non-discrimination: it requires that children’s rights are not nullified or hindered by any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on any ground (article 2 of CRC). The best interest of the child: it requires that the best interests of the child be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children (article 3(1) of CRC). Survival and development: the right to survival and development (article 6(1) of CRC) applies to all rights to which children are entitled. Participation: it includes the child’s right to be heard. This right comprises the notion of children as decision-makers on issues that affect their lives. 2. Start with questions to introduce key concepts related to a child based approach: • What is a right? • Which is the difference between rights and needs? • What are human rights? • Who is a child? • What is childhood? • What is a child rights-based approach? • Why to undertake a child rights approach? 3. Introduce a brief review of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Ask what people know about it. Point out the wall chart and go over the main Articles under the CRC, including its general and specific principles.


4. Ask participants to get into their groups, to brainstorm and write down 5 rights that they believe children around the world should have. Give the groups 30 minutes to discuss about the violations of the rights they identify in their own regional/community context. 5. Then call everyone into plenary for a common debriefing. Notes: A ‘child’ as defined in Article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), means ‘every human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier’.. Children are entitled to all human rights. In addition, they have some special rights because of their particular stage of development. These rights are collected in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Resources

60 min Pens, flipchart papers, post-its. Show participants a practical example of how to use and develop the tool. UNICEF, A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf UNICEF, The Convention on the Rights of the Child, “Guiding principles: general requirements for all rights” https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Guiding_Principles.pdf “EU-UNICEF Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating child rights in development cooperation, Module 1: Overview of Child Rights in Development Cooperation” https://www.unicef.org/eu/crtoolkit/downloads/Child-Rights-Toolkit-Module1-Web-Links.pdf United Nations, Human Rights, http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Than ask the following questions: • What rights are not respected in your community, and why? • What are the similarities and differences between the groups? • As a result of listening to others, do any of the groups wish to reconsider their own decisions about the ranking of the rights? • Are there any rights which are not in the Convention that you think should be included?


5.Children rights cards Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials

Workshop To introduce and get familiar participants with the articles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1. Write each article of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child in related cards or papers. 2. Spread the cards out face up on the floor and ask each participant to choose one card (it does not matter if there are extra cards left over – leave these face up on the floor). 3. Tell participants to move around the room and interact with each other, explaining the right which is described on their card. If two participants feel that their cards have something in common, they should form a group. Keep on walking around the room and keep adding to your group. As the activity progresses, participants may also switch to a different group or ‘category’ of rights covered by the CRC. Some may even end up alone and not belonging to any group if there is no commonality found in the cards. 4. Stress that there are no right or wrong answers here. Child rights, like all human rights, are very closely linked each other and it can be difficult to ‘divide them up.’ Just keep encouraging discussions among the participants. When there is no more movement, ask each group to give themselves a name or title (e.g. ‘survival’, ‘education’, ‘health’, ‘juvenile justice’ etc.) 60 min A copy of the set of ‘CRC rights cards’ cut out individually

Tips and Tricks

It suggested to stick the the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child to the wall to make it more visible and offer the complete overview of rights.

Resources

Adapted from the UNICEF Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention (2009), https://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_55653.html

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask participants the following questions: • Are some rights more difficult to categorise than others? • If so, which ones and why? Take extra cards left on the floor and read one by one. Ask participants for comments and feedback on each extra card. Interdependence of CRC articles Ask participants the following questions: • What are the most important right in the whole CRC?’ Why? • Can a single right be ensured without fulfillment of other rights in the CRC? Why? Encourage a friendly debate on how the rights in the CRC can be grouped in certain ways, but actually they are all linked together. Introduce participants the three general principles that a child rights-based approach includes: • Interdependence and indivisibility: this means that the realization of a specific right cannot be divorced from the realization of the other rights to which children are entitled. To say that rights are indivisible means that there is no hierarchy of rights, including the need to adopt a holistic approach. • Accountability: it demands that states are obligated to respect, protect and fulfill the rights contained in those treaties. This may mean that states have positive obligations to ensure that those rights are not violated. • Universality: this means that children are entitled to the same human rights as all other human beings.


6.The table leg test Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop To introduce the main principles of the CRC when working with children according to a child rights-based approach. Planning interventions and projects though a child rights based approach 1. Introduce participants the 5 umbrella rights as it is illustrated in the diagram below in the form of the ‘Table Leg Test’. This illustrates how the best interests of the child, non-discrimination, participation and implementation (including of economic, social and cultural rights) underpin the ultimate goal of the CRC: the right to life, survival and development. The ‘Table Leg Test’ can act as a simple reminder in the design and implementation of any proposed activities. 2. Imagine that a child is sitting on the table. You must consider all of the umbrella rights or else the table is not stable and the child will fall to the floor / the intervention or project you have planned will not be successful. All of the other rights in the CRC can be placed on the table. The way in which we achieve children’s rights to good healthcare, freedom from violence, cultural expression etc. must ensure that no harm is coming to their survival and development; that it is in their best interests; that we are not discriminating; that the children themselves are involved in decision-making and planning; and that we have the adequate resources – or we lobby for the adequate resources – to make it happen. 3. Ask participants to mention negative examples and violation of rights that are related to each of the 5 umbrella rights as experienced by each participant in her/his community and regional context. The ‘table leg test’ can be used as a checklist when planning interventions and projects for children, by asking at every stage of the process: • Is the table stable?’ • Have each of the 5 umbrella rights been considered? • Is this proposed action in the best interests of the children? • Does it safeguard their survival and actively contribute to their development? • Have the children themselves been involved in planning and implementing it? • Is it reaching / taking into consideration the needs of all children, without discrimination against particular groups? • Are there adequate resources available?

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Rights to Survival and Development: These are rights to the resources, skills and contributions necessary for the survival and full development of the child. They include rights to adequate food, shelter, clean water, formal education, primary health care, leisure and recreation, cultural activities and information about their rights. These rights require not only the existence of the means to fulfill the rights but also access to them. Specific articles address the needs of child refugees, children with disabilities and children of minority or indigenous groups1. • Parental guidance • Survival and development • Registration, name, nationality, care • Preservation of identity • Separation from parents • Family reunification • Freedom of thought, conscience and religion • Parental responsibilities; state assistance • Children deprived of family environment • Refugee children • Children with disabilities • Health and health services • Review of treatment in care • Social security • Adequate standard of living • Right to education • Goals of education • Children of minorities/indigenous groups • Leisure, play and culture • Knowledge of rights Rights to Protection These rights include protection from all forms of child abuse, neglect, exploitation and cruelty, including the right to special protection in times of war and protection from abuse in the criminal justice system2. • Kidnapping • Protection from all forms of violence • Children deprived of family environment • Adoption • Refugee children • Child labor • Drug abuse • Sexual exploitation • Abduction, sale and trafficking • Other forms of exploitation • Detention and punishment

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1- The detailed content of the articles can be read at http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Survival_Development.pdf 2- The detailed content of the articles can be read at: http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Protection_list.pdf


• • • •

War and armed conflicts Rehabilitation of child victims Juvenile justice Respect for superior national standards

Rights to Participation Children are entitled to the freedom to express opinions and to have a say in matters affecting their social, economic, religious, cultural and political life. Participation rights include the right to express opinions and be heard, the right to information and freedom of association. Engaging these rights as they mature helps children bring about the realization of all their rights and prepares them for an active role in society3. • Respect for the views of the child • Freedom of expression • Freedom of thought, conscience and religion • Freedom of association • Right to privacy • Access to information and mass media

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

60 min Flipcharts, papers, pens Draw the ‘Table Leg Test’ on a flipchart, or have labels to stick on the wall which participants can clearly see.

Variations

/

Resources

Adapted from the UNICEF Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention (2009), https://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_55653.html

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process. Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. 3- The detailed content of the articles can be read at: http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Participation.pdf

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TASK 1.1 Understanding

6 Closed-ended questions

1. WHAT ARE HUMAN RIGHTS? Human rights are universal and inalienable; indivisible; interdependent and interrelated. They are universal because everyone is born with and possesses the same rights, regardless of where they live, their gender or race, or their religious, cultural or ethnic background. Inalienable because people’s rights can never be taken away. Indivisible and interdependent because all rights – political, civil, social, cultural and economic – are equal in importance and none can be fully enjoyed without the others. They apply to all equally, and all have the right to participate in decisions that affect their lives. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. Human rights are universal and inalienable; indivisible and interrelated. They are universal because everyone is born with and possesses the same rights, regardless of where they live, their gender or race, or their religious, cultural or ethnic background. Inalienable because people’s rights can never be taken away. Indivisible because all rights – political, civil, social, cultural and economic – are equal in importance and none can be fully enjoyed without the others. They apply to all equally, and all have the right to participate in decisions that affect their lives. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law. Human rights are universal and inalienable; divisible and isolated. They are universal because everyone is born with and possesses the same rights, regardless of where they live, their gender or race, or their religious, cultural or ethnic background. Inalienable because people’s rights can never be taken away. Divisible and isolated because all rights – political, civil, social, cultural and economic – are equal in importance and can be fully enjoyed without the others. They apply to all equally, and all have the right to participate in decisions that affect their lives. Universal human rights are often expressed and guaranteed by law, in the forms of treaties, customary international law, general principles and other sources of international law.

2. WHAT IS A HUMAN RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH? A human rights-based approach is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights. A human right based approach means evaluating projects by identifying claim-holders (and their entitlements) and corresponding duty-holders (and their obligations). It seeks to analyze inequalities and violation of rights that lie at the heart of development

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problems, address discriminatory practices and unjust distributions of power that impede human development. A human rights-based approach is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights. A human right based approach means analyzing, formulating, implementing and evaluating projects by identifying claim-holders and their entitlements. It seeks to analyze inequalities and violation of rights that lie at the heart of development problems, address discriminatory practices and unjust distributions of power that impede human development. A human rights-based approach is a conceptual framework for the process of human development that is normatively based on international human rights standards and operationally directed to promoting and protecting human rights. A human right based approach means analyzing, formulating, implementing and evaluating projects by identifying claim-holders (and their entitlements) and corresponding duty-holders (and their obligations). It seeks to analyze inequalities and violation of rights that lie at the heart of development problems, address discriminatory practices and unjust distributions of power that impede human development.

3. WHAT IS THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD? The Convention on the Rights of the Child is an European treaty that recognizes the human rights of children. The Convention establishes that EU member states must ensure that all children—without discrimination in any form—benefit from special protection measures and assistance; have access to services such as education and health care; can develop their personalities, abilities and talents to the fullest potential; grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding; and are informed about and participate in, achieving their rights in an accessible and active manner.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international treaty that recognizes the human rights of children. The Convention establishes in international law that States Parties must ensure that all children—without discrimination in any form—benefit from special protection measures and assistance; have access to services such as education and health care; can develop their personalities, abilities and talents to the fullest potential; grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding; and are informed about and participate in, achieving their rights in an accessible and active manner.

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The Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international treaty that recognizes the human rights of children. The Convention establishes in international law that States Parties must ensure that all children—without discrimination in any form—benefit from special protection measures and assistance; have access to services such as education and health care; can develop their personalities, abilities and talents to the fullest potential; grow up in an environment of happiness, love and understanding; and are informed and protected about their rights.

4. WHAT IS THE NEW VISION OF THE CHILD IN THE CONVENTION? The Convention provides a universal set of standards that reflects a new vision of the child. Children are neither the property of their parents nor are they helpless objects of charity. They are human beings and are the subject of their own rights. The Convention offers a vision of the child as an individual and a member of a family and a community, with rights and responsibilities appropriate to his or her age and stage of development. Recognizing children’s rights in this way firmly sets a focus on the whole child. Previously seen as negotiable, the child’s needs have become legally binding rights. No longer the passive recipient of benefits, the child has become the subject or holder of rights. The Convention provides a universal set of standards that reflects a new vision of the child. Children are the property of their parents who are responsible to fulfil their rights. The Convention offers a vision of the child as an individual and a member of a family and a community, with rights and responsibilities appropriate to his or her age and stage of development. Recognizing children’s rights in this way firmly sets a focus on the whole child. Previously seen as negotiable, the child’s needs have become legally binding rights The Convention provides a universal set of standards that reflects a new vision of the child. Children are the property of their parents who are responsible to fulfil their rights. The Convention offers a vision of the child as an individual and a member of a family and a community. The family and the community hold responsibilities appropriate each child ‘s age and stage of development. Recognizing children’s rights in this way firmly sets a focus on the whole child. Previously seen as negotiable, the child’s needs have become legally binding rights.

5. WHAT ARE THE GUIDING PRINCIPLESOF THE CRC? Guiding principles of the CRC are general requirements for all rights: • Definition of the child (Article 1): The Convention defines a ‘child’ as a person below the age of 18, unless the laws of a particular country set the legal age for adulthood younger. • Non-discrimination (Article 2): The Convention applies to all children, whatever their race, religion or abilities; whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from. It doesn’t matter where children live, what language they speak, what their parents do, whether they are boys or girls, what their culture is, whether they have a disability or whether they are rich or poor. No child should be treated unfairly on any basis.

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• Best interests of the child (Article 3): The best interests of children must be the primary concern in making decisions that may affect them. All adults should do what is best for children. • Right to life, survival and development (Article 6): Children have the right to live. Governments should ensure that children survive and develop healthily.

Guiding principles of the CRC are general requirements for all rights: • Definition of the child (Article 1): The Convention defines a ‘child’ as a person below the age of 18, unless the laws of a particular country set the legal age for adulthood younger. • Non-discrimination (Article 2): The Convention applies to all children, whatever their race, religion or abilities; whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from. It doesn’t matter where children live, what language they speak, what their parents do, whether they are boys or girls, what their culture is, whether they have a disability or whether they are rich or poor. No child should be treated unfairly on any basis. • Best interests of the child (Article 3): The best interests of children must be the primary concern in making decisions that may affect them. All adults should do what is best for children. • Right to life, survival and development (Article 6): Children have the right to live. Governments should ensure that children survive and develop healthily. • Respect for the views of the child (Article 12): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. The Convention encourages adults to listen to the opinions of children and involve them in decision-making -- not give children authority over adults. Guiding principles of the CRC are general requirements for all rights: • Definition of the child (Article 1): The Convention defines a ‘child’ as a person below the age of 18, unless the laws of a particular country set the legal age for adulthood younger. • Non-discrimination (Article 2): The Convention applies to all children, whatever their race, religion or abilities; whatever they think or say, whatever type of family they come from. It doesn’t matter where children live, what language they speak, what their parents do, whether they are boys or girls, what their culture is, whether they have a disability or whether they are rich or poor. No child should be treated unfairly on any basis. • Right to life, survival and development (Article 6): Children have the right to live. Governments should ensure that children survive and develop healthily. • Respect for the views of the child (Article 12): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. The Convention encourages adults to listen to the opinions of children and involve them in decision-making -- not give children authority over adults.

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6. DOES YOUR INITIATIVE PASS THE ‘TABLE LEG TEST’ OF THE CHILD RIGHTS APPROACH? According to the learning activity n.6 “The table leg test”, imagine that a child is sitting on the table. For any project adopting and incorporating a ‘child rights-based approach’, it is needed to: fulfil the realization of child rights; build the capacity and ownership of rights-holders and duty-bearers; and take right to life, survival and development into consideration (CRC Articles 6). If one of the table legs or the foundation (implementation to the maximum extent of available resources) is missing, the table is not stable and the child will fall. According to the learning activity n.6 “The table leg test”, imagine that a child is sitting on the table. For any project adopting and incorporating a ‘child rights-based approach’, it is needed to: fulfil the realization of child rights; build the capacity and ownership of rights-holders and duty-bearers; and take all of the umbrella rights into consideration (CRC Articles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12). If one of the table legs or the foundation (implementation to the maximum extent of available resources) is missing, the table is not stable and the child will fall. According to the learning activity n.6 “The table leg test”, imagine that a child is sitting on the table. For any project adopting and incorporating a ‘child rights-based approach’, it is needed to: fulfil the realization of child rights; build the capacity and ownership of duty-bearers; and take all of the umbrella rights into consideration (CRC Articles 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12). If one of the table legs or the foundation (implementation to the maximum extent of available resources) is missing, the table is not stable and the child will fall.

TASK 1.2 Reflection

2 open-ended questions

1. Despite the existence of rights, children suffer from poverty, homelessness, abuse, neglect, preventable diseases, unequal access to education and justice systems that do not recognize their special needs. These are problems that occur in both industrialized and developing countries1. Reflect and list all violations of children’s rights in your community context according to the guiding principles of the CRC, with a focus on: Survival and development rights. Needs of child refugees, children with disabilities and children of minority or indigenous groups. Protection rights. Participation rights.

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2. Review critical resources and available data related to your targeted community context: Government and UNICEF country situation analyses. Observations of human rights treaty bodies. Official statistics generated by international, national, regional bodies or statistical offices. Other sources of data, such as surveys and reports developed at local, regional and national level.

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CHAPTER 2 Learning Module 2: A Child Rights based approach for Community Development


Course organizer Course Introduction Learning Objectives

PRISM – Promozione Internazionale Sicilia Mondo, Italy This course aims at providing youth workers and young leaders with knowledge, skills and practical tools to undertake a child rights analysis and co-design community based project that contribute to fulfillment of children’s rights to participation, protection, survival and development. Participants will learn: • about the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC); • how to undertake a “child right based analysis” in order to identify the violation of children’s rights in a targeted local community • how to co-plan, design and integrate the UN CRC into community-based projects aimed at promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights. • • •

Contents

• • • • • •

Structure of TC

Introduction to a Child Rights based Approach The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) A child rights based analysis: analysis of children rights, duty bearers’ analysis, the problem tree and violations of rights Image theatre: analyzing internalized oppression The objective tree and the selection of strategies Forum theatre: from violations of rights to creative solutions Project design: the logframe matrix (the intervention logic, indicators, sources of verification, external conditions) Relevance, feasibility, sustainability from a CRC perspective Follow up, Youthpass and final evaluation

The course is built up with morning and afternoon blocks of 4 hours in different settings. Most of the TC is spent on full group work, pair work, peer group work. Ice breaking games are proposed at the beginning of each learning session, including team building activities in order to foster team spirit. Reflection groups are proposed at the end of each day. Each of the activities in this learning module leads on from the previous one in a logical progression. The training course focuses on two stages: 1. The “Analysis phase”, during which the community context is screened and analysed in order to identify and address the violation of roghts faced by target groups and final beneficiaries. At this phase the key elements and the intervention strategy of a project idea are developed in line with the identified violation of children’s rights in the targeted local community. 2. At the “Formulation phase” the intervention strategy is further developed into a logframe matrix that outlines the key features that lead to a project achieving its goal. All findings and insights obtained during the analysis stage are integrated in the logframe matrix. Overall goal, specific objective/s, expected results, activities are defined and structured.

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Training Methods

Suggested Reading Futher informations

All learning activities are based on non-formal education. Through Danilo Dolci’s Reciprocal Maieutic Approach, peer and cooperative learning participants work as a team and learn from each other. Image theatre is used to explore internalized oppression, unconscious thoughts and feelings related to beneficiaries and target groups, enabling participants to gain deeper insights during the analysis phase. Forum theatre engages participants to find creative solutions to identified violations and plan the strategies they need to change their world. Through the Logical Framework Approach participants develop community-based projects that integrate the norms, standards and principles of the UN CRC.

Project Cycle Management Guidelines, European Commission EuropeAid Cooperation Office - THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH, from page 57 to 94 https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf

Participants should be divided in groups at the beginning of the training course and keep working in the same group till the end of the programme.

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KEY CONCEPT The learning module links the key principles and tools related to a child rights-based approach with Project Cycle Management (PCM) in order to design and develop community-based projects aimed at promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights.

A CHILD RIGHTS-BASED APPROACH Child rights-based approach is a conceptual framework that identifies and evaluates children’s needs by reference to their rights under international legal instruments. A child rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, programmes and projects directed to promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights. “...A child rights approach is one which furthers the realisation of the rights of all children as set out in the Convention by developing the capacity of duty bearers to meet their obligations to respect, protect and fulfil rights (art. 4) and the capacity of rights holders to claim their rights, guided at all times by the rights to non-discrimination (art. 2), consideration of the best interests of the child (art. 3, para. 1), life, survival and development (art. 6), and respect for the views of the child (art. 12). Children also have the right to be directed and guided in the xercise of their rights by caregivers, parents and community members, in line with children’s evolving capacities (art. 5). This child rights approach is holistic and places emphasis on supporting the strengths and resources of the child him/herself and all social systems of which the child is a part: family, school, community, institutions, religious and cultural systems1.” A child rights-based approach identifies rights holders and their entitlements and corresponding duty-bearers and their obligations, and works towards strengthening the capacities of rights-holders to claim their rights and of duty bearers to meet their obligations2. The three general principles of a child rights-based approach include: • Interdependence and indivisibility: this means that the realization of a specific right cannot be divorced from the realization of the other rights to which children are entitled. To say that rights are indivisible means that there is no hierarchy of rights, including the need to adopt a holistic approach. • Accountability: it demands that states are obligated to respect, protect and fulfill the rights contained in those treaties. This may mean that states have positive obligations to ensure that those rights are not violated. • Universality: this means that children are entitled to the same human rights as all other human beings.

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1-General Comment No 13 of the UN Committee on the rights of the child, para 59, definition of a child rights approach, http://www.refworld.org/ docid/4e6da4922.html 2-Human Rights-based Approach to Programming, https://www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/rights/


Underlying the whole of the Convention is a set of four guiding principles, or general requirements for all rights contained in the treaty. These principles also feature as separate articles in the treaty. • Non-discrimination: it requires that children’s rights are not nullified or hindered by any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference based on any ground (article 2 of CRC). • The best interest of the child: it requires that the best interests of the child be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children (article 3(1) of CRC). • Survival and development: the right to survival and development (article 6(1) of CRC) applies to all rights to which children are entitled. • Participation: it includes the child’s right to be heard. This right comprises the notion of children as decision-makers on issues that affect their lives. The situation of deprived children cannot be addressed without providing those children with a voice and space to participate in decisions affecting their life. Discrimination, structural causes of exclusion and poverty must be identified, understood, and challenged to achieve equitable development for all children1. The Council of Europe has developed a Child Participation Assessment Tool with ten specific and measurable indicators to measure progress in the area of children’s participation. The indicators can be used by States to measure progress in implementing Recommendation CM/Rec (2012)2 of the Committee of Ministers to member States on the participation of children and young people under the age of 18. The ten indicators are cross-cutting, rather than thematic, and reflect the three broad measures addressed in the Recommendation: • Measures to protect the right to participate • Measures to promote the right to participate • Measures to create space for participation2

PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT (PCM) Project Cycle Management (PCM) is a term used to describe the management activities and decision-making procedures used during the life-cycle of a project (including key tasks, roles and responsibilities, key documents and decision options). CM helps to ensure that: • projects are supportive of overarching policy objectives of the international human rights instruments, primarily the CRC. • projects are relevant to an agreed strategy and to the real problems of target groups/beneficiaries, and address consequences of gaps and violations in child rights. • projects are feasible, meaning that objectives can be realistically achieved within the constraints of the operating environment and capabilities of the implementing agencies; • benefits generated by projects are likely to be sustainable. To support the achievement of these aims, PCM: • requires the active participation of duty bearers and key stakeholders and aims to promote local ownership; • uses the Logical Framework Approach to support a number of key assessments/ 1-Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/ 2 Council of Europe, Child Participation Assessment Tool, https://rm.coe.int/16806482da

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analyses (including stakeholders, problems, objectives and strategies); • incorporates key quality assessment criteria into each stage of the project cycle; and • requires the production of good-quality key document(s) in each phase, to support well-informed decision-making1.

THE LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH (LFA)

The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) is a core tool used within Project Cycle Management. Drawing up a Logframe has two main stages, analysis and planning, which are carried out progressively during the Identification and Formulation phases of the project cycle: There are the following main elements of the analysis stage: • Context analysis, including violation of children rights according to the CRC principles. • Duty bearers’ analysis, including assessment key actors have duties and obligations under the CRC, legally binding them to respect, protect and fulfill children’s rights. • Problem Analysis, including analysis the main children rights’ violation through cause and effect relationships. • Analysis of Objectives, including analysis of an improved situation in the future through means and end relationships. • Analysis of Strategies, including comparison of different options to address a given situation. In the planning stage, the results of the analysis are transcribed into a practical, operational plan ready to be implemented. In this stage: the logframe matrix is prepared, requiring further analysis and refinement of ideas; activities and resource requirements are defined and scheduled, and a budget is prepared. Both the analysis and planning stages should be carried out as an iterative learning process, rather than as a simple set of linear ‘steps’. Each tool should be reviewed and refined as new questions are asked and new information comes to light. It may be necessary to review and revise the scope of project activities and expected results once the resource implications and budget become clearer. During project implementation, the LFA matrix provides a key management tool to support contracting, operational work planning and monitoring; and during the evaluation and audit stage, the LFA matrix provides a summary record of what was planned (objectives, indicators and key assumptions), and thus provides a basis for performance and impact assessment2.

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1-European Commission EuropeAid Cooperation Office, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf 2- European Commission EuropeAid Cooperation Office, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf


LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1. Get to know each other Type of activity

Objectives Focus

Description

Team building

To get to know each other Participants’ names Put participants in a circle and decide a “starting point” (one of the participants in the circle), then ask the first participant to say his/her name and to add a “gesture” to his name. The participant next to him/her has to repeat the name and the gesture of the first participant and then he/she has to do the same with his/her name and gesture, and so on till the end of the circle. In case a participant makes a mistake in repeating the names and/or gestures of the previous participants, the trainer has to stop the game and ask participants to start from the beginning.

Duration

It depends on the number of participants, usually it takes 15/20 min.

Tips and Tricks

Change the direction of the turn, from time to time (when you stop the game and start from the beginning).

Variations

Debriefing & Reflection

You can use “adjectives” (such as: “Happy” Harry) instead of “gestures”.

There is no need for any debriefing or reflection.

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2. Sharing rules Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Debriefing & Reflection

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Discussion To build a safe, respectful and friendly learning environment that can help trainers, participants and the support staff to achieve the learning objectives. Common rules Invite participants to propose and agree on ground rules that respect individuals, group dynamics, cultural diversity, the training environment and the local community. Note all the interventions on a flipchart. A final list of shared rules to be followed during the training course is created by including the contributions from all participants. 15 min Flipchart, paper, pencil. Be open to any suggestions from the participants. Let them decide freely. Invite participants that are silent to provide feedback.

Present to the group the conclusions that have emerged. Then ask participants to confirm and jointly agree on the list of rules.


3. Expectations Type of activity Objectives

Focus

Description

Discussion To stimulate participants in reflecting on their expectations during the TC and support trainers in adaptingelements / activities of the TC in order to better meet participants’ expectations.

Learning expectations Participants are divided in multicultural groups. Within their group participants are asked to reflect on their learning expectations in relation to the TC, based on three levels: • What I would like to DO • What I would like to FEEL • What I would like to KNOW Ask them to write their expectations on small post-its and to stick these post-its in a triangle. Expectations that fall into the ‘to do’ category refer to what we want to experience. Expectations that fall into the ‘to feel’ category refer to how we want to get engaged in the learning process. Expectations that fall into the ‘to know’ category refer to concrete and explicit knowledge and tools we want to gain.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

15 min Flipchart,post-its, pencils It is important to analyze participants’ expectations, opinions and feedback in order to incorporate them in the learning activities, to take into account what can be either improved or developed.

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Do not comment, just keep the papers hanging on the wall till the very last day of TC, and only at the end ask them to comment and to evaluate if their initial expectations have been met.


4. Cultural diversity Type of activity

Workshop

Objectives

To develop awareness of other cultures and appreciation of cultural diversity.

Focus

The activity addresses the issue of cultural diversity through visual communication.

Description

Participants are introduced to portraits by showing a range of examples (photojournalism, portraits of homeless, ceramic sculpture, hybrid of humans and animals, portraits from artistic movements, etc.). Participants are invited to work in pairs and portray each other, by bringing out facial characteristics, expressions, emotions and aspects of cultural identity.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Variations

60 min A projector, pencils, colours, papers, good soundtracks inspiring participants. Suggest participants not to talk to each other and keep silent. Participants could be asked to guess about their partner: where is she / he from? How old is she / he? What is her / his religion? What are her / his life values?

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. Your ability to become an effective experiential learning activity facilitator will rest on your ability to ask key questions.


5. Learning to learn Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Team building

To get to know each other Learning to learn as key competence in life and professional development 1. Split participants into smaller groups of max 3 or 4 people. 2. Ask each participant within her/his own group to think individually to a learning experience that has been crucial in her/his human pathway and development. Give 10 minutes to think about. 3. Ask each participant to answer to the following questions individually in relation to their selected learning experience as in the previous point. • How did you feel during that event? What were the main emotions? • What was the color/s of your emotions? • What was the source of inspiration for you? • What was your reaction? • What did you learn in that event? • What were the consequences in your life (both on a personal and professional leavel)? 4. Invite all participants to share and comment the answers within her/his own group. Participants within the group are invited to raise questions and answer spontaneously. 30 min Flipcharts, papers, pens

Do not comment, just let participants expressing freely within their groups.

Variations

Participants could be split into smaller groups of 2 people.

Resources

SALTO Training & Cooperation, The Youthpass process and Learning to Learn, https://www.youthpass.eu/downloads/13-62-54/TheYouthpassProcess_100923_S.pdf

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Resume the plenary and ask participants to share what they discovered. Than ask the following question: What does “learning to learn” mean? Collect and summarize their feedback.

Debriefing & Reflection

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“Learning to learn” According to the European Commission and SALTO “learning to learn” is ‘the ability to organise our own learning’ and includes elements such as effective management of time and information. raising awareness of our learning needs, and how to achieve them. Learning to learn engages other competences as we can see and for that reason it is often referred to as a ‘meta competence’ – another way of showing that it has an importance and we need to be paying more attention to it!


6. The Project Cycle Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Discussion

To introduce participants to the key phases of the project cycle To explore diversity and key competences inside a team 1. Introduce the project cycle and the key concepts related to its six phases: • Programming • Identification • Formulation • Financing • Implementation • Evaluation 2. Put the six phases of the project cycle on the floor as a scheme. Ask participants to place themselves according to what function they identify with the most. Possibly people identify with more than one, which is normal. Just try and select one that suits better than the rest, is the tip. 3. After this: have 5 x 5 discussions within the quarter why you chose this quarter. 10 min Then in mixed groups: build groups with people from different quarters. 5 min Share why you chose yours. 10 min Address the benefits of having a diverse team. Notes: This project’s cycle highlights three main principles: 1. Decision making criteria and procedures are defined at each phase (including key information requirements and quality assessment criteria); 2. The phases in the cycle are progressive – each phase should be completed for the next to be tackled with success; 3. New programming and project identification draws on the results of monitoring and evaluation as part of a structured process of feedback and institutional learning. What is a project? A project is an independent operation with: • Well defined and planned operational objectives, results, target groups and final beneficiaries. • A series of coherent activities. • Limited duration. Why develop a project?

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• • • •

To solve a problem. To meet a need. To overcome a constraint. To take advantage of an opportunity.

A note on terminology: • Stakeholders: are individuals or institutions that may – directly or indirectly, positively or negatively – affect or be affected by a project or programme. • Project partners: Those who implement the projects in-country (who are also stakeholders, and may be a ‘target group’). • Target group(s): The group/entity who will be directly positively affected by the project at the Project Purpose level. This may include the staff from partner organizations. • Final beneficiaries: Those who benefit from the project in the long term at the level of the society or sector at large, e.g. “children” due to increased spending on health and education, “consumers” due to improved agricultural production and marketing.

Duration Materials

30 min Flipcharts, papers, pens

Tips and Tricks

It is important to introduce and clarify briefly the key concepts related to six phases: programming, identification, formulation, financing, implementation, evaluation. Remind participants that the training course is focusing only on the “identification” and “formulation” phase.

Variations

Feel free to use different case studies showing projects which had to face failure.

Resources

Project Cycle Management Guidelines, European Commission EuropeAid Cooperation Office https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

The trainer asks participants the following questions: • Was it easy to place yourself? • Can you see parallels between your placement and your daily work/experience? • Why the project cycle is supposed to be never ending? Close the activity by summarizing the main feedback

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7. Are you a midwife? Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Discussion

To engage participants in a common reflection on critical elements of a project. Analysis of social, cultural, economic reasons leading to failure. INTRODUCE KEY CONCEPTS The Reciprocal Maieutic Approach (RMA) is a dialectic method of inquiry and “popular self-analysis” for empowerment of communities and individuals. It can be defined as a “process of collective exploration that takes, as a departure point, the experience and the intuition of individuals” (Dolci, 1996). The RMA was developed by Danilo Dolci from the Socratic concept of Maieutic. It derives from the ancient Greek “µαιευτικός”, pertaining to midwifery: every act of educating is like giving birth to the full potential of the learner who wants to learn, as a mother wants her child to emerge from her. In the RMA process, to educate is intended in the classical meaning of the word, that is “e-ducere”: to take out. As the name says, RMA is a “reciprocal” process between at least two persons others giving answers. It is the reciprocal maieutic communication that brings out people’s knowledge, with all participants learning from each other. THE RMS PROCESS Participants working in group are invited to sit in a circle, so everyone has the same distance from the center and can look each other in the eyes. The space is a metaphor for relations, communication, sharing of power, expression and creativity. The reflection should begin as a process of dialectical inquiry that should be easy and based on a democratic open structure, without any constraint, imposition or dogmatic closure. Each participant can express her/himself on the issue and according to her/ his own experience and personality. It is important to put into practice the mosaic metaphor, to find nexuses, to connect by association of ideas and analogies. The fragments of knowledge, experience, the hypothesis made by everyone, are gradually related to one another, thanks to each contribution.

