Child Safety HANDBOOK 2012
A resource for Parents, Carers and Teachers
Proudly brought to you by NSW Police Legacy
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Be aware. Be safe.
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NSW Police Legacy Child Safety Handbook
The New South Wales Police Legacy Ltd. of which I am deeply honoured to be Patron, has once again embarked on a most admirable endeavour to benefit our most precious resourceâ€”our children.
Message from Her Excellency, Professor Marie Bashir AC CVO
With a background in child and adolescent health, I am indeed delighted to learn of the development of a handbook which will focus on various issues that our young deal with nowadays, andof at earlier thanindeed ever before. New people Southmust Wales Police Legacy, whichyears I am honoured to be Patron, has once Important categories addressed within the booklet include Safety at School, Safety on a most admirable endeavour to benefit our most precious resource â€” our children. at Home, Safety Outdoors, Street Smart, Drug Awareness, Communicating Safely and Personal Awareness.
With a background in child and adolescent health, I am indeed delighted with the development of this must deal with nowadays, often at
In addition to the valuable information outlined, the book will also provide Handbook, onit isvarious that our young people details of useful which contacts. focuses Eventually, planned issues all this information will be tied to a dedicated earlier yearswebsite. than ever before. The relaunch of this publication will build on the outstanding reputation which the book has attained in the past aswill a vital resource families of Newreputation South This updated publication build on for thetheoutstanding Wales.
as a vital resource for the families of New South Wales.
which the book has attained in the past
Professor Marie R Bashir AC CVO Governor of New South Wales Professor Marie Bashir
AC CVO Governor of New South Wales
Child Safety Handbook
A QUICK TEST (WITH ANSWERS)
Q1. What are these?
Q3. Why? Answer: A and B are used to play sport and to have fun, C the grenade and other UXO are used to injure and kill people and must never be played with. Even very old UXO are still dangerous. Australian children playing with UXO have been killed or injured so badly their lives were ruined.
Q4. These are all UXO. What should you do if you find something that may be UXO? Answer: If you find something that may be a UXO, DO NOT DISTURB IT tell your parents, teachers or police. Police will arrange for military experts to attend and dispose of it.
Answer: (a) Cricket Ball; (b) Baseball; (c) Grenade
Q2. Which one is not to be played with? Answer: C (Grenade)
Child Safety Handbook
Q5. Where can you get more information on UXO in Australia? Answer: From the internet at www.defence.gov.au/uxo
Results: Congratulations you aced it. There were no wrong answers. UXO should not cause you any problems.
a FOREWORD by NSW PREMIER Protecting our children must always be one of the highest priorities of every Government, which is why I’m proud to support NSW Police Legacy’s Child Safety Handbook. Children are precious, and it seems every time we turn on our televisions there are new threats to child safety that parents are being told to be on guard for. This presents a tremendous challenge, and this handbook is one excellent resource for preparing parents. The best tool the community have when protecting their children is knowledge, and the Child Safety Handbook is a great way of getting that knowledge into the hands of parents, teachers and families. I’d like to congratulate NSW Police Legacy on all the great work they do caring for the children of Police lost in the line of duty, and thank them for providing such a valuable resource to our State.
Barry O’Farrell MP Premier
Child Safety Handbook
For Police, Fire, Ambulance NAME
Home and Fire Safety Audit
K Kids Help Line
Mental Health Information Service Anxiety Disorders Information Helpline
1300 794 991 1300 794 992
Mission Beat (Sydney City Mission)
1800 306 461 (02) 9641 5000 (NSW State Office)
NSW Poisons Information Centre
13 11 26
NSW Women’s Refuge Resource Centre
(02) 9698 9777
P 1300 1300 52 (24 hour)
13 784 (13 QUIT)
www.yourroom.com.au (information) www.fds.org.au (for parents)
(02) 9387 7788 (24 Hour Sydney helpline)
Australian Drug Foundation (information)
N Network of Community Activities
Child Abuse Prevention Service
1800 688 009 (toll free); 02 9716 8000
Child Protection and Family Crisis Service/DoCS Helpline
Children’s Hospital Westmead
(02) 9845 0000
Crime Stoppers Hotline
1800 333 000
1800 880 176
Q Quitline – for counselling
R Raising Children Network Rape Crisis Centre
www.raisingchildren.net.au Freecall 1800 424 017
1300 36 36 22
13 14 50
1800 656 463 (24 hour)
Salvation Army Care Line
Healthy Kids (school lunch ideas and healthy eating)
Translating and Interpreting Service
Need to contact police? Know the right number to call. Remember to save these numbers to your phone. You never know when you will need them. 4
I can Quit
D Domestic Violence Line
(02) 9361 8000 (Metropolitan) Freecall 1800 422 599 (Regional)
Bullying No Way
13 11 14
Alcohol & Drug Information & Counselling Service (24 hours)
1300 22 4636
1800 55 1800
Kids Triple Zero Kids Challenge
Child Safety Handbook
a FOREWORD by NSW COMMISSIONER OF POLICE Youth and vulnerability go hand in hand. Our children’s innocence, inexperience and uninhibited sense of adventure, the very qualities that we find most endearing, can sometimes combine to put them in harm’s way. As parents, family and concerned citizens it is this knowledge that harm can come to children that should give us cause to examine what we can best do to help keep them safe. To NSW Police Legacy’s great credit, its Child Safety Handbook responds in a practical way to the myriad dangers facing children, whether they be at home, school or out and about. Tips and information are provided for parents and ideas for children. All importantly, the Handbook’s emphasis is on prevention. Our children are precious and all of us who live and work with them will find information in these pages that we can use to keep them out of trouble and safe. This edition of the Child Safety Handbook, continues NSW Police Legacy’s tradition of community support. Its work, tireless and worthwhile, has the support of all police officers. Well done and thank you to NSW Policy Legacy and to the businesses that have supported this publication.
Andrew Scipione APM NSW Commissioner of Police Child Safety Handbook
Escape from a world of cyberbullying. We all love our technology, so letâ€™s make sure weâ€™re using it for good and not hurting anyone along the way. Learn how you can make cyberspace a better place at And remember, if you ever need someone to talk to, call OPTUS11142
CONTENTS Message from the Governor of NSW..................................1 Foreword by NSW Premier................................................3 Useful Contacts.................................................................4 Foreword by NSW Commissioner of Police........................5 National Safe Schools Framework.....................................9 Foreword by Chairperson................................................10
SAFETY AT SCHOOL.......................................... 11-13 Bullying What is bullying? What can I do if my child is being bullied? What if my child has witnessed bullying? What if I think my child is displaying bullying behaviour? Help your kids be resilient Beyond Bullying What will my school have in place to deal with bullying?
PERSONAL SAFETY........................................ 14-15 Learning Protective Behaviours Physical and Personal Safety Why do we need Protective Behaviours? What is Protective Behaviours? Child Abuse What are the different kinds of child abuse? How can I tell if a child has been abused? Other warning signes a child might be abused or neglected Keeping children safe - some preventative measures Who to Contact Reporting Child Abuse How to make a report Tips for Parents & Carers
SAFETY AT HOME............................................. 17-23 Home Alone Answering the Phone Answering the Door Preparing for Emergencies First Aid Basic First Aid Asthma Attacks Bleeding Severe Bleeding Sprains & Strains DRSABCD Action Plan Cuts & Bruises Burns & Scalds Choking First Aid for Choking Adult/child over one year Poisoning Inhaled poisons Poison on the skin
Poison in the eyes Swallowed poisons Safety in the water Protect Your Pool, Protect Your Kids ACCC Product Safety Internet Safety What does cyberbullying look like? So what do I do if I am being cyberbullied? So how do I keep safe on social networking sites? So how do I keep safe online? So how do I protect my child online?
FIRE, FLOOD & STORM SAFETY........................ 24-33 Kitchen Electricity Open Flames Barbeques Gas Cylinders Patio Heaters Winter Fire Safety Heaters and Open Fires Electric Balnkets Clothes Dryers Fire Blankets Smoke Alarms Home Escape Plan Bush Fire Safety Prepare / Act / Survive Floods & Storms Home Emergency Kit
BACKYARD SAFETY.......................................... 35-39 Safe Backyard Bicycles in the Backyard Cutting Hazards Dogs in the Backyard Eating outdoors Electrocution Not so friendly backyard creatures Outdoor play and equipment Trampolines Outdoor Sport Rural Backyard Safety Safe in the Sun - Reminder Safe Storage Water Safety Poisonous Plants
STREET SMART................................................ 41-53 Keeping safe in crowds Dealing with strangers Road Safety Keeping your children safe Pedestrian Safety Skateboards and rollerblades Cycling Safety School Bus Safety Train Safety Safety Hints
Rail Crossing Safety Dirtbikes, minibikes and mini quad bikes Safety in Cars Basic Safety What you must not do General safety in the car Being to see clearly Driver Distraction Unattended children Flying objects and cargo barriers Buckle-up Other safety tips
OUTDOOR SAFETY............................................ 55-58 Boating Safety Wear a Lifejacket Bushwalking and Hiking When planning a bushwalk or hike Bites Spider bites Ticks Snake Bites Keeping Safe at the Beach Surf Safety Rips Beach Safety for Visitors to Australian Beaches Playground Safety
Health School Canteen Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods Sudden infant death syndrome How to sleep your baby safely
DRUG AWARENESS........................................... 68-72 What is a drug? How could Drugs effect you Top 10 tips to encourage your kids to talk about drugs with you Depressant Drugs Stimulant Drugs Hallucinogenic Drugs Alcohol What is alcohol? Effects of alcohol Sensible drinking How to drink less Smoking Effects of Tobacco Passive Smoking Health Benefits of Quitting Caffeine Effects of caffeine Caffeine and Sleep What are their main ingredients? What are the health effects of energy drinks?
HEALTH AND SAFETY....................................... 59-67 Children’s Mental Health and Wellbeing What is children’s mental health? What are the warning signs of mental health problems in children? What parents should look out for? When to seek help? What can parents do? Mental illness and parents Choking on Food What to do if your young child chokes on food If the child is not breathing Dental Health What causes tooth decay? How can I prevent tooth decay? Injuries to the mouth Knocked out or broken teeth Further Dental Information Food Allergies – Be Allergy Aware Caring for others’ children Preventing exposure is essential Responding to a reaction Get Active Let’s get physical More than just good fun Active communities Kick start Immunisation How does immunisation work? Where to go for immunisation Side-effects of immunisation Nutrition
Publishing, advertising and prod CILTA AWARDS by Associated Media Group: tele Produced, published and distributed on behalf of NSW Police Legacy by: Associated Media Group Pty Ltd Level 1, 174 Willoughby Road St Leonards NSW 2065 T: 02 9437 5155 F: 02 9436 0215 www.amgroup.net.au Managing Director: Alan Hyman A special thanks to: Protective Behaviours Consultancy Group of NSW T: 02 9699 3377 www.protective-behaviours.org.au Advertising: For advertising in the next issue T: 02 9437 5155 E: email@example.com Copyright © NSW Police Legacy Ltd Disclaimer:
This publication is issued on terms and understanding that: (a) the publisher, NSW Police Legacy, authors and editors are not responsible for the results of any action taken or advice followed or for any error in or omission from any information printed in this publication; and (b) the publisher, NSW Police Legacy, authors and editors expressly disclaim all and any liability and responsibility to any person, whether a purchaser or reader of this publication or not, in respect of anything, and of the consequences of anything done or omitted to be done by any such person in reliance, whether wholly or partially, upon the whole or any part of the contents of this publication.
Technology is a big part of life these days, and it’s really important that we all have the skills we need to be responsible, safe and smart online. Responsible Respect the community and be a positive contributor
SafeSearch with Google At Google we hope that you and your family find exactly what you’re looking for in Google search results and nothing more. Google SafeSearch helps you manage your search results so they don’t include sexually explicit websites and images. It’s a smart and simple way to protect you and your family from unwanted search material.
Safe Be aware of the risks and how to manage them
SafeSearch gives you the choice of three settings – ‘Strict’, ‘Moderate’ or ‘None’. Clear imagery lets you know at a glance if SafeSearch is switched on.
Smart Get tech & information literate
Start your SafeSearch today Setting up SafeSearch is easy. To find out more, search for ‘Google SafeSearch’ and follow the prompts to get set up.
Safety Mode on YouTube Safety Mode on YouTube is an opt-in setting that helps screen out potentially objectionable content that you may prefer not to see or don’t want others in your family to stumble across while enjoying YouTube. To switch on click safety mode at the bottom of the page.
If you see it, flag it! Flagging isn’t dobbing. If you see a video that breaks the Community Guidelines, let us know. Other people won’t be able to see that you’ve flagged the video. Just sign in, click on the ‘Flag’ button beneath the video and select the content reason from the drop down menu.
Post for friends only If you want to make your uploaded videos only visible to your friends go to ‘My Videos’, click ‘Edit’, and switch to ‘Private’.
Permission slip-ups Posting someone else’s personal information without permission could get you kicked off the site, so make sure you always check first.
Tips for playing and staying safe on YouTube From uploading your videos, to personalising your playlists, to finding something new and cool to share with your friends, there’s always something happening on YouTube. While you’re having fun, keep these tips in mind:
Visit www.youtube.com.au and click on the Safety link on the bottom of the page for more information about playing and staying safe on YouTube.
© 2010 Google Inc. All rights reserved. Google, YouTube, the Google logo, and the YouTube logo are trademarks of Google Inc.
NATIONAL SAFE SCHOOLS FRAMEWORK
NATIONAL SAFE SCHOOLS FRAMEWORK
ll students should be able to learn and develop in safe and supportive environments. The Australian Government takes issues of bullying seriously and believes student wellbeing and safety are essential for academic development. As part of a national approach to supporting schools to build safe school communities, the Australian Government has worked with all state and territory Governments to revise the National Safe Schools Framework. The Framework provides Australian schools with a vision and a set of guiding principles that assist school communities
to take a proactive whole-school approach to developing effective student safety and wellbeing policies. This vision includes creating learning environments which are free from bullying, harassment, aggression and violence. The Framework places an emphasis on student wellbeing and child protection and includes relevant national and jurisdictional legislation and Government policy. The Framework also highlights and responds to the emergence of technologies that have enabled new forms of bullying to develop. The Framework was endorsed by all ministers for education through the Ministerial Council for Education, Early
Childhood Development and Youth Affairs (MCEECDYA) in December 2010. The Framework was officially launched on the 18 March 2011 by the Hon Peter Garrett, MP, Minister for School Education, to coincide with the inaugural National Day of Action Against Bullying and Violence. The Framework will be published in hard copy and distributed to all primary and secondary schools. The resource manual will be available online in a downloadable format. The Framework and the resource manual are available to download from the safe schools website www.safeschools.deewr.gov.au
Local Schools, Local Decisions Supporting school and community partnerships The NSW Government is giving more authority to schools through its reform initiative â€“ Local Schools, Local Decisions.
Staffing: schools can choose how many staff they have and what roles the staff will perform to best meet local needs.
It means principals will get the resources to allow their staff and local communities to make decisions that make the most difference to their students.
Working locally: schools can choose the best way to communicate with their community to suit local needs.
The changes will happen over the next three to five years and include: Managing resources: schools will manage more than 70% of the total education budget.
Reducing red tape: school will have less paperwork and fewer policies to comply with. Making decisions: schools will make the majority of decisions about their studentsâ€™ education.
FOREWORD BY CHAIRPERSON For many years NSW Police Legacy produced the Child Safety Handbook, an awareness guide for parents and children to help prevent injuries and accidents. Local editions of the book were distributed free to primary school children throughout the State. As well as giving families vital information to assist with staying safe, the Child Safety Handbook also raised valuable funds for NSW Police Legacy’s work. I am delighted that we have now been able to relaunch the book in conjunction with Associated Media Group (AMG) of Sydney, who have provided a bigger and better publication on our behalf.
a I would like to thank the companies whose advertising in this book helps to provide funds to support our work with the bereaved families of deceased NSW Police Officers. WE REMEMBER THEM
Sue Waites APM Chairperson NSW Police Legacy
When a police officer dies, NSW Police Legacy is there to help the partners and children who are left behind. NSW Police Legacy targets support to individuals based on their needs. This means we help with: • Grief and trauma counselling • Financing education grants and tertiary scholarships • Providing welfare grants • Organising functions to help Legatees stay in touch • Organising life education camps for dependent children • Trust Fund management • Providing birthday and Christmas gifts for dependent children
154 ELIZABETH STREET, SYDNEY, NSW 2000 PO BOX 20065, WORLD SQUARE NSW 2002 (02) 9264 1311 • www.policelegacynsw.org.au
NSW Police Legacy is a charitable not-for-profit organisation. We rely entirely on the generosity of donations and bequests. Donations of $2 or more are tax deductable. For additional information and donation forms, please visit our web site: www.policelegacynsw.org.au
Together let us be there for them
SAFETY AT SCHOOL Bullying Your child has the right to feel welcome and safe at school. We’re working hard to make sure our school communities are nurturing and supportive places where all students can learn and develop into caring, resilient and confident adults. What is bullying?
It may seem obvious what bullying is, but there is a difference between students ‘not getting on’ and bullying each other. Learning how to resolve conflict and negotiate with people who have different personalities and opinions are important life skills that parents and schools need to help students develop. Bullying is repeated verbal, physical, social
or psychological behaviour that is harmful and involves the misuse of power by an individual or group towards one or more persons. Cyber bullying refers to bullying through information and communication technologies. Bullying can involve humiliation, domination, intimidation, victimisation and all forms of harassment including that based on sex, race, disability, homosexuality or transgender. Bullying of any form or for any reason can have long term effects on those involved including bystanders. Bullying can come in many forms for example: • Being hit, tripped, kicked, pinched etc. • Being called names, teased, put down etc. • Being threatened, stalked, gestures etc. • Being ignored, having rumours spread about you, excluding someone etc.