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Assumptions: • Questioning is a tool for reciprocal research and active participation. • Each person has an inner knowledge that comes from experience. • Knowledge is dynamic and in constant evolution and it should be built within a group. • Everybody being in connection inside a group can be an element of change. THE ART OF QUESTIONING Ask participants the following: What is a midwife? Just like a midwife does with women during childbirth, a community leader should educate young people and children on how to communicate and express freely, to analyze and understand the context where they live, to claim for their rights and address the problems they face in their lives, to imagine and experiment the capacity to change the reality and act nonviolently. A community leader does not transfer contents, does not impose solutions from top to down. As a midwife, the community leader is an expert in the art of questioning, creating conditions in which each person can learn how to express him/herself and research within a group. A community leader knows how to listen the others, to formulate questions, to connect observations and take out people’s knowledge and ideas in order to develop a common plan for community development. A community leader is not a supervisor or a chief, but a “midwife”, an expert in the theory and practice of group work and co-education. A community leader clarifies the essence of children, youth, duty bearers and community members’ intuitions and experiences in order to pursue dialogue, communication and facilitate a process of common analysis and planning.

Duration Materials

45 min Flipcharts, papers, pens

Tips and Tricks

Do not interfere, let participants express themselves freely and reflect with each other.

Resources

EDDILI - To EDucate is to make possible the DIscovery of Life, Reciprocal Maieutic Approach http://reciprocalmaieutic.danilodolci.it/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/English.pdf

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the session.


8. A child rights based analysis Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Training activity To undertake a child rights based analysis in a targeted community context Context analysis 1. Start with the following question: In which way rights violations of children occur? Invite everyone into plenary to provide feedback. 2. Ask participants to get into their groups and to decide in which community context they would like to operate and develop a project. 3. Ask participants to identify and write down all rights violations related to children in the targeted community context. The analysis is developed according to the CRC principles of survival and development, protection and participation. 4. Give the groups 45 minutes to discuss about the violations of the rights they identify in the targeted regional/community context, including a critical reflection on: • incidence and causes of key deprivations and violations of rights; • barriers and bottlenecks; • whether evidence-based interventions and services are prioritized in national policies, laws, strategies, plans. 5. Then call everyone into plenary for a common debriefing. Taking a child rights-based approach is not just about being able to relate to the CRC articles. A child rights-based approach considers each child as a complete human being, worthy of respect and capable of expressing opinions which we should be taken directly and seriously into consideration throughout the whole process. Prior to initiating detailed analytical work with stakeholder groups (field work), it is important that those involved in the identification or formulation of projects are sufficiently aware of the policy, sector and institutional context within which they are undertaking their work. The scope and depth of this preliminary analysis will depend primarily on how much information is already available and its quality

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In general, it should not be the work of each individual project planning team to undertake ‘new’ analysis of development/ sector policies or the broader institutional framework, rather they should access existing information and then work to ensure that the development of the project idea takes account of these elements of the operating environment1.

Duration Materials

60 min Pens, flipchart papers, post-its. Show participants a practical example of how to use and develop the tool.

Tips and Tricks

It is suggested a review of the documents and literature already done on the regional / community context, including analysis of verifiable data, statistics, reports. In line with child’s right to be heard, children should be directly consulted on issues that affect their lives.

Resources

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• Save the Children, Child Rights Situation Analysis Guidelines https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/ crsa_guidelines2.pdf • UNICEF, Examples of Recent Situation Analyses https://www.unicef.org/sitan/index_43351.html • ALNAP, Syria - Child rights situation analysis http://www.alnap.org/resource/20091

1 European Commission, EuropeAid Cooperation Office, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf


Debriefing & Reflection

sk each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. Ask participants the following questions: Do national and regional governments have sufficient technical capacity to implement and monitor and fulfil children rights? In the targeted community context, are there prevalent negative social norms affecting children? Who are the key actors in the community perpetuating these norms? To what extent these negative norms influence disadvantaged groups of children within the community? Are the CRC guiding principles reflected in your analysis? Are children and young people consulted and engaged directly in the context analysis?

VIOLATIONS OF CHILDREN RIGHTS Community context: Survival:

Development:

Protection:

Participation:

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9. Duty bearers’ analysis Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Training activity To identify duty bearers and their duties obligations, capacities and interest to respect, protect and fulfill children’s rights. Analysis of public and private stakeholders

1. Start with the following question: who are the rights holders? what are the duty bearers? 2. Introduce participants to the duty bearer’s matrix. 3. Than ask participants: • to identify all those groups who have a significant interest and role in the protection and development of targeted children; • to put them into the duty bearers’ matrix according to the following criteria: power of influence, level of interest; • to reflect on the relationships between the duty bearers; • to assess, as far as possible, the nature of the existing capacity gaps that prevent many duty bearers from fulfilling their duties and obligations. A basic premise behind the duty bearers’ analysis is that different duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection. This includes information obtained through focus group discussions, duty bearers’ interviews, field visits and so forth. The findings of the analysis should be incorporated into the logframe matrix in order to ensure Duty bearers’ ownership and participation. Notes: Duty bearers have duties and obligations under the CRC, legally binding them to respect, protect and fulfill children’s rights. The State, through its agents, is the principal duty-bearer responsible for fulfilling the child’s right to life and health. This includes all the pertinent public authorities who have the responsibility for creating the broad normative and institutional contexts for the enjoyment of the rights recognized in the CRC and national laws. Beyond this, duty bearers include governments and their local agents, social workers, educators & teachers, judges, police, health care workers, parents, the whole community.

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Children up to 18 years of age are considered rights holders and active participants in child rights realization, who must be empowered to make claims and hold duty bearers to account for upholding children’s rights. In carrying out this part of the analysis, it is important to recognize that some of the duty-bearers are also rights-holders, whose own rights may remain unfulfilled, which can prevent them from fulfilling their duties to the child. For example, the limited salary health care workers receive may be an impediment to performing their professional duties competently and efficiently1. In parallel, examining the capacity gaps among duty-bearers can help development cooperation actors to address those gaps and achieve child-focused development results2. UNICEF, Engaging Stakeholders On Children’s Rights, https://www.unicef.org/csr/css/Stakeholder_Engagement_on_Childrens_Rights_021014.pdf UNICEF, An Analysis of the Situation of Children And Women in Cambodia, Chapter III. The Child’s Right to Life and Health - Duty-bearers’ roles, responsibilities and capacity gaps, https://www.unicef.org/cambodia/Part6_Women_and_children_SitAn_Report_09.pdf

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

60 min Pens, flip chart papers, post-its. Show participants a practical example of how to use and develop the tool.

1- UNICEF, An Analysis of The Situation of Children And Women In Cambodia, 2009, https://www.unicef.org/cambodia/Part6_Women_and_children_SitAn_Report_09.pdf 2- UNICEF. Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating Child Rights in Development Cooperation, https://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Child-RightsToolkit-Web-Links.pdf

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. Suggested questions: • Who are the rights-holders? • Who are the duty-bearers? What obligations are they supposed to fulfill? • What is the relationship between the rights-holders and duty-bearers?


10. The problem tree: analysis on the violation of children’s rights Type of activity Objectives Focus

Training activity To identify the negative aspects of an existing violation/s of children’s rights and to establish the causes and effects related to that violation/s. Problem analysis in the community context

The analysis is presented in diagram form showing the effects of a children’s right violation on top and its causes underneath. Once complete, the problem tree represents a summary of the existing negative situation.

Description

How to establish a Problem Tree? • As a starting point, identify and state the core existing violation of children’s rights in the targeted community • Brainstorm and analyze major problems that are related to the problem • Write down each identified problem on a card. • Establish hierarchy of cause and effects: problems which are directly causing the core problem are put below; problems which are direct effects of the core problem are put above. • Connect the problems with cause-effect arrows. • Review the diagram and verify its validity and completeness. The links of causes and effects should be clear and make a logical sense. Notes: A problem is not the absence of a solution, but an existing negative situation. Absent solutions are problem statements that do not describe the current negative situation, but describe the absence of a desired situation. For example, lack of trained staff does not describe the real problem which is in fact staff has insufficient or inappropriate skills. The problem tree contributes to address the identified violations of children’s rights through a holistic analysis revealing the complexity of the phenomenon as well as to gain insights into complex links of causes and effects.

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Duration Materials

120 min Pens, flipchart papers, post-its. Show participants a practical example of how to use and develop the tool.

Tips and Tricks

Specify the following rules for writing problems’ cards: • A problem should not be an overarching issue that is clearly beyond the scope of the interventions to be developed by a social enterprise or specific project. • Write the problem in a sentence by specifying it like this: “subject, verb and object”. • Each card should include only one problem. • Problems have to be phrased as negative situations. • Problems have to be existing problems, not future ones or imagined ones. • Avoid generalization – be specific. The position of the problem in the hierarchy does not indicate its importance. It might help to break these causes down into different categories, such as policy/legal constraints, institutional constraints, capacity weaknesses, and social/cultural norms. Present background facts and statistics with sources, wherever relevant.

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Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. Suggested questions: • Does the problem analysis provide information on the problems specific to the lack of realization of children’s rights? • Is there a requirement for more in-depth child rights analysis to be undertaken at the formulation stage?

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11. Internalized oppression and violation of rights Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop To explore forms of internalized oppression, unconscious thoughts and feelings related to target groups and beneficiaries. Violation of rights’ analysis through theater and drama. In image theatre, still images are used to analyze realistic situations by exploring relationships, emotions and feelings. This technique was developed by Augusto Boal as part of Theatre of the Oppressed, as a form of theatre where people become active and explore, show, analyze and transform the reality in which they are living. Image theatre works across language and culture barriers and frequently reveals unexpected universalities. Through image theatre participants gain more clarity in the analysis process by decoding the situation they are observing. Guidelines on how to prepare the scene: • Create a scene that should be showing still images concerning an existing violation of children’s rights in the targeted community, as identified in the problem tree analysis. • Still images could be realistic, allegorical, surrealistic, symbolic or metaphorical. The only thing that matters is that they correspond to reality. • In the scene, there should be one OPPRESSED, who is the person affected by the existing violation of rights, and several OPPRESSORS, the persons affecting the oppressed. • Each character in the scene must have a specific role. The scene performed should be dramatic: showing real problems as experienced in daily life. • There should be one facilitator who is coordinating the activity. The facilitator starts questioning the characters (both the oppressors and the oppressed) in order to explore their role in the scene: about their life and work experiences, their social and cultural background, problems, needs, including unconscious thoughts, feelings, reasons behind a certain way of doing or thinking.

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Here are some example questions: Who are you? Where are you from? What do you do in life? What is your social background? What does your family do?


What is your religion? What are your values? What are you doing in the scene? What are your problems, needs at this moment? Why are you acting this way? Where did you learn this behavior/value/idea from? Have you studied? How do you spend usually your day? Where do you sleep at night? What are your hobbies and interests? Are you religious? What is your religion? What are your dreams about? Etc. The characters in the scene are only allowed to answer the questions while keeping still. Participants are asked to observe the images and reflect on what they witness and hear. As the inquiry process develops, the facilitator invites the audience to raise further questions in order to get more and more in depth into the analysis process related to the identified existing situation / problem.

Duration

120 min

Materials

Any kind of material that participants might creatively use to perform their scene on the stage.

Tips and Tricks

You can invite participants or “spect-actors” (spect -- to watch; actor -- to act)to take the role of the facilitator in order to experience themselves how to facilitate the scene on stage.

Variations

You can apply image theatre to a variety of learning contexts to explore diversity, intercultural dialogue, democracy, active citizenship or other social issues.

Resources

Forum and Image Theatre Manual - Toolbox — For Training and Youth Work https://www.salto-youth.net/tools/toolbox/tool/forum-and-image-theatre-manual.1503/

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Debriefing & Reflection

Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. Ask participants what additional insights they have gained about the community context, target groups, final beneficiaries, duty bearers and stakeholders. Then ask participants the following questions: • Have further violations, problems and needs been identified? • Have other duty bearers and stakeholders been identified? • Are causes and effects relationships better investigated and incorporated in the analysis process? Invite participants to review in their groups the problem tree in line the new findings and information emerged within the activity.

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12. The objective tree Type of activity Objectives Focus

Training activity

To identify a possible solution to the identified problems. Objectives analysis The ‘negative situations’ of the problem tree are converted into solutions, expressed as ‘positive achievements’. For example, “parents show low interest to participate on school-based activities of their children” is converted into “parents have an high participation in school-based activities of their children”. These positive achievements are in fact objectives, and are presented in a diagram of objectives showing a means - ends hierarchy. This diagram provides a clear overview of the desired future situation.

Description

How to establish an Objective Tree? • Reformulate all negative situations of the problems analysis into positive situations that are desirable and realistically achievable. • Check the means-ends relationships to ensure validity and completeness of the hierarchy (cause-effect relationships are turned into means-ends linkages). • If necessary: revise statements, add new objectives if these seem to be relevant and necessary to achieve the objective at the next higher level, delete objectives which do not seem suitable or necessary. Notes: A community project should: • be clearly consistent with the policy framework at international, national and regional level; • integrate with and support local planning/budgeting, management, financing and monitoring systems; • build local capacity and ownership among beneficiaries, duty bearers and key stakeholders; • take a realistic perspective and guarantee a long-term impact and positive change.

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Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Debriefing & Reflection

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SUGGESTED TIME: 60 min Pencils, flip chart papers, post-it. Show participants a practical example of how to use and develop the tool.

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process. Support the group in discovering what they have experienced. At this point, you might ask the following questions: • Have you received support and active contribution from others during the activity? • Who gave major support within each group? These questions can start up a further reflection on the topic of “supporting each other”, co-education and co-development.


13. Forum theatre: from problem analysis to the creation of solutions Type of activity Objectives Focus

Workshop

To enable participants to find creative solutions to identified problems through theatre. Identification of strategies and activities Forum theatre was developed by Augusto Boal as part of Theatre of the Oppressed. It is a theatrical game in which a problem is shown in an unsolved form, to which the audience, as “spect-actors”(spect -- to watch; actor -- to act), are invited to suggest and enact solutions. It begins with the crafting and performance of a short play that dramatizes the existing situation / problem as identified in the image theatre scene and that ends with the protagonist(s) being oppressed. The problem is always the symptom of an oppression, and generally involves visible oppressors and a protagonist who is oppressed. After the first performance, the play or scene is repeated with one crucial difference: the spectators become “spect-actors” and can at any point yell “freeze” and take the place of an actor to attempt to transform the outcome. Forum theatre is an exercise in democracy in which anyone can speak and anyone can act.

Description

Instructions to prepare for the play: • Participants in groups are invited to perform a short play showing the same situation of oppression already sculpted in the image theatre activity. The play should last for max 5 minutes. • The problem is always the symptom of an oppression, and generally involves visible oppressors and a protagonist who is oppressed. • The participants are allowed to create dialogue and set up the scene in a creative way. • The play is shown twice. After the first time, the play is performed again but slightly speeded up. • During the replay, any member of the audience (‘spect-actor’) is allowed to shout ‘Stop!’, step forward and take the place of one of the oppressed characters, showing how they could change the situation, to solve the problem in a creative way and overcome the oppression.

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Several alternatives may be explored by different spect-actors. The other actors remain in the scene, improvising their responses. • The play is a form of contest between spect-actors trying to bring the play to a different end (in which the cycle of oppression is broken) and actors ostensibly making every possible effort to bring it to its original end (in which the oppressed is beaten and the oppressors are triumphant). • The process is presided over by the ‘joker’, whose job it is to ensure a smooth running of this theatrical game.

Duration Materials

Any kind of material that participants might creatively use to perform their scene on the stage.

Tips and Tricks

You can invite participants or spect-actors to take the role of the joker in order to experience themselves how to facilitate this theatrical game. The joker is the link between actors and spect-actors. S/he is the facilitator who keeps the event flowing. The term ‘joker’ can be seen in relation to both the joker in a card game, an odd one out, who can jump into any situation, but who is also in a way neutral, or as in the jester character of the medieval period who provided games and entertainment. The joker in forum theatre or plays is much like such a character. S/he stands outside the general play, and has no direct influence on the direction of the story, but is able to move the group forward, with questions and by facilitation.

Variations

You can apply forum theatre to a variety of learning contexts to explore diversity, intercultural dialogue, democracy, active citizenship, other social issues.

Resources

Forum and Image Theatre Manual - Toolbox — For Training and Youth Work https://www.salto-youth.net/tools/toolbox/tool/forum-and-image-theatre-manual.1503/ For the role of the joker, click here:http://handbook.actvise.eu/?page_id=24

Debriefing & Reflection

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120 min

Ask participants what they have learned and how the activity contributes to finding creative solutions to the identified problems. Invite participants to reflect on how the tool could be applicable to their everyday lives and work.


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14. Strategy analysis Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials

Tips and Tricks

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Training activity

To identify to assess and identify specific intervention strategies. Problem analysis in the community context A project is a limited intervention and can therefore not tackle all the alternatives indicated in the tree. Strategy analysis is a process in which specific project strategies are selected from among the objectives raised in objectives analysis, based upon selection criteria. Analysis of Strategies involves deciding what objectives will be included IN the specific intervention, and what objectives will remain OUT. The selected strategy will then be used to formulate the first column of the logframe matrix, thus identifying the social enterprise overall objective, purpose/s and expected results. How to select the project strategy? • Divide the objective tree into different clusters of objectives. • Name all clusters. • Clarify the overall objective and strategies of each cluster. • Exclude unachievable and/or unrealistic options. • Set and agree on criteria for selecting a strategy • Compare alternatives using the selection criteria. • Select a specific cluster to be developed into an intervention strategy 60 min Pens, flip chart papers, post-its. The choice of the strategy should be based on a good knowledge of the community context and on a number of selected criteria, such as: • Internal key competences and expertise • Availability of financial and human resources • Complementarities with other policies or social activities • Contribution to the social, economic, cultural community development • Urgency • Coherence with both organization and community’s priorities • Probability of achieving objectives • Potential involvement of community partners and stakeholders • Economic and financial costs / benefits • Community and environmental impact


Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process. Ask the following questions: • Did you share different ideas? If so, how did you select your strategy? • What was the main selected criteria you adopted in the selection process?

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15. The Logical Framework Approach: the Intervention Logic (first column) Type of activity Objectives Focus

Training activity

To describe the key elements of the intervention logic of a project Key elements of a community based project addressing children rights The results of the stakeholders, problems, objectives and strategy analysis are used as the basis for preparing the Logical Framework Matrix. The main output of the LFA is the logframe matrix.

Description

The logical framework matrix has four columns and four rows in total, namely: • the hierarchy of objectives (Intervention Logic); • the key external factors critical to the social start-up’s success (Assumptions); • how the social start-up’s achievements will be monitored and evaluated (Indicators and Sources of Verification). The first column is named intervention logic and describes the: • Overall objective: the broad development impact to which the social enterprise contributes – at a national or sectoral level (provides the link to the policy and/or sector programme context). • Purpose: the development outcome at the end of the social enterprise, more specifically the expected benefits to the target group(s). • Expected results: the direct/tangible results (goods/products and services) that the social enterprise delivers, and which are largely under project management’s control. • Activities: the work programme that is needed to be carried out to deliver the planned results. Specific and practical actions should directly address violations and gaps as identified in the analysis phase. 1. Ask participants to transfer the contents from their objective tree and selected strategy into the intervention logic of the LFA. 2. Results and activities should integrate child rights and the four specific principles of the CRC (Non-discrimination, The best interest of the child,

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Survival and development, Participation) at each step of the planning and formulation process. Note: Community development projects addressing children should strengthen structures and mechanisms (capacity building) to promote and protect children’s rights (e.g. legislative, political, administrative and community structures, practices and mechanisms, ensuring incorporation of the CRC into domestic legal systems, monitoring progress, ensuring accountability and overcoming constraints). They should also raise awareness and build advocacy for children’s rights amongst individuals, governments, professionals, the media, the private sector, the general public and civil society (Brief Introduction to Rights-based Programming, Save the Children, August 2003).

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Debriefing & Reflection

120 min Pens, flip chart papers, post-its Show participants a practical example of how to develop an intervention logic. Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Suggested questions: • Is the project interfering with the children’s right to survival? • Are the proposed approach, strategies and activities planned in line with the best interests of the child? • Are the activities excluding / discriminating any groups of children? • Have you consulted with the children themselves and involved them in the analysis and planning phases? • Did all members of the group have a clear action plan?

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LOGFRAME MATRIX OBJECTIVES (What we want to achieve)

Source: The Logical Framework Approach in European Commission – PCM Guidelines (2004)

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INDICATORS (How to measure change)

MEANS OF VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS (Where / how to get (External condiinformation) tions)

Impact Indicators: Measures the Overall objective: extent to which a The broad devecontribution to the lopment impact to overall objective which the project has been made. contributes – at a Used during evanational or sectoral luation. However, level (provides the it is often not link to the policy appropriate for the and/or sector proproject itself to gramme context) try and collect this information.

Sources of information and methods used to collect and report it (including who and when/how frequently).

Is not required for goals.

Purpose: The development outcome at the end of the project – more specifically the expected benefits to the target group(s)

Outcome Indicators: Helps answer the question ‘How will we know if the purpose has been achieved’? Should include appropriate details of quantity, quality and time.

Sources of information and methods used to collect and report it (including who and when/how frequently)

Assumptions (factors outside project management’s control) that may impact on the purpose-objective linkage.

Results: The direct/tangible results (good and services) that the project delivers, and which are largely under project management’s contro

Output Indicators: Helps answer the question ‘How will we know if the results have been delivered’? Should include appropriate details of quantity, quality and time.

Sources of information and methods used to collect and report it (including who and when/how frequently)

Assumptions (factors outside project management’s control) that may impact on the result-purpose linkage.

Activities: The tasks (work programme) that need to be carried out to deliver the planned results. Indicators are NOT included in the logframe.

Means: What are the means required to implement these activities (ex. personnel, equipment, services, goods, facilities, etc..)

Costs: What are the costs for each activity? How are they classified) Break the budget down..

Pre-conditions: What pre-conditions outside the project’s direct control are required before the actions start?


16. The Logical Framework Approach: Indicators and Sources of Verification (second and third column) Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Training activity

To set criteria on how a social enterprise will be monitored and evaluated. Monitoring and evaluation Indicators (second column of the logframe) describes the operation’s objectives in operationally measurable terms (quantity, quality, target group(s), time, place). Specifying indicators helps checking the viability of objectives and forms the basis of the operation monitoring system. Indicators should be measurable in a consistent way and at an acceptable cost. A good indicator should be SMART: • Specific • Measurable • Available at an acceptable cost • Relevant with regard to the objective concerned • Time-bound Sources of verification (third column of the logframe) indicate where and in what form information on the achievement (described by the indicators) can be found. The sources of verification should specify: • the format in which the information should be made available (e.g. progress reports, operation accounts, operation records, official statistics etc.) • who should provide the information • how regularly it should be provided (e.g. monthly, quarterly, annually). 1. Ask participants to specify both indicators and sources of verification for each line of the intervention logic of the LFA. A child rights focus should be taken in consideration in order to mitigate risks and optimizing opportunities.

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Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Resources

Debriefing & Reflection

92

60 min Pens, flip chart papers, post-its Show participants a practical example of how to identify indicators and sources of verification. UNICEF. Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating Child Rights in Development Cooperation, https://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Child-Rights-Toolkit-Web-Links. pdf Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Ask participants the following questions: • Does the project’s Logframe Matrix include a set of indicators and sources of verification, which will allow management information to be collected and used in a timely and cost-effective manner? • Are roles and responsibilities for collecting, recording, reporting and using the information clearly described? • Is a monitoring, evaluation and accountability plan formulated? Is the plan clear and practical?


LOGFRAME MATRIX OBJECTIVES (What we want to achieve)

INDICATORS (How to measure change)

MEANS OF VERIFICATION (Where / how to get information)

ASSUMPTIONS (External conditions)

Overall objective: Reduce children death and illness related to Water and Sanitation related diseases in the targeted communities

Ministry of Health / WHO statistics Impact Indicators: Records from village clinics % (percentage) reduction in water and sanitation related diseases among children in target population % of children under 36 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

not required

Purpose: Improved access to and use of sustainable sources of safe water in target communities

Outcome Indicators: Household survey % of people in the target communities using Key informant interviews with local minimum 25L of safe water per day committee members % of targeted households with access to a functional water source % of water points managed by local committees # hours spent by women in fetching water daily

Civil war / hostilities do not return Improved access to clinical health facilities

Results: R.1 - Community water points constructed or rehabilitated

(number) of water points constructed to national standard % of water handpumps rehabilitated to national standard

“Community Facility Inspection” field report

Low rainfall does not limit overall water supply.

R.2 - Community management of water points is improved

# of communities with a local committee established # of local committees with technicians trained to perform basic maintenance on water points % of local committees collecting adequate charges to maintain the water points

Household survey No major disputes Key informant interviews with local or conflicts within committee members the community

Activities: The tasks (work programme) that need to be carried out to deliver the planned results. Indicators are NOT included in the logframe.

Means What are the means required to implement these activities (ex. personnel, equipment, services, goods, facilities, etc..)

Costs What are the costs for each activity? How are they classified) Break the budget down..

Pre-conditions What pre-conditions outside the project’s direct control are required before the actions start?

Source: The Logical Framework Approach in European Commission – PCM Guidelines (2004)

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17. The Logical Framework Approach: The external conditions (fourth column) Type of activity Objectives Focus

Training activity To take into account potential risks and assumptions that can badly influence a social enterprise. Risk management External factors that might affect the social enterprise’s implementation and long-term sustainability but lie outside its control, are included as assumptions in the fourth column of the logframe. The probability and significance of these assumptions being met should be estimated as part of assessing the riskiness of the social business plan. External factors are the answer to the question: “What external factors are not influenced by the operation, but may affect its implementation and achievement of objectives?” If formulated as negative statements, become ‘risks’ that have to be monitored during the social enterprise’s development.

Description

The steps necessary to identify the external factors are the following: • Brainstorm and identify those external factors which are necessary for the project to succeed but which are outside the control of the project. • External factors need to be identified for the levels of ‘Activities’, ‘Results’ and the ‘Project Purpose’. • Once external factors have been identified, they are stated in terms of the desired situation. In this way they can be verified and assessed. • Then, these external factors are transposed at the appropriate level of the logframe. If an external factor represents a relevant risk, redesign and reformulate the intervention logic of the logframe. If it is not possible to redesign and reformulate the intervention logic of the logframe, than our social enterprise is not feasible.

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Duration Materials

60 min Pens, flip chart papers, post-its

Tips and Tricks

It is suggested to assemble and analyse adequate information from an appropriate range of sources, including viewpoints of different stakeholders.

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task). Ask participants the following questions: - Are assumptions/risks identified and assessed, and appropriate risk management arrangements proposed? - Are Arrangements for managing risks clear?

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LOGFRAME MATRIX

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OBJECTIVES (What we want to achieve)

INDICATORS MEANS OF (How to measure chan- VERIFICATION ge) (Where / how to get information)

ASSUMPTIONS (External conditions)

Overall objective: Reduce children death and illness related to Water and Sanitation related diseases in the targeted communities

Impact Indicators: % (percentage) reduction in water and sanitation related diseases among children in target population % of children under 36 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks

Ministry of Health / WHO statistics Records from village clinics

not required

Purpose: Improved access to and use of sustainable sources of safe water in target communities

Outcome Indicators: % of people in the target communities using minimum 25L of safe water per day % of targeted households with access to an functional water source % of water points managed by local WatSan committees # hours spent by women in fetching water daily

Household survey Key informant interviews with local committee members

Civil war / hostilities do not return Improved access to clinical health facilities

Results: R.1 - Community water points constructed or rehabilitated

(number) of water “Community Facility Low rainfall does not points constructed to Inspection� field report limit overall water supply. national standard % of water handpumps rehabilitated to national standard


R.2 - Community mana- # of communities with gement of water points a local committee is improved established # of local committees with technicians trained to perform basic maintenance on water points % of local committees collecting adequate charges to maintain the water points Activities: The tasks (work programme) that need to be carried out to deliver the planned results. Indicators are NOT included in the logframe.

Means What are the means required to implement these activities (ex. personnel, equipment, services, goods, facilities, etc..)

Household survey Key informant interviews with local committee members

No major disputes or conflicts within the community

Costs What are the costs for each activity? How are they classified) Break the budget down..

Pre-conditions What pre-conditions outside the project’s direct control are required before the actions start?

Source: The Logical Framework Approach in European Commission – PCM Guidelines (2004)

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18. The GANTT Chart Type of activity Objectives Focus

Training activity To think through all of the tasks involved in structuring a social enterprise. Planning and organization of activities The so-called Gantt chart is a format for outlining, prioritising and conveying information about the activities of a project visually. It helps to identify their logical sequence, expected duration, any dependencies that exist between activities, and it provides a basis for allocating management responsibility. With the GANTT chart prepared, further specification of resources and scheduling of costs can be undertaken.

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask participants to develop a GANTT chart by using the following checklist: • step 1: for each expected result list the main activities • step 2: break activities down into manageable tasks • step 3: clarify sequence and dependencies • step 4: estimate start-up, duration and completion of all activities • step 5: summarize scheduling of main activities • step 6: define milestones • step 7: define expertise • step 8: allocate tasks among the team 120 min Pens, flip chart papers, post-its Show participants a practical example of how to use and develop the tool. Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task).


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19. Relevance, feasibility, sustainability and coherence with the CRC’s 4 pillars Type of activity

Training activity

Objectives Focus

Planning and organization of activities Ask each group to review its logframe matrix and analyse its logical structure according to the following criteria: relevance, feasibility, sustainability and coherence to the CRC’s 4 pillars (survival, development, protection and participation of children). Invite each group to reflect and answer to the following questions:

Description

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1. Relevance: • Is the project consistent with, and supportive of, international and government policies and relevant sector programmes? • Are children involved in the analysis and planning process from the initial stage? • Are duty bearers, key stakeholder and target groups clearly identified, equity and institutional capacity issues analysed, and local ownership demonstrated? • Have problems been appropriately analysed? • Are objectives are clearly stated in terms of solutions to identified violation of children rights? • Have cultural and sociological issues been taken into account? • Have lessons learned from experience and linkages with other ongoing/ planned projects/programmes been assessed and incorporated into strategy selection? 2. Feasibility: • Is the project feasible? Can the planned activities and work plan allow project results to be delivered over a realistic time-frame, within the constraints of the operating environment and the capabilities of the implementing organizations? • Is the project’s Overall Objective clearly linked to a relevant policy or sector objective in order to contribute to a long-term development outcome?


• Are the objectives logical and measurable? • Do the project’s results include tangible improvements to services, facilities or knowledge that will directly support the achievement of the project’s purpose? • Are risks and external conditions be taken into account? • Are the resource and cost implications clear? Is the project financially viable? 3. Sustainability: • Is the project sustainable? • Are factors affecting sustainability addressed as part of the project design and formulation? • Are results from evaluation used to build lessons learned into the design of future projects? • Are local ownership and community partnerships strengthened? 4. The 4 pillars of CRC: • Has a right based analysis been carried out? Is the project based on a child rights approach? • Is the principle of children’s non-discrimination incorporated in the project idea? • Has the best interest of the children been taken as primary consideration in all actions of the project? • Is the right to survival and development reflected in the project idea? • Have the children been consulted directly within the analysis and formulation phase? • Do the children directly participate and involved in the project implementation? • Are children engaged as decision-makers within the project implementation and monitoring?

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Debriefing & Reflection

60 min. Paper, pens, flipchart Be open to any suggestions from the participants. Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task).

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Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

20. Your concept note Training activity

To create a social business plan, document your direction and engage your stakeholders and donors Synthesis of all the elements that make up a social business plan Participants in their groups are asked to assemble in a unique document all the work that was done in the training course: • A child rights based analysis • Duty bearers’ analysis • The problem tree analysis • The stakeholder analysis • The objectives tree analysis • The strategy analysis • The logframe matrix (the intervention logic, the indicators, sources of verifications, the external conditions) • The GANTT chart As a final activity, participants are asked to synthesize the following in max 2 pages: • Find a title for your community project • Find an acronym • Create a logo • Specify target groups and final beneficiaries • Specify the general objective • Specify the specific objective/s • Specify the expected results within the next 2 years • Specify activities and services / products related to each expected result • Describe the organizational structure and the people involved (staff, experts, volunteers) • Determine the budget: estimate the start-up and the budget for the next 2 years

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

180 min Paper, pens, flipchart Remind participants the key concepts related to sustainability, feasibility and relevance, as well as the The 4 pillars of CRC

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process (most groups tend to focus on the task).


21. The spiral Type of activity Objectives Focus

Final evaluation

To analyse the main causes why a social enterprise fails. Brainstorming among participants. t the end of the training course have participants sit in a spiral. Coming back to one of first activities, ask participants: Why does a social enterprise / project fail? Participants, sitting in a spiral shape, start discussing and brainstorming. The spiral is a metaphor for chaos and confusion. Into the spiral communication and dialogue are distorted: misunderstanding, mistrust and distances are nurtured.