• Insulting someone in chat rooms, sending cruel or threatening emails/text messages; using the web, chat rooms or mobile phones to spread rumours or threaten someone or information about someone etc. All forms of bullying between students are taken seriously by NSW public schools. However, any school situation that is causing your child concern, whether or not it fits the definition of bullying, should be reported to the school. Although the term “bullying” has a specific meaning and a school’s Anti-bullying Plan sets out the processes for preventing and responding to student bullying, schools also have a range of policies and practices, including welfare and discipline policies that apply to student behaviour generally.
What can I do if my child is being bullied?
If your child is being bullied it is not always easy for you as a parent to know when and how to support. The first step is to stay calm and try and get all the facts. While it may be a case of bullying, it might also simply be the result of poor communication by one or both children. Kids often speak before they think and misunderstandings happen easily, especially online. By taking the time to understand the situation and remaining calm, you are helping your child. Sometimes, as a first step, your child may just want some advice about things they could do the try to manage the situation. At other times it is important that action is taken immediately. Child Safety Handbook
SAFETY AT SCHOOL
• Work with your child’s school to solve the problem. • Encourage your child to report any further bullying incidents to a teacher they trust at the school. • Let your child know how much you disapprove of bullying and why. Technology has increased the ways bullying can happen. Mobile phones, emails, websites, chat rooms, social networking sites or instant messaging can all be used to bully others. If you believe your child is being cyberbullied, don’t ban them from the technology. Technology has an increasingly important role for young people both for their social development and in their learning. Discourage them from rereading the upsetting messages or comments because it compounds the hurt and throws the whole incident out of perspective. Do try to find ways for them to enjoy themselves away from the computer, doing the things that make them feel good about themselves. Children often worry about being labelled “a dobber” and beg parents not to tell the school. It is important to: However, bullying is a serious matter which is • Listen calmly to your child. unlikely to be resolved if it’s ignored. Schools are • Show concern and support. able to manage the situation and provide effective • Let your child know that telling you about the support when they have all the facts. As a parent bullying was the right thing to do. • Find out where and when it has been happening, or caregiver, you have an important part to play in helping your child, and the school deal with bulwho has been involved and if anyone else has lying. seen it. Don’t approach the other students involved. No • Discuss the things your child has already done to try to solve the problem and suggest other things parent will appreciate you reprimanding their child and it will always make the situation much worse your child might try. than if you remain calm and go through the right • Report the situation to your child’s school. channels by contacting the school. Your school’s Anti-bullying Plan will outline Kids ca how bullying can be reported at your n some tim their liv es, and es focus on wh school, but you can always make an apbe less at’s goin hobbies awa gw ,s pointment with your school principal. with frie ports and activ re of the other rong in it friends nds can , remind ies they enjoy. people You may like to take your partner or around y who car our child that A few hours a friend with you to the meeting, and there a e for an re good d suppo rt them that’s normally fine too. Just let the . principal know. If you need an inter12
Child Safety Handbook
preter, the school can arrange that. Be sure to tell them when you make the appointment. What if my child has witnessed bullying?
Tell the school. Bullying also hurts other students as well as the student who has experienced the bullying. Bystanders who observe bullying or are pressured to join in are also likely to be affected and will need support. It’s important for all children to understand that bullying isn’t okay, even if they are not directly involved. If your child has witnessed bullying you can help them, and help to keep other children safe by encouraging them to ask a teacher for help. This is very important if anyone’s safety is in jeopardy. Students should always think about their own safety and the safety of other people when deciding what to do. You could also encourage your child to do any one or a combination of the following depending on the circumstances:
• Tell the person doing the bullying that what they are doing is bullying. • Tell the person doing the bullying to stop. • Refuse to join in with the bullying. • Tell other bystanders not to encourage the person doing the bullying. • Support the person who is being bullied. • Encourage the person being bullied to tell their parents or a teacher. What if I think my child is displaying bullying behaviour?
Discovering that your child has been displaying bullying behaviour can come as a huge shock for parents. Your first reaction may be defensive. However, children who engage in bullying behaviour also need support to learn how to behave appropriately. Stay calm and discuss the issue with the principal of your child’s school. Work together with the school to make it clear to your child that bullying isn’t okay and to develop support strategies for your child. It may also be useful to make an appointment with the school counsellor.
Help your child be resilient
Kids can sometimes focus on what’s going wrong in their lives, and be less aware of the other friends, hobbies, sports and activities they enjoy. A few hours with friends can remind your child that there are good people around who care for and support them. Beyond bullying
Sometimes bullying or cyberbullying can involve criminal behaviour such as violence, threats, intimidation or inciting violence. If you or your child has received threats of physical or sexual violence or has been physically attacked you should immediately consider contacting your local police as well as your school for assistance. The school may report a matter to the police as well. What will my school have in place to deal with bullying?
Parents and schools work together to help students develop good citizenship and the communication and relationship skills that help prevent bullying behaviour. At school your child will be learning about their rights and responsibilities and will be supported to develop the skills to treat others with respect, communicate their ideas and feelings appropriately and deal with conflict. The NSW Department of Education and Training requires all NSW government schools to have an Anti-bullying Plan that complies with the Bullying: Preventing & Responding to Student Bullying in Schools Policy. You can ask for a copy of your school’s Plan from your school. Many schools also make their Anti-bullying Plan available on their websites. The school’s Anti-bullying Plan will explain what is considered to be bullying behaviour and how that behaviour is viewed by the school. It will outline what responsibilities schools, students and parents have to prevent and respond to bullying behaviour, how bullying can be reported and what will happen when it is. Your school will take action when it has been
SAFETY AT SCHOOL
How do I know if
my child is
may at a child is bullied Some of the signs th include: fusal to go to school − unwillingness or re hool sc − not doing well at wn ra hd − becoming wit − being tearful e − loss of confidenc − sleeping problems out what’s wrong − refusing to talk ab upset depressed, unusually If your child seems ling to wil un is d an in some way hool or physically injured sc ur yo to ng lki ta consider y discuss it with you, ma ild mily doctor. Your ch counsellor or your fa e. lised assistanc benefit from specia reported that a student has been bullied by another student at school or during a school activity that is held away from school. The school can also take action in response to bullying behaviour between students outside of school hours or off the school premises where there is a clear and close connection between the school and the conduct of the students. The response of the school to a reported incident of bullying or cyberbullying will depend on the details of the particular incident and may range from support to disciplinary action. Remember the school will need time to investi-
gate and to talk to teachers and other students. All NSW public schools have access to school counsellors who can help children deal with problems and become more resilient. School counsellors are experienced teachers who have a degree in psychology and graduate qualifications in school counselling. They can help students who are feeling sad or anxious, or are having difficulties in their relationships with other students. School counsellors may work across more than one school, so you will need to speak with the principal to organise an appointment for your child.
Contacts • Parent Line http://www.parentline.org.au/ • Parent Line is a telephone counselling, information and referral service for parents of children ages 0 to 18, who live in New South Wales. • Parents, grandparents and carers anywhere in the state can call Parent Line on 1300 1300 52 for no more than the cost of a local call.. • Kids helpline: Tel 1300 13 17 19 - 24 hours a day, 7 days a week for advice on child health and parenting.
Information reproduced with the permission of NSW Department of Education & Training - www.schools.nsw.edu. au/studentsupport/studentwellbeing/anti-bullyingpolicy.php
The NSW Department of Education and Communities does not tolerate bullying.
Bullying and schools
All NSW public schools are required to have an anti-bullying plan which clearly defines bullying and how the school community will prevent and respond to bullying behaviour. The document Bullying: Preventing and Responding to Student Bullying in Schools Policy and other information can be found at the web address: www.det.nsw.edu.au/policies Advice for parents whose child is being bullied: www.schools.nsw.edu.au/bullying
OUT OF SCHOOL HOURS CARE There are services available for parents if they need to have their children who are in primary school, supervised out of school hours, before and/or after school and during vacations. These care services are usually run by parent committees, so if you wish to enrol your children in one of the services, it is best for you to meet with the committee, investigate the environment and decide if it is fitting for your children. These programs enable children to play with and meet new friends, become sociable, and take part in a variety of supervised activities in a safe, caring environment. Centres are located in or close to the school which the children attend and fees are charged. Vacation care services may be operated by a different organisation to the before and after school service and in different venues. Parents will need to enrol with both services when required. Funding for new services may be available from the Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services. The programs have to comply with rules and guidelines as provided by the NSW Department of Community Services’ Voluntary Code of Practice. These guide-lines are essential for ensuring the safety and wellbeing of the children involved. If you do want to place your children in after school care, remember:
• Take the time to analyse what kind of personality your children have. • Talk to the committee members and see for yourself what kind of environment it is. • See if your children fit into the environment of the particular program. • If your children are shy, it would help if they had friends in the program. • Talk with your children about being in after school care and ask their opinion. If you have any further queries about the centres, contact your local school or Network of Community Activities at 66 Albion Street, Surry Hills, NSW 2010. Telephone: (02) 9212 3244. Website: www.netoosh.org.au.
The NSW Ombudsman is responsible for: • Handling complaints about the provision of community services for children & reviewing the complainthandling systems of service providers • Overseeing agencies’ investigation into allegations of a child protection nature against employees.
www.ombo.nsw.gov.au Child Safety Handbook
PERSONAL SAFETY LEARNING PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOURS PHYSICAL AND PERSONAL SAFETY
Children have the right to feel safe at all times. It is the responsibility of each parent, school and the community as a whole to keep children safe and provide them with a supportive and caring environment. Being safe is not about learning self defence; it is about empowerment through knowledge and preventative measures. One way of being safe and keeping safe, is to adopt `Protective Behaviours’ which give children and the community safety tools. WHY DO WE NEED PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOURS?
• To protect children, because we simply cannot be with them every minute of the day. • To give children and adults permission to talk about problem situations that they face. • To empower people with the right to feel safe and to act to keep themselves safe. WHAT ARE PROTECTIVE BEHAVIOURS?
‘Protective Behaviours’ is a preventative program, an adaptable living skills program, which enables people of all ages to develop strategies to help them deal with all forms of difficult situations. The program was originally implemented by the NSW Police Service as an anti-victimisation program. It has now become obvious that many members of the community who work with families and children find the ‘Protective Behaviours’ training a valuable resource when looking at issues of safety in general, and also assists when focusing on the specific area of child abuse. Over recent years, there has been an increased 14
Child Safety Handbook
awareness of all areas of children’s safety, particularly that of children’s personal safety. We are now aware that children are more likely to be harmed by someone they know, than by someone they do not know. Children may experience a wide range of situations which put them at risk and cause them short-term and long-term harm, which may be both physical and emotional, and violates children’s basic rights. Programs have been developed by government and community groups to raise community awareness, and the need for child protection and safety prevention programs has been supported. It cannot be stated strongly enough that a child who is placed in an unsafe or abusive situation is not at fault and it is the adult who is doing the wrong thing. It is important that children develop personal safety skills from a well-presented and well-structured personal safety program. ‘Protective Behaviours’ can be used by both children and adults to help keep themselves safe and work towards reducing violence in the community. It can provide the basis for helping children to be safe at school and to take pleasure from their learning. It can also help everyone learn to stay safe from the risks that surround us in our everyday life.
CHILD ABUSE WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF CHILD ABUSE?
1. Neglect - failure to provide the basic necessities of life such as; love and affection, stimulation, safety, nourishment, clothing, personal hygiene, warmth and medical care. In its extreme form,
abandonment of a child. 2. Emotional abuse - depriving a child of love,warmth and attention. Abusive behaviours include; constant criticism, scapegoating, terrorising, isolating, rejecting, excessive teasing, ignoring a child. 3. Physical abuse - all non-accidental physical injuries including; shaking, slapping, bruising, biting, punching, scalding, burning, poisoning, near drowning, throwing a child and strangulation. 4. Sexual abuse - when an adult or older child uses a child for his or her own sexual pleasure. Abusers are usually known to the child e.g. relatives, family, friends - rather than a stranger. It includes; fondling and masturbation between adults and children, oral sex , vaginal or anal intercourse, flashing. 5. Domestic violence - This can include emotional, sexual and physical abuse, social isolation, financial control or deprivation, by one or more members of the family against another. Children can be direct victims and also badly affected by witnessing domestic violence - like mum being hit or parents yelling at each other.
HOW CAN I TELL IF A CHILD HAS BEEN ABUSED?
The most accurate ways to tell if abuse is happening are: • If a child or friend tells you it is happening. • If you are present when abuse occurs. • If you see injuries that concern you and don’t have a believable explanation. If somebody tells you that abuse is happening:
• Believe them and offer support. It is important that they are made safe so the abuse can’t continue to happen. • Don’t keep it to yourself. Tell an adult you can trust or a professional. It is important to help stop the abuse from happening. WARNING SIGNS A CHILD OR YOUNG PERSON MIGHT BE ABUSED OR NEGLECTED
Here are some warning signs that something is not
right for the child or young person - and they may be experiencing abuse or neglect. Physical
• Has frequent or unexplained bruises or injuries eg. broken bones, burns, scalds. Emotional
• Child seems sad most of the time. • Has difficulty making friends. • Has difficult behaviour eg. aggressiveness towards adults or other children. Neglect
• Dressed inappropriately for the weather. • Begging or stealing food. • Poor health. • Dirty child, dirty clothes, unwashed hair. • Left alone for long periods of time. • Misses out on lots of school. Sexual
• Having a great deal of knowledge about sex at a very young age or sexual behaviour that seems beyond her or his years. • Physical signs that a doctor will notice. • Feeling depressed or suicidal. • Fear of having their nappy changed or being bathed. • Sudden avoidance of familiar adults or places. • Drug or alcohol use.
KEEPING CHILDREN SAFE -SOME PREVENTATIVE MEASURES There are simple ways or skills parents and carers can talk to their children about regarding keeping safe. `Protective Behaviours’ give children some simple skills for coping with any difficult or dangerous situation. In particular, the focus is on teaching children to recognise when a situation is unsafe and to speak to an adult if they need assistance.
PERSONAL SAFETY Learning `Protective Behaviours’ and being able to teach them to children is not difficult. These are some important points to remember.
• Talk to your children about what they have been doing each day, including time spent with others. • Create an atmosphere in which your child feels free to talk about any problems whatsoever. • Tell children they have a right to be safe all the time. • Talk to children about the difference between feeling safe and feeling uncomfortable or scared. • Ask children what sorts of things make them feel safe and happy and what sorts of things make them feel scared • Encourage children to trust their own feelings. • Talk about how our body may react if we feel scared or unsafe. We may have butterflies in the stomach or weak knees. Everyone is different. Ask your child to tell you how their body feels when they are frightened. • Explain that if they do not feel safe they should tell someone they trust. • Tell them that sometimes older people do things that are not okay. • Stress that nothing is so awful they can’t tell someone about it. • Explain that sometimes they may tell and the adult may not understand or may say “don’t be silly” or “I don’t believe you”. If something like this happens they should keep on telling until someone believes them and does something to help. • Explain to your children that if they feel unsafe, they should leave the situation if they can or go to an adult for help. • Explain to children that sexual abuse is never their fault. The perpetrators are to blame. • Assure your children that you want to know if someone tries to touch them, whether it is a stranger or someone in the family. Make certain that they know you are on their side. • Instruct your child to avoid being unaccompanied in potentially dangerous places, such as deserted areas (bushland, parking lots, etc) and
public toilets. Always encourage them to travel with a friend rather than alone. • While sometimes inconvenient, it is advisable that you drop them off and pick them up from meeting points. Parents and carers are not always available for their children to talk to them so it is important that children have a network of trusted people they can turn to. Talk to children about this and help them develop a network of at least four people outside the home.
WHO TO CONTACT Prevention of child abuse and neglect is seen as a shared responsibility of parents and the community. Early notification of child abuse and neglect often results in a family receiving the help and support needed to prevent serious harm or injury from occurring to the child. For more information and assistance, contact your local police or the Community Services Child Protection Helpline on 132 111.
REPORTING CHILD ABUSE
• People working with children are legally required to report concerns they have about safety, welfare or well-being of a child. These workers are called mandatory reporters. • A mandatory reporter is someone required by law to make a report to Community Services if they have current concerns about the safety, welfare or well-being of a child. A child is a person aged under 16 years. Mandatory reporters, for example, are health care professionals, welfare workers, teachers, childcare workers and many others. • A person should report when a child is at risk of significant harm. This means a person has current concerns about the safety, welfare and well-being of a child. How to make a report
Telephone the Community Services Child Protection Helpline. This is a centralised initial assessment and referral service which aims to provide a more consistent, better quality and responsive service. A person will take information from you and guide you through the reporting process, as well as providing you with any relevant information. The report is confidential. Community Services Child Protection Helpline is ready to take calls 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Mandatory reports can use the confidential number 133 627. General public can call their specific number 132 111. If it is a life threatening situation call 000. For more information you can also go to the DoCS website at www.community.nswgov.au
Reporting is primarily concerned with making children safe by finding help for the family before child abuse occurs, stopping abuse that is already occurring and preventing further injury or harm to a child who has been abused. It also ensures that the correct professional advice, counselling and support for the abused child and family are obtained. The Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act, 1998 provides the basis for child protection in NSW. In summary the laws and the ildren that if they impact they have include: Explain to your ch should leave the • Risk of significant harm feel unsafe, they ult is the grounds for reporting. can or go to an ad situation if they The Act defines the grounds for for help. reporting clearly and specifically.
TIPS FOR PARENTS AND CARERS Parenting is one of the most important things you can do. Being a parent is a demanding role that can be challenging and stressful. All parents need support and advice at times. Parents and carers can:
• Try to understand the seriousness and consequences of child abuse. • Learn about healthy child development and how to build strong families. • Listen to children, try to understand what they’re saying and doing - and why. • Encourage children to talk about any problems they may be having and be available to share their joys as well. • Allow children to experiment and make mistakes in a safe and supportive environment. • Find someone to turn to if you’re under stress. All parents become stressed from time to time talk to someone you trust. • If you’re finding being a parent tough to handle, get support contact the Child Abuse Prevention Service on 1800 688 009 (24 hours and freecall) or the Parent Line on 132 055. • Don’t cross the line and hurt your children. Take alternative actions – for example ‘count to ten and think again’. • Check out your child’s sporting club and other activities for their child protection policy and guidelines about keeping children safe. • Understand that only a small minority of cases of child abuse involves a total stranger. It is far more likely to be carried out by someone known to the child or family - even someone close who you’d expect to trust such as a parent, another relative or a family friend. Child Safety Handbook
Moolarben Coal is proud to support NSW Police Legacy in the development of the Child Safety Handbook. Promoting safety at school, home and work to ensure our employees and their families return home safely at the end of each day. Moolarben Coal is located near the village of Ulan, 40km north of Mudgee in Central West NSW. For more information about Moolarben Coal, visit our website www.moolarbencoal.com.au
Project eyewatch is a platform for the delivery of information to the community of NSW utilising Facebook as the network tool to create - 21st Century Neighbourhood Watch communities. It will give community members the opportunity to participate in active crime prevention activities on line in their own homes 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
21st Century Neighbourhood Watch communities are:
How it works
• organised in precincts • providing information in real time • providing the opportunity to talk to experts.
“Eyewatch is about empowering residents with the ability to participate in crime prevention activities to ensure community safety.”
Our key activities include:
• providing a forum for crime and anti social behaviour issues without the hindrance of lifestyle and timeframes • providing crime information and “Keep a Lookout Out For” • facilitating guest speakers for important topics.
The main benefits: • • • • • • •
Gives the community greater access. Real time engagement. Seeks a consensus on a problem. Provides accurate up to date information. Facilitates forums to find solutions. Creates an ability to provide feedback. Develops a high value community network.
– The Hon. Michael Gallacher MLC, Minister for Police and Emergency Services
Local solutions for local problems www.facebook.com/ProjectEyewatch See the links to your Local Area Command
Child Safety Handbook
SAFETY AT HOME
• Never answer the phone by saying your first name or last name. • If the person calling asks for you by name, ask them to whom they would like to speak. • If the person calling asks you “what number is this”, always reply by asking the caller what number they are calling. • Hang up immediately and notify your local police and the phone company if you receive any obscene phone calls. Answering the door
SAFETY AT HOME HOME ALONE At some stage, most parents will be faced with the dilemma of having to leave their child at home on their own. You’ll need to use your own judgment, taking into account your own family circumstances, and the age and maturity of your child, to help you decide if you’re comfortable with him/her being at home alone. Answering the phone
• Always tell the person calling your parents can’t come to the phone and you will take a message for them. • Never let the person calling know you are at home alone. • Never tell the person calling your address. • Installing an answering machine enables your children to hear who is calling and then decide to answer or not.
• If it is night, leave the outside light on. • Always ask “Who is it?” before answering the door. • Keep the screen door locked while answer the door. • Install a peephole in the door and always look through the peep hole before answering the door – if it is a stranger, or someone you don’t trust, you can pretend you are not at home. • If you do not know the person or if it is a person you do not trust, do not let them in. If they do not leave, call the police and call a neighbour or a trusted nearby adult. • Ensure all emergency numbers, including a reliable relative’s or friend’s, are listed by the phone and make sure you know the numbers and have practiced dialing them. If someone tries to enter the house:
• Call the police immediately. • Telephone your neighbour or use the network of trusted adults you have set out. • Run through the opposite door outside into a neighbour’s house. Preparing for Emergencies
Resuscitation can save a child’s life, so it’s a good idea to learn first aid. St John Ambulance, Red Cross and a number of private first aid training companies run courses which also include information on resuscitation. Workcover can provide a list
of accredited companies. Make a list of emergency numbers to keep near the telephone. Below are some suggestions for numbers to include. You can find the others in your local phone book. Police / Fire / Ambulance, Local Police, Poisons Information Centre, Council, Children’s Hospital, Family Doctor, Health Nurse, Neighbours, Relatives.
FIRST AID BASIC FIRST AID Allergic Reactions – Signs & Symptoms
• Swelling and redness of the skin. • Itchy, raised rash (live hives). • Swelling of the throat. • Wheezing and/or coughing. • Rapid, irregular pulse. • Tightness in the chest. • Headache. • Vomiting and/or abdominal pain. • Dizziness or unconsciousness. Management
1. Follow DRSABCD. 2. If the patient is carrying an adrenaline
Ensure all emergency numbers, including a reliable relative’s or friend’s, are listed by the phone and make sure you know the numbers and have practiced dialing them.
autoinjector, it should be used at once. • Let them administer the adrenaline autoinjector themselves, or ask them if they require assistance to do so. 3. Call 000 for an ambulance. 4. Keep patient in lying or sitting position. • Observe and record pulse and breathing.
• If the patient is conscious, help them to sit in a position that assists breathing. Unconscious
• If patient is unconscious, check for breathing and response, and prepare to give CPR if necessary. Asthma Attacks Management Unconscious
• Follow DRSABCD. Conscious
1. Help the patient into a comfortable position. • Usually sitting upright and leaning forward. • Be reassuring and ensure adequate fresh air. 2. Help with prompt administration of patient’s medication. • Give 4 puffs one at a time of a blue reliever inhaler. • Patient takes a breath after each puff (use a spacer if available). • Wait 4 minutes. • If no improvement, give another 4 puffs. 3. If little or no improvement within minutes. • Ensure an ambulance has been called (000). • Keep giving 4 puffs every 4 minutes until ambulance arrives. • Children 4 puffs every 4 minutes. • Adults up to 6–8 puffs every 5 minutes. Where permitted under local State or Territory regulations, and if necessary:
• Use another person’s reliever inhaler, or use one from a first aid kit to assist patient with a severe Child Safety Handbook
SAFETY AT HOME
asthma attack. • If someone is having difficulty breathing, but has not previously had an asthma attack, assist in giving 4 puffs of a reliever and continue with 4 puffs every 4 minutes if required, until an ambulance arrives. Bleeding
Certain diseases can be transmitted through blood, so take precautions to prevent infection. Try to wash your hands with soap before and after; wear disposable gloves if possible when managing bleeding or any first aid, and cover cuts or scratches on your hands before touching an injured person. Severe Bleeding Management
• Apply a pad over the wound if not already in place. • Secure with bandage – ensure pad remains over wound. • If bleeding is still not controlled, leave initial pad in place and apply a second pad – secure with bandage. • If bleeding continues, replace second pad and bandage. 4. Check circulation below wound. 5. If severe bleeding persists, give nothing by mouth. 6. Call 000 for an ambulance. 7. Treat for shock. warning
1. Apply pressure to the wound. • Remove or cut patient’s clothing to expose wound. • Apply direct pressure over wound – instruct patient to do this if possible. • If patient is unable to apply pressure, apply pressure using a pad or your hands (use gloves if available). • Squeeze the wound edges together if possible. 2. Raise and support injured part. • Lie patient down. • Raise injured part above level of heart. • Handle gently if you suspect a fracture. 3. Bandage wound.
DO NOT apply a tourniquet. If embedded object in wound, apply pressure either side of wound and place pad around the object before bandaging. Wear gloves, if possible, to prevent infection. If patient becomes unconscious, follow DRSABCD. Sprains & Strains
Injuries to joints and muscles are common and painful. Appropriate first aid can reduce pain, shock and the risk of long-term complications from the injury. Management
1. Follow DRSABCD Action Plan if required. 2. Follow the RICE management plan. • REST the patient and the injured part. • ICEPACKS (cold compress) wrapped in a wet cloth may be applied to the injury for 15 minutes, every 2 hours for 24 hours, then for 15 minutes every 4 hours for 24 hours.
d can be transmitte Certain diseases s on take precauti through blood, so ion. to prevent infect 18
Child Safety Handbook
DRSABCD ACTION PLAN
SAFETY AT HOME
• COMPRESSION Apply elastic bandage, firmly to extend well beyond the injury. • ELEVATE the injured part. 3. Seek medical aid. Cuts & Bruises
Every member of the family is at risk of cuts and lacerations. These injuries can be the result of slips, falls and accidents in the kitchen, garden and garage. The first thing to do in an emergency
• If the cut is severe, stop the bleeding by applying direct pressure to the wound. Use a pad made of any material until a sterile dressing is available. • Raise and support the injured limb, taking particular care if you think a bone may be broken. • Bandage the pad or dressing firmly to control bleeding until the ambulance arrives. First aid for cuts
If the wound is dirty, wash it in clean running water then dry it and the surrounding skin with a sterile dressing or a pad of clean non-fluffy material. Cover the cut completely with a sterile dressing held in place with a cotton bandage or adhesive plaster. Burns & Scalds
A scald is a burn injury caused by hot liquid, food, vapour or steam. They are among the most serious, painful and long-term injuries. Hot drinks account for about 42 per cent of all child scald injuries, hot foods and oils about 13 per cent and hot water 45 per cent. Beware the hot tap
Every parent of infants and young children should be aware that 80 per cent of all hot tap water scalds occur in the bathroom. More than a third of these accidents are caused by hot water in the bathtub, with a further third happening when the hot tap is running. In most homes, the hot water is set on about 70ºC, a temperature which poses an extreme threat to youngsters. At 70ºC it takes less than half-a-second to cause a full skin thickness scald in tender skin. At 60ºC
it takes 1 second. At 55ºC it takes 30 seconds. And at 50ºC it takes five minutes before the child is scalded. The ideal maximum, safe temperature for hot tap water is 50ºC. The maximum bathing temperature for young children is 38ºC. The first thing to do in an emergency
• Get the person out of the water and flood the affected skin with cool water. • Give first aid for burns and scalds (see below). Burns are caused by contact with flame, hot objects or chemicals, by electrocution, radiated heat, frozen surfaces, friction or radiation. Barbecues, gas stoves and open fires are prime hazards and they should never be left unattended. Severe burns can lead to shock and major infection if not treated correctly. If someone is burned on the face they could also have trouble breathing, although this may not happen immediately. A person who has inhaled smoke or fumes should receive medical attention as soon as possible. And a doctor should always see infants who have received any kind of burn. The first thing to do in an emergency
• If a person’s clothes catch alight, stop them moving or running around. Movement will fan the flames. Remember: stop, drop, roll, manage. • Give first aid for burns and scalds (see below). First aid for burns and scalds
1. Ensure it is safe to approach the patient. 2. Extinguish burning clothing – smother it with a blanket, jacket or use water. In the case of a scald, quickly remove wet clothing from the affected area. 3. Hold the burnt area under cold running water until the skin returns to normal temperature – do this for at least 10 minutes. 4. Remove jewellery and clothing from burnt area – leave it if stuck. 5. Cover the injury with a non-adherent burns
dressing – if you don’t have one, use aluminium foil, plastic wrap or a wet clean dressing. 6. Seek medical aid urgently.
When to seek medical advice:
Extensive burns are dangerous and may be fatal. You should seek medical aid if: • The burn is deep, even if the patient feels no pain. • A superficial burn is larger than a 20-cent piece. • The burn involves the airway, face, hands or genitals. • You are unsure of the severity of the burn.
Choking Severe or continued difficulty with breathing is an emergency condition requiring immediate attention. A person chokes when the airway is partially or completely blocked and in such a state, a person may not be able to communicate that they are choking. Recognising the signs of choking, and then knowing what to do, can make the difference between life and death. A choking person will usually clutch their throat, cough, wheeze or gag, have trouble speaking or swallowing, and make violent attempts to breathe. Face, neck, lips, ears and fingernails will become increasingly blue and the patient can become unconscious.
St John, Australia’s leader in first aid, recommends the following steps for managing choking: First Aid for Choking Adult / Child over one year
• Ask patient to cough- to remove object. • If unsuccessful, call 000 / 112. • Bend patient well forward and give up to 5 sharp blows between shoulder blades. • If still unsuccessful, give up to 5 chest thrusts, checking to see if the object is removed after each chest thrust. • If unsuccessful, alternate between 5 back blows and 5 chest thrusts until medical aid arrives or blockage clears.
• If patient becomes unconscious and displays no signs of life, begin CPR.
POISONING The National Poisons Information Centre receives more than 100,000 emergency calls a year. Calls relate almost equally to the accidental poisoning of adults and children, however, more than 75 per cent of those about kids concern toddlers under three. Swallowing of household items such as detergents, cleaners, paracetamol and cough and cold medicines are common reasons why people contact the service. But there are thousands of potentially dangerous chemicals in our houses, including drugs, household cleaners, gardening chemicals, paints and products for the car. The first things to do Inhaled poison
• Get the person into fresh air as quickly and safely as possible. • Ring the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26. Poison on the skin
• Remove contaminated clothing. • Flood the skin with cool running water for at least 15 minutes. • Wash the skin gently with soap and water, then rinse it again. • Ring the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26. Poison in the eyes
• Flood the affected eye with cool water from a jug, cup or slow running tap for 15 minutes, holding the eye open. • Ring the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26. Swallowed poisoned
• Take the container to the phone and ring the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26. • Do not make the person vomit. • Do not follow the first aid instructions on the product label — they may be wrong. Child Safety Handbook
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SAFETY AT HOME If you do have to store poisons around the home or workplace, ensure that you:
Protect Your Pool,Protect Your Kids Drowning is a leading cause of death for children under five years of age. • Approximately 70% of all drowning deaths in this age group occur in backyard swimming pools. • A large number of children under five years of age drown in swimming pools because of pool fencing that does not meet NSW pool fencing standards. With assistance from The Samuel Morris Foundation and The Swimming Pool and Spa Association of NSW (SPASA NSW), The Children’s Hospital at Westmead have developed the Protect Your Pool, Protect Your Kids video, available on the Hospital’s website.
• Keep poisons and medications in a locked cupboard not within the reach of children. • Destroy all unwanted poisons and medications. • Never put poisons or medications into drink bottles or other containers. • Always store medicines and poisons in clearly labelled, childproof containers . Information reproduced with the permission of St John Ambulance Australia – www.stjohn.org.au
SAFETY IN THE WATER
'Children can drown in as little as 5cm of water'
It’s an horrific fact that in Australia close to 300 lives are lost each year to drowning. This number includes more than 50 children under five or more than one child death a week. Backyard pools are where most of these accidents happen, however, children also drown in spas, nappy buckets, toilets, bathtubs and washing machines.
Swimming pool fencing saves lives. Visit the website to learn about pool fencing and the common faults. Always remember to: • Check your pool fence regularly throughout the year, especially in the months leading up to summer. • Supervise from within arms reach when children are in and around water. • Learn Infant and Child Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). • Familiarise your children with water and teach them to swim, but never assume that they are not likely to drown.
The first things to do in an emergency are:
• Follow the DRSABCD action plan. • Remove wet clothing and try to warm the person. • Ring 000 for an ambulance.
ACCC Product Safety While adults can use many products safely, there are toys, furnishings and home wares that present risks to children. As children are developing physically and mentally, they experiment with their environment and may play with products in unusual and inappropriate ways. When buying products for your children, always ensure that they: • meet safety standards • come with instructions for safe assembly and safe use • are complete with no worn or missing parts • have not been previously recalled, by checking www.recalls.gov.au.
For more information, please visit: www.chw.edu.au/kidshealth/pool_fencing
Buy toys suitable for your child’s age. Look for age grading on toy packaging as this may help. Also, keep toys (and parts) for older children away from little ones. Avoid: • Toys with sharp edges, points or splinters. • Toys with loose small parts (e.g. small balls, buttons, dolls’ eyes, small wheels and small blocks)
as these can be choking hazards. • Gaps, holes or moving parts which could trap or crush little fingers. • Suction darts in target gun sets which are small enough to fit inside a 35 mm film canister. Small darts can choke children of all ages. • Toy boxes with lids which are heavy or close completely (fingers/heads/necks could be trapped or crushed).
• Loud toys, which can be harmful to hearing—particularly toys held to the ears (eg walkie talkies and toy mobile phones). Inside the home Blind and curtain cords
Loose blind and curtain cords/chains—particularly those with loops—are dangerous. They can cause accidental strangulation when children place the loop over their head or get tangled in loose cords. Safety steps for blind and curtain cords: 1. Check your blind and curtain cords 2. Secure loose cords out of reach 3. Choose safe blinds and curtains 4. Keep children away from all cords/chains. Bunk beds
Children can fall off bunks or become trapped in parts of bunk beds or between the bunk and the wall. Make sure bunk beds guardrails are installed securely, and don’t allow children to play on or around bunk beds. Button batteries
Small electronic devices, such as remote controls, may contain coin-sized lithium batteries. When swallowed, these batteries can get stuck in the throat and cause severe burns or death. Keep devices with button batteries out of reach if the battery compartments aren’t secure, and lock away loose batteries. Children’s nightwear
Children can suffer severe burns or death if flammable nightwear clothing catches fire. Safety tips for children’s nightwear: • Always check fire labels on children’s nightwear – it is the law for all children’s nightwear on the Australian market to have fire danger labels and other information. • Do not choose nightwear labelled ‘high fire danger’ if your child may be near open heat sources. • If you have chosen garments with a low fire danger label, remember that these can still be flammable. Child Safety Handbook
Help safeguard your precious memories
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SAFETY AT HOME
When in the water, children must always be under competent adult supervision. This is vital even if they are wearing or using flotation aids, using flotation toys, the water is shallow, or if smaller children are with older children. Keeping Baby Safe
Keeping baby safe provides parents and others who care for children with safety information in a format that’s easy to read and refer to. It contains detailed, specific safety tips, highlights the common hazards, and outlines what to look for in 30 types of products used for and by small children. It also gives useful tips on things like how to reduce common home hazards and using second-hand products, as well as relevant information on mandatory standards and bans for regulated products. You can get Keeping baby safe: • as a booklet: call the ACCC Infocentre on 1300 302 502 or visit www.productsafety.gov.au/ keepingbabysafe to order your copy • as a booklet in electronic (PDF) format: download from www.productsafety.gov.au/keepingbabysafe • as an eBook: download from the Apple iTunes Store • on video: see the videos on the ACCC Product Safety YouTube channel (www.youtube.com/ ACCCProductSafety) and stay tuned for more • as an app: coming soon! More information
You can find out more information on children’s product safety through: • Product Safety Australia website: www.productsafety.gov.au – subscribe to email alerts • Twitter: follow @ProductSafetyAU • Facebook: ‘like’ the ACCC Product Safety page • Recalls Australia website: www.recalls.gov.au • Recalls Australia iPhone app: available at the Apple iTunes Store
The internet provides an opportunity to communicate, learn, play and be entertained by content from around the world. It provides vibrant, varied and extensive information at the click of a mouse. The internet provides many positives but there are also risks. Cyberbullying, inappropriate contact, identity theft, scams and exposure to adult content can make the internet a risky place for children. And the risks exist for children and young people of all ages. Cybersmart aims to give children and their parents sound advice on how best to manage risks, so their online experiences are safe and positive. What does cyberbullying look like?