Description

Main reasons are identified and noted: • Lack of children and youth participation and involvement as rights-holders: the consultation process in the analysis and planning phase should comprise children involvement as decision-makers on issues that affect their lives. Community projects that do not meet the real needs of beneficiaries could harm people’s lives and well-being instead of providing improvements. Children and youth have the right to be heard and be active part of the decision-making processes that affect their lives, based upon their evolving capabilities to understand and contribute1. • Lack of duty bearers’ analysis, involvement, ownership and accountability: different duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection. The findings of the analysis should be incorporated into the logframe matrix in order to ensure duty bearers’ involvement, ownership and accountability. A project that does not include a strategy to attract the required support from duty bearers and stakeholders, could get severely affected. • Non-discrimination: special efforts are needed to ensure that any child is left out. A thorough situational analysis from a child rights perspective helps to understand the complex relations that underpin exclusion of some children and youth. • Lack of project management competences: rigorous planning, coordination and financial management are essential to ensure effective and timely planned activities and achieve results and objectives. 1 Plan in Vietnam, Rights-Based Approach To Development & Child Rights Programming

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• Lack of consistency between the objectives of the project with the characteristics and priorities of the local context. • External conditions: low risks management about external risks and conditions, like political instability, difficult physical environments, natural disasters, planning and analysis. • Scarce resources: human and financial resources should be planned properly at the analysis and planning phase. • Cultural issues: project management approaches should be tailored to fit with local values and culture, ensuring active involvement of beneficiaries, duty bearers and key actors from the local community. • Sustainability: this involves the capacity of a project to continue and develop. All elements of sustainability are to be identified, assessed and incorporated into the work plan right at the design stage. • Lack of communication: team and cooperative work are fundamental, communication and sharing of responsibilities are crucial for the success of any project. Sitting and discussing in circles rather than in a spiral, is therefore a condition to life. Participants experience themselves the importance of being in circle (rather than in a spiral as they are positioned during the activity). The spiral is a metaphor for misunderstanding, mistrust, chaos and confusion. The circle is a metaphor for human capital, open communication, equality, sharing of power, free expression and creativity. Notes: All project phases should be guided by standards and obligations provided by international human rights instruments, primarily the UNCRC, and address consequences of gaps and violations in child rights. Every project should be based on the best interests of the child.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Resources Debriefing & Reflection 106

45 min Flipchart paper, pen It is important to analyze participants’ opinions and feedback. The Spiral is an activity that is part of the Reciprocal Maieutic Approach, by Danilo Dolci, http://reciprocalmaieutic.danilodolci.it/final-products/final-manual/ Sum up and present the conclusions that emerged during the activity.


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22. Final evaluation Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Resources Debriefing & Reflection

108

Final evaluation

To evaluate the learning process and the key competences acquired. Group and self-evaluation by participants and training staff. Participants sit in a circle and are asked one by one to reflect if their initial expectations have been met in relation to: • What I would like to DO • What I would like to FEEL • What I would like to KNOW Ask them to find their position and put a sign (or a personal symbol) into the triangle as a result of the three abovementioned learning dimensions: to do, to feel, to know. Then ask each participant to freely provide her/his feedback on the overall learning process. Training and support staff should also join the reflection and provide their individual feedback. 30 min Flipchart paper, pencil It is important to analyze participants’ opinions and feedback. Review with participants the initial expectations. Encourage a common reflection on the whole learning process, sum up the key learning contents experimented and the learning achievements. Do not comment, just keep the flow and good energies going.


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CASE STUDY Title

Protection and development of Unaccompanied Refugee Children Unaccompanied Migrant Children

Target group/s

Unaccompanied migrant children are one of the most vulnerable children in Europe, subject to detention and brutality, unable to access their rights to education, health care, or to seek asylum, and left without adequate legal protections in domestic legal systems throughout the continent. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) defined an unaccompanied minor as follows: ‘Unaccompanied children’ (also referred to as unaccompanied minors) are children under 18 years of age who have been separated from both parents and other relatives and are not being cared for by an adult, who by the law of custom, is responsible for doing so’ (UNHCR 2014). ‘Separated children’ are children, as defined in Article1 of the CRC, who have been separated from both parents, or from their previous legal or customary primary caregiver, but not necessarily from other relatives. These may, therefore, include children accompanied by other adult family members. In the context of migration to the European Union, an unaccompanied minor, as defined by Directive 2011/95/EU, refers to a minor who arrives on the territory of an EU Member State unaccompanied by an adult responsible or who is left unaccompanied after he or she has entered the territory of the Member States. ‘Country of origin’ is the country of nationality or, in the case of a stateless child, the country of habitual residence. According to of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, articles 3 and 27), all receiving states carry the obligation to care for unaccompanied minors. States ought to provide UAMs with adequate living standards and special protection measures until the age of eighteen. The UNCRC leaves a broad margin of discretion to member states on how to respond to the needs of children who are (temporarily) deprived of a family environment. The European Guardianship Network (ENGI) notes that unaccompanied children should have access to safe and appropriate housing, be appointed a guardian within 24 hours and should have immediate access to professionals such as a lawyer and an interpreter (ENGI 2010: 14). Furthermore, EU Member States ought to provide unaccompanied minors with special reception facilities.

Context

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Italy, Sicily


The number of unaccompanied children arriving in Europe and specifically in Italy, has dramatically increased in the last years. According to the Italian Ministry of Interior, 181,436 refugees and migrants arrived by sea in Italy in 2016, of these 25,846 – or 14 per cent – were unaccompanied foreign minors (8% in 2015; 7.7% in 2014). Boys accounted for 93.7 per cent of the total, although the percentage of girls that are victims of sexual traffic is on the rise. The majority came from Egypt, Bangladesh, Eritrea, Gambia, Senegal, Nigeria and Albania, with 17 year olds accounting for 56.6 per cent, followed by 16 year olds at 26 per cent and 15 year olds at 9.8 per cent. The Italian Ministry of Interior reported that at the end of last year 6,561 unaccompanied children were officially ‘missing’, having disappeared after being identified and assigned to a host structure. These youngsters are of special concern to children’s rights organisations because they are particularly vulnerable to exploitation by smugglers and criminal organisations for illegal work, prostitution and the human organ trade. In addition, on the basis of the same percentage it can be assumed that around 700 of the over 5,000 migrants known to have died during the sea crossing to Italy in 2016 were unaccompanied minors, who had to face the horror of death by suffocation, crushing or drowning without a parent or other carer to hold their hand. The migratory profiles of unaccompanied children include: • children fleeing wars, persecutions, conflicts, harm and/ or human rights violations and extreme poverty in their country of origin; • children exploited by criminal networks in human trafficking and sexual exploitation; • children emigrating for economic reasons in search of job opportunities and better education; • children motivated by family reunion. • In many cases, the decision to migrate is not made by the minor, but instead by their family. The Journey According to UNICEF, for many of the refugees and migrants, drowning is just one of the numerous risks they face along their journey, which can take them several thousand kilometers over mountains, across deserts, and through violence-torn regions. They risk dehydration, kidnapping, robbery, rape and extortion, as well as detention and beatings by the authorities or militias. Unaccompanied and separated children are at risk of abuse and exploitation, notably from the smugglers they – like most refugees and migrants – rely on to get to Europe. And just about every child who arrives on the Italian island of Lampedusa or in Sicily has a harrowing story to tell. Italian social workers claim that both girls and boys are sexually assaulted and forced into sexual exploitation while in Libya, and that some of the girls were pregnant when they arrived in Italy, having been raped. But because of the illicit nature of human smuggling operations, there are no reliable figures to show how many of the refugees and migrants die, disappear into forced labor or sexual exploitation, or linger in detention1.

Description

Violations of rights faced by children

Identification and protection Human Rights Watch has found that “the thousands of unaccompanied children arri 1- Danger every step of the way, A harrowing journey to Europe for refugee and migrant children https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/files/Child_Alert_Final_PDF.pdf

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ving in foreign lands without parents or care-givers find themselves ‘trapped in their status as migrants, with officials giving little consideration to their vulnerabilities and needs as children. They may be denied access to adequate medical services and education, abused and mistreated by police, guards, and other detainees, and unable to seek asylum. They may languish in jail-like detention facilities, in conditions that are often degrading and inhumane, and many children are held in cells with adults who are strangers. Children held in detention, particularly for long periods with no release in sight, suffer lasting consequences, physically and mentally1. Reception Many unaccompanied children are traumatized and need specialized care on arrival and have frequently not had access to healthcare during their journey. The indefinite wait and an incomprehensible bureaucracy create a limbo that repeats and amplifies the echo of traumas they experienced in Libya. On the local level, the Sicilian provinces and municipalities have difficulty to provide thousands of UAMs with adequate reception services. Many unaccompanied children are placed in provisory shelters for months, whereas they ought to have been relocated to the ‘second phase’ structures within 3 months. Consequently, humanitarian organizations advocate against the lacking services and protection of vulnerable minors (Save the Children 2009, 2014, 2015, Defense for Children 2011, Doctors without Borders 2015)2.Human Rights Watch reports that the first reception structures for unaccompanied children presents several unsafe conditions: significant shortages of shelter with children sleeping on the ground; no separate washroom facilities for children; poor psychological support for traumatized children; accommodation of children in adult reception structures pending the outcome of age assessment procedures; lack of safety; unskilled workers and staff; limited procedures and mechanisms for identification of vulnerabilities; lack of coordination among both public and private services and agencies involved in the protection of unaccompanied children. Access to asylum procedures and procedural safeguards The current procedural process recognizes that the immediate entry into the first reception structure and the request for the appointment of a guardian are the principal sources of protection and guardianship of the child and permit the completion of various administrative steps (age assessment, reporting to the competent authorities, application for a residence permit, formalizing asylum etc.) for the child’s subsequent inclusion in the Structures for Protection of Asylum Seekers and Refugees (SPRAR)3. In accordance with both international and EU obligations, an independent guardian should be appointed to ensure that unaccompanied children are protected. However, the present system of guardianship and care of unaccompanied children is failing. The majority of unaccompanied minors are given an institutional person as a final guardian, a representative of a welfare institution, followed later by the appointment of a voluntary guardian. The late appointment of a guardian to take charge of the child,

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1- Human Rights Watch, Caught in a net Unaccompanied migrant children in Europe, https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/HRW_CRD_migrant_brcohure_low.pdf 2- Unaccompanied Minors and the ‘Migrant Crisis’ - A case study on the reception of unaccompanied minors in Eastern-Sicily, http://www.meltingpot. org/IMG/pdf/final_version_thesis_lucia_slot.pdf 3- Unaccompanied Foreign Minors in Italy: what paths after the initial reception? http://centesimusannus.org/convegno-new/2017/eng/allegati/cgl/ capp_treviso_2.pdf


increases the risk of bureaucratic / administrative impediments with regard to both the correct path to follow in the legal field and the full exercise of rights recognized for each minor, first and foremost the right to health and education. Many such children are granted only temporary status, which ends when they turn 18 and are forced to leave the protection of the underage status leading to uncertainty, insecurity and vulnerability (prostitution, drugs market, terrorism, sexual and labor exploitation, including the risk of remaining in illegal limbo for long periods). Furthermore, there are long delays or lack of access to family reunification and transfer procedures due to limited transnational cooperation and coordination mechanisms at EU level. Education and integration Lack of, or limited, access to education and adequate healthcare and psychosocial care create profound uncertainties in the children who are hosted. Unaccompanied children face specific challenges with regards to education and integration. An inclusive approach should be adopted to support the child on a pathway towards personal autonomy and integration into the wider society. All unaccompanied children are entitled to enroll in a school. Newly arrived pupils should be integrated in regular classes as soon as possible, but the time spent in transitional classes has increased. Unaccompanied children can enter the job market at the age of sixteen years old and after having completed compulsory schooling, on an equal basis to Italians. Unaccompanied children require specific knowledge and skills for independent living in a resettlement country, including orientation, guidance, language and civic education, professional training programmes. Along with subject-specific and language competences, life-skills are essential for the integration of unaccompanied children and young migrants in general.

International Organization for Migration (IOM), Unaccompanied Children on the Move https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/uam_report_11812.pdf UNICEF, Refugee and Migrant Crisis - Child Alert, https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/files/Child_Alert_Final_PDF.pdf European Parliament, Vulnerability ofunaccompanied and separatedchild migrants http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/595853/EPRS_ BRI(2016)595853_EN.pdf Policies, practices and data on unaccompanied minors in the EU Member States and Norway Synthesis Report: May 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/antitrafficking/files/emn_study_2014_uams.pdf

Suggested readings

UNICEF, Children on the move, https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/ UNICEF, Refugee Children: Guidelines on Protection and Care, https://www.unicef. org/violencestudy/pdf/refugee_children_guidelines_on_protection_and_care.pdf

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TASK 2.1 Understanding

6 Closed-ended questions

1) WHAT IS A PROJECT? A project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time-period and with a defined budget. A project should clearly respond to identified problems/needs or to take advantage of an opportunity. A project should also have: • Clearly identified duty bearers and stakeholders, including the primary target group and the final beneficiaries; • Clearly defined coordination, management and financing arrangements; • A monitoring and evaluation system; and • An appropriate level of financial and economic analysis. A project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time-period. A project should clearly respond to identified problems/ needs or to take advantage of an opportunity. A project should also have: • Clearly identified duty bearers and stakeholders, stakeholders, including the primary target group and the final beneficiaries; • Clearly defined coordination, management and financing arrangements; • An appropriate level of financial and economic analysis. A project is a series of activities aimed at bringing about general objectives within a defined time-period and with a defined budget. A project should clearly respond to interests and needs of identified stakeholders and duty bearers. A project should also have: • Clearly identified duty bearers and stakeholders, including the primary target group and the final beneficiaries; • Clearly defined coordination, management and financing arrangements; • A monitoring and evaluation system; and • An appropriate level of financial and economic analysis. 2. WHAT ARE MAIN PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE PROJECT CYCLE? The project cycle highlights three main principles: 1. Decision making criteria and procedures are defined at each phase (including key information requirements and quality assessment criteria); 2. The phases in the cycle are isolated: each phase is assumed to be independent from the others. 3. PCM uses the idea of a continuous learning cycle: new programming and project identification draws on the results of monitoring and evaluation as part of a structured process of feedback and institutional learning.

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The project cycle highlights three main principles: 1. Decision making criteria and procedures are defined at each phase (including key information requirements and quality assessment criteria); 2. The phases in the cycle are progressive: each phase should be completed for the next to be tackled with success; 3. PCM uses the idea of a continuous learning cycle: new programming and project identification draws on the results of identification and formulation as part of a structured process of feedback and institutional learning. The project cycle highlights three main principles: 1. Decision making criteria and procedures are defined at each phase (including key information requirements and quality assessment criteria); 2. The phases in the cycle are progressive: each phase should be completed for the next to be tackled with success; 3. PCM uses the idea of a continuous learning cycle: new programming and project identification draws on the results of monitoring and evaluation as part of a structured process of feedback and institutional learning. 3. WHAT IS A CHILD RIGHTS BASED APPROACH? A child rights-based approach is a conceptual framework that identifies and evaluates children’s needs by reference to their rights under international legal instruments. A child rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, programmes and projects directed to promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights. It builds the capacity of children as rights-holders to claim their rights and the capacity of duty-bearers to fulfil their obligations to children. A child rights-based approach is a conceptual framework that identifies and evaluates children’s needs by reference to their rights under international legal instruments. A child rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, programmes and projects directed to promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights. It builds the capacity of children as rights-holders to claim their rights and the capacity of duty-bearers to fulfil their obligations to children. A child rights-based approach is a conceptual framework that identifies and evaluates children’s needs by reference to their needs under international legal instruments. A child rights-based approach integrates the norms, standards and principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) into the development, implementation and evaluation of policies, programmes and projects directed to promoting, protecting and fulfilling children’s human rights. It builds the capacity of children as rights-holders to claim their rights and the capacity of duty-bearers to fulfil their obligations to children.


4. WHAT ARE THE DUTY BEARERS? Duty bearers have duties and obligations under the CRC, legally binding them to respect, protect and fulfill children’s rights. The State, through its agents, is the only duty-bearer responsible for fulfilling the child’s right to life and health. This includes all the pertinent public authorities who have the responsibility for creating the broad normative and institutional contexts for the enjoyment of the rights recognized in the CRC and national laws. Duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection. The findings of the analysis phase should be incorporated into the logframe matrix in order to ensure duty bearers’ ownership and participation within the project implementation and development. Duty bearers have duties and obligations under the CRC, legally binding them to respect, protect and fulfill children’s rights. The State, through its agents, is the principal duty-bearer responsible for fulfilling the child’s right to life and health. This includes all the pertinent public authorities who have the responsibility for creating the broad normative and institutional contexts for the enjoyment of the rights recognized in the CRC and national laws. Beyond this, duty bearers include governments and their local agents, social workers, educators & teachers, judges, police, health care workers, parents, the whole community. Duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection. The findings of the analysis phase should be incorporated into the logframe matrix in order to ensure duty bearers’ ownership and participation within the project implementation and development. Duty bearers have duties and obligations under the CRC, legally binding them to respect, protect and fulfill children’s rights. The State, through its agents, is the principal duty-bearer responsible for fulfilling the child’s right to life and health. This includes all the pertinent public authorities who have the responsibility for creating the broad normative and institutional contexts for the enjoyment of the rights recognized in the CRC and national laws. Beyond this, duty bearers include governments and their local agents, social workers, educators & teachers, judges, police, health care workers, parents, the whole community. Duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the project implementation and development in order to ensure duty bearers’ ownership and participation.

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5. WHAT IS A MIDWIFE? The term “midwife” derives from the ancient greek “μαιευτικός” that literally stands for the midwifery, specializing in pregnancy. Just like a midwife does with women during childbirth, a community leader should work in cooperation with duty bearers to protect and claim for children’s rights and address the problems they face in their lives. A community leader supports vulnerable children and young people, transfer contents and provide instructions to create the condition for development and growth within the community. The term “midwife” derives from the ancient greek “μαιευτικός” that literally stands for the midwife art. A midwife is a health care professional who provides an array of health care services for women including labor and delivery care. Just like a health care professional does with women during childbirth, a community leader should work to protect and claim for children’s rights and address the problems they face in their lives. A community leader supports vulnerable children and young people, transfer contents and provide instructions to create the condition for development and growth within the community. The term “midwife” derives from the ancient greek “μαιευτικός” that literally stands for the midwifery, specializing in pregnancy. Just like a midwife does with women during childbirth, a community leader should educate young people and children on how to communicate and express freely, to analyze and understand the context where they live, to claim for their rights and address the problems they face in their lives, to imagine and experiment the capacity to change the reality and act nonviolently. A community leader does not transfer contents, does not impose solutions from top to down. As a midwife, the community leader is an expert in the art of questioning, creating conditions in which each person can learn how to express him/herself and research within a group. 6. WHAT IS THE LOGFRAME MATRIX? The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, results and activities in a systematic and logical way, including objectively verifiable indicators, source of verification and external conditions. The logframe matrix can be read in a vertical or horizontal way. Here below some example when the matrix is read from the bottom up: • (Vertical): it can be expressed as follows: IF adequate inputs/resources are provided, THEN activities can be undertaken; IF the activities are undertaken, THEN results can be produced; IF results are produced, THEN the purpose will be achieved; and IF the purpose is achieved, THEN this should contribute towards the overall objective. • (Horizontal): it can be expressed as follows: IF these activities are undertaken AND the assumptions are true THEN these outputs will be produced IF the outputs are created AND the assumptions are true THEN the outcome will be achieved. And then the same for the outcome: IF the outcome is achieved AND the assumptions are true THEN the goal will be achieved.

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The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, results and activities in a systematic and logical way, including objectively verifiable indicators, source of verification and external conditions The logframe matrix can be read only in a vertical way: • When the matrix is read from the bottom up, it can be expressed as follows: IF adequate inputs/resources are provided, THEN activities can be undertaken; IF the activities are undertaken, THEN results can be produced; IF results are produced, THEN the purpose will be achieved; and IF the purpose is achieved, THEN this should contribute towards the overall objective. • If reversed, we can say that: IF we wish to contribute to the overall objective, THEN we must achieve the purpose IF we wish to achieve the purpose, THEN we must deliver the specified results IF we wish to deliver the results, THEN the specified activities must be implemented; and IF we wish to implement the specified activities, THEN we must apply identified inputs/resources. The Logical Framework Matrix is used to present information about project objectives, results and activities in a systematic and logical way, including objectively verifiable indicators, source of verification and external conditions. The logframe matrix can be read only in a vertical way: • When the matrix is read from the bottom up, it can be expressed as follows: IF the activities are undertaken, THEN results can be produced; IF results are produced, THEN the purpose will be achieved; and IF the purpose is achieved, THEN this should contribute towards the overall objective. • If reversed, we can say that: IF we wish to contribute to the overall objective, THEN we must achieve the purpose IF we wish to achieve the purpose, THEN we must deliver the specified results IF we wish to deliver the results, THEN the specified activities must be implemented; and IF we wish to implement the specified activities 7. ACCORDING TO A CHILDS RIGHTS BASED APPROACH, WHAT A PROJECT DO FAIL? The following principles of the CRC are not followed: • Project management competences: lack of rigorous planning, coordination and financial management to ensure effective and timely planned activities and achieve results and objectives. • Low risks management: external conditions and risks are not included in the in the analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation phases: like political instability, difficult physical environments, natural disasters. • Scarce resources: human and financial resources are not planned properly at the analysis and planning phase. • Sustainability: elements of sustainability are not identified, assessed and incorporated into the work plan right at the design stage, thus affecting the capacity of the project to continue and develop beyond its life cycle. The following principles of the CRC are not followed: • The best interest of the child (article 3(1) of CRC): children and youth are not involved as rights-holders in the analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation phases.

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• Survival and development (article 6(1) of CRC): lack of duty bearers’ analysis, ownership and participation. Different duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection. • Participation: the analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation phases have not fulfilled the children’s right to be heard as decision-makers on issues that affect their lives. Children and youth have the right to be active part of the decisions making processes that affect their lives. • Non-discrimination (article 2 of CRC): the context analysis is developed without taking into consideration a child rights perspective. Complex relations that underpin exclusion of some children and youth are not taken into consideration. The following principles of the CRC are not followed: • The best interest of the child (article 3(1) of CRC): children and youth are not involved as rights-holders in the analysis, planning, implementation and evaluation phases. • Survival and development (article 6(1) of CRC): lack of duty bearers’ analysis, ownership and participation. Different duty bearers have different concerns, perceptions, capacities and interests, and that these need to be explicitly understood and recognized in the process of problem identification, objective setting and strategy selection. • Participation: lack of community participation, ownership and accountability. • Non-discrimination (article 2 of CRC): project management approaches are not tailored to fit with local values and culture.

8. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI)? Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) describe the project’s objectives in operationally measurable terms (quantity, quality, time – or QQT). Specifying OVIs helps to check the feasibility of objectives and helps form the basis of the project’s monitoring and evaluation system. They are formulated in response to the question “How would we know whether or not what has been planned is actually happening or happened? How do we verify success?” A good OVI should abe SMART: • Specific to the objective it is supposed to measure. • Measurable (either quantitatively or qualitatively). • Available at an acceptable cost. • Relevant to the information needed. • Time-bound – so we know when we can expect the objective/target to be achieved.

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Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) describe the project’s objectives in operationally measurable terms (quantity, quality, time – or QQT). Specifying OVIs helps to check the feasibility of objectives and helps form the basis of the project’s monitoring and evaluation system. They are formulated in response to the question “How would we know whether or not what has been planned is actually happening or happened? How do we verify success?” A good OVI should abe SMART: • Sustainable to ensure the capacity of the project to continue and develop beyond its life cycle. • Measurable (either quantitatively or qualitatively). • Available at an acceptable cost. • Realistic and based on concrete statistic and data. • Time-bound – so we know when we can expect the objective/target to be achieved. Objectively Verifiable Indicators (OVI) describe the project’s objectives in operationally measurable terms (quantity, quality, time – or QQT). Specifying OVIs helps to check the feasibility of objectives and helps form the basis of the project’s monitoring and evaluation system. They are formulated in response to the question “How would we know whether or not what has been planned is actually happening or happened? How do we verify success?” A good OVI should abe SMART: • Sustainable to ensure the capacity of the project to continue and develop beyond its life cycle. • Measurable (either quantitatively or qualitatively). • Available at an acceptable cost. • Relevant to the information needed. • Time-bound – so we know approximately when we can expect the objective/target to be achieved.

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TASK 2.2- Reflection

2 open-ended questions

1. ACCORDING TO THE LEARNING ACTIVITIES AS PROPOSED IN THIS LEARNING MODULE, DEVELOP IN YOUR COMMUNITY CONTEXT: • A child rights based analysis • The problem tree • The duty bearers matrix • The objectives tree • The strategy analysis • The logframe matrix (the intervention logic, the indicators, sources of verifications, the external conditions – including list of activities, means and costs, pre-conditions). • The GANTT chart REVIEW YOUR LOGFRAME MATRIX AND ANALYSE ITS LOGICAL STRUCTURE ACCORDING TO THE FOLLOWING CRITERIA: RELEVANCE, FEASIBILITY, SUSTAINABILITY AND COHERENCE TO THE CRC’S 4 PILLARS (SURVIVAL, DEVELOPMENT, PROTECTION AND PARTICIPATION OF CHILDREN). 2. ACCORDING TO YOUR OWN EXPERIENCE IN THE YOUTH AND CHILD PROTECTION FIELD, WHY DO A COMMUNITY PROJECT FAIL?

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CHAPTER 3 Learning Module 3: Child rights-based approach: turning principles into practice


A Child Rights based Approach: Turning Principles into Practice Course organizer

Course introduction

This course aims at providing youth workers with knowledge, skills and practical tools related to child protection and community development. Through non-formal education, participants are smoothly accompanied across planning for development and turning principles into practice in vulnerable communities through a beneficiary centered participative approach built upon a broad understanding of community needs. Participants will deepen their understanding of the UN Convention on the Right of the Child and its application in the specific case of Senegal and the Casamance region.

Learning Objectives

Participants will learn: • Child centered community development • How to develop community problems’ analysis based on children and young people’s needs • How to conduct community participatory research with children and youth leaders • How to design a theory of change and the intervention strategy • How to engage community dialogue and take action • About cross cultural learning through the spectre of Senegalese culture, traditions, hospitality and food.

Contents

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Federation Dimbaya, Ziguinchor

• Understanding children’s need • Planning based on UN Convention on the right of the child • Senegalese socio economic and cultural context: Casamance regions and its challenges • Children & youth needs inquiry and analysis tools • Community immersion: understanding children’s reality • Community observation: focus group with young people about migration and field work restitution • Understanding a child protection system • Building social change in underprivileged environment • Meeting with community organizations and intergovernmental agencies. • Follow up, Youthpass and final evaluation.


Structure of TC

The course consists of morning and afternoon sessions with inserted breaks. The whole session is conducted within a practical framework putting forward workshops, group exchanges, team work, collaboration and restitution in a non-formal learning fashion. Icebreakers are part of the learning sessions and linked to it. Feedback are made at the end of the day and refreshment in the next morning. The global training structure is as follows: 1. From international to local communities: this phase brings participants to know more about one another, share their prejudice and discover the realities of the new community they’re in. 2. Observation and testing: In this phase, participants build their intercultural teams, apply tools, reflect on the local realities and identify community problems. They take the time to integrate the new elements learnt that may differ from what they’ve always known, 3. Integrating and designing for the future: In this phase, participants develop their strategic thinking through the different tools and community results they got from testing their tools. They are now skilled to analyse existing approaches, develop their theory of change with local organizations and draft the future for social change.

Training Methods

The training method is practical and avant-gardist. It’s a kind of mush-up of different tools related to project management, community development and participatory research. Before being used at the community level tools are practiced by participants themselves and directly used in the community after that. Participants take the lead and identify the elements. They want to deepen their understanding of the tools themselves and are accompanied by the trainer. Methodologies used include and are not limited to: pitches, videos, immersion in the field, role plays, simulation, games, group demonstration, restitutions, presentations, bilateral discussions, case studies, quizzes.

Suggested reading

UNICEF, Theory of Change, 2014: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/ pdf/brief_2_theoryofchange_eng.pdf European Commission, Launching the EU International Cooperation and Development Results Framework, 2015: http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/ document/ST-7604-2015-INIT/en/pdf

Further information (if applicable)

Participants create their own groups with people from diverse backgrounds, nationality in order to bring together different overviews and perspectives during discussions.

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KEY CONCEPT The learning module aims at providing youth workers with knowledge, skills and practical tools related to to child protection and development, community participatory research and analysis, theory of change and moving from strategic thinking to concrete activities in the field.

CHILD PARTICIPATION Child participation is one of the core principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which asserts that children and young people have the following rights: Article 4 (Protection of rights): Governments have a responsibility to take all available measures to make sure children’s rights are respected, protected and fulfilled. When countries ratify the Convention, they agree to review their laws relating to children. This involves assessing their social services, legal, health and educational systems, as well as levels of funding for these services. Governments are then obliged to take all necessary steps to ensure that the minimum standards set by the Convention in these areas are being met. They must help families protect children’s rights and create an environment where they can grow and reach their potential. In some instances, this may involve changing existing laws or creating new ones. Such legislative changes are not imposed, but come about through the same process by which any law is created or reformed within a country. Article 41 of the Convention points out the when a country already has higher legal standards than those seen in the Convention, the higher standards always prevail. (See Optional Protocol pages.) Article 12 (Respect for the views of the child): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. Article 13 (Freedom of expression): Children have the right to get and share information, as long as the information is not damaging to them or others. In exercising the right to freedom of expression, children have the responsibility to also respect the rights, freedoms and reputations of others. The freedom of expression includes the right to share information in any way they choose, including by talking, drawing or writing.

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Article 14 (Freedom of thought, conscience and religion): Children have the right to think and believe what they want and to practice their religion, as long as they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights. Parents should help guide their children in these matters. The Convention respects the rights and duties of parents in providing religious and moral guidance to their children. Religious groups around the world have expressed support for the Convention, which indicates that it in no way prevents parents from bringing their children up within a religious tradition. At the same time, the Convention recognizes that as children mature and are able to form their own views, some may question certain religious practices or cultural traditions.


The Convention supports children’s right to examine their beliefs, but it also states that their right to express their beliefs implies respect for the rights and freedoms of others. Article 15 (Freedom of association): Children have the right to meet together and to join groups and organisations, as long as it does not stop other people from enjoying their rights. In exercising their rights, children have the responsibility to respect the rights, freedoms and reputations of others. Article 16 (Right to privacy): Children have a right to privacy. The law should protect them from attacks against their way of life, their good name, their families and their homes. Article 17 (Access to information; mass media): Children have the right to get information that is important to their health and well-being. Governments should encourage mass media – radio, television, newspapers and Internet content sources – to provide information that children can understand and to not promote materials that could harm children. Mass media should particularly be encouraged to supply information in languages that minority and indigenous children can understand. Children should also have access to children’s books1. The article 24 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union states that: “Children shall have the right to such protection and care as is necessary for their well-being. They may express their views freely. Such views shall be taken into consideration on matters which concern them in accordance with their age and maturity. In all actions relating to children, whether taken by public authorities or private institutions, the child’s best interests must be a primary consideration. Every child shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis a personal relationship and direct contact with both his or her parents, unless that is contrary to his or her interests2”. According to UNICEF, “child participation involves encouraging and enabling children to make their views known on the issues that affect them. Put into practice, participation is adults listening to children — to all their multiple and varied ways of communicating. It ensures their freedom to express themselves and takes their views into account when coming to decisions that affect them. Engaging children in dialogue and exchange allows them to learn constructive ways of influencing the world around them. Child participation must be authentic and meaningful. It must start with children and young people themselves, on their own terms, within their own realities and in pursuit of their own visions, dreams, hopes and concerns3”. Community development projects should involve children and young people as rights holders at every project stage. Children and young people should be encouraged to be part of decision-making processes and to assume leadership roles in their communities and countries, to enjoy their rights and express their full potential. They should be 1- The Convention On The Rights Of The Child - Participation rights: having an active voice, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Participation.pdf 2- European Commission, Justice, The right of the child to be heard (child participation), http://ec.europa.eu/justice/fundamental-rights/rights-child/ child-participation/index_en.htm 3- UNICEF, Child participation, https://www.unicef.org/sowc03/contents/childparticipation.html

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also trained and equipped to engage a broader audience of children and young people to claim for their rights, address their own needs and take responsibility for the wellbeing and sustainable development of their local communities.

WHAT IS CHILD-CENTERED DEVELOPMENT? According to UNICEF, a child centered approach recognizes that children’s rights and need are the primary focus for development. A child grows and develops not in vacuum but as part of a family, a community, a culture and a nation. Since numerous institutions are accountable for fulfilling the rights of children, a child-centered approach requires strengthening social system for care and wellbeing of the entire society1. According to UNICEF, child protection systems seek to address the full spectrum of risk factors in the lives of all children and their families. Along with partners, including governments, non-governmental organizations, civil society actors and the private sector, a holistic child protection strategy should promote the strengthening of all components of child protection systems - human resources, finances, laws, standards, governance, monitoring and services. A child protection system includes a comprehensive and sustainable approach to preventing and responding to child protection issues, comprising of the set of laws, policies, regulations and services required across all social sectors, especially social welfare, education, health, security and justice to respond to and prevent protection-related risks. A child protection system: • differs from earlier child protection efforts traditionally focused on single thematic issues, such as HIV and AIDS, disability, child trafficking, street children, characterized by fragmentation of services and dependence on donor trends; • includes coordination between key public and private actors in the child protection sector, including health, education, finance and justice actors; • emphasizes prevention and response services; • fosters capacity building and community participation of e.g. children, parents, teachers, educators, community leaders, child-friendly police officers; • encourages data collection through complaints and reporting mechanisms. Here below we introduce some related key concepts: Child protection: includes the measures that are taken to prevent and respond to all forms of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence against children2. Violence against children: includes all forms of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence against children in accordance to 19 of the UNCRC. Violence, exploitation and abuse occur in the homes, families, schools, care and justice systems, workplaces and communities across all contexts, including as a result of conflict and natural disasters. Prevention Services: services that might include the promotion of knowledge and skills and strengthen the overall capacity of the community for keeping children safe

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1- UNICEF, Child-centered Development, https://www.unicef.org/dprk/ccd.pdf 2- UNICEF, www.unicef.org/protection/files/What_is_Child_Protection.pdf


and cared for. It also includes those services targeting families and children that are experiences difficulties in order to change those situations before they create actual harm to the child. Response Services: child protection interventions that respond to circumstances in which a child is at risk of harm or has been abused, exploited, neglected, abandoned, or without appropriate family care harming the child. These services seek to reduce the possibility that harm will be repeated and to restore a child’s well-being. Formal system: refers to components of the child protection system being recognized or endorsed by and subject to supervision and regulation by the government, international organisations and local NGOs (including community and faith based organisations). Informal system: refers to initiatives undertaken by families, communities and children themselves in promoting children’s well-being and protection and to mobilize helping resources available in communities to strengthen families and to respond when children are mistreated1.

THE SELF-HELP GROUPS: SAVINGS AND LOAN The Federation Dimbaya supports self-help group in the peripheries and rural areas of Ziguinchor, comprising very poor young people and women who do not have access to formal financial institutions. A self-help group is a small voluntary association of people from the same socio-economic background, who come together for the purpose of solving their common problems through mutual help, by promoting small savings which suits the needs of the members. The savings are kept with a common fund that is in the name of the group. The self-help group acts as a forum to provide space and support to each member, enabling all members to learn to cooperate and work in a group environment. A self-help group significantly contributes to the empowerment of vulnerable young people and children in the community.

1-Child Frontiers Ltd, Mapping and Analysis of the Child Protection System in Sierra Leone, https://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Child_Protection_Systems_Sierra_Leone_Report.pdf

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1. Get to know each other Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

To get to know each other and build connections Participants’ names Participants are in circle. The ones from the background are separated The ones who know one other are split A volunteer starts by saying his name and it goes clockwise or anticlockwise Starting from him, at each one’s turn, you say your neighbour’s name, and it goes on until the circle is completed. Each one has to say all the name said before, pointing at the right people. 20-30 min No specific material needed People have to be in circle in order to see another

Variations

After the first and the second round, offer participants to share one of their favourite plays.

Resources

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Team building

Naturally, on the first day of a training most of the participants, chiefly the introverts are still in their cloud, not feeling too confident to open up and embrace the new group. Offering them the opportunity to share their plays get them out of their bubble. This makes integration faster. They may be some who do not feel enough confident to try, don’t push too much on them, it’ll come progressively.


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2. Sharing rules and expectations Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials

Identify participants’ expectations about the training sessions and some of the major elements they would like to know more about. Common rules After presenting the agenda, and agreeing on the ground rules for the training to go on smoothly, ask the participants about their specific expectations either at an individual level or collectively and write them on a flipchart and stick it to the wall. This helps the trainer to readjust or deepen certain sessions according to the general expectations. 15-20 min Flipchart, paper, markers.

Tips and Tricks

Be open to any suggestion from the participants. Let them decide freely. Invite participants that are silent to provide feedback. After getting feedbacks, sticking the flipchart on the wall becomes the reference point. Use colours to make it attractive, let the participants’ talent speak.

Variations

Build upon that ground stone and stick the other flipchart just after, in a progressive way, so that the participants can themselves see, day by day, the milestones towards the accomplishment of their own skills. The new comers who join can easily follow. This becomes the story line of the group.

Resources

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Debriefing & Reflection

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Discussion

As some training sessions go very fast, having that sort of daily script shows the collective accomplishments and reinforces the sense of satisfaction after a collective effort.


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3. A plunge in Childhood Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Understand Children’s growth How do children learn and develop? 1. Participants close their eyes and are invited to rediscover their childhood, through soft music and the presenter guiding them. The’re guided back into their early age, invited to remember positive or negative souvenirs that they won’t ever forget (10 min). 2. After the quick detour in each person’s childhood, take people back softly. 3. Then give instructions for a group exercise: By a one-to-one, each participant chooses someone, they go outside for a stroll and share on their experience and how it affected them. They both share one after the other (15 min). 4. When they are back in the room, each group of two share one story. (20 min) 5. It’s important to listen and support people because they may bring out deep feelings during the one-to-one discussion and the public sharing. 6. Take a pause and then come back for the next step (10 min). 7. Present the video on children learning and needs and discuss (30 min)

120 min Video projector, computer, small sound system, chairs. While sharing personal stories, participants are encouraged to go out of the room for a stroll in an open space they feel comfortable in.

Variations

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Resources

The Pritzker Children’s Initiative, http://pritzkerchildrensinitiative.org/

Debriefing & Reflection

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Workshop

This exercise is very intense and ties each participant to the other and all with the reality and children’s need.


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4. Understanding Children Type of activity Objectives Focus

Workshop The activity allows participants to learn more about child brain development, serve and return interaction and toxic stress Learning about child brain development Through three video shows, participants get to know more about how positive or negative experience have positive or negative effects on children’s brain development. The three videos shared with participants are three concepts in Early Development developed by Harvard University’s Center on the Developing Child:

Description

1. Experiences Build Brain Architecture Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNNsN9IJkws 2. Serve & Return Interaction Shapes Brain Circuitry Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m_5u8-QSh6A 3. Toxic Stress Derails Healthy Development Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rVwFkcOZHJw After each video, time is taken to discuss and to draw example from the shared examples. Some examples can be linked to the site visits made.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

120 min A projector, pencils, colours, papers, good soundtracks inspiring participants. Fully give participants the opportunity to conduct the discussions and keep control.

Variations

Participants with experience in teaching, child care on early development can also give external experiences…

Resources

Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University, https://developingchild.harvard.edu/

Debriefing & Reflection

After seeing and discussing all videos and experiences, participants are invited to draw conclusion and behaviour values to have with children.

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5. Refreshment on the UN Convention on the rights of the Child (UNCRC) Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Variations

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Presentation Build a common understanding on the UN Convention on the rights of the Child and its relation to development Main human rights declarations and treaties, Background, pillars of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child The UNCRC is the only International human rights treaty to give non-governmental organizations (NGOs) a direct role in overseeing its implementation under article 45a. This presentation shows the basis of the UN Convention, from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR of 1948) up to Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons currently being drafted. Also, the 4 pillars of the UNCRC: • Survival and Development • Non-Discrimination • Best Interest • Participation 45 min Video projector, computer, Flipchart papers, markers / Content can be printed and given out to each group for explanation to the big group of participants


Resources

Debriefing & Reflection

Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/ A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf General Comment No 13 of the UN Committee on the rights of the child, para 59, definition of a child rights approach, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922.html EU-UNICEF Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating Child Rights in Development Cooperation, https://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Child-Rights-Toolkit-Web-Links.pdf The participants understand the role given to them by the UNCRC to intervene for children. The four pillars help them to understand how to frame their approaches in order to respond to children needs.

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6. Child rights country context analysis: child protection and challenges in Senegal Type of activity

Presentation

Objectives

Give a clear understanding of child protection in Senegal and the specific case of Ziguinchor

Focus

Senegalese child protection strategy, child protection actors & synergies, children deprivation rate, begging phenomenon, child protection challenges, strategic support The country Child rights context analysis aims at capturing critical resources and available data on child rights in a specific community or region. This also includes looking at the environment and the extent to which rights guaranteed under the UNCRC are being granted.

Description

1. Ask participants to split into groups and review critical resources and available data on children’s rights analysis in Senegal and the specific case of Ziguinchor. Review specifically: • The ratified international conventions and national legislation. • Country Reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). • Government and UNICEF country situation analyses, including observations of human rights treaty bodies and other international organizations and NGOs. • Statistics generated by ministries or statistical offices, other sources of data and surveys. 2. Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Ask participants the following questions: • Are child-specific statistics available within any of these? • Are they sufficiently disaggregated to see the difference between different groups within the country (e.g., by sex, age, regions, religion, cultural groups etc.)?

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• Are the four general principles of the CRC appropriately reflected in the legislation affecting children (anti-discrimination, right to life and to maximum survival and development, respect for the child’s views, the right to be heard)? • Are all rights recognized for each child without discrimination on any ground? Are there appropriate anti-discrimination legislation and actions for disadvantaged children?

Duration Materials

120 min Video projector, computer, Flipchart papers, markers

Tips and Tricks

/

Variations

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Resources

UNICEF, Senegal - Statistics, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/senegal_statistics.html UNICEF, SENEGAL Humanitarian Situation Report 2013 Overview, https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Senegal_SitRep_2013_Summary.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

Finally show a PowerPoint a presentation depicting the Senegalese context related to child protection. Participants revisit the context of Ziguinchor, children deprivation and vulnerability, casualties and displacements, begging phenomenon, child protection challenges, strategic support. The participants understand the larger scope of child protection in Senegal and also the local realities and challenges.

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7. Identification tools (Body, classroom and school mapping) Type of activity

Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop Helping participants master some useful participatory research tools that can be used in the community development setting Body mapping, classroom mapping, school mapping These 3 tools can be used with pupils, groups of children youngsters and grown-ups directly in schools, educational environments or outside. Through drawings, problems are identified at both group and individual level by directly involving children and young people as right-holders from the identification and analysis phase. How to create a body mapping? • Participants to the exercise get together in groups of 5-6 children. • Ask the groups to draw a body of a child on a flipchart. • Ask the following questions related to body parts in order to know the likes and the dislikes. (Example: “What makes this child feel happy in life?” What makes this child feel sad? What makes this child feel safe in their homes, schools, communities, and what makes this child feel unsafe? Ask positive and negative questions related to the body parts. For example, a question related to foot: Where does the child like going and where doesn’t s/he like going? • Write answers to the questions on post-its and stick them to the body of the child on the flipchart. All the likes are on one side and the dislikes on the other.

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How to create a classroom mapping? • Participants to the exercise get together in groups of 5-6 children. • Ask the groups to draw their classroom • Ask questions to Identify the places they like or not in the classroom and ask them to show it on the map with like and dislike emoticons. (The like being the smiley and the dislike. How to create a school mapping? • Participants to the exercise get together in groups of 5-6 children. • Ask the groups to draw their school • Identify with the like and dislike emoticons the different places

After the production of each tool, ask the questions why in order to better understand the positive and negative aspects and their linkages. Ensure you allow enough time for the children to reflect and give feedback on what they have accomplished or done, and to modify or stop things they do not like. Also take the time to give feedback on what you have understood from what they have told you to make sure they do not feel misrepresented. For good quality feedback and accountability to the children and external stakeholders all discussions should be recorded1. When all is done, each group is invited to make a restitution of their work. Discuss how the body mapping is a key tool for collecting information on problems and needs as expressed directly by the children and young people involved. Ask participants the following main question: What do children want to change? The proposed tools are in line with the following CRC articles: • Article 12 (Respect for the views of the child): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. • Article 13 (Freedom of expression): Children have the right to get and share information, as long as the information is not damaging to them or others. In exercising the right to freedom of expression, children have the responsibility to also respect the rights, freedom and reputations of others. The freedom of expression includes the right to share information in any way they choose, including by talking, drawing or writing.

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1- Save the Children, Risk Reduction and Adaptation for East Africa - A step by step approach with and for children, https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/risk_reduction_and_adaptation_for_east_africa_-_a_step_by_step_approach_with_and_for_children_2013_sci.pdf


Duration Materials

120 min Pencils, colours, flip chart papers, post-it.

Tips and Tricks

While being done at a school level, the teachers may be kept far from the places where the work is being done by the children in order not to interfere. There is no good or bad drawing, the most important is the interaction that’s taking place between the group members. Also make sure all the group members participate and give their opinion by encouraging them.

Variations

The likes and dislikes can be expressed in a different colour it has to be a group consensus. Some can also use post-its. These tools can be applied to any environment and used with any category of people or age. Can be used at the family level, or at the community.

Resources

Save the Children, Risk Reduction and Adaptation for East Africa - A step by step approach with and for children, https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/risk_reduction_and_adaptation_for_ east_africa_-_a_step_by_step_approach_with_and_for_children_2013_sci. pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present in the plenary the conclusion that have emerged during the activity. Then ask the other participants to provide their feedback.

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Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

8. Focus group Focus groups Creating a framework in order to discuss a specific issue with a target category of people One of the subjects discussed is “Migration” It appeared that a lot of young people are willing to go for migration. The idea through the focus group with young people is to know more about what makes them want to migrate. The focus group is one of the best or quicker manner to organize an open discussion in a specific matter. Number of people 10-25. Larger group is possible but the more it goes the more it’s difficult to be heard and to control the group. 60-120 min Seats, convenient community place • It’s important to have a moderator who’ll conduct the discussion, but also observers and other volunteers who’ll screen the group. The moderator’s role is to distribute the flow in order for each participants to give an input on the subject. Take into account cultural realities while organizing these kind of activities in order to make a better of it. It may also be necessary to make private interview with some participants but also people who are external to the group (e.g. elders, parents, women…) in order to gain a different perspective to the same problem. • People have to sit in circle in order for each one to be seen properly. • The bigger the group is, the longer it takes. Use plays in order to install confidence in people and trust in order to discuss big issues. • The youth exodus in Senegal: • In recent years, thousands of Senegalese and Gambian young people have fled to Europe through the “back way”: the perilous, clandestine journey across West Africa, the Sahara, Libya and the Mediterranean. They are mostly young men from rural areas and the suburbs where economic prospects are very limited. Entire rural villages have lost their youth community due to the exodus. The political chaos in Libya, following the fall of Muammar Khadafi in 2011, has allowed traffickers to thrive. In 2016, only 4,047 Senegalese crossed the Mediterranean sea according to the IOM. Once in Europe, many asylum applications are typically rejected, with youth readily dismissed as “economic migrants”.

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Variations

Resources

Debriefing & Reflection

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People with good experience in the subject may be invited to share their experience with the group. European Commission Justice, Children in migration, http://ec.europa.eu/ justice/fundamental-rights/rights-child/protection-systems/index_en.htm Al Jazeera, Saving Senegal’s sons from vanishing in European seas, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/05/saving-senegal-sons-vanishing-european-seas-170530065009710.html At the end of the session ask the participants to provide their feedback.


Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

9. Field visits Outdoor activity Meeting with authorities and community organisations in order to test and upgrade shared knowledge Authorities, child Protection public actors, UNICEF, community organizations The outdoor meeting are elements of the learning content. After each theoretical and practical learning made by the participants, they’re offered the opportunity to discuss directly with actors and organizations in order to better integrate the acquired knowledge. Meeting authorities is the first step for learning and introduction. It shows the interest in the community and if made well can open the doors to future collaboration. If not, this could block all the initiatives. For organizations, this is the opportunity to learn more about them and to collect actual facts about specific problems. According to the appointment time and spaces / It is suggested to consult a broad range of key actors and stakeholders.

Variations

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Resources

UNICEF, Engaging Stakeholders on Children’s Rights, https://www.unicef. org/csr/css/Stakeholder_Engagement_on_Childrens_Rights_021014.pdf

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Debriefing & Reflection

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At the end of the session ask for feedback from participants and representatives of the authorities and other organizations involved.


10. Analysis tool: Problem tree Type of activity

Workshop

Objectives

After identifying key community problems, the problem tree helps in understanding the causes and other problems the main issue is linked to?

Focus

Main problem, Causes(intermediate and root causes), Consequences (intermediate and long term consequences)

Description

Theory of change should begin with a community analysis. This involves identifying: the problem that the intervention seeks to address; the causes and consequences of this problem. The problem tree helps to build the architecture of a specific problem and its interrelations. Each problem has to be taken with its specific context. A problem analysis helps construct a comprehensive picture of cause and effect relationships at various levels to help to tailor strategic responses. This analysis must be context specific, as the underlying cause of a problem may be a more deep-rooted structural determinant in one country than another. GENERAL ORIENTATION • Problems have to be worded as negative situations. • The position of the problem in the hierarchy does not indicate its importance. • Problem is not the absence of a solution, but an existing negative situation. Absent solutions are problem statements that do not describe the current negative situation, but describe the absence of a desired situation. For example, ‘Lack of trained staff’ does not describe the real problem that is “staff has insufficient or inappropriate skills”. • Write the problem in a sentence by making clear “subject, verb and object”. MAIN PROBLEM • The problem should be formulated clearly and simply at a level of intervention • Start by writing the main problem at a central point to the flip chart or board which they’re all going to be stuck on. ROOT CAUSES • Each card should include only one problem. • Problems have to be existing problems, not future ones or imagined ones • Break causes down into different categories, (policy/legal constraints, institutional constraints, capacity weaknesses, and social/cultural norms). • Give facts, be specific • To move from a problem to another you could ask the question why?

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• Go as deeper as possible according to the needs • Always keep in mind the range and scope of activity Specify how children are affected differently by the identified problems, and if there are causes that are unique to these groups, requiring specific solutions. CONSEQUENCES • Use the same logic as precedent • Go from one consequence to another by asking the question what are the consequences of it? After having a clear overview on a specific problem, now the group can discuss and identify a specific problem they want to work on according to the range of possibilities they have in order to contribute to bringing a solution to the main problem identified. Most of the time, the deeper they decide to act, the more time resource and integration it may take.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

120 min Markers, flip chart papers, post-it, scotch, stickers Reorganizing can be made after, the most important element is to identify the main problem and to go from it down and after up. Create the links after. Some causes may be linked between them, you have to show them. Once done, people could also classify problems or consequences by category.

Variations

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Resources

Project Cycle Management Guidelines, European Commission EuropeAid Cooperation Office - The Logical Framework Approach, from page 57 to 94 https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection 152

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity. Encourage the group to review both the task, as well as the process. Support the group in discovering what they have experienced.


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11. Components of a child protection system Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop Introduce participants to approaches to preventing and responding to child protection issues Building a holistic approach to child protection Introduce participants to key concepts: • Child protection • Violence against children • A child protection system • Formal system and informal system • Preventive and responsive services Split participants in groups and ask participants to: • Identify key actors in the child protection system in a specific community context. • Map for each key actor: capacities, responsibilities, preventive and responsive services. • Analyse the nature of the relationship between the identified key actors.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

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60 min Markers, flip chart papers, post-it, scotch, stickers It is suggested to include in the analysis the full spectrum of key actors involved in the community child protection system

Variations

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Resources

UNICEF, Adapting a Systems Approach to Child Protection: Key Concepts and Considerations, https://www.unicef.org/protection/Conceptual_Clarity_Paper_Oct_2010(4).pdf The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Mapping child protection systems in the EU, http://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2015/mapping-child-protection-systems-eu


Debriefing & Reflection

Ask each group to present their work and share the learning achievements within the activity.

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12. Making change happen Type of activity Objectives Focus

Workshop Give specific tools for participants in order to start and make change happen Building your theory of change After a deep understanding of a specific problem and choosing a specific problem to tackle, the theory of change is the meeting point of the specific strategy and vision of realization. It also takes into account the risks to consider in terms of intervention. According to UNICEF, a ‘theory of change’ explains how activities are understood to produce a series of results that contribute to achieving the final intended impact. Participants are split in groups of 4 or 5 people. 1. Decide on the IMPACT in your local community Ask the question/s: What is the impact or change in the real world that we want to achieve? Start by thinking about where you want to end by deciding how your local community will be different because of your intervention.

Description

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2. Brainstorm INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES needed to achieve the desired impact Ask the question/s: What is needed to achieve the desired impact? What long-term, intermediate and early OUTCOMES are necessary to produce this impact? Start at the end and work backwards through the logical steps (intermediate outcomes) that need to be achieved if the impact is to be achieved. The intermediate outcomes should be structured in a logical way: it is necessary for one intermediate outcome to be achieved before other intermediate outcomes and higher up the causal chain are achieved. • Brainstorm the related intermediate outcomes through an iterative process within the group. • List and order the intermediate outcomes in the causal chain: define the LONG TERM OUTCOME that the intervention is accountable for achieving, and the INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES • Determine the pathways that connect them in a logical way. Focus on: how the change can be produced rather than the interventions you want to deliver; how to get from the current situation to the desired situation.


3. As the intermediate outcome framework is developed, start adding in the specific INTERVENTIONS that need to happen in order to move from one intermediate outcome to the next. Ask the question/s: What interventions should be initiated to achieve intermediate outcomes and the long term outcome? What resources are required to implement the interventions and maintain the contextual supports necessary for the interventions to be effective? • Specify the intervention that you need to do in order to achieve each intermediate outcome. It includes an interdependent sequence of activities, for e.g. community awareness campaign, training workshops, development of training materials, etc. 4. Identify any BARRIERS to the links in the causal chain as they occur to the group. Ask the question/s: Are there any major barriers to the intermediate outcome that need to be considered in our planning? What contextual conditions are necessary to achieve the intermediate outcomes? • Identify existing major barriers to the intermediate outcome. • Describe to the extent these major barriers will prevent the linked intermediate outcome in the causal chain from being achieved. The interventions should be re-designed to break down and address the identified barriers. 5. Mapping out the CAUSAL CHAIN A causal chain shows many levels of intermediate results that lead to the final impacts. If the theory of change is built properly, projects can now be drafted and ready to implement. Ask the question/s: Does your Theory of Change make it clear who the target population is? Are some of your intermediate outcomes connected to each other by causal links? Are all of your causal links visually clear i.e. easy to follow on the page? Are all of your intermediate outcomes and ultimate goals measurable? Notes on responsiveness to children rights and gender equality The theory of change can be used to identify causal pathways that are either dominated by the decision-making and actions of one gender group or which affect gender groups differently. When a gender perspective is used to review and interpret a theory of change different key actors and stakeholders may be identified and gender-responsive assumptions may be emphasized. Gendered understandings of causal pathways may suggest intervention strategies that need to be differentiated by the needs of different gender groups. Similarly, the theory of change can support an analysis of the needs of more vulnerable or under-represented groups1.

Duration

120 min 1- Evaluation Office of UN Environment, Use of Theory of Change in Project Evaluations http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7116/14.%20Use%20of%20Theory%20of%20Change%20in%20Project%20 Evaluation.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

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Materials

Tips and Tricks

Variations

Resources

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Markers, flip chart papers, post-it, scotch, stickers Many templates exist, identify and use one. Participants are kept in their groups, after explaining the different steps, give them time to go and work on their theory of change according to the specific problems they identify. Ensure you have appropriate materials and space for developing the ToC as a group. It is easiest to construct the ToC map on a wall or similar surface that all participants can view easily. Use post-it notes and highlights with several colours to denote the different components of the casual chain. / Adapted from “Using Theory of Change in the development, implementation and evaluation of complex health interventions�, The Centre for Global Mental Health & the Mental Health Innovation Network, http://www.mhinnovation. net/sites/default/files/downloads/resource/MHIN%20ToC%20guidelines_ May_2015.pdf To learn more about the theory of change: UNICEF, Theory of Change, 2014, https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/ pdf/brief_2_theoryofchange_eng.pdf UNICEF Webinar: Theory of Change, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KRptX_DNL2Q UN Environment, Samples of Theory of Change diagrams https://wedocs. unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7138/TOC%20Diagrams.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y UNICEF, Revised Results Framework and Supplementary Programme - Note on the Theory of Change, 2014, https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Results_Matrix-TOC_informal-20May14.pdf


Debriefing & Reflection

To be effective, discussions go around different projects that could be implemented by partner organizations.

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13. Final Evaluation Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials

Tips and Tricks

Resources

160

Final evaluation

To evaluate the learning process and the key competences acquired Group and self-evaluation by participants and training staff Ask participants to draw a timeline in the middle of a piece of paper, listing the key points of the training course. Then ask participants to draw a line reflecting what they thought of the learning process within the whole training – above the line for positive, below the line for negative. Participants should be encouraged to add additional feedback and key points. 30 min Flipchart paper, pencil Review with participants the initial expectations. Questions to ask could include: 1. How well do you think you communicated your views within the training course? 2. How well do you feel you contributed to your team and the group as a whole? 3. How well do you think team members worked together? 4. Do you feel your understanding of others has increased? 5. How well do you think the team listened to each other’s views and opinions? 6. Were conflicts arising within the activities? How well do you think team worked together to find a solution? 7. What are key competences you have gained within the training? Are these key competences important? How will you apply it in your daily work and life? 8. How will you follow up the training course? Etc.. Adapted from “Evaluation & Reflection Techniques”, https://www.woodcraft. org.uk/sites/default/files/Evaluation%20and%20reflection%20activities. pdf


Debriefing & Reflection

Sum up the key learning contents experimented and the learning achievements.

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CASE STUDY Title

Exploitation and abuse of talibè children in Senegal Talibé children

Target group/s

According to Human Rights Watch (HRW), thousands of talibé children in Senegal continue to suffer from forced begging and abuse at certain traditional Quranic schools, despite several government programs intended to crack down on the practice. These children, known as talibés - an Arabic word for pupil - are sent by parents or trafficked from neighbouring countries such as Guinea-Bissau to schools called “daaras” where they are expected to receive food, shelter and teachings from the Koran. But at least 50,000 children in Senegal are sent to beg in the streets to secure their own survival and enrich the teachers known as marabouts, who beat them if they fail to bring in about 2,000 CFA francs ($3) per day. Global institutions and NGOs classify the practice of sending boys to Quran schools in Senegal as child trafficking.

Context

Senegal, Dakar

Description

As documented by Human Rights Watch and other groups, abusive Quranic schools operate as businesses. The men in charge routinely force their students to beg for a daily quota of money, and of rice and sugar for resale, inflicting severe physical and psychological abuse on those who fail to meet it. As punishment, children are frequently chained, bound, and forced into stress positions. Senegal adopted a law in 2005 that prohibits forced begging and trafficking, and its own penal code criminalizes physical abuse and wilful neglect of children. While the majority of children sent by parents to Quranic schools are from Senegal, there are also significant numbers of children trafficked from neighbouring countries to schools in Senegal where they are forced to beg. But the authorities have failed to enforce these provisions and investigations and prosecutions are extremely rare. The lack of accountability, with the Senegalese state yet to play a regulatory role, may contribute to the rising number of boys enduring this abuse. The government has taken some steps to address the problem – the Justice Ministry’s anti-trafficking unit completed a census in 2014 of over 1,000 Quranic schools in the Dakar region and trains police and judiciary on the 2005 law. A unit set up in 2008 by the president to support child protection measures (Cellule d’Appui à la Protection de l’Enfance), drafted a law that would regulate the thousands of Quranic schools across the country. However, the National Assembly has yet to adopt the law, due largely to a lengthy consultation process and opposition from Quranic teachers. A mapping of Quranic schools in the Dakar region by the government’s anti-trafficking estimated that at least 30,000 children are forced to beg for hours each day. Each of Senegal’s 14 regions is home to hundreds if not thousands of Quranic schools, but there is little comprehensive data on the condition and number of schools outside of Dakar.

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According to Human Rights Watch, children in these daaras are often beaten, chained, bound, and subjected to other forms of physical or psychological abuse amounting to inhuman and degrading treatment. The living and sleeping environments in the offending Quranic schools are cramped and unhygienic, and medical conditions and wounds regularly go untreated. They are typically in abandoned or partially constructed buildings that offer little protection from rain, heat, cold, or mosquitoes. Several young boys described huddling in rooms so packed that only some of them could lie down to sleep. Living environments in these schools are unhygienic, and medical conditions and wounds regularly go untreated. Social workers said disease spreads quickly and the children often fall ill – from skin diseases, malaria, and stomach parasites – but that the teachers rarely provide medical care. Instead, many children are forced to beg overtime to find food to eat and to pay for their own medicines. The boys typically suffer severe malnutrition, while the long hours on the street put them at risk of harm from car accidents, physical and sexual abuse, and diseases. Many children in are visibly suffering from infected wounds and skin diseases and complained also of gastrointestinal illness. Even deaths sometimes go unreported.

Violations of rights faced by children

In recent years, numerous children have died as a result of abuse, including nine children who burned to death in a dilapidated Quranic school in Dakar’s central Medina neighborhood in March 2013. Social workers and child welfare advocates told Human Rights Watch that seven talibés had died since February 2014, including two hit by cars while begging and another from an untreated tetanus infection at a Quranic school, all in Saint-Louis. Their Quranic teachers returned their bodies to the families but did not report their deaths to the authorities. In January 2015, a Human Rights Watch social worker who works closely with former and current talibés in Dakar said the economic burden on these children is worsening. “We have started to see now the child is not only exploited by the Quranic teacher, but also by the Quranic teacher’s wife. And when the teacher travels, the petits marabouts [assistant Quranic teachers] force the children to beg double the amount. Now there are many adults relying on these children.”He said some children are forced to find up to 2,000 francs CFA (US$3.30) per day, in a country where the average daily wage is $4, and also beg for provisions, such as sugar and uncooked rice, that can then be resold at the Quranic teacher’s gain. A proliferation of Quranic schools in Senegal also appears to respond to demand from the sub-region. Parents in neighboring countries, notably from Guinea-Bissau, entrust children to men who promise to bring the children to Quranic schools in Senegal for a religious education. Earlier in March 2015, two adults moving 54 children were arrested by Guinea-Bissau authorities near the Senegalese border, allegedly part of a criminal trafficking operation sending children to beg in Quranic schools in Senegal. An official at the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) told Human Rights Watch that child trafficking to Senegal continues to be a major concern.

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During research in both Dakar and Saint-Louis in January, a Human Rights Watch researcher found evidence of widespread abuses in Quranic schools, including economic exploitation by forced begging, neglect, and severe physical and emotional abuse. The children interviewed described living in a climate of constant fear and often were too tired or ill to focus on studying the Quran. The type of abuse documented in January was consistent with that detailed by previous Human Rights Watch reports in 2010 and 2014. The fear and abuse force thousands of boys in Quranic schools to flee to a life on the street, where they live a precarious existence and are vulnerable to abuse and exploitation by street gangs and criminals. All the runaway boys interviewed by Human Rights Watch said they chose the street over their families because they knew that if they returned home, they would be sent back to the same Quranic school where further abuse awaited them. Children’s rights advocates, social workers, and nongovernmental groups in Senegal characterized as inadequate the government’s efforts to protect these children from abuse and exploitation. They said state social services, police, and judiciary are not doing enough to report abuses; to investigate physical abuse and neglect, forced begging, and trafficking; to ensure that the abusers are prosecuted; to ensure that children from abusive schools are placed in temporary shelters while their families are traced and mediation efforts are undertaken so they can be returned to their parents1.

Suggested readings

164

Human Rights Watch, Senegal, https://www.hrw.org/africa/senegal Human Rights Watch, Senegal: Decade of Abuse in Quranic Schools, https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/20/senegal-decade-abuse-quranic-schools

1- Senegal: Decade of Abuse in Quranic Schools, https://www.hrw.org/news/2015/04/20/senegal-decade-abuse-quranic-schools


TASK 2.1 Understanding

6 Closed-ended questions

1) PREVENTION AND RESPONSE SERVICES Prevention services include child protection interventions that respond to circumstances in which a child is at risk of harm or has been abused, exploited, neglected, abandoned, or without appropriate family care harming the child. These services seek to reduce the possibility that harm will be repeated and to restore a child’s well-being. Response services include the promotion of knowledge and skills and strengthen the overall capacity of the community for keeping children safe and cared for. It also includes those services targeting families and children that are experiences difficulties in order to change those situations before they create actual harm to the child. Prevention services include the promotion of knowledge and skills and strengthen the overall capacity of the community for keeping children safe and cared for. These services seek to reduce the possibility that harm will be repeated and to restore a child’s well-being. Response services include child protection interventions that respond to circumstances in which a child is at risk of harm or has been abused, exploited, neglected, abandoned, or without appropriate family care harming the child. It also includes those services targeting families and children that are experiences difficulties in order to change those situations before they create actual harm to the child. Prevention services include the promotion of knowledge and skills and strengthen the overall capacity of the community for keeping children safe and cared for. It also includes those services targeting families and children that are experiences difficulties in order to change those situations before they create actual harm to the child. Response services include child protection interventions that respond to circumstances in which a child is at risk of harm or has been abused, exploited, neglected, abandoned, or without appropriate family care harming the child. These services seek to reduce the possibility that harm will be repeated and to restore a child’s well-being. 2) A CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEM A child protection system seeks to address the full spectrum of risk factors to prevent and respond to all forms of abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence against children. Along with partners, including governments, non-governmental organizations, civil society actors and the private sector, a holistic child protection strategy should promote the strengthening of all components of child protection systems - human resources, finances, laws, standards, governance, monitoring and services.