• • • •
Abusive texts and emails. Imitating others online. Excluding others online. Posting unkind messages or inappropriate images on social networking sites Cyberbullying involves the use of information and communication technologies to support deliberate, repeated actions by an individual or group intended to embarrass, humiliate or intimidate their victim.
• We won’t take the technology away from you if you report So how do I keep safe on social networking sites?
• Go to http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/teens.aspx • Remove flirty photos • Remove flirty nicknames • Don’t friend randoms • Remove mobile phone numbers • Remove suburb/town if you have your surname • Set your site to private So how do I keep safe online?
• What happens online affects you in the real world, protect your digital reputation • Spams and scams exist – look for signs they’re fake • Update your security and use pop-up blockers • Stop before you click – do you know where you’re heading? • Treat your phone as your wallet • Maintain an offline and online balance in your life • Stop and think before you check in – geo-locators tells strangers where you are • Go to: http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/parents
So what do I do if I am being cyberbullied?
So how do I protect my child online?
• • • • • • • • • • •
1. Go to www.cybersmart.gov.au/parent 2. Make digital issues part of everyday conversation 3. Put in place the safe steps to make social networking sites safe 4. Don’t be afraid to try technologies for yourself 5. Communicate with other parents and teachers 6. Collect the evidence if your child is being cyber- bullied
STOP and change your privacy settings Do not reply to a bully Click the REPORT abuse button or flag Block the bully Customise your privacy settings TELL a trusted adult Collect evidence KEEP mobile phone messages Print emails and social networking conversations Go to http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/teens.aspx Get help from Kids Help Line http://www.cybersmart.gov.au/report.aspx Schools or parents can make a difference • The problem does not need to escalate if reported
The Australian Communications and Media Authority (the ACMA), as part of the Australian Government’s commitment to cybersafety, manages Cybersmart – a national cybersafety education program. This program includes targeted education
Make Cyber Space a Better Place “When is a book not a book?” When it’s a free resource for teachers and students to help make cyberspace a better place. These days Australian students live in a digital world. Whilst this world is an amazing source of entertainment, information and connection they need to learn how to avoid the dangers of its misuse. Over 10,000 schools in Australia in June received this free resource of ready made lesson plans to help support and educate young people about internet safety cyberbullying and sexting. Talk to your school and make sure they have received this FREE resource or find it under teachers resources on the Kids Helpline web site: http://www.kidshelp.com.au
and awareness activities and resources for parents and children and research into current trends in cybersafety. For more information, go to: www.cybersmart.gov.au Child Safety Handbook
fire, flood & storm safety
fire, flood & storm safety Kitchen • Almost half of all house fires start in the kitchen.
• 1 in 4 children are allowed to cook unsupervised. from the dangers of fires, burns and scalds.
Cooking should never be left unattended
Never use water to put out a fat or oil fire
• Always stay in the kitchen while cooking and turn off the stove before you leave.
• Heat oils carefully as hot oils and fats catch fire easily.
Accidents can happen very quickly
If a fire starts, turn off the stove or cover the flame if it is safe to do so.
Fabrics and loose clothing can catch fire easily
• • • •
• Flammable materials such as pressure packs, cleaning agents and cooking oils should be stored away from heat. • Ensure all hazardous substances and medications are stored out of the reach of children. 24
Child Safety Handbook
• All electrical appliances including toasters, air conditioners and filters on range hoods and clothes dryers need regular cleaning. Fire caused by damaged and frayed cords can be prevented
• Cords on electrical appliances need regular checking. It is recommended that any repair to an electrical appliance be done by a licensed professional. Improper use of power boards and double adaptors can lead to fires
Keep your clothing away from heat. Tie back long hair to prevent accidents. Ensure curtains are kept away from the stove. Don’t sort your tea towel over the oven handle.
Many substances in the kitchen are dangerous
• Prevent fires by using electrical equipment safely and maintaining it regularly.
The build up of grease, dust and dirt can fuel a fire
• Children need constant supervision to protect them
• To limit the risk of scalds and burns to children, ensure pot handles are turned inwards.
• A double adaptor or a power board plugged into another double adaptor or power board can create a danger of overloading the system. Utilise a fire extinguisher or fire blanket if available. Otherwise leave the kitchen, close the door and call the Fire Brigade.
Incorrect use of extension cords can cause fires
• Leaving an extension cord coiled while in use or placing a cord under floor coverings can cause overheating. • Use a single extension cord rather than joining shorter cords.
Be careful to keep electrical appliances away from water
• Be aware of the dangers of leaving or using electrical equipment around water. • Hair dryers and straighteners take time to cool down so allow them to cool on a non-combustible surface before storing. Light globes can become very hot
• Don’t cover a lamp with any type of fabric. • To dim a lap it is recommended that a globe with a lower wattage is used. • Keep bathroom heat lamps clean of dust build up. Computers, monitors, gaming consoles, TVs, VCR, DVD and Blueray players can overheat and cause fires even when not in use
• They should be turned off after each session. • Good air circulation is necessary around TVs, VCR, DVD and Blueray players. Inappropriate disposal of cigarettes can cause a fire
• Dampen cigarette butts before disposing of them. • Smoking in bed is extremely dangerous.
fire, flood & storm safety
• Candles, matches/lighters and cigarettes can all be dangerous. • Prepare your family for the safe use of open flames.
Candles should be lit only when they are well away from curtains and open windows and should never be left alight when you leave the room
• An adult should be present at all times when a candle is being used. • Decorative candles can be dangerous if allowed to totally burn down. Children should never be allowed to have access to matches or lighters
Places candles on a level, fire resistant surface out of the reach of children. It is recommended that smokers use only child proof lighters and deep ashtrays
Barbeques • LPG cylinders are safe if used and stored correctly. • Always read and follow the manufacturer’s instructions and maintenance. Protect your children from fire outside the house as well as inside
There should be an adult in charge of a lit barbeque at all times.
Gas Cylinders Before using a gas cylinder check its expiry date
• Ensure the connections on the hose are tight and there is no leakage. • Check that the hose is intact and has not perished or cracked. • The quickest and safest way to refill an empty
gas cylinder is via an exchange program, such as those found at service stations. Each full gas cylinder is either new or has been inspected and fully reconditioned by a trained technician.
Patio Heaters • Known to cause fires if incorrectly stored or maintained • Only use in a well ventilated outdoor area on stable level ground. • Keep clear of overhead coverings, such as awnings and shade sails.
Winter Fire Safety • Many preventable house fires occur in winter. • Help prevent fire in your house. • Keep yourself warm but remember winter fire safety.
Heaters and open fires When having your heater installed ensure you correctly follow the manufacturer’s instructions
• Ensure space is left between the heater and the wall. • Flues and chimneys require cleaning once a year. Never leave anything flammable such as curtains, clothing, bedding and children’s toys within one metre of a heater
• Never place clothing on or near heaters and fires. • Before you retire for the night or leave your house, ensure fires are extinguished and heaters are turned off at their power source. Strong fire screens should be securely placed in front of open fires.
• Firewood must be stored away from the fire. • Young children must be supervised at all times in rooms where there are open fires or working heaters.
Protect your children from fire outside the house as well as inside. There should be an adult in charge of a lit barbeque at all times
To protect children, check that their night clothes are labelled ‘Low Fire Danger’. Natural fabrics, especially wool, have a ‘Low Fire Danger’.
Electric Blankets If not stored and used correctly electric blankets may start fires
• Make sure you have stored your electric blankets safely. Store flat if possible and with nothing on top of it to damage the wiring. • When you take an electric blanket out in winter, check that the wires are completely flat and undamaged. Warm your bed by turning your blanket on for half an hour before you retire
Then turn it off at the controls and the power source as you go to bed.
Clothes Dryers Lint is a combustible material
• Lint filters need cleaning prior to every load. • Allow the dryer to complete its cool down cycle to prevent overheating. • Always ensure there is adequate air flow around a dryer. • When not in use, dryers should be turned off at their power source. Similarly, dryers should be turned off before you retire for the night or leave your home.
fire Blankets HOW TO USE A FIRE BLANKET
1. Take hold of the two tabs and pull the blanket out of its container. 2. Hold the tabs towards yourself to protect your hands. Child Safety Handbook
fire, flood & storm safety
3. Walk slowly towards the fire and stretch out your arms in front of you. 4. As the blanket hits the top of the stove, place it over the fire. 5. Leave the blanket on the pot. 6. If it is safe to do so, turn off the gas/electricity at the stove or at the main supply. 7. Call Triple Zero (000). Firefighters will attend.
located on the ceiling, preferably away from the walls and fittings.
Smoke Alarms • The earlier a fire is detected, the greater the chance of escaping safely. • Working smoke alarms, when used in conjunction with an escape plan, will increase your chance of getting out safely. Maintaining a working smoke alarm
• Test smoke alarms every month by pressing the button. • Vacuum alarms every six months to keep them clean. • Change the batteries each year. At the end of Daylight Saving change your clock and change your smoke alarm batteries. • Only use smokes alarms displaying the Australian Standard Symbol. • Most battery-powered smoke alarms can be easily installed by the home owner or a maintenance contractor and do not require professional installation. • Hard-wired smoke alarms will need to be installed by a licensed professional. • Always install a smoke alarm in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. • Smoke alarms are usually most effective when
Updating your smoke alarm
• When you are sleeping you cannot smell smoke. Smoke alarms save lives. They wake you and alert you to the danger from smoke and fire. • Smoke alarms were made compulsory in NSW in May 2006 in existing homes. • Since 1996 new homes in NSW must have hardwired smoke alarms installed prior to occupancy. The majority of alarms have a ten year life span so check your alarm to see if it needs replacing. • Smoke alarms have helped save the lives of hundreds of people in Australia. • NSW Fire Brigades urges all households to supplement their existing smoke alarms by installing one in every bedroom as well as positioning one alarm to detect smoke before it reaches sleeping occupants (between bedrooms and kitchen where the majority of fires start). • Legislation states a minimum requirement of at least one smokes alarm per floor. • NSW Fire Brigades recommend the installation of hard wired and interconnected photo electric smoke alarms. • Don’t put a smoke alarm in a bathroom. • Don’t put an ordinary smoke alarm near cooking areas.
. Replace your Smoke alarms do not last forever ry ten years or smoke alarm with a new unit eve rs. when specified by the manufacture 26
Child Safety Handbook
Dry Powder Extinguishers
Pull Aim Squeeze Sweep
1. Remove the extinguisher from its holder. 2. PULL out the pin and test the extinguisher. Walk slowly to within 2 to 3 meters of the fire. Don’t get to close. 3. AIM at the base of the fire. 4. SQUEEZE the handles together. 5. SWEEP the powder at the flames from side to side. 6. Continue until the fire is out. 7. If it is safe to do so, turn off the gas/electricity at the stove or at the main supply. 8. Call Triple Zero (000). Firefighters will attend.
The first priority is to get out
• Identify fire hydrants near your home, ensure are of a they burning house. not obstructed.
If there is a fire close the door as
fire, flood & storm safety
• Regularly rake up, dig in or pick up dead leaves litter. you are and leaving a room to prevent • Remove and store any fuel supplies
andthe smoke from spreading. away fire from house.
• If you have a swimming display a Static Water Supply When there is smoke, always Include two means pool, of escape crawl low to get under the smoke. from each sign on your frontroom. fence.
Have a Home Escape Plan
Decide on a safe • Ensure you have a garden hose which is long enough tooutside Discuss it with other occupants.
meeting place eg. near the reach every part of the home. In the event of a fire, a working letterbox and phone Triple Zero Make sure that windows and Smoke Alarm used in conjunction (000) fromdue a safe screens be easily • Plant trees andcan shrubs thatopened. are less likely to ignite tophone. with an Escape Plan will greatly their low oil content. increase your chances of getting Once you get out STAY OUT, Provide alternatives for anyone never gocovered. back inside a burning • Keep wood well away from house and keep with apiles disability. out safely. building.
• Keep garden from The firstmulch priorityaway is to get out house and keep grass short.
Draw your Escpace Plan on the grid Practise your plan at least twice of a burning house. - then place it where your family will • Cut back any overhanging trees or shrubs aand of that everyone year,dispose making sure is involved. see it - for example, on your fridge.cuttings Ifappropriately. there is a fire close the door as you are leaving a room to prevent
• Make sure the smoke pressure valves on LPG cylinders are fire and from relief spreading. face outwards so that flame is not directed towards the house. When there is smoke, always
Include two means of escape • Considercrawl installing metal or solid screens to the low to get underflywire the smoke. from each room.areas. outside windows or doors and enclose underfloor
Include two means of escape from each room.
Discuss it with otherand occupants. • Clean leaves gutters and downpipes fit meetingfrom placethe eg. roof, near the quality metal leaf guards. letterbox and phone Triple Zero
Discuss it with other occupants.
Decide on a safe outside
Make sure that windows and
Make sure that windows and screens can be easily opened.
Provide alternatives for anyone
Provide alternatives for anyone with a disability.
(000) from a safe phone. • Check the condition of your roof covering screensand can replace be easily any opened. damaged or missing roof tiles. Once you get out STAY OUT, never go back inside a burning
a disability. • Screen vents on roof voids with fine with metal wire mesh. building.
• Ensure all gaps in external wall cladding sealed. Practise your plan at least twice The first priority is to get out
a year, making sure that everyone of a burning house. • Steel fences are the most effective at withstanding is involved. the intense heat generated by a bushIf there fire. is a fire close the door as you are leaving a room to prevent fire and smoke from spreading. When there is smoke, always crawl low to get under the smoke. Decide on a safe outside meeting place eg. near the letterbox and phone Triple Zero (000) from a safe phone. Once you get out STAY OUT, never go back inside a burning building. Practise your plan at least twice a year, making sure that everyone is involved.
The first priority is to get out
PREPARE of a burning house. Identify the potential risksthe door as If there is afire fire close are leaving a room to prevent around your you home. fire and smoke from spreading. • Identify fire hydrants near your Whenthey thereare is smoke, home, ensure not always crawl low to get under the smoke. obstructed. Decideup, on dig a safe outside • Regularly rake in or • Keep garden mulch away from meeting place eg. near the pick up dead leaves and litter. letterbox and phone Triple Zero house and keep covered. (000) fromany a safe phone. • Remove and store fuel • Cut back any over hanging supplies away from the house. trees or shrubs and dispose of Once you get out STAY OUT, • If you havenever a swimming pool, a burning cuttings appropriately. go back inside building. display a Static Water Supply • Make sure the pressure relief sign on your frontyour fence. Practise plan at least twice valves on LPG cylinders face year, making surehose that everyone • Ensure youa have a garden outwards so that flame is not is involved. which is long enough to reach directed towards the house. every part of the home. • Consider installing metal • Plant trees and shrubs that are flywire or solid screens to the less likely to ignite due to their outside windows or doors and low oil content. enclose underfloor areas. • Keep wood piles well away • Clean leaves from the roof, from house and keep covered. gutters and downpipes and fit
quality metal leaf guards.
• Check the condition of your
roof covering and replace any damaged or missing roof titles. • Fit screen vents on roof voids with fine metal wire mesh. • Ensure all gaps in external wall cladding are sealed. • Steel fences are the most effective at withstanding the intense heat generated by a bush fire. Information reproduced with the permission of Fire & Rescue NSW – www.fire.nsw.gov.au
fire, flood & storm safety
BUSH FIRE SAFETY
moving towards a FireWise community
Bush Fire Survival Plan
Bush fire survival plan
What will you do to keep your family safe?
What Will you do to keep your family safe? The more prepared you are for a bush fire, the better your chances of survival The middle of a bush fire is no time to start
thinking whatyou you should The more about prepared are do. Having a Bush Fire Survival Plan for a bush fire, the better will yourhelp you avoid making last minute decisions that could be chances of survival deadly. Your Fire Plan TheBush middle of Survival a bush fire is outlines what you need to do to prepare yourself, your family, your no time to start thinking about pets and what actions each member of your what you Having family will should need todo. do to be safe.
a Bush Fire Survival Plan Everyone’s Bush Firemaking Survival Plan will be will help you avoid different the important thing is that it works for last minute decisions that you and your family. could be deadly. Your Bush Fire Survival Plan outlines what you need to do to prepare yourself, your family, your pets and what actions each member of your family will need to do to be safe. Everyone’s Bush Fire Survival Plan will be different - the important thing is that it works for you and your family. A good plan will consider the different situations you may be faced with and what you will do if things go wrong.
A good plan will consider the different situations you may be faced with and what you will do if things go wrong. In a bush fire, the situation can change quickly and your plan should cover this. Make sure everyone in your family knows and understands your Bush Fire Survival Plan. Practice it regularly and keep it where you can find it.
T he re are m a ny be ne fit s to Bus h F ire Su rv iva l Pla n. C co m plet in g a om plet in g a Bus h F ire Su rv iva l Pla n will he lp you to... Ma ke an informed decis ion on whether you will leave early or stay and defend your property. Understand your lev el of risk. Knowing your level of risk means you wil l be able to make the safest decision for you and your fam ily.
T he re a Bus h F ire F ire
Make an or stay an
Prepare your prope rty. A well prepared T he re a re m a ny ben ef it s to property is more likely to survi ve a bush fire even co m if you leave early. pl et in g a Prepare a back up plan. So Bus h F ire Su rv iva l Pla n. C me tim om plet in g a Bus hprepared you are, things don’t go esto ,plano matter how well n. That’s why, wheth F ire S you plan to leave ea u rv ivainl your er Plafamily Make sure everyone andlp yo n wknows rly or stay and defen ill he d, you need u to ... a ba ck up pla n. understands your Bush Fire Survival Plan. Practice Ma
ke an informed decis ion on eth er yo it keep it where youwh can find it. u will leave ea orregularly stay andand rly defend your property . Un derstandyour Download Survival today at yourBush levelFire of ris k. KnowPlan ing your level of risk means you willand for more information www.rfs.nsw.gov.au be able to make the safest decision for please call 1800 NSW RFS. you an d yo ur fam ily. Prepare your prope rty. A well prepared property is more likely to survi ve a bush fire even if you leave early. Prepare a back up plan. Sometimes, no matter how well prepared you are, thi ngs don’t go to plan. That’s why, whether you plan to leave ea rly or stay and defen d, you need a back up plan. Check that you have adequate insurance to cover your property from damage from a bush fire. Act quickly. Some fire s start and spread so quickly that there is no time for any waitin g at all. Have a trigger to pu t your Bush Fire Su rvival Plan into actio with little warning. He n sitating or adopting a ‘wait and see’ approach could have deadly consequenc es for you and your family.
Ensure that you ha ve th
Check that you have adequate insurance to cover your property from damage from a bush fire. Act quickly. Some fire s start and spread so quickly that there no time for any waitin is g at all. Have a trigger to pu t your Bush Fire Su rvival Plan into actio with little warning. He n sitating or adopting a ‘wait and see’ approach could have deadly consequenc es for you and your family.
Ensure that you ha ve thought about care options for your animals. PREPARE.ACT.SU RVIVE.
YOUR BUSH F IRE SURVIVAL PLA N
will help provide protection for you, your fam ily and your pets.
Child Safety Handbook
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Act quickly. no time for a
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fire, flood & storm safety
BUSH FIRE SAFETY
moving towards a FireWise community
Fire Safety for Your Pets
fire safety for your pets What will you do with your pets in the event of a bushfire?
What Will you do With your pets in the event of a bushfire?
What ever you decide to do, you should have your property prepared and a current Bush Fire Survival Plan: Do not tie animals up during a major emergency, it could be fatal for them.
What ever you decide to do, In bush fires, moveyour animals to a well grazed you should have property or ploughed area, preferably around the prepared and a current Bush home and sheltered away from the winds. Fire Survival Plan: Check your property insurance for (animal) related Do notitems. tie animals up during a
clearly indentifiable with your contact details on all lables and tags.
Y ou r Bu s h F ire Su rv iva m u st in clu d e t h e we llbl Pla n o f y ou r a n im a ls e in g
Do your animals have any special needs or require medicines or vet assistance. Make a note of these requirements and put it with your relocation kit.
Before you leave your property check that your chosen place your animals is Long be foretoanrelocate y bush fire consult major emergency, it could be your local Council Remove all covering from stock e.g. rugs and accessible. Department of Pr , imary Industries fatalasforthese them. veils can burn animals if they come or the RSPCA for information on an im al re gesisinthe Do not leave at the last minute,futhis into contact with embers. your area. In bush fires, move animals to Listen to thoption most dangerous for you and your e loc al ra dio The saco a well grazed or ploughed area, fend ty itio of ns in your ar for updates on bush fire If it is your decision to relocate your animals, animals. ea and check ww yo ur preferably around the home and pe ts w.rfs.nsw.gov.au. anDedcid this MUST be done long before the bush fire aneim alats your tri wh gg sheltered away from the winds. er is in your area. Make sure your animals are in a bush Bufir isre Survival Plan intwill be to put your she Fi o action. Y O U R respBeoncasibility. Check your property insurance use of the potent ial stress on animals for (animal) related items. bush fire, we reco in a major mmend that you relocate your pe early to a safer loc Thateion Remove all covering from stock safe ts . ty of yo ur pe ts e.g. rugs and veils as these can an d animals If you are going intoasta buyshan burn animals if they come into small domestic an firde ac is tively defend your property, imals shou Y be put in a secure O U R responsibildlity. a small room (to contact with embers. place, ilet, laund ry), a place that will be easy to clean after the event. If it is your decision to relocate Animals can sens your animals, this MUST be e danger and co uld easily becom stressed. Keep a e done long before the bush fire watch on them an d reassure them Bi rd s sh ou . ld be caged with is in your area. Make sure your a covering (dam it, leave appropria p towel) over te food and wate animals are clearly indentifiable r in the room / ca ge. with your contact details on all PREPARE your Bu sh Fi re Survival Plan toda Childlables Safetyand Handbook tags. a plan from www. y. Download rfs.nsw.gov.au
Y ou r Bu s h F ire Su rv iva m u st in clu d e t h e we llbl Pla n o f y ou r a n im a ls e in g T he re a re
Long before any bush fire consult your local Council Department of Pr , imary Industries or the RSPCA for information on an imal refuges in yo ur area. Listen to the local Make an inf radio for updates on bush fire conditions in your or stay and area and check ww w.rfs.nsw.gov.au. Decide what your Understand trigger will be to put your Bush Fire Surviva of risk mean l Plan into action. for you and y Long before any Because of the bush fire consult potential stres your local Council s on animals in Departmen bush fire, we re , Prepare t of Primary a major Industries or the your co m m en d th at inf ormation on animyou relocate yo RSPCA for early to a safer loc al refuges in yourur pets is mo re lik ely ation area. Listen to the. local rad io for If you are going updates on bush Prepare a ba cond toitio fire sta nsy in anyo duracare tivaely and dech feec nd small domestic an k ww your pre w. pr pared you rfs op .ns er w. ty, go v.au. alsatsh Decidim e wh yoou ur ld trigbe gerpu atose witll in a small room (to cu yo be u re plan to le pla pu ce t yo , ur Buile sh t,Firlau e Su ndrvi ryva ),l aPla pla n int ceoth acat tiowi to clean after the n. ll be easy a back up plan Becaev t. the poten usen e of tial stress on anim als in a major Check that yo Animals can se bush fire, we rec ommend that yo nse danger an oc ate your pets cover your early to a safer loc d could easiluy rel stressed. Keep be co me pro ation. a watch on them and reassure them Birds should be If you are going . Act quickly. So caged wi ato co stay and actively vering (dampde small domestith ur propertyno it, leave approp tofen wedl)yoov , time for an c animals shou er riate food an ld y be t in a secure place a small room (to d water in the ropu , ilet, laundry), a pla om / cage . ce tha Ha t will be easy ve a trigger to clean after the PREPARE your Bush Fire Suev rven ivat.l Plan today. Do wi a plan from ww th little warnin An im wn als.nca load seov w.rfs nse danger and swn.g could easily beco stressed. Keep a .au ap pro me ach could watch on them an d reassure them. Birds should be family. caged with a
Bus h F ire S F ire Su
Y ou r Bu sh F ire Su rv iva m u st in clu d e th e we llbl Pla n o f y ou r a n im a ls e in g
covering (damp towel) over ate food and water in the room / cage Ensure that you . PREPARE your care options for Bush Fire Surviva l Plan today. Down a plan from www. load rfs.nsw.gov.au PREPARE.ACT. it, leave appropri
fire, flood & storm safety
Floods and Storms The SES is responsible for planning for and responding to floods and storms in NSW. This includes helping communities prepare for these events. The SES is also responsible for planning for and responding to tsunami and cyclones, which are far less common occurrences in NSW.
FLOODS If you live close to a creek, river, major stormwater drain or in a low‐lying area, you could be at risk from floods. Even if your property is not inundated by floodwater you could become isolated, access to other areas might be cut and you could lose access to power and/or water. 5 things you can do now to prepare for floods
If you live or work in a flood‐prone area there are some things you can do now to prepare: 1. Know your risk • Check with your local SES unit or on the SES website to find out if there is a local FloodSafe guide • Know the height at which your home, business and/or property could be affected by floodwater. Find out how deep the water could get in and around your property • Contact your local Council if you want more information on how flooding could directly affect your property 2. Know where to go • Find the safest route to travel in the event that you might need to evacuate and identify the height at which your evacuation route may be cut • Find out where any evacuation centres could be set up in your area. If you prefer, check with friends and relatives outside the flood prone area to organise a place to go 3. Know who to call • For emergency help in floods and storms, call the SES on 132 500
• Keep local emergency numbers handy (near your phone or on your fridge) • In a life-threatening emergency, call 000 (triple zero) 4. Know your plan • To help households and businesses plan for flooding, the SES has developed Home and Business FloodSafe Toolkits. They are available free of charge from your local SES unit or at www.ses.nsw.gov.au • Review your plan annually to keep it up-to-date 5. Get your kit together • Put together an emergency kit for your home or business • If you are likely to be isolated by floodwater, have sufficient non‐perishable food, essential medications, fuel and other necessities to last at least a week. Remember to include pet food and/or stock feed if required When a flood watch is issued
A Flood Watch is issued by the Bureau of Meteorology if flood producing rain is expected to happen in the near future. The general weather forecasts can also refer to flood producing rain. You should be prepared to act should flooding occur. • Listen to your local radio station for information, updates and advice. • Locate and check your Emergency Kit • Check on your neighbours and make sure they are aware of the Flood Watch • Never drive, ride or walk through floodwater • Locate and get ready to activate your Home or Business FloodSafe Plan • Locate pets. Prepare to take them with you or move them to higher ground If isolation is likely, have sufficient non-perishable food, essential medications, fuel and other necessities to last at least a week. Remember to include pet food and/or stockfeed if required Child Safety Handbook
fire, flood & storm safety When a Flood Warning is issued
When an Evacuation Warning is issued
A Flood Warning is issued by the Bureau of Meteorology when flooding is about to happen or is happening. Flood Warnings provide a predicted flood level and time at which a river will reach that level. Flood Warnings are issued in relation to flood gauges which are situated at a certain point on a river.
When flooding is likely to cut evacuation routes or inundate property, the SES may issue an Evacuation Warning to indicate that you should get prepared to evacuate. This means that flooding is imminent in your area. Being prepared will allow you to respond quickly. • Locate important papers, valuables and mementos. Put them in your Emergency Kit • Keep listening to your local radio station for information, updates and advice • Follow instructions given to you by emergency services When an Evacuation Order is issued
• Never drive, ride or walk through floodwater • Stack possessions, records, stock or equipment on benches and tables, placing electrical items on top • Secure objects that are likely to float and cause damage • Relocate waste containers, chemicals and poisons well above floor level • Activate your Home or Business FloodSafe Plan • Keep listening to your local radio station for information, updates and advice • Keep in contact with your neighbours • Be prepared to evacuate if advised by emergency services • Act early as roads may become congested or close 32
Child Safety Handbook
When you are required to evacuate, the SES will issue an Evacuation Order advising people of what to do and where to go. There are a number of ways you might hear about the need to evacuate including, but not limited to, doorknock (by SES or other emergency services), through radio stations, or by automated telephone and/or SMS. You must evacuate immediately. You should try to seek shelter with family or friends well away from flood impacted areas. In larger floods, evacuation centres may be established to help people affected by the flooding. If you are isolated by floodwater, the SES may coordinate the supply of essential items to communities and properties.
STORMS While storms are most common in New South Wales between October and late March, they can happen at any time. It is important to be prepared all year. Severe storms can be accompanied by torrential rain, strong winds, large hailstones, lightning and flash flooding. They are the most costly natural disaster to affect New South Wales. 8 things you can do now to prepare for Storms
There are a few simple things that you can do now to prepare your home and help reduce the potential
damage caused by severe storms. • Maintain your yard and balcony. Secure or store items that could blow around in strong winds • Clean your gutters, downpipes and drains regularly to prevent blockages • Trim trees and branches that could potentially fall on your home or property • Fix any damage to your roof, including broken or missing tiles • Check your household insurance policy is current and adequate • Make a plan for your family that outlines what you would do in an emergency • Prepare an emergency kit with essential items in case you lose power or need to leave home in an emergency • Listen to your local radio station and other media for weather warnings
Severe thunderstorms can be localised, develop quickly and their location can be difficult to predict. As a result, warnings may be issued by the Bureau of Meteorology with little notice. It is important to be prepared now. When a Severe Weather Warning or Severe Thunderstorm Warning is issued:
When a warning is issued for your area (but before the storm arrives), there are a few things you can do to help protect your family and property: • Move indoors, bringing pets with you • Have your emergency kit handy in case you lose power or need to leave • Ensure your family car is parked under secure cover and away from hail, trees, power lines and drains • Secure or put away items from around the
Partners in Community Safety • Listen to your local radio station and other media for information, updates and advice • For emergency assistance in floods and storms, call the SES on 132 500 After a storm:
house, yard, or balcony that could blow around in strong winds Check to see if your neighbours are aware of the warning When flash flooding is likely, leaving lowlying homes and businesses well before flash flooding begins (evacuation) is the best action to take, but only if it is safe to do so. If you are trapped by rising floodwater, seek refuge in the highest part of a sturdy building. Stay there and call ‘000’ (triple zero) if you need to be rescued Listen to your local radio station and other media for information, updates and advice Unplug and avoid using electrical equipment connected to mains power, landline phones and modems
During a storm
During a storm, there are simple things you can do to help protect your family: • Never enter or travel through floodwater • Stay indoors, clear of windows • Stay clear of creeks, drains, causeways, gutters, streams, fallen trees, power lines and damaged buildings • If driving, put your hazard lights on and pull over to the side of the road keeping clear of drains, causeways, streams, creeks, trees and power lines • If outdoors, seek secure shelter away from drains, causeways, streams, creeks, trees and power lines
After the storm has passed: • Keep listening to your local radio station for information, updates and advice • Check your house or property for damage • Stay clear of creeks, drains, causeways, gutters, streams, fallen trees, power lines and any damaged buildings • Check to see if your neighbours need help • Do not go sightseeing as this may hinder recovery efforts or put yourself and others at risk
For more information including preparing an Emergency Kit or a Business FloodSafe Toolkit visit www.ses.nsw.gov.au For emergency help in floods and storms call the SES on 132 500 For life threatening emergencies call 000. For FloodSafe, StormSafe and TsunamiSafe information and information on volunteering, call the SES on 1800 201 000 Information reproduced with the permission of State Emergency Service – www.ses.nsw.gov.au
fire, flood & storm safety
One of the most important things
One of the most important things you can you can do to prepare your home for do to prepare your home for floods ﬂoodsand and storms put together a storms is tois puttotogether a
Home Emergency Home EmergencyKit Kit
Your Emergency Home Emergency Kit contents: Your Home Kit contents • Portable radio with spare batteries • Portable radio with spare batteries • Torch with spare batteries • Torch with sparenecessary batteriesfor your household) • First aid kit (with supplies • Candles and waterproof matches • First aid kit (with supplies necessary for your household) • Important papers including emergency contact numbers Candles waterproof • Copy • of any Homeand Emergency Plansmatches (eg. Home FloodSafe Toolkit available from the SES) • Important papers including emergency contact numbers • Waterproof bag for valuables • Copy of any Home Emergency Plans Home FloodSafe Toolkit available from If you have(eg. to evacuate, add to your Home- Emergency Kit: the SES) • A good supply of required medications • Waterproof bag for valuables
• Any special requirements for babies, the disabled, infi rm and/or elderly If shoes you have to evacuate, add to your Home Emergency Kit: • Strong • Fresh•food and drinks A good supply of required medications • Any special requirements for babies, the disabled, inﬁrm and/or elderly Your Home Emergency kit should be kept in a waterproof storage box. • Strong Check your Homeshoes Emergency Kit contents regularly and restock any out-of• Fresh and drinks date items suchfood as batteries.
Your Home Emergency kit should be kept in a waterproof storage box. Check your Home Emergency Kit contents regularly and restock any out-of-date items such as batteries. Child Safety Handbook
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off from the driveway, the pool, from any steps or stairs in the garden or around a verandah and from animals that might harm them. • Fences should be well-maintained, effective and without sharp edges. • Children also need an area that is open and clear of obstacles.
BICYCLES IN THE BACKYARD
BACKYARD SAFETY SAFE BACKYARD The backyard is a wonderful place for children to explore and learn about their environment. It is also a place where the happiest childhood memories are created, experiences are learned and it is a great place to get children more physically active. • Many children are injured in their home backyard. On an average day in Australia, about 5,000 children have accidents that require medical attention, 200 children are admitted to hospital, and there are one or two child deaths. • About half of the injuries to children under 15 happen at home and about half of all children injured at home are under five. Many of these home injuries happen in the home backyard • Nearly half (44 per cent) of all backyard injuries come from falls. Children trip over objects (toys, tools, animals), fall off play equipment (swings, slides, cubbies), fall off verandahs, down steps and out of trees. Other main types of backyard injury include cuts (12 per cent), poisons (nine per cent), scalds/burns (six percent), choking
(five per cent), bites (three per cent) and drownings or near drownings (one per cent). Many of these injuries can be serious or even fatal. But, at the same time, most can be prevented. A safe place to play
A kidsafe backyard is a place where there are plenty of child-friendly things to do, but without major hazards. • Children need a safe place to play that is fenced
Many children learn to ride a bicycle in their backyard. It’s safe and the surface is usually softer than concrete or bitumen. But a backyard can also be small and difficult to ride in. Most injuries from bicycles are the result of falls; falls from riding into objects and being unbalanced. To guard against falls and other bicycle injuries: • Make the bike riding area safe, preferably fenced off from the roadway. Keep it clear of obstacles and tripping hazards. • Make sure that the bike fits the child. Younger children need to start with three-wheelers, move to two-wheelers with trainers, until they can balance well on two wheels (at about four to five years). • Make sure that the child can get on and off, steer and brake easily. They should be able to rest their feet on the ground when the bike is not moving. • Children should wear bike helmets, even in the
safe? How can you make your backyard STEP ONE: Look for dangers in the backyard. This chapter will help you be more aware of these hazards. STEP TWO: Decide what to do about the hazard or danger. What you do about it will depend on just how dangerous it is, how it can be changed and what kind of problem it is for your children. In general: • It is best to remove the hazard • The next best step is to safeguard or protect against the hazard; • You can try to keep watch over your children all of the time, but this is often impossible; • Don’t expect your children to be aware of what is or is not dangerous, especially young children. STEP THREE: Make changes so that the hazard is no longer dangerous.