A child protection system: • focuses on single thematic issues, such as HIV and AIDS, disability, child trafficking, street children. • includes coordination between key public and private actors in the child protection sector, including health, education, finance and justice actors; • emphasizes prevention and response services; • fosters capacity building and community participation of e.g. children, parents, teachers, educators, community leaders, child-friendly police officers; • encourages data collection through complaints and reporting mechanisms. A child protection system: • differs from earlier child protection efforts traditionally focused on single thematic issues, such as HIV and AIDS, disability, child trafficking, street children, characterized by fragmentation of services and dependence on donor trends; • includes coordination between key public and private actors in the child protection sector, including health, education, finance and justice actors; • emphasizes prevention and response services; • fosters capacity building and community participation of e.g. children, parents, teachers, educators, community leaders, child-friendly police officers; • encourages data collection through complaints and reporting mechanisms. A child protection system: • differs from earlier child protection efforts traditionally focused on single thematic issues, such as HIV and AIDS, disability, child trafficking, street children, characterized by fragmentation of services and dependence on donor trends; • includes coordination between the government, international organisations and local NGOs (including community and faith based organisations) engaged in the child protection sector; • emphasizes prevention and response services; • encourages data collection through complaints and reporting mechanisms. 3) CHILD PARTICIPATION Child participation is one of the core principles of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), which asserts that children and young people have the following rights: Article 4 (Protection of rights): Governments have a responsibility to take all available measures to make sure children’s rights are respected, protected and fulfilled. Article 12 (Respect for the views of the child): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. Article 13 (Freedom of expression): Children have the right to get and share information, as long as the information is not damaging to them or others. Article 14 (Freedom of thought, conscience and religion): Children have the right to think and believe what they want and to practice their religion, as long as they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights.

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Article 15 (Freedom of association): Children have the right to meet together and to join groups and organisations, as long as it does not stop other people from enjoying their rights. Article 16 (Right to privacy): Children have a right to privacy. The law should protect them from attacks against their way of life, their good name, their families and their homes. Article 17 (Access to information; mass media): Children have the right to get information that is important to their health and well-being. Article 4 (Protection of rights): Governments have a responsibility to take all available measures to make sure children’s rights are respected, protected and fulfilled. Article 12 (Respect for the views of the child): Children have the right to get and share information, as long as the information is not damaging to them or others. Article 13 (Freedom of expression): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. Article 14 (Freedom of thought, conscience and religion): Children have the right to get information that is important to their health and well-being. Article 15 (Freedom of association): Children have the right to meet together and to join groups and organisations, as long as it does not stop other people from enjoying their rights. Article 16 (Right to privacy): Children have a right to privacy. The law should protect them from attacks against their way of life, their good name, their families and their homes. Article 17 (Access to information; mass media): Children have the right to think and believe what they want and to practice their religion, as long as they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights. Article 4 (Protection of rights): Governments have a responsibility to take all available measures to make sure children’s rights are respected, protected and fulfilled. Article 12 (Respect for the views of the child): Children have a right to privacy. The law should protect them from attacks against their way of life, their good name, their families and their homes. Article 13 (Freedom of expression): Children have the right to get and share information, as long as the information is not damaging to them or others. Article 14 (Freedom of thought, conscience and religion): Children have the right to meet together and to join groups and organisations, as long as it does not stop other people from enjoying their rights. Article 15 (Freedom of association): Children have the right to think and believe what they want and to practice their religion, as long as they are not stopping other people from enjoying their rights. Article 16 (Right to privacy): When adults are making decisions that affect children, children have the right to say what they think should happen and have their opinions taken into account. Article 17 (Access to information; mass media): Children have the right to get information that is important to their health and well-being.


4) A ‘THEORY OF CHANGE’ INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING STEPS: 1. Brainstorm the specific INTERVENTIONS that need to happen in order to move from one intermediate outcome to the next. 2. Define the INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES needed to achieve the desired impact. 3. As the intermediate outcome framework is developed, decide on the IMPACT in your local community. 4. Identify any BARRIERS to the links in the causal chain. 5. Mapping out the CAUSAL CHAIN. 1. Decide on the IMPACT in your local community 2. Brainstorm the specific INTERVENTIONS that need to happen in order to move from one intermediate outcome to the next. 3. As the intermediate outcome framework is developed, start adding in the INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES needed to achieve the desired impact. 4. Identify any BARRIERS to the links in the causal chain. 5. Mapping out the CAUSAL CHAIN. 1. Decide on the IMPACT in your local community. 2. Brainstorm INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES needed to achieve the desired impact. 3. As the intermediate outcome framework is developed, start adding in the specific INTERVENTIONS that need to happen in order to move from one intermediate outcome to the next. 4. Identify any BARRIERS to the links in the causal chain. 5. Mapping out the CAUSAL CHAIN. 5) COMMUNITY ANALYSIS Theory of change should begin with a community analysis. This involves identifying: the problem that the intervention seeks to address; the causes and consequences of this problem. The problem tree helps to build the architecture of a specific problem and its interrelations. Each problem has to be taken with its specific context. A problem analysis helps construct a comprehensive picture of cause and effect relationships at various levels to help to tailor strategic responses. This analysis must be context specific, as the underlying cause of a problem may be a more deep-rooted structural determinant in one country than another. • Problems have to be worded as negative situations. • The position of the problem in the hierarchy indicates its importance. • Problem is not the absence of a solution, but an existing negative situation. Absent solutions are problem statements that do not describe the current negative situation, but describe the absence of a desired situation. For example, ‘Lack of trained staff’ does not describe the real problem that is “staff has insufficient or inappropriate skills”. • Write the problem in a sentence by making clear “subject, verb and object”.

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• Problems have to be worded as negative situations. • The position of the problem in the hierarchy indicates its importance. • Problem is not the absence of a solution, but an existing negative situation. Absent solutions are problem statements that do not describe the current negative situation, but describe the absence of a desired situation. For example, ‘Lack of trained staff’ does not describe the real problem that is “staff has insufficient or inappropriate skills”. • Write the problem in a sentence by making clear “subject, verb and object”. • Problems have to be worded as negative situations. • The position of the problem in the hierarchy does not indicate its importance. • Problem is not the absence of a solution, but an existing negative situation. Absent solutions are problem statements that do not describe the current negative situation, but describe the absence of a desired situation. For example, ‘Lack of trained staff’ does not describe the real problem that is “staff has insufficient or inappropriate skills”. • Write the problem in a sentence by making clear “subject, verb and object”. • Problems have to be worded as negative situations. • The position of the problem in the hierarchy does not indicate its importance. • Problem is the absence of a solution to an existing negative situation. 6) A SELF-HELP GROUPS: Is a small association of people from the same socio-economic background, that is funded by international donors for the purpose of solving their common problems through mutual help. Financial resources are kept with a common fund that is in the name of the group. The self-help group acts as a forum to provide space and support to each member, enabling all members to learn to cooperate and work in a group environment. Is a small voluntary association of people from the same socio-economic background, who come together for the purpose of solving their common problems through mutual help, by promoting small savings which suits the needs of the members. The savings are kept with a common fund that is in the name of the group. The self-help group acts as a forum to provide space and support to each member, enabling all members to learn to cooperate and work in a group environment. Is a public association supporting vulnerable people from the same socio-economic background, providing financial support for the purpose of solving their common problems through mutual help, by promoting small loans which suits the needs of the members. The savings are kept with a common fund that is in the name of the group. The self-help group acts as a forum to provide space and support to each member, enabling all members to learn to cooperate and work in a group environment.


TASK 2.2- Reflection:

2 open-ended questions

1.REVIEW CRITICAL RESOURCES AND AVAILABLE DATA ON CHILDREN’S RIGHTS ANALYSIS IN YOUR TARGETED COMMUNITY CONTEXT: • The ratified international conventions and national legislation. • Country Reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). • Government and UNICEF country situation analyses, including observations of human rights treaty bodies and other international organizations and NGOs. • Statistics generated by ministries or statistical offices, other sources of data and surveys. 2. BUILDING A HOLISTIC APPROACH TO CHILD PROTECTION • Identify key actors of the formal and the informal child protection system in your targeted community context, including public and private social, health, education, justice and finance actors. • Map for each key actor: capacities, responsibilities, preventive and responsive services. • Analyze the nature of the relationship between the identified key actors in and between formal and the informal system. • Develop a capacity building strategy targeting key formal and informal community actors in the targeted community (e.g. raising awareness campaigns, events, seminars, training courses to both public and private key actors, school education programs and initiatives).

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According to available data, provide a description for each point below (including quantified data analysis when available). Poverty Education Disability Child Trafficking Street children Child mortality linked to malnutrition / other mortal diseases Children affected by HIV / other diseases Child marriage Family violence Children from disadvantaged or minorities groups (Ex. Roma) Children affected by wars / conflicts Refugees and displaced children Other (if any)

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CHAPTER 4 Learning Module 4: Child poverty and vulnerability


Child Poverty and Vulnerability Course organizer Course introduction

Learning Objectives

Contents

Structure of TC

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NewBeginnings Charitable Trust (NCT) This course aims at providing youth workers with knowledge, skills and practical tools to analyse the impact of poverty on childhood and the hard reality that vulnerable children are forced to face. Through non-formal education and exchange with youth workers from the field, participants are introduced to the NCT’s mission “eradicating extreme poverty” in the specific case of India and the Andhra Pradesh region. Participants will learn: • How poverty is a threat to childhood • About child malnutrition, child labour, child marriages, child trafficking & domestic labour in India • About NCT’s strategy against extreme poverty and trafficking of children in Andhra Pradesh • About cross-cultural learning through the spectre of Indian culture, traditions, hospitality and food • The UN Sustainable Developmental Goals (UNSDGs) • A child rights situation analysis: Andhra Pradesh (with a focus on Krishna, Chittoor, Sirkakulam, Prakasam and Ananthapur districts) • Poverty – Threat to childhood: a factual look at child marriage, child labor, child trafficking, school dropouts and street children • Designing development strategies against extreme poverty and child trafficking • Networking and partnerships to build coherent child protection systems • Follow up, youthpass and final evaluation The course consists of morning and afternoon sessions with inserted breaks. The whole training course is conducted within a practical framework including field trips, workshops, group exchanges, team work, collaboration and restitution in a non-formal learning way.


Training Methods

Methodologies used include and are not limited to: • Input sessions by Speakers • Group discussions/ debating • One-on one talk with speakers (or with NCT) • Reflection sharing • Case studies • Brainstorming • Presentations • Field visits Icebreakers are part of the learning sessions and linked to it. Feedback are made at the end of the day and refreshment in the next morning.

Further information (if applicable)

UNICEF, India, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india.html

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KEY CONCEPT THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), otherwise known as the Global Goals, are a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity. The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world. The SDGs replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which started a global effort in 2000 to tackle the indignity of poverty. The MDGs established measurable, universally agreed objectives for tackling extreme poverty and hunger, preventing deadly diseases, and expanding primary education to all children, among other development priorities. For 15 years, the MDGs drove progress in several important areas: reducing income poverty, providing much needed access to water and sanitation, driving down child mortality and drastically improving maternal health. They also kick-started a global movement for free primary education, inspiring countries to invest in their future generations. Most significantly, the MDGs made huge strides in combatting HIV/AIDS and other treatable diseases such as malaria and tuberculosis1. The SDGs include new areas such as climate change, economic inequality, innovation, sustainable consumption, peace and justice, among other priorities. The goals are interconnected – often the key to success on one will involve tackling issues more commonly associated with another. The SDGs are: • Goal 1: No Poverty • Goal 2: Zero Hunger • Goal 3: Good Health and Well-being • Goal 4: Quality Education • Goal 5: Gender Equality • Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation • Goal 7: Affordable and Clean Energy • Goal 8: Decent Work and Economic Growth • Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure • Goal 10: Reduced Inequalities • Goal 11: Sustainable Cities and Communities • Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production • Goal 13: Climate Action • Goal 14: Life below Water • Goal 15: Life on Land • Goal 16: Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions • Goal 17: Partnerships for the Goals The SDGs work in the spirit of partnership and pragmatism to make the right choices now to improve life, in a sustainable way, for future generations. They provide clear guidelines and targets for all countries to adopt in accordance with their own priori

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1- UNDP, The Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/background.html


ties and the environmental challenges of the world at large. The SDGs are an inclusive agenda. They tackle the root causes of poverty and unite us together to make a positive change for both people and planet. “Poverty eradication is at the heart of the 2030 Agenda, and so is the commitment to leave no-one behind1. More information can be found on: http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/

CHILD POVERTY

There is a strong link between poverty and human rights. The Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action of the 1993 World Conference on Human Rights states: “The existence of widespread extreme poverty inhibits the full and effective enjoyment of human rights; its immediate alleviation and eventual elimination must remain a high priority for the international community”. Evidence shows that children and young people who grow up in poverty are generally more vulnerable: they are more likely to be in poor health, to have learning and behavioral difficulties, to underachieve at school, to become pregnant early, to have lower skills and aspirations, and to be lowpaid, unemployed and dependent on welfare. Poverty directly contributes to a denial of their other human rights: it can deprive them of the right to education, to association, to rest and leisure, to participating in the community, and to other civil and political rights2.

CHILD LABOUR

According to UNICEF, a child is considered to be involved in child labor activities under the following classification: (a) children 5 to 11 years of age that during the week do at least one hour of economic activity or at least 28 hours of domestic work, and (b) children 12 to 14 years of age that during the week do at least 14 hours of economic activity or at least 42 hours of economic activity and domestic work combined. The factors that contribute to child labor – including “hazardous” child labor –include the poverty and illiteracy of a child’s parents, the family’s social and economic circumstances, a lack of awareness about the harmful effects of child labor, lack of access to basic and meaningful quality education and skills training, high rates of adult unemployment and under-employment, and the cultural values of the family and surrounding society. Often children are also bonded to labor due to a family indebtedness. Out of school children or those children at risk of dropping out can easily be drawn into work and a more vulnerable to exploitation. Girls, especially those from socially disadvantaged groups, tend to be at a higher risk of being forced into work. Other reasons for children being forced into work: • Poverty and a lack of livelihood options lead to a child’s “need” to contribute to the family income. • Due to conflicts, droughts and other natural disasters, and family indebtedness. • Rural poverty and urban migration also often exposes children to being trafficked for work. Children are employed because they are cheap and pliable to the demands of the employer and not aware of their rights. The risks that these children face can have 1-UNDP, What are the Sustainable Development Goals? http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html 2-Council of Europe, Compass: Manual for Human Rights Education with Young People, https://www.coe.int/en/web/compass/poverty

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an irreversible physical, psychological and moral impact on their development, health and wellbeing. The types of child labor have changed in recent years due to enforcement of legislation, awareness amongst buyers about child exploitation, and international pressure. Child labor is now more invisible because the location of the work has changed from the more formal setting of factories, to business owners’ homes. There has also been an increasing involvement of children in the home-based and informal sectors. Children are engaged in manual work, in domestic work in family homes, in rural labour in the agricultural sector including cotton growing, at glass, match box and brass and lock-making factories, in embroidery, rag-picking, beedi-rolling, in the carpet-making industry, in mining and stone quarrying, brick kilns and tea gardens amongst others. Work is often gender-specific, with girls performing more domestic and home-based work, while boys are more often employed in wage labour. In general, the workload and duration of the working hours increases as children grow older. Getting accurate, detailed information about children working in different sectors is a major challenge because, in many cases, children work in informal sectors such as agriculture, and in urban settings in restaurants, motor repair workshops and in home-based industries. Combatting child labour requires long term coordinated action which involves many stakeholders and the government. This includes educational institutions, mass media, NGOs and community-based organizations as well as trade unions and employers. It is important that the attitudes and mindsets of people are changed to instead employ adults and allow all children to go to school and have the chance to learn, play and socialize as they should. Education is a key to preventing child labour and has been one of the most successful methods to reduce child workers in India. This includes expanding education access to schooling, improving the quality and relevance of education, addressing violence in schools, providing relevant vocational training and using existing systems to ensure child workers return to school1.

CHILD MARRIAGE

Child marriage is a human rights violation. Despite laws against it, the practice remains widespread, in part because of persistent poverty and gender inequality. In developing countries, one in every four girls is married before reaching age 18. One in nine is married under age 152. Worldwide, more than 700 million women alive today were married before their 18th birthday. More than one in three (about 250 million) entered into union before age 15. Boys are also married as children, but girls are disproportionately affected. There is also a substantial gap in the prevalence of child marriage between the poorest and richest. Females in the poorest quintile are 2.5 times more likely to marry in childhood than those living in the wealthiest quintile3. According to UNICEF (State of the World’s Children, 2009), girls who marry early often abandon formal education and become pregnant. Maternal deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth are an important component of mortality for girls aged 15–19 worldwide accounting for 70,000 deaths each year.

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1-UNICEF India, Child labour http://unicef.in/Whatwedo/21/Child-Labour 2- UNFPA, Child marriage, http://www.unfpa.org/child-marriage 3- UNICEF, Ending Child Marriage Progress and Prospects, https://www.unicef.org/media/files/Child_Marriage_Report_7_17_LR..pdf


If a mother is under the age of 18, her infant’s risk of dying in its first year of life is 60 per cent greater than that of an infant born to a mother older than 19. Even if the child survives, he or she is more likely to suffer from low birth weight, under nutrition and late physical and cognitive development. Child brides are at risk of violence, abuse and exploitation. Finally, child marriage often results in separation from family and friends and lack of freedom to participate in community activities, which can all have major consequences on girls’ mental and physical well-being. Where prevalent, child marriage functions as a social norm. Marrying girls under 18 years old is rooted in gender discrimination, encouraging premature and continuous child bearing and giving preference to boys’ education. Child marriage is also a strategy for economic survival as families marry off their daughters at an early age to reduce their economic burden. Addressing child marriage requires recognition of the various factors that contribute to the perpetuation of the practice. These include economic factors (e.g., the need to support many children, paying a lower dowry), structural factors (e.g., lack of educational opportunities), and social factors (e.g., sense of tradition and social obligation, risk of pregnancy out of wedlock, avoiding criticism whereby older unmarried girls may be considered impure)4. Ending child marriage will help break the intergenerational cycle of poverty by allowing girls and women to participate more fully in society5.

4- UNICEF, Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Child marriage, https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58008.html 5- For more information on child marriage, visit: http://data.unicef.org/child-protection/child-marriage

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1. Get to know each other and expectations Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Suggested reading / Resources 180

Ice breaker /Energizer/introductory session To get to know each other Brainstorming and share experiences in child protection 1. Split participants into smaller groups of 4-6 people. 2. Give participants cards or paper including the following sentences, one on each card: • “Once upon a time, I…” • “My dream is..” • “When I was a child..” • “In my life I want..” • “I like..” • “My strengths are..” • “My weaknesses are...” • “My expectations in this training course are..” 3. Distribute these cards to each group. Within each small group, each group member must take a card and begin a story using one of these sentences as a starting point. 60 min Pens, colours, papers, cutter It is requested every participant to contribute actively by sharing of personal experiences in the child protection field. The activity is adapted by Icebreakers.ws, Story starters, https://www.icebreakers.ws/small-group/story-starters.html


Debriefing & Reflection

There is no need for any debriefing or reflection.

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2. Understanding the UNSDGs Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Suggested reading / Resources Debriefing & Reflection 182

Workshop To introduce and get familiar participants with the UNSDGs The UNSDGs in youth and community work. 1. Write each goal of the UNSDGs in related cards or papers. 2. Spread the cards out face up on the floor and ask each participant to choose one card (it does not matter if there are extra cards left over – leave these face up on the floor). 3. Tell participants to move around the room and interact with each other, explaining the goal which is described on their card according to their personal experience as youth workers. If two participants feel that their cards have something in common, they should form a group. Keep on walking around the room and keep adding to your group. As the activity progresses, participants may also switch to a different group. 4. Keep boosting discussions among the participants. 60 min Pens, colours, papers. Since it would be a sharing of personal experience in the field youth workers, it is requested every participant to contribute for better learning. India, Voluntary National Review 2017, https://sustainabledevelopment. un.org/memberstates/india India, Voluntary National Review Report on Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals, 2017 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15836India.pdf Take the extra cards left on the floor and read one by one. Ask participants for comments and feedback on each extra card.


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3. Child rights context analysis: child protection and challenges in India and Andhra Pradesh Type of activity

Objectives

Introduction session: Child Rights Situation in Andhra Pradesh with a focus on Krishna, Praksam, Chittoor and Ananthapur districts

Focus

Understanding the implementation and protection of children rights in Andhra Pradesh.

Description

184

Presentation

1. Ask participants to split into groups and review critical resources and available data on children’s rights analysis in in Andhra Pradesh (with a focus on Krishna, Chittoor, Sirkakulam, Prakasam and Ananthapur districts). Review specifically: • The ratified international conventions and national legislation. • Country Reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). • Government and UNICEF country situation analyses, including observations of human rights treaty bodies and other international organizations and NGOs. • Statistics generated by ministries or statistical offices, other sources of data and surveys. 2. Ask each group to present the main findings. 3. Ask participants the following questions: • Are child-specific statistics available within any of these? • Are they sufficiently disaggregated to see the difference between different groups within the country (e.g., by sex, age, regions, religion, cultural groups etc.)? • Are the four general principles of the CRC appropriately reflected in the legislation affecting children (anti-discrimination, right to life and to maximum survival and development, respect for the child’s views, the right to be heard)? • Are there appropriate anti-discrimination legislation and actions for disadvantaged children? • How far the UNCRC and Indian child laws are able to protect the rights of children?


Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

120 min Video projector, computer, flipchart papers, markers Assign to each sub-group a specific task. Ex. group 1 (Analysis of country reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), group 2 (Governmental/intergovernmental and UNICEF country situation analyses), group 3 (Reports, statistics and data from NGO’s and human rights groups).

Variations

/

Resources

UNICEF India, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india.html UNICEF India, Progress for Children a report card on adolescents, http://unicef.in/Uploads/Publications/Resources/pub_doc68.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

Finally show a PowerPoint a presentation depicting the Andhra Pradesh’s context related to child protection.

Source : UNICEF, Child labour, http://unicef.in/Whatwedo/21/Child-Labour

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4. Poverty: a threat to Childhood Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials

186

Workshop To raise awareness of the inequalities in society on the impacts of poverty on children Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse 1. Ask participants in plenary to brainstorm about those children who are disadvantaged and subjected to violence and exploitation: forced marriage, child labour, child trafficking, school drop-outs, illiteracy, malnutrition, disability, HIV/AIDS infection, displacement, homelessness, domestic violence, other. 2. Ask each participant to choose one category and split participants in groups accordingly. 3. Ask each group in turn to describe an ordinary day of the targeted child in the Indian context. Emphasise that the point is not to act out the role, but imagine what it would be like to be that child. It is very important that the participants understand that they cannot escape from the fact that they are looking through their own eyes and imagining what it is like to be someone living at the margin of society. They should be aware that by bringing their existing stereotypes and feelings of empathy to the activity they risk reinforcing beliefs that may be distorted or wrong. 4. Invite each group in turn to present their story. 5. Ask participants in the group the following questions: What would it be like to be in that person’s shoes? Where would the child live? What is the child’s social, cultural, economic background? Where would the child buy bread (if the child can afford it)? Is the child going to school? How does the child feel? What problems the child is facing? What needs? What dreams? How easy is it for the child to claim their rights? Who should be responsible for making sure that the child’s rights are not violated? 120 min Pens, colours, papers.


Tips and Tricks

Practical considerations such as the size of the group and availability of cameras will most probably determine how you organise the activity.

Suggested reading / Resources

UNICEF, Training Manual to Fight Trafficking in Children for Labour, Sexual and other forms of Exploitation, https://www.unicef.org/protection/Textbook_1.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask participants what they experienced and learnt. Suggested questions might include: • Did you enjoy the activity? Why? Why not? • What was the most surprising thing you discovered? • Did you have preconceived ideas or stereotypes on the child category you chose? • Did the exercise enable you to empathise in any way with the vulnerable child? Why? Why not?

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5. Development strategies against extreme poverty and child trafficking Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

188

Workshop

To design against extreme poverty and child trafficking Fighting extreme poverty and child trafficking among rural population and slums 1.Explain that each group is going to create and perform short role-plays on the theme of “extreme poverty and child trafficking”. 2. Carry out a brief brainstorming session on “What is extreme poverty? And what is child trafficking?”. The aim is that everyone agrees about what child trafficking is, knows the multiple forms it can take, what duty bearers and stakeholders are involved to ensure the prevention, protection and rehabilitation of those children and young people that are victim of trafficking (development partners, governments and non-governmental organizations, community groups, police bodies, health and other actors involved in different aspects of anti-trafficking responses). 3. Divide the participants into sub-groups and assign one of the following scenes to each group to be created and performed • Working with development partners and non-governmental organizations, community groups to strengthen interventions against child trafficking in urban slums area in India, Andhra Pradesh. • Supporting governments and public actors in strengthening laws, policies and services that ensures prevention, protection and prosecution of children and young people that are victim of trafficking. • Working with local communities to change norms and practices that exacerbate children’s vulnerabilities to trafficking, developing strategies and interventions to bring down the practice. • Developing strategies to prevent and fight child trafficking in rural areas where many children and young women are trafficked into sexual exploitation. • Supporting capacity building and training of duty bearers and professionals working with children including social workers, health workers, police and border officials to effectively deal with trafficking.


4. Once they are ready, ask each group, in turn, to present their scene. 5. Leave any comments until all groups have presented their scenes and then come together into plenary for discussion. 6. Note on a flipchart the main findings that have emerged within the final discussion.

Duration

120 min

Materials

Any kind of material that participants might creatively use to perform their scene on the stage.

Tips and Tricks

If not indicated in description, ask the sub-groups to specify where the scene is located / in with community or region. Give them 45 minutes to rehearse and prepare their role-plays.

Suggested reading / Resources

Child Trafficking: India’s silent shame, http://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/government/child-trafficking-indias-silent-shame The Asia Foundation Human, Trafficking in India, https://asiafoundation.org/ resources/pdfs/StanfordHumanTraffickingIndiaFinalReport.pdf The activity is adapted and inspired by “Compass: Manual for Human Rights Education with Young people, Do we have alternatives?”, https://www.coe. int/en/web/compass/do-we-have-alternatives-

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Debriefing & Reflection

190

Ask for general comments and feedback on the activity. Suggested questions might include: • What rights are violated? • What are the main problems causing child trafficking? • Are there common prejudices against people who are victim of trafficking? • Who is responsible to ensure prevention, protection and prosecution of children and young people in need of special protection against trafficking? • Could the scene be integrated in a more a holistic intervention? Explain the child trafficking is a complex phenomenon including multiple violation of children rights and vulnerabilities, so that an integrated and holistic approach would be fundamental in order to develop sustainable and effective strategies. Finally introduce causes, approached and strategies to fight child trafficking that are currently adopted in both rural and urban areas in India, Andhra Pradesh.


4. Networking, cooperation and partnership Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Field trips and final restitution Understanding networking and partnerships to build coherent child protection systems able to respond adequately to cases of violence against children in Andhra Pradesh, India. NCT’s approach to protection of Child rights in networking, cooperation and partnership. A coherent and sustainable child protection systems requires partnerships between governments, the private sector and civil society. These inclusive partnerships should be built upon shared vision, principles and goals that place the UNCRC at the centre. Child trafficking is a regional and global phenomenon that cannot always be dealt with effectively at the national level. International, multilateral and bilateral cooperation plays an important role, particularly between countries involved in different stages of the trafficking cycle. Complementarity and cooperation among all organizations and institutions concerned are critical for the care and protection of child victims. Co-operation between governmental and nongovernmental sectors should be based on a clear delineation of responsibilities and transparency1. 1. Analysis of the situation: through field trips engage participants in interviews and dialogue with youth and social workers from local NGOs, associations, self-groups, other private and public stakeholders that are engaged in the child protection system. 2. Restitution: following the field trips/local visits, a reflection activity is organized in order to share the experiences and lessons learnt. Split participants in sub-groups and invite each group to make recommendations on how to develop cross-sectoral collaboration towards improving the system of child protection within the region / community in Andhra Pradesh. Finally, ask each group, in turn, to present their recommendations. Notes on “social accountability”: “If we are to enhance support to the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, then we must develop innovative solutions and creative ideas that help to equip children, their communities and civil society to mobilize demand for social accountability for the realization of children’s rights. An enhanced focus on accountability is particularly opportune in light of new 1- UNICEF, Guidelines on The Protection Of Child Victims Of Trafficking, https://www.unicef.org/protection/Unicef_Victims_Guidelines_en.pdf

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Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) making available and providing access to real-time information that people can use and act upon, in addition to changing the way people connect to each other via increased networking, interconnectivity and social interaction. Social accountability can be defined as an approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and/or civil society organisations who participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability (World Bank, 2004). Mechanisms of social accountability can be initiated and supported by the state, citizens or both, but very often they are demand-driven and operate from the bottom-up.� (UNICEF UK, Child Rights and Social Accountability in the Post-2015 World, https://www.unicef.org/ policyanalysis/rights/files/FINAL_UNICEF-London-Workshop_(1).pdf)

Duration Materials

192

Field trips / local visits are suggested to be implemented within 6-7 days. The final restitution workshop could take about 120 min. Writing pads/pens/colour pens/chats etc

Tips and Tricks

Let participants time to reflect and share the lesson learnt during the field trips. Do not interfere.

Suggested reading / Resources

UNICEF UK, Child Rights and Social Accountability in the Post-2015 World, https://www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/rights/files/FINAL_UNICEF-London-Workshop_(1).pdf)


Debriefing & Reflection

Ask for general comments and feedback on the activity. Suggested questions might include: • Did people enjoy the activity? Was it useful? Why? Why not? • How did the different groups’ recommendations compare? • How realistic are the different recommendations? Do they respond to the UNCRC principles and the best interest of children?

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7. Final evaluation and follow-up Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks 194

Final evaluation To evaluate the learning process and the key competences acquired. Group and self-evaluation by participants and training staff. 1. The group is divided in two, with half of them forming a tight circle in the center of the room. The remaining people then pair up with someone in the circle. Give a question for each pair to answer in a few minutes. Then, either the inner or outer circle is asked to rotate “x” spaces to the right or left. Another question is asked for the new pair to discuss. This activity can go on for as long as desired, giving people the chance to have one on one discussions with many different people in the group. The following are examples of questions that the facilitator may ask: • What social or environmental problem touches you most right now and why? • What do you like most about the training course? • What did you learn about child protection in India? • Talk about a time when someone really supported you. • Who did you meet during the training course that touched you deeply? • Describe a high point/low point in the training course and explain why. • Was is it inspiring for your personal and professional development? • How will you use the learning skills and tools gained within this training course into your daily life and work? 2. Than split participants in sub-groups and invite each group to share and co-develop ideas and concrete actions the could follow up the training. 3. Finally, ask each group, in turn, to present their findings. 120 min Flipchart paper, pencil Review with participants the initial expectations. Encourage a common reflection on the whole learning process, sum up the key learning contents experimented and the learning achievements.


Suggested reading / Resources

The activity is adapted by “Facilitating Reflection - A Manual for Leaders and Educators, Concentric Circles (from David Sawyer), written and compiled by Julie Reed & Christopher Koliba, https://www.uvm.edu/~dewey/reflection_ manual/activities.html

Suggested reading / Resources

Do not comment, just keep the flow and good energies going.

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CASE STUDY Title

Prevention, protection and rehabilitation of children and young people that are victim of trafficking in Andhra Pradesh, India

Target group/s

Trafficked children and young women

Context

Andhra Pradesh, India According to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (2000), child trafficking is the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation. It is a violation of their rights, their well-being and denies them the opportunity to reach their full potential. Protecting trafficked children requires timely victim identification, placing them in safe environment, providing them with social services, health care, psychosocial support, and reintegration with family and community, if it is proven to be in their best interest1.

Description

196

Human trafficking is the third largest profitable industry in the world. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. Trafficked children are used for prostitution, forced into marriage, illegally adopted, used as cheap or unpaid labour, used for sport and organ harvesting. Some children are recruited into armed groups. Trafficking exposes children to violence, abuse, neglect and exploitation. According to UNICEF a child victim of trafficking is “any person under 18 who is recruited, transported, transferred, harboured or received for the purpose of exploitation, either within or outside a country�. Trafficking is one of the hardest crimes to track and investigate hence data is hard to obtain. The latest figures estimate that 1.2 million children are trafficked worldwide every year. Child prostitution has the highest supply of trafficked children. India is a source, destination, and transit country for trafficking for many purposes such as commercial sexual exploitation. Majority of the trafficking is within the country but there are also a large number trafficked from Nepal and Bangladesh. Children are trafficked to Middle Eastern countries for sport such as camel racing. There are no national or regional estimates for the number of children trafficked every year. But 40% of prostitutes are children, and there is a growing demand for young girls in the industry. NGOs estimate that 12,000 - 50,000 women and children are trafficked into the country annually from neighbouring states for the sex trade. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu have the largest number of people trafficked. Intra state/inter district trafficking is high in Rajasthan, Assam, Meghalaya, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra. Delhi and Goa are the major receiver states. Trafficking from north eastern states is high but often over looked. 1- For more information on child marriage, visit: https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58005.html


Andhra Pradesh has become a major transit hub for woman and child trafficking in India. Human trafficking is an organised crime where women and children from marginalised, rural and under-privileged areas are targeted. Human right activists report that some cops and even local leaders like sarpanches are colluding with the traffickers. There is a rising demand for live-in maids in urban areas. This has resulted in trafficking of girls from rural villages to live under extremely poor conditions first in “placement agencies” and later in the employers homes. Placement agents keep the girls in small unhygienic rooms packed together. They are often made to do the placement agent’s household work and subjected to sexual abuse2. Trafficking of women and girls is one of the most corrosive forms of violation of human rights. It results in the destruction of an individual’s personal identity, and their right to live as a free human being in a civilized society. In the course of this exploitation, the victim is subjected to gross violence, humiliation, emotional trauma and is denied any liberty and security. The trafficking of girls and women for sexual exploitation is viewed as a modern-day form of slavery in which they are induced through coercion and/or deception into providing commercial sexual services (Human Rights Watch, 1995). Around 30 to 90 percent of women are under 18 years at the time of their entry into sex work. The worst victims have been those with less status, less education and skills and limited work options – women and girls from landless labor, small farmer or lower caste background in particular3.

Violations of rights faced by children

Some acts of sex trafficking involve conduct that can be understood as a form of torture, inhuman or degrading treatment, which is prohibited under the Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CAT), Article 5 of the UDHR and Article 7 of the ICCPR, and has attained the status of a jus cogens norm. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 35 states that “States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.” UNICEF, Risks and Realities of Child Trafficking and Exploitation in Central Asia, 2009, https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58022.html#CT Naik, Krishna C N, Human Trafficking In Andhra Pradesh - A Study in Kadiri Divisioon of Anantapuramu District, http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/102179 UNICEF, Training Manual to Fight Trafficking in Children for Labour, Sexual and Other Forms of Exploitation, https://www.unicef.org/protection/Textbook_1.pdf UNICEF, Guidelines on the Protection of Child Victims Of Trafficking https://www.unicef.org/protection/Unicef_Victims_Guidelines_en.pdf

2- CHILDLINE 1098 SERVICE, Child Protection & Child Rights » Vulnerable Children » Children’s Issues » Child Trafficking http://www.childlineindia.org.in/child-trafficking-india.htm 3- Naik, Krishna C N, Human Trafficking In Andhra Pradesh A Study In Kadiri Divisioon Of Anantapuramu District, http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/ handle/10603/102179

Suggested readings

197


TASK 4.1 Understanding:

4 Closed-ended questions

1) ACCORDING TO UNICEF, A CHILD IS CONSIDERED TO BE INVOLVED IN CHILD LABOR ACTIVITIES UNDER THE FOLLOWING CLASSIFICATION: Children 5 to 11 years of age that during the week do at least one hour of economic activity or at least 28 hours of domestic work, and (b) children 12 to 14 years of age that during the week do at least 14 hours of economic activity or at least 42 hours of economic activity and domestic work combined. The factors that contribute to child labor – including “hazardous” child labor – include the poverty and illiteracy of a child’s parents, the family’s social and economic circumstances, a lack of awareness about the harmful effects of child labor, lack of access to basic and meaningful quality education and skills training, high rates of adult unemployment and under-employment, and the cultural values of the family and surrounding society. Children 5 to 11 years of age that during the week do at least one day of economic activity or at least 48 hours of domestic work, and (b) children 12 to 14 years of age that during the week do at least 36 hours of economic activity or at least 72 hours of economic activity and domestic work combined. The factors that contribute to child labor – including “hazardous” child labor – include the poverty and illiteracy of a child’s parents, the family’s social and economic circumstances, a lack of awareness about the harmful effects of child labor, lack of access to basic and meaningful quality education and skills training, high rates of adult unemployment and under-employment, and the cultural values of the family and surrounding society. Children 5 to 11 years of age that during the week do at least four hour of economic activity or at least 42 hours of domestic work, and (b) children 12 to 18 years of age that during the week do at least 14 hours of economic activity or at least 42 hours of economic activity and domestic work combined. The factors that contribute to child labor – including “hazardous” child labor – include the poverty and illiteracy of a child’s parents, the family’s social and economic circumstances, a lack of awareness about the harmful effects of child labor, lack of access to basic and meaningful quality education and skills training, high rates of adult unemployment and under-employment, and the cultural values of the family and surrounding society. 2. THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGS): Were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world. The SDGs replace the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, or UNCRC, which came into force on 2 September 1990.

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Were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world. The SDGs replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which started a global effort in 2000 to tackle the indignity of poverty. Were born at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 2012. The objective was to produce a set of universal goals that meet the urgent environmental, political and economic challenges facing our world. the SDGS replace the national commissions for protection of child rights from all ratified countries.

3. SOCIAL ACCOUNTABILITY CAN BE DEFINED AS: An approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and civil society organizations who participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability. Innovative solutions and creative ideas that help to equip children, their communities and civil society to mobilize demand for social accountability for the realization of children’s rights in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. An approach towards building accountability initiated and supported by the state, public bodies and policy makers. Innovative solutions and creative ideas that help to equip children, their communities and civil society to mobilize demand for social accountability for the realization of children’s rights in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child. An approach towards building accountability that relies on civic engagement, i.e., in which it is ordinary citizens and/or civil society organizations who participate directly or indirectly in exacting accountability. Innovative solutions and creative ideas that help to equip local communities and civil society organizations to mobilize demand for social accountability for the realization of children’s rights in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

4. STRATEGIES FOR PREVENTION, PROTECTION AND REHABILITATION OF THOSE CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE THAT ARE VICTIM OF TRAFFICKING INCLUDE: Prevention: • Law and policies to children’s rights in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and fight social norms and practices that exacerbate children’s vulnerabilities to trafficking • Strategies and action plans to build and strengthen child protection system. • Cooperation and networking between public and private actors involved.


• Monitoring and evaluation. • Social accountability. • Capacity building of key actors and duty bearers. • Sensitization, campaigning and awareness building. Intervention • Laws and policies to ensure immediate protection and relief. • Access and assistance to targeted children. • Immediate relief (SOS attention). • Restoration of rights/status quo. • Punishing violators. Rehabilitation • Laws and policies to ensure rehabilitation and development • Long term care • Education and training • Social and professional orientation Prevention: • Law and policies to children’s rights in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and fight social norms and practices that exacerbate children’s vulnerabilities to trafficking • Strategies and action plans to build and strengthen child protection system. • Cooperation and networking between public and private actors involved. • Monitoring and evaluation. • Social accountability. • Capacity building of key actors and duty bearers. • Sensitization, campaigning and awareness building. Intervention • Laws and policies to ensure rehabilitation and development • Long term care • Education and training • Social and professional orientation Rehabilitation • Laws and policies to ensure immediate protection and relief. • Access and assistance to targeted children. • Immediate relief (SOS attention). • Restoration of rights/status quo. • Punishing violators. Prevention: • Laws and policies to ensure rehabilitation and development • Long term care • Education and training • Social and professional orientation.

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Intervention • Laws and policies to ensure immediate protection and relief. • Access and assistance to targeted children. • Immediate relief (SOS attention). • Restoration of rights/status quo. • Punishing violators. Rehabilitation • Law and policies to children’s rights in line with the Convention on the Rights of the Child and fight social norms and practices that exacerbate children’s vulnerabilities to trafficking • Strategies and action plans to build and strengthen child protection system. • Cooperation and networking between public and private actors involved. • Monitoring and evaluation. • Social accountability. • Capacity building of key actors and duty bearers. • Sensitization, campaigning and awareness building.

TASK 3.2- Reflection:

1 open-ended questions

1. DEVELOP A COMMUNITY STRATEGY FOR CHILD PREVENTION, PROTECTION AND REHABILITATION • Develop a strategy in your targeted community to ensure the prevention, protection and rehabilitation of those children and young people that are victim of violence, exploitation and abuse. • Specify all stakeholders involved and the nature / level of cooperation and synergy between them.

CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEM Prevention Law and policies Strategies and action plans Cooperation and networking Monitoring Accountability Capacity building of key actors Sensitization, campaigning and awareness building

Intervention

Rehabilitation

Laws and policies Access and assistance Immediate relief (SOS attention) Restoration of rights/status quo Punishing violators

Laws and policies Long term care until age 18 Education and training

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CHAPTER 5 Learning Module 6: The role of education in child protection and development


The Role of Education in Child Protection and Development Course organizer

Resource Hub for Development (RHD), Kenya, Kisumu

Course introduction

This course aims to introduce the link between poverty, education and child protection. The module aims at enhancing the capacities of youth workers to develop and implement projects that support the protection of children and promote their development through education as an avenue of channelling their participation in the development activities in their communities and the world at large. During the module participants are introduced to the realities of the challenges that vulnerable communities, especially children face and the various resilience mechanisms that have been adopted to overcome the challenges by the hosting organization Resource Hub for Development (RHD).

Learning Objectives

Participants will learn: • How education and human rights can support protection and development of children • How soft skills are key to child protection and development • About RHD’s strategy against extreme poverty and child protection in the Kisumu region in Kenya • About cross cultural learning through the spectre of the Kenyan culture, traditions, hospitality and food • • • •

Contents

• • • • •

Structure of TC 204

Definition of a child Children’s Needs Introduction to Human Rights Child rights context analysis: child protection and challenges in Kisumu region Introduction to life skills Categories of Life Skills Child protection Field visits and focus group with community organizations and youth workers from both rural and slam areas of Kisumu Follow up, Youthpass and final evaluati

The course consists of morning and afternoon sessions with inserted breaks. The whole session is conducted within a practical framework putting forward workshops, group exchanges, team work, collaboration and restitution in a non-formal learning fashion. Icebreakers are part of the learning sessions and linked to it. Feedback are made at the end of the day and refreshment in the next morning.


Structure of TC

Methodologies used include and are not limited to: learning by doing, group works, brainstorming, discussions, mini-lectures, facilitation, case studies, field visits and observation, experience sharing and lastly; questions and answers.

Training Methods

Methodologies used include and are not limited to: learning by doing, group works, brainstorming, discussions, mini-lectures, facilitation, case studies, field visits and observation, experience sharing and lastly; questions and answers.

Suggested reading

UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Every child has the right to an education. https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_73893.html UNICEF, The participation of children and young people in UNICEF country programme and national committee activities, https://www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/Desk_study_on_child_participation-2009.pdf UNICEF, A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All, https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/A_Human_Rights_Based_Approach_to_Education_for_All.pdf

Further information (if applicable)

Participants should be split in multicultural groups, as the training would borrow so much from their personal experiences since they came from different backgrounds with differing cultures and systems.

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KEY CONCEPT

EDUCATION IS A CHILD RIGHT

Education is one of the fundamental rights of the children, both directly, as it underpins human dignity and enables a sustainable income, and indirectly in that education enables a wealthier, more cohesive and healthier society. Education forms the linkage between the survival and developmental rights and is a crucial part of personal development. Children through education would be empowered to fulfill their potential to break the circle of poverty in their communities. Quality education contributes to economic growth through enhancement of individual skills and earning potential and more widely through the distribution of those skills and income. Literary rates have a direct impact on poverty and hunger. In the rural areas where employment opportunities might be rare, education enables people to make better use of the available resources, such as land productivity or managing household budgets. Increased quality of primary school education provides skills in literary and numeracy which improve the productivity of farmers in relation to adoption and application of new agricultural and marketing techniques. An educated and skilled workforce contributes to economic growth, which in turn brings more investment in education, creating a positive trend towards sustainable and innovative development. The economic returns of education benefit not only the individuals who have been educated but the society and economy as well. Furthermore, there is a significant evidence ((UNICEF) that provision of a quality primary school education, particularly for girls, drastically and consistently improves maternal and infant health ((the focus of MDGs 4 and 5). Educated girls have a higher self-esteem, are more likely to avoid HIV infections, violence and exploitation, and to spread good health and sanitation practices to their families and throughout their communities, and an educated mother is more likely to send her children to hospital for medical assistance. The economic cost of not providing quality education has grave consequences for development. Primary education alone is not sufficient for economic development. Early Childhood Development (ECD) provides an important pre-cursor to formal primary education. It increases the performance of pupils at primary school and reduces dropout rates by contributing to social, intellectual, physical and emotional development. There are two groups – rights holders and duty bearers – who have specific responsibilities to ensure education for all. Rights holders include all those without a primary school education. Those responsible for seeing the right to education fulfilled include the international community as well as a hierarchy of duty bearers: parents, households and communities; teachers and managers; planners and administrators; national and local governments; non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations. Duty bearers may encounter obstacles and need assistance in meeting their responsibilities.

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For instance, poor families might have difficulty meeting school attendance and completion costs. They need the support of government actions, such as the abolishment of all school fees1.

RIGHT OF THE CHILD TO REST. LEISURE. PLAY, RECRIATIONAL ACTIVITIES, CULTURAL LIFE AND THE ARTS

The importance of play and recreation in the life of every child has long been acknowledged by the international community, as evidenced by the proclamation in the 1959 Declaration of the Rights of the Child: “The child shall have full opportunity for play and recreation […]; society and the public authorities shall endeavor to promote the enjoyment of this right” (art. 7). This proclamation was further strengthened in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (the Convention) of 1989 which explicitly states in article 31 that “States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.” Their realization is fundamental to the quality of childhood, to children’s entitlement to optimum development, to the promotion of resilience and to the realization of other rights. Indeed, environments in which play and recreational opportunities are available to all children provide the conditions for creativity; opportunities to exercise competence through self-initiated play enhances motivation, physical activity and skills development; immersion in cultural life enriches playful interactions; rest ensures that children have the necessary energy and motivation to participate in play and creative engagement2.

DEVELOPEMENT AND PARTECIPATION

The term “development” reflects the changes in the mindset and biases what are mainly derived from viewing things from an economic perspective. Development is a reflection of what people/community needs and which satisfies their real need as opposed to what is ideal; which is why it has not been attainable as it continues to shift from time to time and one community to another. Development, therefore, is not only the improvement in the economy; according to the World Bank “sustainable development” recognizes that growth must be both inclusive and environmentally sound to reduce poverty and build shared prosperity for today’s population, and to continue to meet the needs of future generations3. The transformation can be individual and/ communal change of the mindset and attitudes. It is holistic (symbolic, behavioural and material). Positive change and total well-being of people, both as individuals and communal can be termed as development. Development therefore starts at individual level and holistically into a communal process (both materially and symbolically). The term “development” is therefore debatable; some communities think that it should be brought to them as opposed to them making it happen. The term “participation” on the other hand is explained as a holistic process of ensuring that everyone is involved and their opinions are taken into account. Participation itself can be categorized into seven different levels: 1. Self-mobilization: This is where the people or communities participate by taking independent 1- UNICEF, Education, rights and responsibilities, https://www.unicef.org/sowc04/sowc04_education_rights_responsibilities.html 2- OHCHR, The right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/GC/CRC-C-GC-17_en.doc 3- The World Bank, Sustainable Development, http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/sustainabledevelopment

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initiatives, without external institutions, to change systems, conditions and also develop contacts with external institutions/groups for resources but they retain control over the usage and implementation of projects and activities. This is considered a mature form of participation and it is what all groups should strive to attain. 2. Interactive participation: This s where local people, communities/groups engage in joint analysis of the situations on the ground, create action plans and form local institutions or strengthen the capacities of the existing ones to implement and manage activities. Communities/people have a stake in maintaining and sustaining the new structures. 3. Functional participation: Here the local people participate by forming groups to meet the predetermined objectives of their projects which could have been brought forward by other actors without their involvement. 4. Participation by material incentives: Here the local people participate by providing local resources such as land and labour to help in the development of a project. 5. Participation by consultation: Local people participate by being consulted but the external professionals define and offer solutions for the people. 6. Participation by giving information: The level of local participation is limited to answering questions posed to them by external groups/professionals but do not do anything else and the result of the gathered information is never given back to the participants. 7. Passive participation: Here, people participate by being informed of what is going to happen or what has already happened and that information only belongs to the external group/professionals.

CHILD PARTICIPATION

Participation is a basic human right. The right of children to express their views and participate in making decisions on all matters that affect them was first formally recognized and encoded by the international community in 1989 in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 12, which states: “State Parties shall ensure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child�. For this purpose, the children shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings or development initiative affecting themselves. Sharing information with children, especially the most marginalized, and involving them and their families in preparedness planning will help protect them in the event of future endeavours. When children are consulted, we almost always see the same priorities identified, irrespective of the context or the type of emergency, protection and education. Whatever the context is, all children want to feel safe and go to school. This entails the importance of listening to children and young people. Let’s not underestimate children: they understand their own needs best. All children, and their families, must be consulted on and informed about decisions relating to the informative disaster response, and they must be engaged in the design and implementation of the programs that targets them.

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COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT AND OWNERSHIP

Development projects pass through different stages where the level of community involvement differs from the relief stage where the communities are vulnerable and only require immediate survival support to a stage where they act as partners with the donors or external groups and later to a stage where they can implement their own projects. A project needs to enhance the local capacities of the communities and hand over the mandate to them without creating dependency. The sustainability of projects depends on ownership and participation by the local communities and beneficiaries from just being beneficiaries who are vulnerable to strong groups with skills and knowledge to manage their own development process even in the absence of the external actors. Once communities acquire a certain level of knowledge, they discuss needs and priorities among themselves and have little difficulty in mobilizing around a particular cause1. Participatory monitoring and evaluation project should involve and engage actively beneficiaries and stakeholders by negotiating and agreeing on what changes they expect from projects; what they need to do to achieve these changes; what local and scientific indicators will track these changes; and which success and failure factors need to be monitored to ensure that the projects are on track2.

EDUCATION IN KENYA

Kenya ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Children in 2001, making all the stipulated requirements parts of its obligations. In the CRC charter, education is a universal right that all children are entitled to. Following an initial assessment of the education sector in Kenya, the first CRC report describes it as an education system that was hampered by several constrains and pointed out that the right to education for every child in Kenya was provided for but not guaranteed. It pointed at the co-sharing policies which mean that the parents could contribute up to 65% of the recurrent school costs. This was the single most influential factor that inhibited universal participation of children in schooling. The enrolment in primary school (children between 6 and 14 years) declined from 87% in 1992 to 76% in 1996. In 2003, a new government came into place and introduced “Universal Free Primary Education) policy. This was later upgraded to “Universal Free Basic Education” to cover all children both in primary and secondary levels. The main challenge identified was that the Early Childhood Development (ECD) was not recognized until after the enactment and adoption of the new constitution in 2010, which provided for the devolved systems of governance. Although the basic education in Kenya has been considered to be free, it has continued to experience various challenges that have made it not to be accessible to all children. 95% of Kenyan children aged 5 or 6 do not have access to pre-school as its coverage is only 38%, with most of the nursery schools being in urban areas. The introduction of universal free primary education in 2003, the statistics indicated that additional 2 million children and in some cases mature people entered the schools thereby increasing the enrollment. Even though that was the case, there were various sharp regional disparities. A keen observation indicated that in many cases, the education provided is barely worth having!The rise in the pupil numbers has not been 1- World Health Organization (WHO) - African Health Observatory, Community ownership and participation, http://www.aho.afro.who.int/profiles_information/index.php/AFRO:Community_ownership_and_participation_-_The_Health_System 2- Jemimah Njuki , Susan Kaaria Colletah Chitsike and Pascal Sanginga, Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation for Stakeholder Engagement, Assessment of Project Impacts, and for Institutional and Community Learning and Change, http://ciat-library.ciat.cgiar.org/Articulos_Ciat/Njuki-rev.pdf

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matched by investment in classroom, sanitation facilities, teachers and teaching materials. As a consequence the quality of education has in many case deteriorated, and this is particularly true in areas with high poverty indexes such as Kisumu. Other challenges that have been experienced include underfunding, which sometimes is erratic, inadequate and poor infrastructure, insufficient learning materials, poor retention especially in the Other challenges that have been experienced include underfunding, which sometimes is erratic, inadequate and poor infrastructure, insufficient learning materials, poor retention especially in the upper classes, low level of community participation in the affairs of schools, low capacities of school management and governance committees, insufficient teachers, outdated teaching methods and lack of teaching resources, low transition from primary to secondary levels and HIV/ AIDS pandemic. Because of low government budgetary allocations, most schools have resorted to creating extra levies to cover the shortfall, some of which are beyond the means of most parents therefore making their children to stay at home and miss education. Even though the ECD education has been devolved to the counties, most of the counties have yet to fully establish them through the construction of child friendly classrooms and employment of competent teachers. As Kenyan educational system was for a long time academic oriented, it has created a wide gap between the rich and the poor. Since most of the public schools are congested and with inadequate learning facilities, most of the parents who are within the middle or upper economic classes have resorted to taking their children to either private or international schools that have better facilities and are able to support the children to pass the exams. Case study: At Kisumu in a disadvantaged area, local communities are sensitized on the rights of the children and protection mechanisms. There are different local volunteers such as Child Protection Agents (CPAs) and Community Social Workers (CSWs) whose roles and responsibilities are to mentor the children and ensure that any case of abuse or neglect is reported to the relevant government departments. It is one of the cheapest and sustainable protection mechanisms that does not require the children to be sheltered in an institution but are left to be cared for by their close communities.

THE LINK BETWEEN PROTECTION AND EDUCATION

In Kenya, many children in primary and lower–secondary-age are out of school. Yes, we believe education can save children lives by providing physical protection from the dangers and exploitation of a crisis environment. Importantly, it also gives children a sense of normality, which helps them cope with the post-traumatic shock. Lack of access to education directly impacts children’s safety and wellbeing. Children out of school are at a much higher risk of violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect. Therefore safeguarding education and enhancing child protection is a virtuous cycle. Putting emphasis on child protection, education in emergencies, early childhood care and development, and inclusion of adolescent girls and boys is the only way to improve the scale and quality of preparedness, risk reduction and emergency response programmes.

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INTRODUCTION TO LIFE SKILLS

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life-skills as “abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life”. They include a combination of knowledge, values, attitudes and skills with particular emphasis on those that are related to self-management, communication, inter-personal relations, critical thinking and problem solving. Life-skills are very important as they enhance the wellbeing of the society and promote positive outlook and a healthy behavior. In particular, it enables an individual to translate knowledge, attitudes, skills and values into action. It also helps in responsible behavior leading to healthy living, through development of positive attitude towards themselves and others. It also leads to development of full potential, promoting the state of mental wellbeing through self-motivation and the others, including engaging in risk free behavior, communicate effectively, development of negotiation skills. The life skills help to improve self-perception through building of self-confidence, self-esteem and self-worth. Life skills has various benefits including: • The educational benefits such as strengthening the teacher/pupil relationship, leading to desirable behavior change, improving discipline in schools, reducing learner problems such as truancy, absenteeism, drug/substance abuse and teenage pregnancies. They also help learners to improve their performance. • The health benefits include prevention and control of diseases such as hygiene related illnesses, STIs, HIV and AIDS. They also contribute to a person’s general wellbeing physically, mentally, emotionally and socially. They help in reducing stress on health facilities and helps people to be responsible for their own and other people’s health. • The social benefits include improving the socialization process such as relating with others in a friendlier way. It enables children to choose good and reliable friends, to recognize and avoid risky situations, bring about meaningful interaction amongst the peers and helps in character building. • Culturally, the life skills help people to adopt and maintain meaningful cultural practices and avoid those that may put self and other at risk, promote harmonious interactions between people of different cultures and helping in clarification of values in the society.

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LEARNING ACTIVITIES 1. All about You! Type of activity

Objectives Focus

Ice breaking To get to know each other Breaking the ice and creating a free atmosphere To begin the process, take the participants through the introductions session after welcoming them. The introduction process involved an individual participant being given chance to give their names and that of the organization they represented.

Description

Duration

30 min.

Tips and Tricks

In a hurry to beat the deadline, the three minutes, most people fail this test as they rarely take time to read the instructions. They end up answering all the questions thereby failing the test. The facilitator should emphasize that all participants during the whole training process, are invited be keen to observe all the little details and whenever they feel they do not understand anything they should be free to ask and give feedback.

varitations Debriefing & Reflection

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To break the ice amongst the participants and create a free atmosphere, the facilitator gives each participant a sheet of paper with certain questions to be answered within 3 minutes. The topic of the questions is “All about You!� and it is normally used to test the personality of individuals and how good there are at reading instructions, being keen in listening and following instructions. In the test, the one taking it is supposed to answer only one question, number one as per the instructions.

/ There is no need for any debriefing or reflection.


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2. Expectations and fears, norms and responsibilities Type of activity Objectives Focus

Team building To share participants’ expectations and fears about the training sessions Preparing a common learning ground All the participants are given two sticky pads; one yellow to be used to write their expectations and the other one red for writing the fears they had as far as the training was concerned. The ones listed below are potential expectations and fears:

Description

Expectations: • To increase familiarity with the local context, legislation and guidance • cooperate with participants and trainers • To gain more knowledge about child protection and development • To learn about the local culture and a bit of the local language… Swahilio not pretend to know it all Fears: • Falling sick during training course • Mosquito bites • Effects of weather • Hostility and difficulties in integrating in the hosting community Invite participants to propose and agree on training norms. Note all the interventions on a flipchart. Training norms: • Seek translation and make sure that you are comfortable with the training materials and understand it well enough • No use conversation through mobile phones while in training • Language of communication is English • Time keeping • Do not pretend to know it all; acknowledge the gaps in your knowledge • Active participation • Being supportive and cooperative

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Give / assign the following roles and responsibilities to be performed by some of the participants to facilitate the smooth running of the whole training exercise. 1. The Training Leader: the trainer facilitating the session/s. 2. Time Keeper: a person who records or checks the time in line with training schedule. 3. Welfare Leader: a person who ensure cooperation and communication within the group.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

60 min Flipchart, paper, markers. Be open to any suggestion from the participants. Let them decide freely. Invite participants that are silent to provide feedback. After getting feedbacks, sticking the flipchart on the wall becomes the reference point. Use colours to make it attractive, let the participants’ talent speak.

Varitations

/

Resources

SALTO-YOUTH, Tools for Learning in Non Formal Education, https://www. salto-youth.net/downloads/4-17-2694/GP_Tools-For-Learning-in-non-formal-educ_GB_130912_HD.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

Summarize on a flipchart the conclusions that emerge within the activity. Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the session.

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3. Definition of a child Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop To share different perceptions and understanding of a “child” Defining a child Introduce / narrate to participants the following stories related to children that appeared that day in some local newspapers in Kenya: • A primary school was closed indefinitely after the boys/pupils attacked their female teachers with clubs and beat them thoroughly. • Among the nomadic/pastoral communities like the Maasai in Kenya, once a person has been initiated, they cease to be considered children no matter the age! In this case, the boys who had been initiated felt that they were men and could not take orders or be disciplined by females, including the teachers. The teachers on the other hand relied on the school rules that required that all pupils be considered equal and could be disciplined whenever need be. • Some communities and religious groups consider the biological circles such as menstruation among the girls to consider them mature and therefore ready for marriage. Split participants into sub-groups of 3/4 people and ask them to define “what is a child” according to their personal experience and knowledge. Being that they came from different backgrounds, do not assume that their perceptions and understanding of defining a child would be the same. Different groups/cultures or communities define children differently; some would use age while others would consider biological or cultural rights to define who is a child or an adult. Universally, according to UN, any person below the age of 18 is considered as a child and therefore should be under the care and protection of adults, whether parents, relatives or guardians. Although this definition is the universally acceptable one, there are challenges with it; for example, what of those street people who have no protection and care, those who fend for themselves, married or engaged in some work including war.

Duration Materials 216

60 min Flipchart, paper, markers.


Tips and Tricks

Be open to any suggestion from the participants.

Varitations

To demonstrate the differences in peoples’ perceptions on who would be considered as a child, the facilitator could use an illustration known as “Being in a Fixed Position”. In this illustration, draw a shape and request four volunteers to move to the front. They are each to stand at a given point opposite each other with the figure at the centre. They are each to be asked to say what they are seeing based on their position.

Resources

Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/

Debriefing & Reflection

Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the session.

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4. Children’s Needs Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Workshop To understand children needs Children needs To introduce the topic, the facilitator uses an illustration of different growing plants imbedded under different conditions. The participants are asked: to identify the differences between the different plants (ex. one plant seems stunted while the other is flourishing and healthy); to explain possible causes (ex. soil types, availability of water and fertilizer, exposure to the sunlight, usage of pesticides, and protection from other animals such as cows and proper weeding). Participants are informed that children, like the plants also have different needs for them to grow and develop. • Split participants into sub-groups of 3/4 people and ask them to discuss the various things that children need in their lives for them to grow and become adults (ex. food, shelter, clothing, health, education, protection, spiritual nourishment, love, care, protection, socialization, naming, etc...). • Then all groups are invited to share their presentations in the plenary where the participants from the other groups also gave them questions as to what they came up with. 60 min Flipchart, paper, markers. Points out the participants that all the needs of the children can also be said to be rights. Children as all humans are supposed to have rights that will enable them to develop into mature and productive adults who are able to utilize their potentials for the betterment of the whole world.

Varitations

/

Resources

UNICEF Canada, Teaching for Children’s Rights: Rights, Wants & Needs, http://www.e-activist.com/ea-campaign/action.retrievefile.do?ea_fileid=14113

Debriefing & Reflection 218

Summarize on a flipchart the conclusions that emerge within the activity. Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the session.


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5. Human rights Type of activity Objectives Focus

Workshop To understand human rights Human rights To introduce the topic, ask the participants to give their won understanding of the term human rights. • Summarize on a flipchart the conclusions that emerge within the activity. • Introduce the participant a PPT including the definition of human rights. • Introduce the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Description

Duration Materials

Tips and Tricks

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Note on human rights: Human right is a “global term” that is often being used and heard, yet many people cannot define. Human rights are things that we are allowed to be, to do or to have, simply by being a human. They are rights or entitlements a person has simply because he or she is a human being. They are those basic standards without which people cannot live with dignity. The basic principles of the human are that they are held by all persons, equally, universally and as long as one is alive. They are inalienable, indivisible and interdependent for example, an individual’s ability to participate in the governance has a direct correlation to their ability to express themselves, to be educated and to even get the necessities of life. Although the principles and definition reflect universality, the practical applications of the rights are dependent on different dynamics such as socio-cultural, geo-political and religious inclination. 45 min Flipchart, paper, markers. The facilitator could show also concrete case studies from countries and regions where the rights are applied selectively. For example, in most Communist/Socialist States, the government provides most of the necessities such as health care, shelter, education, food subsidies but restrict the level of political participation and even leadership. In countries where the radical extremist groups such as Al-Shabaab in Somalia, Boko Haram in Nigeria, Islamic State in Syria and Iraq and also Afghanistan where the Mujahedeen are in control, girls are not allowed to go to schools or in some cases children are only allowed to attend religious classes. These examples are given to explain that the human rights are not universally applied.


Varitations Resources

Debriefing & Reflection

/ UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/ UNICEF, Child Rights Education Toolkit: Rooting Child Rights in Early Childhood Education, Primary and Secondary Schools, https://www.unicef.org/ crc/files/UNICEF_CRE_Toolkit_FINAL_web_version170414.pdf Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the session.

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6. Child rights context analysis: child protection and challenges in Kisumu region Type of activity

Objectives Focus

Description

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Presentation Child Rights Situation in the Kisumu region, Kenya Understanding the implementation and protection of children rights in the Kisumu region 1. Ask participants to split into groups and review critical resources and available data on children’s rights analysis in the Kisumu region, Kenya Review specifically: • The ratified international conventions and national legislation. • Country Reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC). • Government and UNICEF country situation analyses, including observations of human rights treaty bodies and other international organizations and NGOs. • Statistics generated by ministries or statistical offices, other sources of data and surveys. 2. Ask each group to present the main findings. 3. Ask participants the following questions: • Are child-specific statistics available within any of these? • Are they sufficiently disaggregated to see the difference between different groups within the country (e.g., by sex, age, regions, religion, cultural groups etc.)? • Are the four general principles of the CRC appropriately reflected in the legislation affecting children (anti-discrimination, right to life and to maximum survival and development, respect for the child’s views, the right to be heard)? • Are there appropriate anti-discrimination legislation and actions for disadvantaged children? • How far the UNCRC and Indian child laws are able to protect the rights of children?


Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Varitations Resources

Debriefing & Reflection

120 min Video projector, computer, flipchart papers, markers Assign to each sub-group a specific task. Ex. group 1 (Analysis of country reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), group 2 (Governmental, intergovernmental and UNICEF country situation analyses), group 3 (Reports, statistics and data from NGO’s and human rights groups). / UNICEF - Kenya Home page, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/ UNICEF Kenya, Annual Report 2016, https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Kenya_2016_COAR.pdf UNICEF Kenya and the National Council for Children’s Services, Situation Analysis of Children and Adolescents in Kenya, https://www.unicef.org/ kenya/SITAN_2014_Web.pdf Finally show a PowerPoint a presentation depicting the Kisumu region’s context related to child protection.

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7. Introduction to Life-Skills Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Varitations Resources

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Workshop To understand children needs Children needs • To introduce the topic, ask the participants to define “life-skills” according to their own understanding. • Summarize on a flipchart the conclusions that emerge within the activity. • Request the participants to do a role play using the game known as the “Bridge of Life”. In the game, a participant is supposed to walk on a thin plank of raised wood without slipping down as there are dangers on the sides. They are not to be supported or to hold onto anything. 45 min Flipchart, paper, markers. Most of them not manage the task as they slip. Again, participants are requested to repeat the task when two planks of wood were put parallel to each other. They find that it is easier to cross without slipping as they have some support to help them. This is considered as a demonstration of how important life-skills are in the development and welfare of the human beings including the children. / UNICEF, Life skills, https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/ The World Health Organization’s, Skills for Health Skills-based health education including life skills: An important component of a Child-Friendly/Health-Promoting School, http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/media/en/ sch_skills4health_03.pdf


Debriefing & Reflection

Summarize on a flipchart the conclusions that emerge within the activity. Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the activity. Suggested questions: • What does it take to thrive in a world with HIV and AIDS, conflict and violence, gender, ethnic and other kinds of discrimination, disasters and emergencies, poverty, homelessness, hunger? And if you struggle with such burdens as a child or young person, what kind of adult do you become? • These questions lead to others: Can coping methods and resiliency be taught and learned? What does it mean to provide children and young people with “life skills education?”