HOW TO PREVENT BACKYARD ACCIDENTS
Accidents don’t just happen. Sometimes there is an obvious cause, at other time s accidents seem unavoidable but most can easily be prevented. Children are ofte n unaware of danger but adults underst and the type of things that can cause accidents. It’s really up to parents to try and prevent accidents by thinking ahe ad.
backyard. Head injuries are the most serious type of bicycle injury. • The bike should be well maintained; • Take time to teach children how to ride a bicycle. • Older children may need a more challenging place to ride a bike. There are good BMX tracks where they can ride in safety. • Store bikes safely when not in use; left lying around the garden they become another object to fall over.
CUTTING HAZARDS The home backyard may contain sharp, cutting edges on play equipment, toys that are broken or badly designed, broken glass or empty drink cans, garden tools and garden equipment. All of these are cutting hazards. To protect children against cutting injuries: • Store all tools with sharp edges in locked areas, out of children’s reach. • Keep the backyard clear of rubbish. • Buy well-made and well-designed play equipment and children’s toys. Child Safety Handbook
DOGS IN THE BACKYARD Dogs can, and often do, make wonderful pets. At the same time, nearly half of all dog bites happen to children at home and usually the child and the dog know each other well. About half of the children who are bitten are under six years old. Because of their size they can get bitten on the face and head and can be badly scarred. Most of the time it is not the dog’s fault. Often, a young child will tease and upset a dog, or take its food away. The dog will try to protect itself. Sometimes the dog will be jealous of a child. To keep your child safe from dogs: • Keep young children and babies separate from dogs. • If possible, don’t buy a dog until children are at school. • Match the type of dog to your family. Check with the RSPCA about breeds. • Dogs that have been trained as working or guard dogs do not mix well with children. • Teach your child not to go near a dog when it is eating or upset. • Take your dog to obedience school so that it learns to obey simple commands. • Watch over young children when they are near dogs. • Don’t always expect your child or your dog to obey you.
EATING OUT OF DOORS Outdoor eating often means barbecues, parties and social eating. But barbecues can be dangerous. • Petrol and barbecues are an explosive mixture. Inflammable liquids should never be used to light any fire. • Always watch children around barbecues. It is easy for children to get burnt by the hot metal or the heat of the flames. • Children can also be burnt by hot and spitting oils and fats. If the barbecue uses gas, always turn off 36
Child Safety Handbook
the gas and disconnect the bottle when not in use. • Keep matches out of children’s reach. Children love to play with matches! Barbecues and parties have other dangers for children
• Party food often includes small, hard food, such as peanuts. Young children find these hard to chew and can choke on them. Keep these foods out of the reach of toddlers. Don’t include these kinds of foods at young children’s parties. • Keep glasses with alcoholic drinks out of the reach of small children. Young children like to taste everything and even a small amount of alcohol can make young children very ill. • Supervise young children when you are eating out of doors. Be sure that you know what to do if a child is choking or if there is a burn or scald. If you don’t know find out!
ELECTROCUTION Electrocution for children is rare but it can happen. So, to make your electrical equipment safe: • Check that the wiring in your house is safe. • Install an electrical safety switch. These are usually connected to the switchboard by an electrician. • Children `repairing’ or experimenting with appliances are most at risk, so store electrical equipment in locked storage areas, out of children’s reach. • Use safety plugs in power points. • Remember that electricity, children and water can be very dangerous. Keep them well apart.
NOT SO FRIENDLY BACKYARD CREATURES Time outdoors means the possibility of being bitten or stung by a variety of backyard creatures. These creatures will vary from place to place so it’s best to know what creatures snare your home environment and what dangers they can present.
To minimise the dangers from backyard creatures:
• Empty out soft drink cans or cover them when they are not being used. Open soft drink cans attract European wasps and a sting in the mouth is very dangerous. • Drink out of paper cups rather than cans when you are out of doors. • Know what creatures share your home environment. • Learn the correct first aid for a bite or sting this will vary depending on the creature. • Have emergency telephone numbers displayed near the telephone. • Tell and show your children about the creatures in their home backyard that could harm them.
OUTDOOR PLAY AND EQUIPMENT The backyard is a place for children to play with toys, with outdoor play equipment - with just about anything. For backyard play, children need things that are safe, well maintained and which suit the age of the child. Outdoor play-equipment
All outdoor play equipment needs to be strong, sturdy and well-made. But as well as that: • Ensure that the play equipment provided in your backyard is appropriate for the ages and stages of the children using them. • Most injuries from play equipment involve falls, so the height of the equipment should suit the age and size of the child. The higher the fall, the more likely and more serious the injury. • Play equipment needs a good surface underneath such as wood chips, pinebark or sand. The surface should be about 200mm deep, in a two metre radius around the equipment. • Play equipment should have no sharp edges or pieces that can come loose. There should be no openings or moving parts that can trap and injure children. • Children should be supervised on play equipment.
older; and giving them safe strategies for dealing with danger.
Trampolines are a popular recreational item commonly found in Australia backyards. Trampolines can assist in the development of balance and coordination skills in children. Unfortunately, when used incorrectly, trampolines can be very unsafe and lead to serious and sometimes fatal injuries. A growing number of Australian children are injured every year while using trampolines.
A safe place to play
• Provide a safe place to play, especially for younger children. The safest place is one that is next to the house and fenced away from water, farm animals and farm machinery. • Supervise young children whenever necessary. Always know where they are.
Trampolines have a high rate of injury. They have a few safety rules of their own:
• Young children should not ride on farm machinery. • Don’t leave farm machinery switched on without an adult around. • Children should not use dirtbikes unless they have had some training, they can use the controls well and they always wear a helmet.
• Carry out a `safety check’ on the trampoline to ensure all components are in good repair and properly fitted. Make sure there are no obstructions overhead, underneath or surrounding the trampoline before use is allowed. • Set up the trampoline on a soft level surface • Allow use of trampoline only with mature, knowledgeable supervision. • There should be only one child at a time on a trampoline. Collision injuries are common.
Animals on a farm
• Farm animals can be unpredictable, so keep young children away. • Most horse-related injuries on farms are from falls, bites and kicks. Match the child’s size and experience to a horse and teach them to ride properly. They should always wear a helmet and suitable footwear when riding.
OUTDOOR SPORT At any time, children will be kicking balls, playing cricket, balancing on skateboards or testing out roller blades in the backyard at home. Some sports bring with them particular types of injury. With cricket, it is getting hit by the bat or ball. Skateboarding or roller blading injuries usually come from falls and from scrapes to the knees and elbows. Although the injuries vary, the general rules for outdoor sports are the same.
• For some sports, children should wear protective gear such as helmets and knee and elbow pads. The extra padding is better than bruised and injured bodies. • Children should know the basic `rules of the game’ before they play. That way, everyone knows
SAFE IN THE SUN - A REMINDER
what is happening and there is less chance of injury. • Children must have a safe place to play sport. That means a clear, open area, safe from any hazards. • Sports equipment should suit the age and size of the child. Younger children need lighter and often smaller equipment, such as balls and bats. • If a mixed age group of children are playing, they should use equipment that suits the younger children.
RURAL BACKYARD SAFETY • A farm is a home but it is also a busy and dangerous workplace. Farm children are injured about twice as often as children in a city environment. Dangers come especially from farm machinery, chemicals, water and animals. • A safe approach in a farm environment means: knowing the dangers; finding ways to keep young children and dangers separate; teaching children about dangers as they get
When children spend time in the backyard, they often spend time in the sun. Children need to be protected from the sun. Too much sun during childhood can cause skin cancer as they get older. The younger any sunburn occurs, the greater the risk. So, to stay safe in the sun:
• Stay out of the sun during the hottest times of the day, in general between 10am and 3pm • Provide good quality shade in the backyard so that children can play out of the sun. This may be a verandah, a pergola, a large leafy tree or a children’s cubby. Child Safety Handbook
• Children need clothing that gives them a natural protection from the sun. Hats, with a neck flap and a brim or visor, and long-sleeved shirts are good. Cottons and lycras are good sun-protective materials. • Use an SPF 30+ sunscreen on parts of the body that are exposed to the sun. Mild sunscreens are often better for young children with sensitive skin. • Young babies have very sensitive skin and are best kept out of the sun until they are at least 12 months old.
SAFE STORAGE The garage or garden shed often contains a treasure trove of bits and pieces. It is an exciting place for children to be. But most storage areas also contain tools, equipment and chemicals that are dangerous to children. Young children should not be allowed in the garage/shed without an adult. Many things need safe storage, especially things like electrical tools, pool chemicals, household chemicals and cleaners, garden chemicals, garden tools and inflammable materials such as petrol and kerosene. What is safe storage?
Storage is safe when it keeps children away from danger. This means that:
• A shed or garage must be lockable. • Storage within the shed must have child-resistant locks. • Safe storage is high storage, out of children’s reach. • Ladders need to be stored away from children’s reach.
• Turn off and lock a car or vehicle in an enclosed space. • Take the key out of the ignition. • Know where your children are around cars always. Many children have been run over in their own driveway.
Poisons and safe storage
SAFE STORAGE IN RURAL AREAS
Everyday items such as weed killer, pesticides, kerosene, household cleaners and pool chemicals are deadly to toddlers and even older children who put things in their mouths. To safeguard children from poisons: • Store them in a lockable garage or garden shed. • Store poisons in boxes and cupboards with childresistant catches. • Always store poisons in their correct, labelled containers. • Never put poisons into food or drink containers (anything in a soft drink bottle is a soft drink to a young child). • Get rid of unwanted poisons. You could check if your council has a ‘collection dump’. • If you think your child has been poisoned take the child plus the container to the phone and telephone your local Poisons Information Centre 131126 for the correct advice.
Many types of farm chemicals and farm equipment are very dangerous to children. The best way to protect your children is to give them a safe place to play.
Cars and safe storage
As well as that you need:
• Some lockable sheds for dangerous chemicals and equipment. • Cupboards and boxes with child-resistant locks. • High storage that is inaccessible to children. • Ladders stored out of children’s reach. • Farm machinery that is turned off, with keys out of the ignition.
WATER SAFETY Children love playing in water. It’s wet, it moves and it’s fun. Unfortunately, water presents some risks, especially for young children. They must always be supervised by an adult. Children can drown easily and often, silently. Every year, about 100 children drown in Australia. Most of the children are under five years of age. The most high-risk group are children aged from one to three years. Children can drown in only five cm of water, which means just about any water at all. Most young children drown in their own backyard pool or at the pool of a family friend. Pools and spas
Child Safety Handbook
• One way to protect your children is to have isolation fencing around a pool or a spa, with a self-latching and self-closing gate. • The fencing should meet the Australian Stan-
dard. The fence and gate should be in excellent working order. Your local council, pool shop or a fencing trader can help you here. • Always watch your child near the water. Always! • Learn what to do in an emergency, learn basic first aid and resuscitation techniques. • Fix a resuscitation techniques display chart to the pool fence. This is the law. • Always check if there is a pool or a spa when visiting the house of a friend. Water in the backyard
• Always empty wading and paddling pools and store them upright and deflate them after use. • Supervise children on a water slide. After use, turn the water off. • Empty out water from containers such as buckets or sandpit toys. • Put a cover or mesh or a metal grille over a backyard pond to protect young children. WATER SAFETY IN RURAL AREAS
Rural environments have even more water hazards. Young children drown in areas of water such as dams and creeks. Older children can drown because they try things that are beyond their abilities. Or they drown because of unexpected hazards in rural water areas. Boys eight to 10 years old are especially at risk. To protect children in rural areas:
• Have a safe, fenced-off area where young children can play. • Young children should always be supervised near water. • Children should be taught how to swim when they start school. • Have clear rules about where older children are allowed to go. Information reproduced with the permission of Kidsafe, The Child Accident Prevention Foundation – www.kidsafe.com.au
The type and severity of symptoms will vary according to the type of plant eaten, the amount swallowed and the size of the child. The most common problems are stinging around the mouth and skin allergies. First Aid
POISONOUS PLANTS IN THE BACKYARD Lots of plants are poisonous or capable of causing highly allergic reactions. Some will also pierce you with their sharp spines. Few actually do lasting harm but some should be treated with care and respect. Garden and household chemicals, fires, backyard swimming pools and even ladders are far more dangerous backyard hazards for children than plants. Who’s at risk?
Children that are crawling or toddlers, particularly around twelve months of age, are most at risk of eating strange bits of plants. To reduce the likelihood of babies and young children eating anything poisonous take the following precautions: • Teach children not to eat anything straight from a plant or bush. • Fence off or remove known poisonous or dangerous plants (see list). • Keep the Poison Information Centre phone number 13 11 26 near your phone. Symptoms to recognise
Symptoms of poisoning from plants can include: • Vomiting. • Stomach cramps. • Irregular heart beat. • Burning to the mouth. • Convulsions (fits)
If you suspect a child has been exposed to something poisonous or harmful, first aid measures include: • For skin contact - gently wash the skin with clear running water. • For eye contact - irrigate the eye with clear running water for 20 minutes. • For swallowed plants - remove any remaining plant pieces and wash out child’s mouth. • Phone the Poison Information Centre on 13 11 26 for further information. If you need to go to hospital, take a piece of the plant with you if you can. If your child is having difficulty breathing, is unconscious or convulsing call an ambulance on 000. Is it possible to recognise a poisonous or harmful plant?
There are no common characteristics of form, colouring, odour or taste, which distinguish a poisonous or harmful plant from a non-poisonous plant. But as a general rule of thumb, plants with a bitter taste, funny smell, milky sap or red seeds or berries may be poisonous. To avoid poisoning, we need to learn to recognise and avoid poisonous plants so that we can teach our children to also avoid poisonous plants. Many plants have poisonous bulbs or roots but as these are usually safely underground, they are not likely to poison anyone. Others taste so awful that it is difficult to eat enough to cause a serious injury. Oleander, for example tastes so bitter and unpalatable that it is difficult to accidentally eat very many of the leaves. On the other hand there are plants that look appealing
but contact can have bad results. See the list on plants to avoid.
Which plants are poisonous? These are highly poisonous or allergic plants, which shouldn’t be included in gardens. Asthma or stick weed (Parietaria judaica)
Although a weed, this plant may be associated with asthma attacks and can also cause skin allergies. Remove it from your garden and surroundings. It can be a weed of wastelands and footpaths particularly around Sydney and coastal NSW. Rhus (Toxicodendron succedaneum)
Most people are very allergic to all parts of this plant. It is classified as weed in most areas. Don’t plant it or allow self sown plants to grow. Remove existing plants with care. Cover your hands and body to avoid contact. If you have an allergic reaction, don’t touch the tree again-get someone else to remove it. Yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana)
All parts of this plant are toxic. Seeds are very poisonous but also highly appealing, especially, to kids, often called lucky nuts. Plants are evergreen with yellow tubular flowers. Mainly found in warm climates or coastal gardens. Yellow oleander is different to the oleander commonly found in Sydney, Australia.
Avoid handling these plants and don’t grow them where children play or in areas where you walk. Cactus and many succulents (all species with spines)
Stylish but highly dangerous, especially to eyes. If you want to grow succulents, plant those without spines such as Agave attenuata. Chillies (especially hot varieties)
Chillies especially the small pretty coloured forms are very attractive to children. Although eating them is unlikely to be fatal hot chillies can cause children a lot of damage and distress. If you love chillies, warn children not to touch. Dumb cane (Dieffenbachia)
Is a popular indoor plant but if it is eaten it can cause the mouth to become highly irritated and swell. It will not do any permanent injury and will not affect the brain. Mushrooms and toadstools
There are many highly toxic species and it is difficult to tell the difference between edible and inedible forms. Particularly dangerous are death caps (which have caused deaths in the ACT) and the attractive fly agaric (Amanita muscaria) which is red with white spots. Most of the toxic species are found in forests or among trees not in backyards. Information reproduced with the permission of Poisons Informations Centre 13 11 26 – Childrens Hospital Westmead – www.chw.edu.au
Child Safety Handbook
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STREET SMART KEEPING SAFE IN CROWDS Any parent who has had a child wander away while in a crowded place knows that having a lost child is a very scary situation. Since kids are adventurous, having a lost child is relatively normal, but thankfully there are ways to protect their safety while you are out.
FOLLOWING are some tips on keeping kids safe and nearby while in a crowd.
• Take a picture on your phone before you leave the house. If you are separated from your child when you are out, a digital photo from your phone (taken the day of the event or travel) can be utilised by police to immediately get your child’s face out to other law enforcement officials.
In addition to their face, you’ll have a photo of exactly what they were wearing, as well as what they look like. • Teach children to identify help if they are separated from mum or dad. While it’s easy to tell children to find help, young children may have a difficult time understanding just what “help” means. To kids, any adult might mean help, and
it’s important for parents to teach children just who they should be looking for. You can do this by pointing out policemen, firemen, or security guards when you are out. Teach children to recognise store employees as well (look for name tags or someone behind the counter). • All children should know their full name, address and telephone number. Child Safety Handbook
E V I T C A R O O D OUT Y FAMILWAYS GETA M O R E THAN J U ST A ! H O LI DAY
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Call now for information and bookings 13 13 02 or visit www.dsr.nsw.gov.au
Your child should always wear a helmet when they ride or skate Can they place two fingers between their eyebrows and helmet?
Do the straps join in a ‘V’ just below their ears?
Can they fit two fingers between their helmet strap and chin?