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8. Categories of Life Skills Type of activity Objectives Focus

Workshop To understand and learn about key categories of life skills During the activity participants are exposed to those life skills of understanding and dealing with self and those that helps in understanding and dealing with other people (interpersonal relationships). The facilitator introduces the participants that there are various categories of life skills. The life skills of dealing with the self include: self-awareness, self-esteem, coping with emotions and stress management. Those that help in understanding and dealing with others include: empathy, effective communication, negotiation, peaceful conflict resolution, interpersonal relations, friendship formation and maintenance peer pressure resistance. Notes from the training in Kenya:

Description

1. Self-Awareness To demonstrate self-awareness, the facilitator asked the participants to draw a picture depicting their lives at the present and where they would wish to be in the next five years, considering their economic, social, spiritual and intellectual status. After their presentations, they are asked to draw another picture of themselves and indicate the things they like about themselves and those that they did not like. The facilitator informed the participants that once you are aware of your strengths and weaknesses, you can be able to work on the weaknesses and build on the strengths so as to be able realize your full potential. Children also have strengths and weaknesses which if not polished may hinder their future achievements. The facilitator emphasized that it is very important for children to be helped to understand their strengths and weaknesses and be supported to work on those weaknesses so that they become people who are able to withstand some of the challenges they are likely to meet in life. 2. Self-Esteem Self-esteem is defined as an individual’s perception of self worth or the value an individual attach to themselves. To demonstrate individual’s self-esteem, the facilitator used a new currency note worth Kenya shillings 500. The facilitator asked the participants to mention some of the things that could be purchased by the same note (ex. sugar, bread, a dress, a pair of shoes, etc‌).

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The facilitator then crumbled the same note so that it looked old and asked them what it could buy. They mentioned that the value remained the same no matter the state and could still purchase the same items. Thirdly, the facilitator put the same note in muddy water so that it looked dirty and asked them whether it could still buy the same items and their answer was to the affirmative. The facilitator said that an individual’s self worth remains the same no matter what they have gone through. For example, the fact that a girl got pregnant and gave birth at an early age not devalues her and she can still pursue her ambitions and succeed if she believes in herself. To elaborate this, the facilitator narrated stories of two different people who have overcome the challenges of life after having previous difficult lives: 1. One of them is a Kenyan music icon, Akothee, who got pregnant in form two and her parents sent her away from home. She got married to her boyfriend who mistreated her and dumped her with two children. Despite of all the challenges, she went back to school and cleared her secondary education before embarking on her ambition of being a musician. Currently, she is one of the richest people in the country with interest in music, tourism and real estate. 2. He also gave a story of another girl who, even though she got good grades in primary school, could not go to secondary as her father had died leaving her mother who was poor to care for the children. In that state she became hopeless and vulnerable. She got into a relationship with a boy who impregnated her and took her as a wife. Because the boy was also poor, she had to do odd jobs to support the family. After the birth of her second child, 2) the husband died and left her with his relatives who later chased her with her children. She could not go back to her widowed mother as she was also struggling. She tried her hands at small businesses and casual labour including working as a house maid to feed her children. As her ambition was to get educated and improve her chances of getting a better life, she approached one of the local political leaders for support. By good luck, he accepted to pay her fees but she had to get someone to cater for her other requirements. She decided to go to a local day school where she would have time to engage in casual jobs in the evening to get money to pay ren, food and also support her children. Currently; she is in form three and is one of the best students in her class. Self esteem can be categorized into high and low. People with high self esteem are always strong willed and able to overcome most of the challenges they come across in life. On the other side, those with low self esteem are always vulnerable and rarely make achievements in their lives. They end up destroying their lives. The facilitator appealed to the participants to always support the children, even those with low self esteem to overcome their fears and strive for their best in whatever they are doing. 3. Coping with Emotions Emotions are those internal feelings that come as a result of experiences or conditions under which people find themselves. They always have impacts on the lives of individuals and can reduce their chances of achieving the best in life.

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To demonstrate it, the facilitator took a bottle of clean water and started adding soil to it until it became dirty. As the facilitator continued adding the soil, the colour of the water changed until it became muddy and not usable. The facilitator said that a human heart is the same as a vessel containing cleaning water, since the feelings are pure. As people encounter different challenges and conditions in their lives, their hearts become filled with emotions that are dirty and until or unless the dirt is removed, a person may not live a good life and can be driven into engaging in negative activities. To make the water pure, the facilitator used a bigger bottle and added clean water until the impurities have been removed. The same way, the facilitator said, that whenever someone is having negative emotions, it is better to replace them with positive emotions such as happiness, joy, hope, etc. The emotions in an individual may either ensure they succeed in life or they fail altogether. To demonstrate the effects on emotions on an individual’s life, the facilitator used an illustration of a tree which has roots, stem, branches, leaves and fruits. Some of the fruits are mature and ripe while other are unripe and immature. The roots of the tree are used to gather the nutrients that the tree requires for its survival. The kind of nutrients that are absorbed into the system will either lead to the development of mature fruits or those that are immature and not healthy. So the emotions in an individual may also either lead them to making wrong or right life choices. 4. Stress Management Stress is defined as externally induced feelings that individuals experience in their daily lives. Although there are some positive effects of stress, it is mostly negative and the way one handles/manages stressful situation will either result into positive or negative impacts. To demonstrate how to deal with stress, the facilitator used two balloons. One participant was given one balloon and instructed to inflate it until it busted. The other one was also given to another who was to inflate but then when it was just about to bust was to release the air. The result was that the bust balloon was destroyed while the other one remained. The same way, the choice an individual makes in dealing with stress can either have a positive or negative result.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks Varitations Resources 228

120 min Flipchart, paper, markers, seats, convenient community place. People with good experience in the subject may be invited to share their experience with the group. / UNICEF, Life skills: A facilitator’s guide for teenagers, https://www.unicef. org/eapro/Life_Skills__A_facilitator_guide_for_teenagers.pdf Emotional Intelligence for teens ages 13-18, http://ong.ohio.gov/frg/FRGresources/emotional_intellegence_13-18.pdf


Debriefing & Reflection

At the end of the session ask the participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the activity.

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9. Child protection Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Workshop To understand duties, roles and responsibilities in a child protection system Community engagement for protection, care and support of children Providing protection, care and support for the children is one of the greatest challenges that many governments and communities are faced with. Although there have been mechanisms put in place either by the governments and other key groups to solve the problems, the increasing numbers of children requiring protection, poverty and the changing dynamics in the world today means that new mechanisms have to be adopted so that the problems experienced by the children are reduced. The responsibility of protecting the children is at different levels beginning with the parents/family, community in which they live, the government and other actors. • Split participants into sub-groups of 3/4 people and ask them to identify all stakeholders and organizations that are involved in the child protection system in the Kisumu region, including their duties, roles and responsibilities. • Then all groups are invited to share their presentations in the plenary where the participants from the other groups also gave them questions as to what they came up with.

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Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

60 min Flipchart, paper, markers, seats. The facilitator could show and share case studies about local projects.

Varitations

/

Resources

Scottish Executive, Engaging children and young people in community planning, http://www.gov.scot/resource/doc/154089/0041433.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection

At the end of the session ask the participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the activity.

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10. Field Visits Type of activity Objectives Focus

Outdoor activity Meeting with authorities and community organisations in order to test and upgrade shared knowledge Child Protection public actors, schools and community organizations The outdoor meeting are elements of the learning content. After each theoretical and practical learning made by the participants, they’re offered the opportunity to discuss directly with actors and organizations in order to better integrate the acquired knowledge.

Description

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

232

Notes from the training in Kenya: Field visit at New Life Home Trust and Mama Ngina Children’s Home - Kisumu facilities and learnt a lot in regards to child abandonment and rescue, during the training course. The capacity of the facilities is able to accommodate at most 70 and 120 children respectively). The visit exposed the participants to the reality of children’s life. These child rescue centres are phenomenal, restoring life to abandoned children from their zero ages to almost an adult age According to the appointment time and spaces / It is suggested to consult a broad range of key actors and stakeholders.

varitations

/

Resources

UNICEF, Engaging Stakeholders on Children’s Rights, https://www.unicef.org/csr/css/Stakeholder_Engagement_on_Childrens_Rights_021014.pdf


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Debriefing & Reflection

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Summarize on a flipchart the conclusions that emerge within the activity. Ask participants to provide feedback on what they have experienced and learned within the session.


11. Focus group Type of activity Objectives Focus

Description

Focus group Creating a framework in order to enhance community and beneficiaries participation and ownership Child poverty, right to education and development A focus group is one of the best or quicker manner to organize an open discussion on a specific matter and involve concerned target groups and key stakeholders: to analyse common problems and challenges; to co-develop projects and plans; to share co-responsibilities and engagement; to conduct participatory monitoring and evaluation and build community ownership; to plan follow up strategies and actions. Number of people 10-25. Larger group is possible but the more it goes the more it’s difficult to be heard and to control the group. • People have to sit in circle in order for each one to be seen properly. • It’s important to have a moderator who’ll conduct the discussion, but also observers and other volunteers who’ll screen the group. The moderator’s role is to distribute the flow in order for each participant to give an input on the subject. Take into account cultural realities while organizing these kind of activities in order to make a better of it. It may also be necessary to make private interview with some participants but also people who are external to the group (e.g. elders, parents, women…) in order to gain a different perspective to the same problem. Notes from the training in Kenya: A visit to Kobila Community Primary School exposes participants to the real life as far as child welfare is concerned. A lot is still needed to support the school ongoing children. This is because most of the children are from poor rural backgrounds. This could thwart their learning process because they struggle to make ends meet in a daily basic. Most of the children are either single parented or total orphans, but to those with both parents, the parent is living below a dollar a day. In Nyanza and Kisumu regions, we account for the highest number of orphaned and vulnerable children in Kenya. Almost 6 out of 10 children have or are facing rights violation while 5 out of 10 children have faced a tragedy (death) or disaster stricken, children and young people from poor and needy fami

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lies suffer disproportionately. These exert great impact on children in many ways. They get separated from their families and friends, become orphaned or isolated. Their supporting structures, such as schools are destroyed or requisitioned for other uses. They struggle to deal with uncertainty, anxiety and shock, so their emotional and psychological well-being suffers. The subjects discussed within the focus groups is “problems and challenges faced by the Kobila Community Primary School”. The focus group included children, teachers and community actors (parents, representative on NGO’S and community groups, local actors). Feedback from the focus group: • The school is in dire need of support in terms of sanitation as well for pupils. This includes lack of clean drinking water, scholastic materials and school feeding programme. The head teacher said that the only source of water is a seasonal dam nearby which worst still produce dirty water, not conducive for consumption. The school majorly depends on water storage in tanks that were donated by Constituency development fund kitty. However, they are currently not operational due to drought and because some of the tanks are broken. The river nearby which is not reachable during rainy season because it overflows such that no one can draw water from it. • Lack of health facilities with the school. This always makes sick children to walk long distance to seek for medication hence leading to poor performance because children become irregular in school attendance. • The community experienced a drought this year and this led to poor harvest leading to food shortage. This in away makes children go to school empty stomach, hence poor performance because a lot of pupils’ decline to attend classes because of hunger. • School uniform affordability to pupils by their parents/guardians has become a problem as well. • The school is also in deficit in terms of number of teacher to children ratio. This has made the school to come up with a project to see more local but trained teachers recruited by the school board. The project has not been successful because these teachers are paid by fees from parents who could not afford. • There is need for sustainable collaboration with RHD and international organizations/bodies to come in and assist the situation in the school. “The school going children are the future leaders, hence should be well treated”……said the deputy head teacher. A word from Mrs Josephine Oduta, Community women representative, Kanyaluo West Location, Kobila village: • Relationship with RHD is phenomenal, a move that shall showcase development in the marginalized communities. • Asked for raising and upgrading of classrooms into a modern looked sited that there some classroom blocks are still temporarily built with muddy structures.

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• Asked for the support of local women groups through empowerment agendas. A word from the school director: • Shortage of modern classrooms; 6 against possible 8 classrooms structures are available. Meaning some pupils are either studying under trees or inside poor, mud-built structures. • He called upon volunteering fund raisers to help build two modern classrooms in the local primary school so that pupils can study under clean and conducive environment. A word from the local community groups: • Providing holistic prevention and response to the protection issues experienced by children in poor communities (both rural and urban slums), and working in partnership with children, their families, local authorities to strengthen child protection systems and community based mechanisms. • Child Friendly Spaces in emergencies should be created, reunifying separated and unaccompanied children with their families (OVCs and Street children) • Developing public awareness campaigns against child trafficking, child marriage and other forms of rights violations. • Developing and piloting training programs for social workers and caregivers to provide supportive care to families and children. • Advocating for more effective national protection policies and child welfare reform.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks varitations

Resources

120 min Seats, convenient community place The bigger the group is, the longer it takes. Use plays in order to install confidence in people and trust in order to discuss big issues. People with good experience in the subject may be invited to share their experience with the group. - UNICEF, Education, https://www.unicef.org/education/ - UNESCO, UNESCO and Education, Everyone has the right to education, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002127/212715e.pdf

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Debriefing & Reflection 238

At the end of the session ask for feedback from participants and the local people involved in the focus group.


12. Final evaluation Type of activity Objectives Focus

Final evaluation To evaluate the learning process and the key competences acquired Group and self-evaluation by participants and training staff An evaluation activity is proposed at the end of the training where participants are asked to share both positive and negative feedback, thoughts and feelings about the whole training activities through physical expression.

Description

- On a flip chart paper, draw a very large target with four rings so that the centre represents “excellent”, and moving out from the centre, “good”, “average”, “poor”. (Four sheets of flip chart paper taped together will do the trick!) - Lay the target on the floor in the middle of the room. The centre ring of the target represents the most positive response, while the most outer ring is the least positive response. Moving out from the centre of the circle suggests some dissatisfaction. - Develop a list of questions about that you would like the participants to answer: • How was logistic organized (accommodation and meals)? • How was time allocated during the training course? • What do you feel were the strengths of this training course? • What do you feel were the weaknesses of this training course? • How well do you think you communicated your views within the training course? • How well do you feel you contributed to your team and the group as a whole? • How well do you think team members worked together? • Do you feel your understanding of others has increased? • How well do you think the team listened to each other’s views and opinions? • Were conflicts arising within the activities? How well do you think team worked together to find a solution? • What are key competences you have gained within the training? Are these key competences important? How will you apply it in your daily work and life? • How will you follow up this training course as a youth worker? • What will you do differently in your practice/work setting as a result of

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this training? - As you ask each question, learners are to stand in the target in a position that represents their views. - The facilitator records participants’ comments on flip chart.

Duration Materials Tips and Tricks

Flipchart, paper, pencil Data collected are used to complement further formal evaluation data collected at the end of the training course (such us questionnaire for evaluation and self-assessment).

varitations

/

Resources

Adapted from “Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities, A Handbook for Human Rights Educators”, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/EvaluationHandbookPT18.pdf

Debriefing & Reflection 240

60 min

Do not comment, just keep the flow and good energies going.


CASE STUDY Exploitation and abuse of talibè children in Senegal

Title

Vulnerable children in Kenya and in the Kisumu region

Target group/s

Kisumu region, Kenya

Context

Kenya is a signatory of various international laws regarding the handling of the children such as the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the African Charter on Children, etc. Kenya applied to be accepted as one of the State Parties that recognizes and applies the CRC but the application was rejected as it was received late. It was not until 2001 that it was adopted and Kenya signed the protocol. It therefore meant that the country had to abide by the CRC requirements and it had to prepare a legal framework to make it operational in the country. Although the Kenyan Constitution 2010, does not expressly have a chapter that expressly deal with the issues of Child Rights, in its Chapter 4 and 5, they are included in the Bill of Rights that was directly adopted from the UN statutes that offers protection for the safeguards of individual rights and freedoms, including the right to association, movement, secure protection of the law, religion and conscience and the right to life. The rights of the children are found in various sections of the constitution and the laws that have been created to anchor them such as the penal code. In the Penal Code (Cap.63 of the Laws of Kenya), which defines the Penal system in Kenya and outlines various criminal offences and prescribes penalties to the offenders, various offences against the children have been outlined. In the Penal Code, children are protected through punishment for acts and omissions, which amount to child abuse. These include, sexual abuse, physical abuse, concealment of birth, killing of the unborn, and procurement of abortion unless where there is a determination by a Health Professional that the pregnancy may harm the life of the mother or the foetus. The Penal Code operates that all the things that are done should consider the interest of the child and where the law does not uphold that then it is considered inconsistent with the Constitution. According to the Kenyan Constitution which has borrowed extensively from the CRC and the African Charter on the rights of the children, all children have rights to life and the government plus the family/parents having the responsibility of ensuring the survival and development of every child. All children have a right to parental care; to live with and be cared for by his/her parents. All children have a right to education as they are entitled to free and compulsory primary education, the provision of which shall be the responsibility of the government and the parents. The right to education

Description

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includes religious education. All children have rights to health and medical care of which the government and the parents are supposed to give protection; including protection from child labour, sexual exploitation/prostitution, economic exploitation, armed conflict, cultural/religious practices that are harmful to their welfare such as FGM, right to name and nationality, child abuse, dignity, especially those with disabilities, torture, privacy.

Child Rights Abuses/Violations in Kenya

Violations of rights faced by children

Although Kenya is a signatory of all the international laws governing the upbringing and protection of the children, including the provisions for the same within the Constitution and the Penal Code, the actual practice is still not up to date as there are cases of abuses and violations involving children. Although it is the right of every child to access health and medical care, the cost sharing policy that the government put in place has ensured that only those who are able to pay access the services. The same is replicated in the education sector where, even though the government declared primary education to universally free, the government cannot cater for everything thereby insisting that the parents pay for uniforms plus other levies for some of the things that the government cannot give. Although the law in Kenya prohibits some negative socio/cultural and religious practices such as FGM and child marriages, the enforcement of the same laws has been hampered by the fear that strict application of the law will have negative political consequences for the ruling class as some of the communities consider such practices as they age-old cultural identities that should not be interfered with. For example, the Sexual Offences and harmful traditional practices act, outlaw the FGM, it is still being practiced by most of the Kenyan communities such as Somalis (98%), Kisii (96%), Meru (80%), Maasai and Samburu (96%), Kalenjin (65%), Kikuyu (56%), Pokot (97%) and Kuria (98%). The same is the case with child marriages, where as much as the legal age of marriage in Kenya is pegged at 18 years for girls and 21 years, it is very common to find underage children being married, especially among the nomadic/pastoral communities who believe that once a person has undergone the cultural rite of passage which normally is circumcision then they are ready for marriage. The loophole is found in the legal framework in the country where there are different laws governing marriage. In Kenya there are four types of marriage laws; Christian marriage law and Common Law which allows marriage between one man and one wife unless one of them dies or the marriage is dissolved, Islamic marriage, which allows a man to marry up to four wives and the African Customary law which allows marrying of more than one wife at the same time. The sexual offences act also puts the age of sexual consent at the age of 16 years and prohibits defilement of underage children. Even though having sexual contact with a minor is prohibited, it has not been easy to enforce since some of the victims or their relatives do not report the cases and also there is the problem of corruption among

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the law enforcement officers who normally interfere with the evidence after being bribed by the offenders. Among some communities such as the Somali, the cases of defilement are handled by elders in a cultural setting where the offender is fined two goats, one for the family of the victim and the other for the elders. Because of the weak enforcement of the sexual offences law, Kenya has been identified as one of the sex tourism destination, especially the coastal towns where there are tourist hotels and villas. Even though it is very common and being practiced openly, the government has been reluctant to punish the offenders for fear of affecting the tourism sector which is a major revenue earner for the government. Other violations of the children’s rights in the country include trafficking, labour, neglect and street children who are not cared for by anyone including the government departments. Even the law prohibits the arrest of children and taking them to court, there are many cases of children who are arrested and put in the same cells and prisons with adults where they are exposed to further abuses. Children with disabilities have also not been satisfactorily catered for by either the state or the parents. Among many communities, the issues of disability are associated with bad luck or a curse and parents who have such children discriminate them as they fear the community perceptions and attitudes. The right to equality is the right of all human beings to be equal in dignity, to be treated with respect, consideration and to participate on an equal basis with others in areas of economic, social, political, cultural or civil life. Most children who are disabled are denied the chance to receive decent health care and education as the number of specialized institutions such as schools and homes that care for them are very few in the country. One of the most common abuses that have compromised the access to the rights of the children is the exposure to extreme poverty by many communities. Although the different segments of the communities are experiencing the burden of poverty, the children feel the burden more even though theirs is considered as hidden. Kenya has no social protection programme to cater for the marginalized and vulnerable members of the society and when the inflation rises it impacts negatively more on those who have no means of cushioning themselves such as the children. According to UNICEF, the failure of the March-June long rains in 2017, the third consecutive poor rains since early 2016, has helped push an additional 37,000 children across the country below the threshold of acute malnutrition. Almost 370,000 children across the country now require treatment for acute malnutrition, including 72,600 who are suffering from the most severe form, which requires specialized, life-saving care. In February, there were an estimated 343,000 acutely malnourished children. In four out of 17 surveys conducted in June and July, acute malnutrition rates were at least double the emergency threshold of 15 per cent. Turkana South recorded the highest rate – 37 per cent – close to the 37.4 per cent peak recorded during the Horn of Africa crisis in 2011. Turkana Central, Turkana North and North Horr in Marsabit County registered acute malnutrition rates between 30 and 37 per cent. Nine additional counties recorded rates above 15 per cent. This crisis underlines the chronic impact of these drought conditions.

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According to 2014-2016 data released in a new UN report, The State of Food Security and Nutrition, undernourishment in Kenya affected 19.1% or 8.8 million people. The report notes that climate-related issues have increased food insecurity in regions affected by drought, also contributing to an increase in undernourishment. The lack of food and water in schools and drought-related migration are also pulling children out of classrooms. Several schools have closed while others are overcrowded because of migrating children or children who come in search of school-feeding. There is anecdotal evidence of increasing early marriage and child labor. An estimated 1 million children are in need of support to keep learning. Across the country, 1.6 million children are now food insecure, up from 1.2 million in February and 600,000 in August 20161.

Child Rights Situational Analysis: Kisumu region

Located on the North Eastern shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, Kisumu City is the third largest town in Kenya after Mombasa and Nairobi. It is the seat of the Western Kenyan region and is strategically placed astride the Northern Corridor, an International Highway linking the East Coast of Africa (Indian Ocean) to the Central and Western Africa. Kisumu region covers all the parts of Kenya that are found to the western Kenya around the North Eastern end of Lake Victoria. It covers both rural and urban centers such as Kisumu City and other satellite towns such as Ahero, Muhoroni, Awasi, Holo, Lwanda, Majengo and Mbale. The main economic livelihood sources include agriculture, fishing, employment, small scale businesses, factories, manual labour and services. In Kenya the region forms one of those that have the high incidences of poverty, with approximately 60% of the population living below poverty line. What this means is that most of the problems associated with poverty are prevalent such as HIV/AIDS which is prevalent at the rate of 24.6% compared to the national prevalence average of 5.5%! What this means is that the number of deaths resulting from HIV/AIDS related infections and diseases are very many leaving behind orphans who are either caring for themselves or under the care of aged and vulnerable grandparents. Because of the level of vulnerability due to poverty and lack of care, most of these children either run to the streets within the urban centers such as Kisumu, become victims of sexual abuse and exploitation as they engage n prostitution, some either get pregnant or married at an early age, engage in drug abuse and crime or are trafficked to other areas where they are employed in deplorable conditions as servants. It is no wonder; the region is considered the main source for the domestic servants and casual labourers in other towns such as Nairobi and Mombasa. Kisumu region account for the highest number of orphaned and vulnerable children in Kenya. Almost 6 out of 10 children have or are facing rights violation while 5 out of 10 children have faced a tragedy (death) or disaster stricken, children and young people from poor and needy families suffer disproportionately. These exert great impact on children in many ways. They get separated from their families and friends, become orphaned or isolated. Their supporting structures, such as schools are destroyed

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UNICEF, Press release - Nutrition crisis deepening across Kenya, https://www.unicef.org/media/media_100836.html


or requisitioned for other uses. They struggle to deal with uncertainty, anxiety and shock, so their emotional and psychological well-being suffers. Because of the levels of poverty within the region, most of the children who cannot afford the levies and the associated utilities such as uniforms dropout of schools. This region has the highest numbers of children who should be in school out and roaming the streets, engaged in casual labour and hawking items such as fruits and water. Within the urban centres such as Kisumu City, the level of unemployment is very high and most of the people are engaged either in casual jobs such as within the fishery sector, petty businesses, sometimes work as shop attendants where the pay is low, while some engage in certain social evils such as crime, selling of drugs and illegal alcoholic drinks or prostitution. Because of the low incomes, most people are accommodated in the informal settlements where there are many cases of child abuse and neglect as the adults also engage in temporary relationships and some of them are drunkards who cannot care for and protect their children. Because Kisumu is closer to the border with Uganda and with the countries that are experiencing violent conflicts such as Burundi and Democratic Republic of Congo, it forms the biggest point of stop for mobile populations who are escaping from their countries. Most of them end up abandoning their children as they try to find a new life in other countries such as South Africa and United States of America.The cultures of some of the communities living within the region have also compromised the welfare of the children. For example, Kisii, Kuria, Somalis and Kalenjin communities who have a significant percent within the region still practice Female Genital Mutilation therefore abusing the rights of their children. Among the Luo who are the majority and the Luhyia, there still exists discrimination of children based on gender. Male children are still considered more important than the female ones and when the resources are scarce and a choice has to be made on who is to be taken to school, the girls always lose out as they are considered “outsiders� since they would be married off to other places while the boys would continue the lineage of the parents. The region also is home to some of the groups that have very rigid cultures and certain religions such as Legio Maria that does not value education and modern medical care. They believe in spiritual healing and so when a child is sick, they only believe in prayers. In rural Kenya, especially in Kisumu region, more than a quarter of girls experience sexual abuse and violence. Because of their age and sex, emergencies increase girls’ vulnerability when their families and communities are least able to protect them. This puts them at increased risk of violence and exploitation: they can be missed in traditional child protection interventions in emergencies, such as child-friendly spaces, but also may not be reached with protection programming used to reach adult women. It is now seen as a big achievement since the government of Kenya adopted the Girl Child Education Policy. Since then, organizations, donors and the humanitarian community have heightened the duty to protect girls of all ages, before, during and after disasters, and their education welfare. However, the welfare of the boy child has been washed under the carpet and this pose a serious danger to them.

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According to recent studies conducted by different institutions in Kenya, child protection interventions are often left unfunded in the first phase. However, child protection interventions are life-saving, and it is critical they receive adequate funding right from the start. Therefore it is critical that specific funding is allocated to child protection interventions, including gender sensitive protection interventions.

Suggested readings

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- UNICEF - Kenya Home page, https://www.unicef.org/kenya - UNICEF Kenya, Annual Report 2016, https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Kenya_2016_COAR.pdf - EU humanitarian aid of ₏800,000 for education and protection of refugee children in Kenya - https://www.unicef.org/kenya/media_20131.html - Drought in Kenya: Far away from home, 14-year-old Rahama, wants to bring change, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/reallives_20060.html - Nutrition crisis deepening across Kenya – UNICEF, - https://www.unicef.org/kenya/media_20343.html - UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation: Annual Report 2016 https://www.unicef.org/kenya/UNFPA_UNICEF_Joint_Programme_on_FGM_Annual_Report_2016.pdf


TASK 5.1 Understanding:

4 Closed-ended questions 1. LIFE- SKILLS

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life-skills as “abilities for adaptive and positive behaviour that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life”. They include a combination of knowledge, values, attitudes and skills with particular emphasis on those that are related to ability to participate effectively and constructively in one’s social and working life and engage in active and democratic participation, especially in increasingly diverse societies. Life-skills are very important as they enhance the wellbeing of the society and promote positive outlook and a healthy behaviour. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life-skills as “abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life”. They include a combination of knowledge, values, attitudes and skills with particular emphasis on those that are related to ability to appreciate the creative importance of ideas, experiences and emotions in a range of media such as music, literature and visual and performing arts. Life-skills are very important as they enhance the wellbeing of the society and promote positive outlook and a healthy behavior. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines life-skills as “abilities for adaptive and positive behavior that enables individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life”. They include a combination of knowledge, values, attitudes and skills with particular emphasis on those that are related to self-management, communication, inter-personal relations, critical thinking and problem solving. Life-skills are very important as they enhance the wellbeing of the society and promote positive outlook and a healthy behavior.

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2) PARTECIPATION The term “participation” is explained as a holistic process of ensuring that everyone is involved and their opinions are taken into account. Participation itself can be categorized into the following different levels: 1. Functional participation 2. Participation by material incentives 3. Participation by consultation 4. Participation by giving information 5. Passive participation 1. Self-mobilization 2. Interactive participation 3. Functional participation 4. Participation by material incentives 5. Participation by consultation 6. Participation by giving information 7. Passive participation 1. Self-mobilization 2. Interactive participation 3. Functional participation 4. Participation by material incentives 5. Participation by consultation 6. Participation by giving information 3) EVERY CHILD HAS THE RIGHT TO AN EDUCATION Education is one of the fundamental rights of the children. There are two groups – rights holders and duty bearers – who have specific responsibilities to ensure education for all. Rights holders include all those without a primary school education. Those responsible for seeing the right to education fulfilled include hierarchy of duty bearers: parents, households and communities; teachers and managers; planners and administrators; national and local governments; non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations, the international community. Education is one of the fundamental rights of the children. There are two groups – rights holders and duty bearers – who have specific responsibilities to ensure education for all. Rights holders include all those without a primary school education. Those responsible for seeing the right to education fulfilled include the international community and governments that have a unique responsibility to secure the total package of resources, such as national budgetary allocations to education or external financial assistance, to ensure every child’s right to education.

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Education is one of the fundamental rights of the children. There are two groups – rights holders and duty bearers – who have specific responsibilities to ensure education for all. Rights holders include all those without a primary school education. Those responsible for seeing the right to education fulfilled include a hierarchy of duty bearers: teachers and managers; planners and administrators; national and local governments; non-governmental organizations and civil society organization 4) SUSTAINABILITY, OWNERSHIP AND PARTICIPATION The sustainability of projects depends on building ownership and participation by the local communities and beneficiaries from just being beneficiaries who are vulnerable to strong groups with skills and knowledge to manage their own development process even in the absence of the external actors. Participatory monitoring and evaluation project should involve and engage actively local governments and donors by negotiating and agreeing on what changes they expect from projects; what they need to do to achieve these changes; what local and scientific indicators will track these changes; and which success and failure factors need to be monitored to ensure that the projects are on track. The sustainability of projects depends on building ownership and participation by the local governments and donors. Participatory monitoring and evaluation project should involve and engage actively local governments and donors by negotiating and agreeing on what changes they expect from projects; what they need to do to achieve these changes; what local and scientific indicators will track these changes; and which success and failure factors need to be monitored to ensure that the projects are on track. The sustainability of projects depends on building ownership and participation by the local communities and beneficiaries from just being beneficiaries who are vulnerable to strong groups with skills and knowledge to manage their own development process even in the absence of the external actors. Participatory monitoring and evaluation project should involve and engage actively beneficiaries and stakeholders by negotiating and agreeing on what changes they expect from projects; what they need to do to achieve these changes; what local and scientific indicators will track these changes; and which success and failure factors need to be monitored to ensure that the projects are on track.

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TASK 5.2- Reflection:

1 open-ended questions

WITH REFERENCE TO THE LOGFRAME MATRIX DEVELOPED IN THE LEARNING MODULE - TASK 2.2- REFLECTION: • Explain how the project will contribute to cope with and fight the identified violations of children rights, in accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. • Indicate the background and experience that your organization occupies in the field. • Specify the partner organizations involved at both community and regional level (if any) and the related roles and responsibilities within the proposed project. • Explain the capacity of the consortium to undertake the proposed project. • Describe how final beneficiaries and stakeholders (non-governmental organizations, youth associations and groups, parents associations, public bodies and the private sector) will contribute to the project design and implementation. • Provide a brief description of your communication strategy for community engagement. Who are the target groups? Explain how will you engage within the target groups and with the broader community? What is your experience of partnership with other organizations or professionals in the field of child protection and development?

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CHAPTER 6 Workshop:“Designing a project concept note”


REFLECTIONING: Designing a project concept note PROJECT CONCEPT NOTE

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Based on the information in the previous learning modules in the section TASKs - Reflection: open-ended questions, particularly TASK 2.2 - The logframe matrix , provide a clear, complete and concise concept note of your project. The concept note should be no longer than 3 pages and include the following: - The title - The final beneficiaries - The geographic context - The duration - The problem(s) the project is attempting to address - The objectives - Expected outcomes and outputs - The consortium - The strategy that will be used to address the problem(s) and achieve the outcomes and objectives - The relevance - The sustainability


TITLE

Specify a title and an acronym.