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• Try to keep your kids in sight at all times. Never send them to the bathrooms alone, even if they’re old enough to use them without help. • If you are in a crowded location, establish an easy to find meeting spot just in case anyone gets separated from you. • Using a safety harness is another possibility to keep toddlers from wandering away, since in most cases, they aren’t old enough to know that it is dangerous to walk away. If someone tries to snatch your child:
• Teach your children to struggle with anyone whom they don’t know, or whom they don’t trust, if they are trying to grab or force the children to go with them • Tell children to make a lot of noise if they’re scared. They have probably been told lots of times not to yell. Tell your children when they think they might be in danger, forget all of that advice! That’s the perfect time to be noisy! Dealing with Strangers
When you’re walking home from school, a person in a car pulls up and asks you for directions. At the park, someone says he needs you to help look for his lost puppy. These people may seem friendly, but no matter what they say to you, they have one thing in common: They’re strangers. Most strangers aren’t dangerous and wouldn’t do anything to hurt kids. Unfortunately, though, some strangers can be dangerous, and it’s impossible to tell who’s OK and who’s not. A dangerous person doesn’t necessarily look scary or mean — the person might look nice. That’s why it’s important to follow these basic safety rules all the time:
• Stick With a Friend – it’s more fun and safer to do things with friends. Take along a buddy when you walk to school, bike around the park, or go to the store. Travelling with a friend whenever you can is a good idea, and travelling with a
Road crashes account for 58% of all accidental deaths among children aged 5-14 years bunch of kids is even better. • Let Grown-Ups (and Only Grown-Ups) Help Strangers – it’s nice to help people. But remember: Strangers should ask adults, not kids, for help. • If a Stranger Pulls Up in a Car and Offers you a Ride, Don’t Get In. You probably know that rule, right? But that’s not all of it. It’s also important to avoid a stranger’s car completely. If a stranger asks you to look in the car, don’t do it. Don’t put your arm in the window to take something or point to something. Don’t agree to come closer to see a pet or to get a toy that’s offered. • If a Stranger Offers You a Toy, Some Candy, a Stuffed Animal, or Anything Else, Don’t Ever Take It. Even if it’s something you really want, if the offer is coming from a stranger, you should ignore the person and walk the other way. • If a Stranger Walks Up or Pulls Up in a Car and You’re Too Far Away to Hear the Person, Don’t Go Closer, Even If the Person Waves You Over. Just get away. Run the opposite way that the car is heading. Get to an adult you know, a police officer, a security guard, or one of your safe spots as fast as you can if the stranger comes toward you. • What If a Stranger Comes To Pick You Up From School, Sports, Dancing Lessons, or the Park? This is no different from any other time — a stranger is a stranger, so don’t get in the car. Even if the stranger
says that your parents sent him or her, or that there’s an emergency and you must get in the car and go to the hospital, turn right around and tell an adult what happened. Your parents would have told you if someone else was coming to pick you up, and if an emergency really did occur, they would send someone you already know, not a stranger. • Even if The Stranger Knows Your Name, Don’t Be Fooled. There are lots of ways to find out kids’ names, even when someone doesn’t know them or their families. • Trust Your Instincts – kids need to follow the rules of street smarts all the time with every stranger, even if the situation seems fine. And if your instinct is telling you something is dangerous or just not quite right, get out of the area, tell an adult, or a police officer or call 000.
ROAD SAFETY Keeping your children safe
Children are vulnerable road users. They are at risk in the traffic environment because of their size, their difficulty in judging speed and distance and the fact that they may behave unpredictably. More than one million children in NSW travel to and from school each day by car, bike, public transport or as a pedestrian. Each form of transport poses potential hazards. The RTA has introduced a program of 40km school zones and also funds the Road Safety Education Program in NSW schools. But this alone is not enough; you can help by following some simple safety steps and by regularly reinforcing important road safety messages with your children. Pedestrian Safety
Each year, kids, just like you and your friends are killed and injured playing near or trying to cross the road. Often they just forgot to look or are distracted by other things. Hints for kids to remember:
• Use a pedestrian crossing where possible. Take
care whenever you cross. Cars don’t always stop, even when they should. • Children aged up to 10 years old should always be supervised when near traffic. Children aged up to 8 years old should always hold an adult’s hand when crossing the road or walking near traffic. • Always look for the safest place to cross the road. Traffic lights or a pedestrian crossing are the best. • Cross in a group with your friends. A group or pair is more visible than a person on their own. • When crossing a road STOP, LOOK for any traffic, LISTEN for any approaching cars and WAIT until there is no sign of traffic before you cross the road. Even if you are crossing at a traffic light. • Cross the road completely - roads are not places where you can play. • Never run out onto the road without first looking, even if it is a quiet street. • Don’t cross between parked cars - often drivers can’t see you and you can’t see them. • Always walk on the footpath. If there isn’t one, walk on the side of the road towards approaching cars not on the road. • Don’t forget to look out for cyclists who may be riding their bikes on the footpath. • At night, carry or wear something light in colour so that drivers can see you more easily. Skateboards and Rollerblades
You must stay off the road when riding your skateboard or skating on rollerskates or rollerblades. Keep to the footpath or bikepath or head down to your local park and only use the road when you need to cross. When crossing the road, stop, look and listen and wait until the road is clear. Don’t use your board when crossing as you have less control. Even the most experienced rollerbladers or skateboarders have crashes. Protect yourself from injury by always wearing a helmet and protective clothing. Never hold onto a moving vehicle when on your skateboard, rollerskates or rollerblades. There’s a high risk of injury. Child Safety Handbook
Meet Norman and Norma, NRMA’s Road Safety Roadbots. They provide road safety tips to parents and children. Driveway safety
How you can help
Tragically one child, often a toddler, is run over in their driveway every week in Australia. Small children are unpredictable and generally can’t be seen from inside a car, especially if they are immediately behind it. A driveway is a small ‘road’ and children require constant supervision.
n If you need to move a vehicle, even a small distance, place any children in the vehicle with you. n When saying goodbye to others always hold onto your children so you know where they are. n Where possible block access to driveways and discourage children from playing near them.
hot cars Dangers of leaving kids in Hot cars poster 300_#131D6E.pdf
Each year NRMA rescues an average of 2,000 unattended children from cars. Emergency services also rescue many children. On a 30°C day the temperature inside a locked car can reach 70°C placing children at risk from heat stroke, dehydration and death. IF YOU SEE A CHILD INSIDE A LOCKED CAR RING 000 IMMEDIATELY.
How to minimise the risk n Never leave a child unattended. n Ensure car keys are not accessible to children. n Never leave children in the car while quickly running into a shop.
n Always check when leaving your car that you haven’t left anyone behind.
ROAD SAFETY TIPS for families to read together Jenny and Tom are Bike Safe Ready – are you? bike riders. Their Jenny and Tom are confident of ways to ride their parents showed them lots bikes safely.
one hand and signal They know how to ride with look behind safely to with the other so they can check for any traffic. have the right sized They know it’s important to r lose control. Mum bike for them so they neve so their feet can helped to adjust their seat ked their hands can reach the ground and chec lebars and brakes. comfortably reach the hand
k their bikes were in tip Jenny asked her dad to chec their bike ride. Jenny’s top shape before going on working, their brakes dad checked their bells were didn’t have any rust were tight, their bike frames y. She knows this is and their bikes steer correctl ly. something to check regular
Helmet tips n Your helmet should sit on your head leaving a two finger space above your eyebrows. n Once the strap is done up, only two fingers should fit between the strap and chin. n Replace any helmet which has received an impact as fine cracks will appear in the inner foam so it’s no longer safe . n Only buy helmets with an Australian Standards stick er. This sticker can be found inside the helmet.
P STO EN T S I K LOO LNK THI
y – are you? d ea R fe Sa ad o R e ar er Emma and Pet
about road m always talks to them Mu m. mu eir th th wi rk sure ing to the pa d and what to do to make roa e th ss Emma and Peter are go cro to ere wh t. She’s taught them safety when they are ou they get across safely. Emma and Peter know to: to stop. ry quickly and take time ve l ve tra rs Ca rb. ke e th out to cross. STOP - at the cars can see you’re ab all re su ke Ma . ain ag ht LOOK - right, left then rig able to see. vehicles you might not be or rs ca er oth y an for pped? LISTEN all the cars completely sto ve Ha d? roa e th ss cro to THINK - is it now safe
er Whilst crossing, rememb
Why? Children have poor peripheral vision and also find it hard to judge the speed and distance of cars.
to keep looking right an
Q) WHAT TYPE OF CROSSING ARE EMMA AND PETER ABOUT TO CROSS?
For more from Norman and Norma visit mynrma.com.au/roadbots
A) A zebra crossing.
street smart Cycling Safety
Riding your bike is a fun way to get around but it can be dangerous if you’re not careful. Every year more than 200 young cyclists are killed or injured. In many cases, they weren’t wearing helmets or following the road rules. • Make sure your children always wear a helmet when riding a bike – it’s the law. A helmet will save your life and will greatly reduce your chances of being killed or badly injured in a crash. And let’s face it, almost everyone has had a crash, at least once. Remember if the Police see you not wearing a helmet, you could receive a fine. • Children aged up to 12 years should ride their bikes on the footpath or away from the road – around 10% of child road casualties are cyclists. Older children should use the bike lane. • Be cautious when riding on the road - remember motorists can’t always see you so don’t expect them to stop for you. • Always ride your bike on the left hand side of the road, as close to the kerb as possible. • Be courteous. Drivers don’t do anything that could put yourself or other people in danger. • Like car drivers, you have to obey all traffic signs and traffic lights. • Leave at least one metre between you and the traffic. • Use hand signal to let drivers know if you’re turning or stopping. • Never ride your bike across a pedestrian crossing. • Do not double anyone. Let your friends walk beside your bike if necessary. • Keep your bike in control by keeping one hand on the handle bars at all times. • Be visible on the road! Wear light coloured or reflective clothing when you are riding your bike, especially at night. • Drivers will also see you more easily if your bike has a flag and reflectors on both front and rear. • If you’re riding at night, have proper front and rear
Q: When is your child at most risk travelling by bus? A: In the minutes after getting off the bus.
lights fitted otherwise people cannot see you. • Make yourself heard on the road - check your bike has a horn or a bell. • Check your tyres and brakes regularly. You don’t want the tyre to blow out or your brakes to fail when coming down a hill. • Ride a bike that is the right size for you.
school bus safety Did you know?
Every day, almost a million NSW school children travel to and from school in safety - many of them by bus. The school bus is an extremely safe form of transport for school students.
Traffic congestion outside the school can increase when many families resort to driving short distances to and from school. Parents and carers:
• Hold your child’s hand and walk together to the bus stop or bus interchange in the morning. • If you cannot be with your child, organise for another trusted adult to take your place. • Meet your child AT the bus stop or bus interchange after school. NEVER wait on the opposite side of the road. • Wait on the footpath until the bus has been driven away. • Together, choose the safest place to cross the road, and: • STOP! One step back from the kerb. • LOOK! For traffic to your right, left and right. • LISTEN! For the sounds of approaching traffic. • THINK! Whether it is safe to cross. • Explain each action in turn as you cross safely. Talk with your child about what to do: • If you are delayed and cannot meet them as usual. • If they catch the wrong bus. • If they get off the bus at the wrong bus stop. • Until they are at least 10 years old, children have not developed the maturity required to cross the road safely without holding an adult’s hand. There is a 40km/h speed limit for traffic passing a school bus that is picking up or setting down school children. The speed limit is for all traffic travelling in the same direction as the bus, whether the bus is stationary or moving. The 40km/h speed limit must be observed when the rear ‘wig-wag’ lights on the bus are flashing. Flashing headlights on these buses also alert oncoming motorists that children are close. Information reproduced with permission of the Roads and Traff ic Authority – www.rta.nsw. gov.au
TRAIN SAFETY Safety Hints:
• Keep behind the yellow lines. • Mind the Gap between the platform and train doors. • Hold onto small children when boarding and leaving the train. • Pay special attention when the platform is crowded or when travelling to large events. PRAMS AND STROLLERS SAFETY HINTS
If you are travelling with a pram or stroller, we recommend you either strap the infant into the pram/ stroller, or remove the infant from it completely to board the train. • Always keep a firm hold of your pram anywhere on stations and trains. • Always apply pram brakes when you are at the station or on the train. • Ensure your child is securely strapped into the pram. • Park the pram parallel to the edge of the platform, not pointing towards the tracks. • Board the train near the guard’s compartment so they can see you when closing the train doors. • Don’t rush – allow plenty of time for your journey. • If you require assistance, please ask CityRail staff - they are there to help you. RAIL CROSSING SAFETY
Always cross train tracks using a footbridge or underpass, or at designated pedestrian railway crossings. Crossing anywhere else is illegal and extremely dangerous. Here’s some advice that could save your life:
• Stop, look, listen and think at level crossings. • Obey the safety signs at every railway crossing and cross at marked crossings only. • Stay on the path. Listen and look in both directions for approaching trains. Child Safety Handbook
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DIRTBIKES, MINIBIKES AND MINI QUAD BIKES Children nowadays are getting more adventurous and open to trying out big toys that were previously only available for adults. But since the kids really don’t know much about the realities of being a responsible driver, it’s your duty as an adult to educate your kids about safety tips to avoid accidents and injuries. After all, bike riding should be fun and enjoyable. There are some guidelines and tips you can give your kids regarding the practice of safety measures when riding bikes. • First, you can teach your kids to always wear protective clothing and gear to protect them from harm and injuries. Getting the right accessories and proper riding apparel is something you mustn’t skimp on, as these are good investments to ensure your kid’s safety. • Instill responsible riding in your child. Before you allow your child to ride bikes, you might consider teaching them the basics of driv-
SAFETY IN CARS BASIC SAFETY You must do:
The overriding basic rule for the safety of children in cars is for every child to use the right restraint on every trip. Over the past 20 years, our road toll has dropped dramatically. Today, Australia is one of the safest countries in which to drive. There are now new national road rules for keeping children safer when travelling in the car. • All children under seven must be secured in a child restraint or booster seat when travelling in a vehicle. • Babies up to six months of age must be restrained in a rearward facing restraint. • Children from six months to under four must be restrained in a rearward facing or forward facing restraint. Children under four years of age must not be in the front row of a vehicle with two or more rows.
• From four years to under seven children must use a forward facing restraint or booster seat. Children over four years of age can only sit in the front row of a vehicle with two or more rows when all other seats are occupied by children of a lesser age in an approved child restraint. For detailed information on correct child restraint visit ‘Seat Me Safely ‘ on www.kidsafensw. org/roadsafety/seat_me_safely.html Other important things to remember are:
• If your child is too small for a restraint specified for their age, they should stay in their current restraint for as long as necessary. • If your child is too large for a restraint specified for their age, they may move to the next level of restraint • It is important to check that the restraint is properly fitted. • Children must use a child restraint on every trip. • Children should always get in and out of the car using the Safety Door which is the rear kerb side door.
• If the red lights are flashing or the gate is closed, a train is coming so keep clear of the tracks. • Never jump fences, gates or barriers. This is extremely dangerous and it is very likely the oncoming train is close to the crossing. • If a train is coming, wait for it to pass and then stop, look and listen again before crossing as another train may be approaching. • You might not hear a train, especially when using your earphones or mobile phone. Never assume a train is a long way off. • Don’t ride bicycles, skateboards, skates or rollerblades across any pedestrian crossing. • Never assume that it is safe to cross when the lights are still flashing. Even if a train has passed, there may be another train coming in the other direction. Only enter the crossing when the lights have stopped flashing or the gate has opened. It takes a lot to stop an eight-carriage train travelling at 100kmh. The braking distance for a train is approximately five football fields (500m). Information reproduced with permission of Cityrail – www.cityrail.info
ing, as well as some rules. This is to inculcate responsible riding even at a young age. • Prepare your child for emergencies. In case something goes wrong or your child gets injured, it helps to teach him or her about basic first aid. • Always remind your child that there are some rules concerning where he is allowed to ride and where he is not. Accidents can happen if your kid takes his bike on public roads like streets or parks. In some areas, riding on these roads is illegal, so inform your kid on where he can take his bike to avoid harm from coming your way. • Since most kids are adventurous, they most likely want to explore the terrain with their bikes. That’s why it helps to teach your kid to memorise your phone number and address, which is extremely helpful if he gets lost. In the first place, go over the area with your child first, so he or she becomes familiar with it as much as possible.
The overriding basic rule for the safety of children in cars is for every child to use the right restraint on every trip
What you must not do?
• Do not carry a child on your lap. It is impossible to hold onto a child in an accident and it is illegal. • Do not put two children in one seat belt as it is not safe and is illegal; in a crash they can be injured by colliding with each other. Child Safety Handbook
Always remember to buckle up in the car for safety.
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• Do not sit a child on an adult’s lap with the seat belt around both of them. The child is likely to be crushed by the adult’s weight against the seat belt and it is illegal. • Let children ride in the luggage space of cars. This is also illegal and very dangerous. All children must be restrained in an appropriate child restraint. General safety in the car
Drive carefully, take rests, take care in the heat Fasten your seat belt and make sure every-one is safely and appropriately restrained before starting the car. Many accidents are the result of driver error and fatigue. Rest stops help restore concentration, and beat drowsiness. Babies, toddlers and children lose fluid quickly so it is important when travelling on hot days, to allow extra time for stops and to provide plenty of cool water or fluids. Never leave your child in a car for any period of time without adult supervision. Being SEEN clearly
Drivers need to be able to see clearly. All sunblinds on backside windows and the rear window must allow 35 per cent light transmission. Make sure they are securely fastened and can’t distract you. Never use a nappy in the side windows to keep the sun off the baby; it will block the driver’s view. Window signs - such as baby on board should be out of the line of sight.
Children aged between 6 months and 4 years
Don’t let your children’s behaviour distract you. Keep them occupied by talking or singing to them; provide soft toys to play with. On long trips, provide unspillable drinks, healthy snack foods; and avoid milk-based drinks for carsick-prone children. Take regular driver breaks and let the children out to run around.