FINAL BENEFICIARIES

State the intended project beneficiaries, both direct (those who will be directly targeted by the project’s activities and outputs) and indirect. Provide an approximate number for each.

THE GEOGRAPHIC CONTEXT

Specify the geographic context (states, provinces, districts, villages etc.). Attaching a map of the target areas is helpful.

DURATION

Specify the duration. Example: two-year.

VIOLATION OF RIGHTS

- State the main/focal violation of right/s addressed by the project is/are. - Present a more detailed analysis of the main/focal problem by describing the specific underlying causes and consequences. It might help to break both causes and consequences down into different categories, such as policy/legal constraints, institutional constraints, capacity, weaknesses, and social/cultural norms. - Present background facts and statistics with source in the targeted region, including ratified international conventions and national legislation, country reports by UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC), governments and UNICEF country situation analyses, statistics generated by ministries or statistical offices, other reports by human rights watching bodies, international organizations and NGOs, other sources of data and surveys (if available or conducted in a preliminary analysis phase). - Explain how targeted children and young people are consulted and engaged in the analysis phase. Use body map, school / community map, other child friendly tools for analysis and planning.

Example: Women and unaccompanied refugee children fleeing from Libya into Europe, have reported experiencing or witnessing brutal acts of violence and grave human rights violations.Many unaccompanied refugee children are traumatized and need urgent and specialized care on arrival.

Overall objective

Briefly state the overall development goal (preferably in one sentence). This is the long-term of the project and extends well beyond the scope of the project’s timeline and scale of intervention. It is assumed that if the specific objective and outcomes are achieved, then the project will contribute towards this overall goal.

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Example: “To foster resilience, protection and development of unaccompanied refugee children in the hosting community”.

SPECIFIC objective

State the specific objective (preferably in one sentence). This is the medium-term objective of the project to be achieved within the timeframe of the project. In the hierarchy of objectives, it is below the overall goal, but at a higher level than the project outcomes. The main/focal problem and the project objective are interrelated: the specific objective seeks to directly address the main/focal problem.

Example: If the focal problem is identified as being “Many unaccompanied refugee children are traumatized and need urgent and specialized care on arrival”, then the specific objective might be “To enhance holistic emergency responses for refugee children on their arrival”. A maximum of 1 or 2 specific objective/s should be sufficient for most community projects.

expected outcomes

List the expected outcomes (one sentence each). These are the actual positive changes that will be brought within the timeframe of the project. A maximum of 3 outcomes should be sufficient for most community projects.

Example: O1. Increased psychosocial well-being and restored normalcy for unaccompanied refugee children. O2. Assisted children traveling alone with appropriate shelter, service and legal orientation. O3. Enhanced community responsibility to welcome and protect unaccompanied refugee children.

OUTPUTS AND ACTIVITIES

Please state all outputs according to each identified outcome. Provide a concise but complete description of the output (what, why, how, who, where, and when). An output is a tangible product/service delivered by a project to achieve expected outcomes and objectives. Outputs relate to the completion of activities. For each output, specify the main activities that will be needed to complete it.

Example: O1. Increased psychosocial well-being and restored normalcy for unaccompanied refugee children - Output 1.1: n.1 Child health desk: support to children travelling alone, including support to pregnant women and mothers traveling with young infants. A1: Establishment of the child health desk A2: Analysis and Identification of health and psychosocial needs

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A3: Involvement, orientation and training of staff (psychologists, doctors, cultural mediators, social workers) A4: Launch of the child health desk - Output 1.2: n.2 Emergency desks for distribution of food, safe water, tents, winter clothes, baby clothes, toes. O2. Assisted children traveling alone with appropriate shelter, service and legal orientation. - Output 2.1: n.2 Child friendly spaces in refugee centers / camps, providing a protective environment where children can play, feel safe, and engage in recreational and educational activities that help them forget the stress and trauma from the journey. - Output 2.2: n.1 Child orientation space, referring children alone to appropriate services in the hosting community related to shelter, legal orientation and assignment of a legal tutor, health and social services, local language and other educational activities, other. O3. Enhanced community capacity and social responsibility to welcome and protect unaccompanied refugee children. - Output 3.1: n. 8 Training workshops to enhance the capacity of both public and private social workers, cultural mediators, psychologists, doctors to ensure holistic responses andprotection of refugee children travelling alone. - Output 3.2: A media campaign to raise awareness about social responsibility and engagement of the hosting community.

the consortium

Specify the partner organizations involved at both community and regional level (if any) and the related roles and responsibilities within the proposed project.

PROJECT STRATEGY

Provide a clear explanation of the project’s strategy for child prevention, protection and rehabilitation and explain: - how this strategy will directly tackle the specific violations of rights and achieve the planned specific objective; - what and how duty bearers and key stakeholders from the child protection system will be engaged (use stakeholders and duty bearers matrix); - how final beneficiaries will be actively involved.

Example: - Identification of stakeholders and duty bearers from the child protection system in the targeted community context, including mapping of capacities, responsibilities, preventive and responsive services, level of cooperation and synergy between all stakeholders and duty bearers - Development of a community strategy in the targeted community to ensure the prevention, protection and rehabilitation of those children and young people that are victim of violence, exploitation and abuse.

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RELEVANCE

- Provide a brief description of the relevance of the proposed project to the needs of the targeted children. - Explain how the principles set out in the CRC (Non-discrimination, The best interest of the child, Survival and development, Participation) are incorporated in the project idea and strategy.

SUSTAINABILITY

- Describe the long-term impact that the project is expected to attain. - Describe how the project outcomes will be sustained beyond its life cycle and what activities /strategies are planned for ensuring the sustainability of the project and its results.

THE BUDGET

Estimate a general budget. The budget should be realistic and should align with the activities and outputs described above.

TIPS FOR DEVELOPING THE CONCEPT NOTE

- Use tools and contents as experimented and applied in the previous learning modules. - There are many causal factors contributing to a specifc focal rights’ violation, remind the proposed project can only address a small subset of these. - When formulating the objectives, do not attempt to general or too ambitious. An objective should be SMART (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timely). - When formulating the outcomes and outputs, do not attempt to be too broad or too ambitious. The outcomes should be realistically framed, so that they are achievable within the timeframe of the project. - There should be a logical flow: the outputs should contribute towards the outcomes, which should lead to achieve the project specific objective and ultimately to contribute to the overall objective. - The outcomes and outputs should be clearly connected to the overall strategy.

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RESOURSES


Resources on child protection and development HUMAN RIGHTS

- United Nations, Human Rights, http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/ - United Nations, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ - EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/fundamental-rights/ charter/index_en.htm Treaty of Lisbon, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=OJ%3AC%3A2007%3A306%3ATOC - The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Pages/WhatareHumanRights.aspx

THE UN CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

- UNICEF, Rights overview, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf - UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/ - UNICEF, A summary of the rights under the Convention on the Rights of the Child, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Rights_overview.pdf - European Union, Justice, Rights of the child, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/fundamental-rights/rights-child/index_en.htm - European Commission, EU Agenda for the Rights of the Child (2011), http://ec.europa. eu/justice/policies/children/docs/com_2011_60_en.pdf - Fundamental Rights Agency – FRA, Rights of the child, http://fra.europa.eu/en/theme/rights-child - UNICEF, The Convention on the Rights of the Child, “Guiding principles: general requirements for all rights”, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Guiding_Principles.pdf - UNICEF, Survival and development rights: the basic rights to life, survival and development of one’s full potent, http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Survival_Development. pdf - UNICEF, THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD, Protection rights: keeping safe from harm, http://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Protection_list.pdf - UNICEF, The Convention on the Rights of the Child - Participation rights: having an active voice, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/Participation.pdf - European Commission, Justice, The right of the child to be heard (child participation), http://ec.europa.eu/justice/fundamental-rights/rights-child/child-participation/index_en.htm - UNICEF, Child participation, https://www.unicef.org/sowc03/contents/childpartici-


pation.html - UNICEF, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Every child has the right to an education, https://www.unicef.org/crc/index_73893.html - UNICEF, The participation of children and young people in UNICEF country programme and national committee activities, https://www.unicef.org/adolescence/files/ Desk_study_on_child_participation-2009.pdf - Child Fund Australia, The Role of Child and Youth Participation in Development Effectiveness, https://www.unicef.org/adolescence/cypguide/files/Role_of_Child_and_ Youth_Participation_in_Development_Effectiveness.pdf - UNICEF, Education, rights and responsibilities, https://www.unicef.org/sowc04/ sowc04_education_rights_responsibilities.html - OHCHR, The right of the child to rest, leisure, play, recreational activities, www2. ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/docs/GC/CRC-C-GC-17_en.doc - UNESCO, UNESCO and Education: Everyone has the right to education, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002127/212715e.pdf - Council of Europe, Strategy for the Rights of the Child (2016-2021), https://rm.coe. int/168066cff8 - UNICEF, Every Child’s Birth Right: Inequities and trends in birth registration, https:// data.unicef.org/resources/every-childs-birth-right-inequities-and-trends-in-birth-registration-2/

A CHILD RIGHTS BASED APPROACH

- General Comment No 13 of the UN Committee on the rights of the child, para 59, definition of a child rights approach, http://www.refworld.org/docid/4e6da4922.html - EU-UNICEF Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating Child Rights in Development Cooperation, https://www.unicef.org/myanmar/Child-Rights-Toolkit-Web-Links.pdf - “EU-UNICEF Child Rights Toolkit: Integrating child rights in development cooperation, Module 1: Overview of Child Rights in Development Cooperation”, https://www. unicef.org/eu/crtoolkit/downloads/Child-Rights-Toolkit-Module1-Web-Links.pdf - UNICEF, Human Rights-based Approach to Programming, https://www.unicef.org/ policyanalysis/rights/index_62012.html - UNICEF, Toolkit on Diversion and Alternatives to Detention 2009, Part A: ‘UNICEF position on a human rights-based approach to programming in relation to children’, https://www.unicef.org/tdad/index_55653.html - Council of Europe, Child Participation Assessment Tool, https://rm.coe.int/ 16806482da - Save the Children, Child Rights Situation Analysis Guidelines, https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/crsa_guidelines2.pdf - Save the Children’s Resource Centre, Child Rights Toolkit, https://resourcecentre. savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/documents/child-rights-toolkit-web-links.pdf - UNICEF, Examples of Recent Situation Analyses, https://www.unicef.org/sitan/index_43351.html - ALNAP, Syria - Child rights situation analysis, http://www.alnap.org/resource/20091 - UNICEF, An Analysis of the Situation of Children and Women in Cambodia, Chapter III. The Child’s Right to Life and Health - Duty-bearers’ roles, responsibilities and capacity gaps, https://www.unicef.org/cambodia/Part6_Women_and_children_SitAn_Re-


port_09.pdf - UNICEF, Engaging Stakeholders on Children’s Rights, https://www.unicef.org/csr/css/Stakeholder_Engagement_on_Childrens_Rights_021014.pdf - Scottish Executive, Engaging children and young people in community planning, http://www.gov.scot/resource/doc/154089/0041433.pdf

CHILD PROTECTION

- UNICEF, What is Child Protection, www.unicef.org/protection/files/What_is_Child_ Protection.pdf - UNICEF, Child-centered Development, https://www.unicef.org/dprk/ccd.pdf - Child Frontiers Ltd, Mapping and Analysis of the Child Protection System in Sierra Leone, https://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Child_Protection_Systems_Sierra_Leone_Report.pdf - European Union, DG Education and Culture, Early childhood education and care, http://ec.europa.eu/education/policy/school/early-childhood_en - Save the Children, Risk Reduction and Adaptation for East Africa - A step by step approach with and for children, https://resourcecentre.savethechildren.net/sites/ default/files/documents/risk_reduction_and_adaptation_for_east_africa_-_a_step_ by_step_approach_with_and_for_children_2013_sci.pdf - UNICEF, Adapting a Systems Approach to Child Protection: Key Concepts and Considerations, https://www.unicef.org/protection/Conceptual_Clarity_Paper_ Oct_2010(4).pdf - The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA), Mapping child protection systems in the EU, http://fra.europa.eu/en/publication/2015/mapping-child-protection-systems-eu - UNICEF UK, Child Rights and Social Accountability in the Post-2015 World, https:// www.unicef.org/policyanalysis/rights/files/FINAL_UNICEF-London-Workshop_(1).pdf) - UNICEF Child Protection Strategy, Full text of the strategy which should be used to guide programming for child protection, https://www.unicef.org/tdad/unicefcpstrategyjune08(2).pdf - The Protective Environment: Development Support for Child Protection’, Karin Landgren, Human Rights Quarterly, 2005, https://www.unicef.org/tdad/karinlandgrenarticle(2).pdf - UNICEF - ‘Progress for Children: A Report Card on Child Protection’, https://www. unicef.org/tdad/unicefeportcardcp09.pdf - UNICEF, Children in alternative care, https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/ children-alternative-care/ - The European Union, European Platform for Investing in Children (EPIC), http:// ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=1246&langId=en

CHILD POVERTY

- UNICEF, Defining child poverty, https://www.unicef.org/sowc05/english/povertyissue.html - UNICEF, Ending Extreme Poverty: a Focus on Children, https://data.unicef.org/


wp-content/uploads/2017/09/Ending_Extreme_Poverty_A_Focus_on_Children_ Oct_2016.pdf - World Bank, New Estimates of Extreme Poverty for Children 2016, http://documents. worldbank.org/curated/en/402511475417572525/pdf/WPS7845.pdf - UNICEF, Child poverty: IndIcators to measure progress for the SDGS, https://www. unicef.org/agenda2030/files/Child_povety_SDG_indicators_brief_March_2015.pdf

CHILD LABOUR AND TRAFFICKING

- UNICEF India, Child labour http://unicef.in/Whatwedo/21/Child-Labour - UNICEF, Training Manual to Fight Trafficking in Children for Labour, Sexual and other forms of Exploitation, https://www.unicef.org/protection/Textbook_1.pdf - European Union, DG Migration and Home Affairs, Child sexual abuse, https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/what-we-do/policies/organized-crime-and-human-trafficking/ child-sexual-abuse_en - Child Trafficking: India’s silent shame, http://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/government/child-trafficking-indias-silent-shame - The Asia Foundation Human, Trafficking in India, https://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/StanfordHumanTraffickingIndiaFinalReport.pdf - UNICEF, Guidelines on The Protection Of Child Victims Of Trafficking, https://www. unicef.org/protection/Unicef_Victims_Guidelines_en.pdf - UNICEF, Risks and Realities of Child Trafficking and Exploitation in Central Asia, 2009, https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58022.html#CT - Naik, Krishna C N, Human Trafficking In Andhra Pradesh - A Study in Kadiri Divisioon of Anantapuramu District, http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/handle/10603/102179

CHILD MARRIAGE

- UNFPA, Child marriage, http://www.unfpa.org/child-marriage - UNICEF, Ending Child Marriage Progress and Prospects, https://www.unicef.org/ media/files/Child_Marriage_Report_7_17_LR..pdf - UNICEF, Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse: Child marriage, https://www.unicef.org/protection/57929_58008.html - UNICEF, Child marriage, http://data.unicef.org/child-protection/child-marriage - UNICEF, A statistical snapshot of child marriage in West and Central Africa, https:// data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Child-Marriage-WEB.pdf

UNACCOMPANIED MIGRANT CHILDREN

- International Organization for Migration (IOM), Unaccompanied Children on the Move, https://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/uam_report_11812.pdf - UNICEF, Refugee and Migrant Crisis - Child Alert, https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/files/Child_Alert_Final_PDF.pdf - UNICEF, Children on the Move in Italy and Greece, https://www.unicef.org/eca/REACH_ITA_GRC_Report_Children_on_the_Move_in_Italy_and_Greece_June_2017.pdf - European Parliament, Vulnerability of unaccompanied and separated child migrants, http://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/BRIE/2016/595853/EPRS_ BRI(2016)595853_EN.pdf - Policies, practices and data on unaccompanied minors in the EU Member States


and Norway Synthesis Report: May 2015, http://ec.europa.eu/anti-trafficking/sites/ antitrafficking/files/emn_study_2014_uams.pdf - UNICEF, Children on the move, https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/ - UNICEF, Refugee Children: Guidelines on Protection and Care, https://www.unicef. org/violencestudy/pdf/refugee_children_guidelines_on_protection_and_care.pdf - UNICEF, Education Uprooted For every migrant, refugee and displaced child, education, https://www.unicef.org/media/files/Education_Uprooted_DIGITAL.pdf - European Commission Justice, Children in migration, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/ fundamental-rights/rights-child/protection-systems/index_en.htm - Danger every step of the way, A harrowing journey to Europe for refugee and migrant children, https://www.unicef.org/emergencies/childrenonthemove/files/Child_Alert_ Final_PDF.pdf - Human Rights Watch, Caught in a net: Unaccompanied migrant children in Europe, https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/HRW_CRD_migrant_brcohure_low.pdf - Unaccompanied Minors and the ‘Migrant Crisis’ - A case study on the reception of unaccompanied minors in Eastern-Sicily, http://www.meltingpot.org/IMG/pdf/final_ version_thesis_lucia_slot.pdf - Al Jazeera, Saving Senegal’s sons from vanishing in European seas, http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2017/05/saving-senegal-sons-vanishing-european-seas-170530065009710.html

VIOLENCE

- UNICEF, Violence, https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-protection/violence/ - UNICEF, Ending Violence Against Children: Six Strategies for Action, https://www. unicef.org/publications/files/Ending_Violence_Against_Children_Six_strategies_for_ action_EN_9_Oct_2014.pdf - UNICEF, Children and violence, https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/digest2e.pdf - UNICEF, Children and Armed Conflict, https://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/HSNBook.pdf

FEMALE GENITAL MUTILATION

- UNICEF,female-genital-mutilation-and-cutting, https://data.unicef.org/topic/ child-protection/female-genital-mutilation-and-cutting/

FOCUS: ITALY

- UNICEF, Italy, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/italy_24100.html - Centro di Ricerca Innocenti dell’UNICEF,Figli della recessione: l’impatto della crisi economica sul benessere dei bambini nei paesi ricchi, https://www.unicef.it// doc/5885/pubblicazioni/report-card-12-figli-della-recessione.htm

FOCUS: SENEGAL

- UNICEF, Senegal, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/senegal.html - UNICEF, Senegal - Statistics, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/senegal_stati-


stics.html - UNICEF, SENEGAL Humanitarian Situation Report 2013 Overview, https://www.unicef.org/appeals/files/UNICEF_Senegal_SitRep_2013_Summary.pdf - Human Rights Watch, Senegal, https://www.hrw.org/africa/senegal - Human Rights Watch, Senegal: Decade of Abuse in Quranic Schools, https://www. hrw.org/news/2015/04/20/senegal-decade-abuse-quranic-schools

FOCUS: INDIA

- UNICEF, India, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india.html - India, Voluntary National Review 2017, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/memberstates/india - India, Voluntary National Review Report on Implementation of Sustainable Development Goals, 2017, https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/15836India.pdf - UNICEF India, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/india.html - UNICEF India, Progress for Children a report card on adolescents, http://unicef.in/ Uploads/Publications/Resources/pub_doc68.pdf

FOCUS: GREECE

- UNICEF, Greece, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/greece.html - UNICEF, Refugee and migrant children in Greece, https://www.unicef.org/eca/Refugee_and_migrant_children_in_Greece-_data_analysis_August_2017.pdf

FOCUS: KENYA

- UNICEF, Kenya, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/kenya_73692.html - UNICEF, Kenya Home page, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/ - UNICEF,Kenya, Annual Report 2016, https://www.unicef.org/about/annualreport/files/Kenya_2016_COAR.pdf - UNICEF Kenya and the National Council for Children’s Services, Situation Analysis of Children and UNICEF, Adolescents in Kenya, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/SITAN_2014_Web.pdf - UNICEF, EU humanitarian aid of €800,000 for education and protection of refugee children in Kenya, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/media_20131.html - UNICEF, Drought in Kenya: Far away from home, 14-year-old Rahama, wants to bring change, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/reallives_20060.html - UNICEF, Nutrition crisis deepening across Kenya, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/ media_20343.html UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation: Annual Report 2016, https://www.unicef.org/kenya/UNFPA_UNICEF_Joint_Programme_on_FGM_Annual_Report_2016.pdf

FOCUS: PERU

- UNICEF, Peru, https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/peru.html - UNICEF, Situation of children in Peru, https://www.unicef.org/peru/spanish/Folleto_ing_correc_1.pdf - OHCHR, Committee on the Rights of the Child considers the report of Peru, http://


www.ohchr.org/EN/NewsEvents/Pages/DisplayNews.aspx?NewsID=16957&LangID=E

THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS

- UNDP, The Sustainable Development Goals, http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/ home/sustainable-development-goals/background.html - UN, The Sustainable Development Goals http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ - UNDP, What are the Sustainable Development Goals? http://www.undp.org/content/ undp/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html - The World Bank, Sustainable Development, http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/sustainabledevelopment

Non-formal education and community development

NON-FORMAL EDUCATION AND HUMAN RIGHTS

- Non-formal education - Council of Europe, http://www.assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/ XRef/X2H-Xref-ViewHTML.asp?FileID=8807&lang=en - Compass: Manual for Human Rights Education with Young people, http://www.coe. int/en/web/compass/approaches-to-human-rights-education-in-compass - UNICEF, Child Rights Education Toolkit, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/UNICEF_ CRE_Toolkit_FINAL_web_version170414.pdf - UNICEF, A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education for All, - https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/A_Human_Rights_Based_Approach_to_ Education_for_All.pdf - UNICEF, Child Rights Education Toolkit: Rooting Child Rights in Early Childhood Education, Primary and Secondary Schools, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/UNICEF_ CRE_Toolkit_FINAL_web_version170414.pdf - Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, https://selforganizedseminar.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/freire_pedagogy_oppresed1.pdf - EDDILI – To Educate is to Make Possible the Discovery of Life, http://reciprocalmaieutic.danilodolci.it/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/English.pdf - Nancy Flowers, Human Rights Educators’ Network, Amnesty International USA, http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hrhandbook/activities/22.htm - SALTO Training & Cooperation, The Youthpass process and Learning to Learn, ht-


tps://www.youthpass.eu/downloads/13-62-54/TheYouthpassProcess_100923_S.pdf - SALTO Training & Cooperation, Forum and Image Theatre Manual - Toolbox — For Training and Youth Work, https://www.salto-youth.net/tools/toolbox/tool/forum-and-image-theatre-manual.1503/ - Introducing Forum Theatre as a tool to explore issues of equality and discrimination, http://www.youththeatre.ie/content/files/Theatre-Forum-Resource-web.pdf - Icebreakers.ws, Story starters, https://www.icebreakers.ws/small-group/story-starters.html - Julie Reed & Christopher Koliba, “Facilitating Reflection - A Manual for Leaders and Educators, Concentric Circles (from David Sawyer), https://www.uvm.edu/~dewey/ reflection_manual/activities.html - SALTO-YOUTH, Tools for Learning in Non Formal Education,https://www.salto-youth. net/downloads/4-17-2694/GP_Tools-For-Learning-in-non-formal-educ_GB_130912_ HD.pdf - UNICEF Canada, Teaching for Children’s Rights: Rights, Wants & Needs, http:// www.e-activist.com/ea-campaign/action.retrievefile.do?ea_fileid=14113 - UNICEF, Life skills, https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/ - The World Health Organization’s, Skills for Health Skills-based health education including life skills: An important component of a Child-Friendly/Health-Promoting School, http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/media/en/sch_skills4health_03.pdf - UNICEF, Life skills: A facilitator’s guide for teenagers, https://www.unicef.org/eapro/ Life_Skills__A_facilitator_guide_for_teenagers.pdf - Emotional Intelligence for teens ages 13-18, http://ong.ohio.gov/frg/FRGresources/ emotional_intellegence_13-18.pdf - “Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Evaluating Human Rights Training Activities, A Handbook for Human Rights Educators”, http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/EvaluationHandbookPT18.pdf - UNICEF, Teaching and learning about child rights: A study of implementation in 26 countries, https://www.unicef.org/crc/files/CHILD_RIGHTS_EDUCATION_STUDY_final.pdf

PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

- European Commission EuropeAid Cooperation Office, Project Cycle Management Guidelines, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/sites/devco/files/methodology-aid-delivery-methods-project-cycle-management-200403_en_2.pdf - UNESCO, The Definition of community development, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0017/001797/179726eb.pdf - World Health Organization (WHO) - African Health Observatory, Community ownership and participation, http://www.aho.afro.who.int/profiles_information/index.php/ AFRO:Community_ownership_and_participation_-_The_Health_System - Jemimah Njuki , Susan Kaaria Colletah Chitsike and Pascal Sanginga, Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation for Stakeholder Engagement, Assessment of Project Impacts, and for Institutional and Community Learning and Change, http://ciat-library. ciat.cgiar.org/Articulos_Ciat/Njuki-rev.pdf


THEORY OF CHANGE

- UNICEF, Theory of Change, 2014, https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/ brief_2_theoryofchange_eng.pdf - European Commission, Launching the EU International Cooperation and Development Results Framework, 2015, http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST7604-2015-INIT/en/pdf - Evaluation Office of UN Environment, Use of Theory of Change in Project Evaluations, http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7116/14.%20Use%20 of%20Theory%20of%20Change%20in%20Project%20Evaluation.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y - UNICEF Webinar: Theory of Change, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KRptX_ DNL2Q - UN Environment, Samples of Theory of Change diagrams, https://wedocs.unep.org/ bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7138/TOC%20Diagrams.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y - UNICEF, Revised Results Framework and Supplementary Programme - Note on the Theory of Change, 2014, https://www.unicef.org/about/execboard/files/Results_Matrix-TOC_informal-20May14.pdf

Funding programmes for international cooperation and development

FUNDING PROGRAMMES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

- Education, training, youth and sport (Erasmus +), https://eacea.ec.europa.eu/erasmus-plus_en - European voluntary humanitarian aid corps EU aid volunteers (EUAV), http://ec.europa.eu/echo/what/humanitarian-aid/eu-aid-volunteers_en - European Instrument for Democracy & Human Rights (EIDHR), https://ec.europa.eu/ europeaid/how/finance/eidhr_en.htm - Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF), https://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/ financing/fundings/migration-asylum-borders/asylum-migration-integration-fund_ en


- European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations, http://ec.europa.eu/ echo/what/civil-protection/mechanism_en - European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations – ECHO, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/funding-evaluations/funding-humanitarian-aid_en - EU Aid Volunteers, http://ec.europa.eu/echo/what/humanitarian-aid/eu-aid-volunteers_en - Emergency Support Instrument (ESI) for operations inside the EU, http://ec.europa. eu/echo/what-we-do/humanitarian-aid/emergency-support-within-eu_en - International Cooperation and Development, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/ node/22_en - European Neighbourhood Policy, https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/neighbourhood/overview_en - Health and food safety, http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_food-safety/index_en.htm - Fund for European Aid to the Most Deprived (FEAD), http://ec.europa.eu/social/main. jsp?catId=1089 - Instrument contributing to stability and peace (IcSP), http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/fpi/ what-we-do/instrument_contributing_to_stability_and_peace_en.htm - Horizon 2020, http://ec.europa.eu/programmes/horizon2020/ - Instrument for pre-accession assistance (IPA II), https://ec.europa.eu/neighbourhood-enlargement/instruments/overview_en - Justice Programme, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/grants1/programmes-2014-2020/ justice/index_en.htm - Rights, Equality and Citizenship Programme, http://ec.europa.eu/justice/grants1/ programmes-2014-2020/rec/index_en.htm - Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion, http://ec.europa.eu/social/home.jsp?langId=en - EU Emergency Trust Fund for Africa - https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/regions/africa/eu-emergency-trust-fund/sahel-region-and-lake-chad-area_en - Overview of other funding programmes of the European Union, https://ec.europa. eu/info/funding-tenders/overview-funding-programmes_en

SENEGAL

- Europaid – Senegal, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/countries/senegal_en - Delegation of the European Union in Senegal, http://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/ senegal/index_fr.htm

KENYA

- Europaid – Kenya, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/countries/kenya_en - Delegation of the European Union in Kenya, https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/ kenya_en

INDIA

- Europaid – India, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/countries/india_en - Delegation of the European Union in India, https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/india_en


PERU

- Europaid – Peru, https://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/countries/peru_en - Delegation of the European Union in Peru, https://eeas.europa.eu/delegations/ peru_en

GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES, FOUNDATIONS, OTHER PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DONORS

- UNICEF, www.unicef.org - UNESCO, https://en.unesco.org/ - FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization, http://www.fao.org - UNDP - United Nations Development Program, http://www.undp.org - UNEP - United Nations Environment Program, http://www.unep.org - WB - World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/ - Danish International Development Agency DANIDA, http://www.um.dk - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SIDA, http://www.sida.se/ Svenska/ - Agency for Cooperation and Research in Development ACORD, http://www.acord. org.uk - Agence Francaise de Developpement AFD, http://www.afd.fr - Agency for Co-operation and Technical Development, http://www.actngo.be - Australian Agency for International Development AusAID, http://www.ausaid.gov.au - Canadian International Development Agency CIDA, http://www.acdi-cida.ca/cidaweb/webcountry.nsf/index.html - Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation NORAD, http://www.norad.no/ - Swiss Agency for Development and Co-operation SDC, http://www.sdc.admin.ch - Swissaid, http://www.swissaid.ch - UK Government Department for International Development DFID, http://www.dfid. gov.uk - USAID, http://www.usaid.gov - United Nations Foundation, http://un.org - African Development Foundation, http://www.adf.gov - Jenifer Altman Foundation, http://www.jaf.org - Bernard van Leer Foundation, http://www.bernardvanleer.org - The Christensen Fund, http://www.christensenfund.org - Compton Foundation, http://comptonfoundation.org - Global Fund for Children, http://www.globalfundforchildren.org - KIOS – The Finnish NGO Foundation for Human Rights, http://www.kios.fi - Netherlands Centre for Indigenous Peoples NCIV, http://www.nciv.net - Oak Foundation, http://www.oakfnd.org/ - The Rockefeller Foundation, http://www.rockfund.org - Seva Foundation, http://www.seva.org - ADC Foundation, http://www.adc.com/aboutadc/adcfoundation/ - African Women’s Development Fund AWDF, http://www.awdf.org - Aga Khan Foundation – Canada, http://www.akfc.ca - Allen Foundation, Inc, http://www.allenfoundation.org - The Asia Foundation, http://www.asiafoundation.org


- Development and Peace, http://www.devo.org - The Ford Foundation, http://www.fordfound.org - Freidrich Ebert Stiftung Foundation FES, http://www.fes.de - Global Catalyst Foundation, http://www.global-catalyst.org - Global Fund for Women, http://www.globalfundforwomen.org - Fund for Global Human Rights FGHR, http://www.hrfunders.org - International Women’s Health Coalition, http://www.iwhc.org - Moriah Fund, http://www.moriahfund.org - Netherlands Organization for International Development Co-operation, http://www. novib.nl - Open Society Institute, http://www.soros.org - Peace Development Fund, http://www.peacedevelopmentfund.org - The Pew Charitable Trusts, http://www.pewtrusts.com - Tides Foundation, http://www.tidesfoundation.org


Acknowledgements


I wish to express our sincere thanks to the partner coordinators, experts and community members of all participating organizations: Alessandro Melillo, Cristina La Rocca, Jeanne d’Arc Sagna (PRISM – Promozione Internazionale Sicilia-Mondo) Peter Kosgey Okeyo, Amos Oketch Odera, Ogana K. Joash, Andega Paul Ochola, Otwaroh Ruth Akinyi, Omole Gaudensia Aduol, Lilian Opiyo (Resource Hub for Development - RHD) Ravi Sebastian, Vanessa Peter, Donald, Karunakar, Sathiya Nesan (New Beginnings Charitable Trust - NCT) Baye Mor Talla Ndiaye, Haby Diallo, Mamadou Diouf, Diallo Arouna, Jean Marie Diouf, Haby Diallo, Diallo Arouna (Federation Dimbaya Kagnalen) and Salif Kanoute (DECLIC) Alessia Bertuca, Michelle Perello, Valentina Platzgummer (Consulta Europa Projects and Innovation) Boyka Boneva, Nikos Papakostas, Amerissa Giannouli (Inter Alia) David Cuenca Chamorro, R. Benoît Tremblay, Fidel Mendoza, Juan Vilcabana Noriega , Noemí Depaz Pérez, Karen Lezma (Asociación de Comunicadores y Educadores Viator) We would like to acknowledge the contributions of all youth workers from Italy, India, Kenya, Senegal, Greece, Spain and Peru taking part in the training courses and the job shadowing activities implemented during the project. We would like to acknowledge the significant editorial contribution of Luca Spilla and Roberto Tirrito Finally, we acknowledge the financial support of the “The Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency – EACEA” and of the Eramus+ programme. Fausto Amico PRISM – Promozione Internazionale Sicilia-Mondo

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Educational Resources "Child protection and development: youth work experiences across the world"  

The Open Educational Resources include a learning booklet and e-learning course covering a range of non-formal learning modules related to c...

Educational Resources "Child protection and development: youth work experiences across the world"  

The Open Educational Resources include a learning booklet and e-learning course covering a range of non-formal learning modules related to c...

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