Drive carefully, take rests, take care in the heat Fasten your seat belt and make sure everyone is safely and appropriately restrained before starting the car
Children aged between 4 years and 7 years
can set the car moving, become tangled in the restraint harness or suffer dehydration and heat stress. On a 30°C day, the air in a closed car will reach 40°C in eight minutes; and over 45°C after 15 minutes. Half-open windows do not reduce the inside car temperature significantly and dangerously high temperatures can still be reached very quickly. Flying objects and cargo barriers
Children under 6 months (rearward)
Leaving children unattended in the car, even for a few minutes, can be very dangerous. Children
When cars brake suddenly, or are in a crash, flying objects cause many injuries. Items on the parcel shelf are particularly dangerous. Even light items such as tissue boxes can become a force 20 times their own weight. A book can become a 10kg missile. So keep that parcel shelf clear. Vehicles which have cargo areas that open directly into passenger space or which have a back seat which can fold down are particularly risky. Unrestrained luggage moving forward can cause split seats to collapse, injuring passengers. A cargo barrier will protect your passengers Station wagons, hatchback cars and panel vans especially, need this protection. Only cargo barriers approved to Australian Standards should be used and installed by an approved fitter. If you do not have a cargo barrier, consider having one installed. In the meantime,
Older children 145 cm or taller
Buckle up • Small children don’t understand the dangers of not using a child restraint. • Remind children that the car won’t start until everyone is buckled up. • Children should be instructed to not undo their seat belts until you say they can - when you have reached your destination and the car is stopped. • Check that older children have not accidentally undone the restraints of their baby brother or sister.
pack luggage so it is spread evenly and as low as possible. Don’t pack luggage higher than the back of the seat. Other safety tips
• Check your child’s restraint harness to make sure they can’t reach and open doors while you’re driving. • Cigarette lighters can pose a risk to children so please remove them. • Use the child locks on rear doors to stop children opening them. • Do not smoke in your vehicle with children as this is illegal. Child Safety Handbook
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Boating Safety Wear a Lifejacket
• Boating is enjoyed by people of all ages and can be a great family past time. • Children who head out on the water should be made aware of boating safety rules from an early age. • New legislation which came into effect in November 2010 means that children under the age of 12 are required to wear a lifejacket when on a boat under 8m in length. • In the case of boating with infants too small to be fitted with a lifejacket, it is the parents’ responsibility to ensure that the child is safe. It is strongly recommended that the parent wears a lifejacket and holds on to the infant at all times.
Children under 12 y being us ed as a te ears of age, on a v nder, wil a lifejack l be requ essel et, irres ired to w pective o vessel is ear f the dis from the tance th nearest e shore.
For a lifejacket to be effective it must be worn, fit snugly and securely, and not allow the child’s head to slip through the jacket, generally by incorporating a strap between the legs and adjustable chest fasteners. Adult lifejackets are not suitable for infants, and to ensure a lifejacket is appropriate for your child, you should seek advice from your local marine supplier and test the lifejacket to ensure adequate support, comfort and flotation is provided. An infant’s lifejacket should be compliant with a standard accepted by NSW Maritime. Always ensure the lifejacket is tested prior to every use. Children under 12 years of age, on a vessel being
used as a tender, will be required to wear a lifejacket, irrespective of the distance the vessel is from the nearest shore. If you decide to head out on a boat with a small child you should determine whether your passenger would be able to assist you should the need arise and wear a lifejacket.
When it comes to lifejackets when boating – just Wear It. For more information on boating safety with children see http://maritime.nsw.gov.au/ Information reproduced with the permission of NSW Maritime – www.maritime.nsw.gov.au
Bushwalking and Hiking As with any type of safety measures, bushwalking and hiking safety can be maintained through simple, commonsense measures. No one should go bushwalking without the proper supplies, knowledge and experience. This applies especially for children. Parents should not allow their children to be taken, or take their children into areas they are unfamiliar with, particularly if those areas require special skills, such as first aid, navigation and bush survival. For an enjoyable and safe bushwalking experience, plan ahead and take the following precautions. Child Safety Handbook
on its back while the male is very small, usually with no stripe and is harmless. A red back spider bite may result in pain, redness and sweating at the bite site.
Parents should not allow their children to be t aken, or take their children into areas they are unfamiliar with
When Planning a Bushwalk or Hike
• Always plan your trip carefully in advance. • Give complete route details of where you are going to close relatives or friends, and when you expect to get back. • Take your time; set a pace that the slowest member of your party can handle. • Take appropriate clothing and wear closed footwear – preferably boots or runners. Regardless of the season, always take a windproof/waterproof jacket, and clothing that can keep you warm when wet. • For any walk of more than a kilometre or so, take extra water, snacks (such as fruit or health bars) and a first aid kit. Insect repellent and a torch can prove to be very useful. • Check weather forecasts and local park condi56
Child Safety Handbook
• Wash the area and keep it clean. • Seek advice from the Poisons Information Centre or your local doctor. • If severe pain occurs, take the patient to the nearest hospital. • It is usually not necessary to call an ambulance. Funnel Web Spider
This spider is large and black. A bite from this spider can be very dangerous. A bite will usually cause severe pain, sweating, nausea and vomiting, difficulty in breathing, muscle twitching and confusion. First Aid:
• Remove the patient from danger. • Keep the patient still. • Apply a pressure immobilisation bandage around the bite and then bandage the entire limb. • Use a splint to keep the whole limb still (that is, immobilise the affected limb). • Call an ambulance (000) to take the person to the nearest hospital. tions and modify your plans accordingly. • Always carry a well-equipped first aid kit. • Never light a campfire on a day of total fire ban.
BITES Spider Bites
There are many different types of spiders in Australia that can bite people, and these bites can cause a reaction at the bite site. In Australia the only spiders to cause harm to humans are the Red Back Spider and the Funnel Web Spider. Red Back Spider
The red back spider is found throughout Australia. The female red back spider has a red/ orange stripe
Common bush ticks or scrub ticks are often found on people. Ticks bury themselves in the skin. Some ticks release a poison into the blood. Symptoms may include headache, blurred vision and weak limbs. These symptoms may start a few days after a tick bite. Basic treatment:
• Use a pair of tweezers to remove the tick. Hold the tick firmly as close to the skin as possible, and pull, ensuring that the whole tick is removed at the one time. Seek medical advice if you are not sure that the whole tick has been removed, or if the person is unwell. Information reproduced with the permission of Kidsafe, The Child Accident Prevention Foundation – www.kidsafe.com.au
Snakes Bites Australian Elapid snakes are amongst the most venomous in the world. Snake bites in Australia from land or sea snakes can be potentially fatal and you should seek immediate medical assistance for all snake bites. While not all snakes are venomous, it is difficult to reliably identify a snake; hence all snake bites should be treated as being potentially dangerous. If a snake bite occurs, call 000 for an ambulance, apply a pressure-immobilisation bandage, and have the patient taken immediately to the nearest hospital. If the person collapses or stops breathing, commence CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). If someone is bitten by a snake keep in mind the following DOs & DON’Ts:
DO: • Remove them from further danger. • Keep them still. • Apply a pressure-immobilisation bandage.
DON’T: • Panic or run. • Attempt to catch the snake. • Apply a tight tourniquet. • Wash, suck or cut the bite site.
To locate a patrolled beach near you, visit www. beachsafe.org.au Another important point is to train yourself and your children to recognise the hazards at the beach, such as rips. This chapter is designed to help people understand the processes behind how the hazards form and how to cope with them should they find themselves in difficulty.
KEEPING SAFE AT THE BEACH • Do not try to swim against the current. Strong Swimmers
• If you are confident, swim parallel to the beach – often this is towards the sandbank or breaking waves which can assist you back to shore.
Everyone • Always swim between the red and yellow flags. • Stay calm. Don’t panic. • Raise an arm to attract attention if you feel you need help.
Weak Swimmers • If you are not a confident swimmer – don’t go in the water. Learn how to swim by visiting these websites and finding a local swim school: • http://www.swimkids.com.au/find-aswimming-school/ • http://www.austswim.com.au/ Swimcentres/FindaSwimCentre.aspx
• Children should be supervised at all times at the beach and near water, no matter what age they are. However, it is important to teach children safety practices so that they know how to prevent a situation occurring. • Water safety is about using and practising common sense. Encourage sensible habits in your children so that it becomes a natural action or reaction. Always show the correct way of keeping safe in the water by setting a good example. It is important to avoid being contradictory.
What is a rip current? A rip current, generally referred to as a rip, is a moving current of water, which can be strong and fast flowing. It will usually start near the shoreline and flow away from the beach. For an animated description and further information, please visit http://www.ripcurrents. com.au/About-Rip-Currents/What-is-a-RipCurrent.aspx
Always swim between the red and yellow flags. That is where the surf lifesavers patrol and can help if you have problems in the surf. If there are no flags, ask a lifesaver to show you the safest place to swim. If there is no lifesaver, do not enter the water.
Why are rip currents dangerous?
Rips are the number one hazard on Australia’s beaches, and are the cause of most rescues and many drowning deaths every year. They can drag Child Safety Handbook
Playground Safety Playgrounds are fun places for kids because there’s so much to do and other kids to have fun with. But sometimes kids get hurt at playgrounds, so here are some ways to keep safe.
swimmers away from the beach, and often result in drowning when swimmers attempt to fight the current, become exhausted and panic. Rips can also be deadly for non-swimmers as a person standing in waist deep water can be dragged out into deeper waters where they can drown if they are unable to swim and are not wearing a flotation device. How can I spot a Rip?
The first thing to note is that rip currents can be difficult to identify. Surf Lifesavers and Lifeguards receive training to be able to identify them and use them which is why the best place to swim is between the red and yellow flags. One or more of the following natural features may alert you to the presence of a rip. For an animated description and further information, please visit http://www.ripcurrents.com.au/Rip-Currents-Safety/How-to-spota-Rip-Current.aspx • Darker water, indicating deeper water. • Murky brown water caused by sand stirred up by faster moving water. • A choppy or rippled look, when the water around is generally calm. • In large surf, a smoother surface with much smaller waves (a calm patch). 58
Child Safety Handbook
Common Rip Locations:
Rips can occur anywhere on a beach, but are common: • Around headlands, jetty’s, break walls. • Around rocks. • In front of rivers, creeks and storm water outlets. What do I do if I get caught in a Rip?
• Avoid rip currents by always swimming between the red and yellow flags. • To escape a rip current, swim parallel to the beach. • For assistance, stay calm, float and raise an arm to attract attention. • Conserve your energy by using waves to assist you back to the beach. Beach Safety for Visitors to Australian Beaches
1. Always swim between the red and yellow flags (www.beachsafe.org.au). 2. Read the safety signs. 3. Ask a Lifesaver/Lifeguard for safety advice. 4. Swim with a friend. 5. If you need help, stay calm and attract attention. Information reproduced with the permission of Surf Lifesaving NSW – www.surflifesaving.com.au
Don’t go too high .M to play o n, such a any playgrounds s towers have tall between or o stu eq comforta uipment. Don’t c pen passageway ff s limb hig ble, and her than feel need help you feel getting d free to ask a gro wn-up if own. you
1. Take a grown-up. As kids get bigger, they like doing things on their own. Going to the playground shouldn’t be one of them, though. Grown-ups come in handy because they might spot problems at the playground, they can help you down if you get in a tight spot, and they can help if you happen to get hurt. 2. Take a good look around. If the playground has lots of trash, such as broken glass, or the equipment looks broken, don’t play there. 3. Keep your size in mind. Many playgrounds have some equipment that’s for little kids (like 2- to 5-year-olds) and other equipment that’s meant for older kids. Use the equipment that’s right for your age. If you squeeze yourself onto a swing for toddlers, you might get stuck. Likewise, if your little brother or sister starts climbing something meant for older kids, guide him or her to the little kid stuff. 4. Don’t go too high. Many playgrounds have tall stuff to play on, such as towers or open passageways between equipment. Don’t climb higher than you feel comfortable, and feel free to ask your grown-up if you need help getting down. Never climb up the outside of equipment, or hoist yourself up on the roof. The view might be cool, but it’s a long way down. 5. Look out below. The best playgrounds put down special surfacing material, such as mulch, wood chips, sand, gravel, or rubber matting. These surfaces can help soften a fall, but that doesn’t mean you won’t get hurt, especially if you tumble from a high spot. 6. Swing safely. Kids often get hurt at the play
ground because they get hit by someone on a swing. If you’re swinging, watch out for people who might be getting too close. And if you’re walking around the playground, don’t get too close to the swingers. 7. Use your head. Sometimes you’ll see kids going headfirst down the slide or maybe two or three kids will get on a piece of equipment that’s only meant for one. Or some kids might start goofing around and trying to push each other off a swing or off of a high spot. If your grown-up sees you doing this, he or she will probably say, “Someone’s going to get hurt.” It’s true, so try to use the playground equipment properly. And if you get stuck, or don’t know how to get down from something, call your grown-up over so he or she can help you down. 8. Report problems to your local council. If you see graffiti (when people write or paint on stuff), a broken swing, or find any other problems while you’re playing, tell your grown-up. He or she can report the problem so it can be fixed. When at a playground remember: • It is very important to supervise children • Ensure the children under your care only play on age-appropriate equipment. • Make sure the children under your care have appropriate sun protection. • Make sure the children under your care have appropriate clothing and footwear.
HEALTH & SAFETY What parents should look out for?
Generally a problem shows when children or young people have ongoing distress of when they have difficulties with coping, getting on with others, or keeping an interest in what they are doing. It is important to take note of any significant changes in a young person’s usual pattern of behaviour including their eating and sleeping patterns. When to seek help?
Parents are usually the first to recognise that their child has a problem with emotions or behaviour. Still, the decision to seek professional help can be difficult and painful for a parent when behaviours happen on a regular basis, are distressing to the child and those around him or her, persist over a period of time (e.g. a month or longer) or across situations (e.g. at home and at school) then it is time to get support or advice. What can parents do?
HEALTH AND SAFETY Children’s Mental Health and Wellbeing What is children’s mental health?
Mental health is about the way a child thinks and feels about themselves and their world. It’s about how they handle their everyday lives, like making and keeping friends, keeping up with school work and getting along with our family. Like our physical health, there are times we feel well and happy and times when we don’t feel so great. Children growing from infancy through their adolescent years can experience some bumps along the way,
sometimes they encounter emotions, feelings or behaviour that cause problems in their lives and the lives of those around them. What are the warning signs of mental health problems in children?
Recognising the signs of concerning mental health for children’s age groups is complex. Children do not show symptoms of poor mental health in the same way that adults do and symptoms must be considered in terms of their developmental stage. It can be difficult to distinguish between normal developmental behaviours and emerging mental health problems as children’s behaviour
can change quickly as they grow. Most children at times misbehave or feel sad, but these times usually pass. Sometimes however a child’s behaviour can be unusual or seem different from other children of the same age. A child may appear worried, anxious d or behaving differently from how he/ she has been in the past. School-age children who are very depressed can find it hard to concentrate and may lose interest in work and play. Some may even refuse to go to school, while others complain of feeling bored or lonely, even when they have friends. These changes may be gradual or they may happen quite suddenly. Either way they are a sign that your child needs understanding and help.
If your child has any of the above signs, or if you are worried about other behaviours or feelings, it is important to get advice from someone who works with children and young people. As a first step talk to your school counsellor, local GP, local community health centre or your nearest Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service. Early help can often prevent more serious problems later on. Don’t forget to seek support from family and friends for yourself as you embark on this journey of seeking appropriate help for your child. There are often no quick fixes. Schools are a good place to start sharing your concerns about your child’s change of behaviour due to the significant amount of contact that they have with children and their families. If you are worried your child is struggling with mental health problems, it is a good idea to speak with your child’s teachers and get their perspective on your concerns. It would be very helpful to learn more about what is happening with your child in the school environment. Child Safety Handbook
Help YOUR CHILD’S SMILE last a lifetime! It’s all about preventing problems before they occur. Here’s how…
Brush at least twice a day with fluoride toothpaste, especially after eating breakfast and before bedtime.
Limit the number of times you eat snacks each day.
Have a regular dental check-up!
= 20 minutes
Start a healthy fundraiser at your school with Colgate toothpaste/ toothbrush packs.
= 100 minutes
Call 1800 891 355 or go to www.colgatefundraiser.com.au
at 1 time
at 5 different times
of possible tooth decay
of possible tooth decay
Is your school receiving Bright Smiles, Bright Futures?
This award-winning oral health education program is available for FREE to teachers of Years 2-4. To oRdER: Teachers Free Call 1800 075 685
HEALTH & SAFETY
Choking on Food
Mental illness and parents
One in five adults experiencing a mental illness in the previous 12 months (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2007), there is a big chance many of these will be parents. If you’re a parent with a mental illness and need some support, or worry that your child is being disadvantaged by your illness, it’s important that you get help as early as possible. Also, if you’re a parent who is the partner of someone with a mental illness, you also need to take care of yourself. The National Children of Parents with a Mental Illness (COPMI) Initiative aims to promote better mental health outcomes for children (0-18 years) of parents with a mental health problem or disorder. Information for family members across Australia where a parent has a mental illness and for people who care for and work with them can be found on their website http://www.copmi.net.au/ .
Why young children are at risk of choking on food
• Young children do not have the back teeth needed to chew and grind lumps of food properly as these may not be fully developed until around four years of age. Before this age young children are still learning to eat solid food. • Food swallowed in large pieces is more likely to get stuck and block off the airways. If it goes down the wrong way this can cause young children to choke. • If young children run, play, laugh or cry while eating they are more likely to choke on their food.
lollies, orn, nuts, hard pc po ve gi t Do no foods to other similar cornchips or . young children
References Australian Bureau of Statistics (2007) National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing: Summary of Results. ABS, Canberra.
How child safe are your windows and balconies? Falls are the most common cause of injuries in children, over 8,000 children are admitted to hospital each year due to a fall and falls from heights can be especially serious. In younger children, the common types of falls are in playgrounds, bunk beds, on playground equipment and falls from buildings or structures. Each year approximately 50 children fall from a window or balcony. For a small number of children, this fall will be fatal. The NSW Child Safety campaign “think child safe” is aimed at providing information to
parents and carers on effective and simple preventive action to protect children from falling from windows and balconies. Think child safe promotes the following messages: • Ensure windows cannot be opened more than 10cm, except by an adult OR have a securely fitted window guard • Remember that fly screens give no protection against falls from windows • Keep objects that a child can use to stand or climb on away from windows (including beds, cupboards, chairs and other furniture)
• Keep objects that a child can use to stand or climb on away from balconies (including pot plants, outdoor furniture, boxes etc) • Ensure balcony railings are at least 1m high (preferable 1.3m high), have no gaps that can be used as a foothold to climb and have no gaps that a child could fit through. For more information on this campaign and to download resources see http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/campaigns/ childsafety
Child Safety Handbook
Help your family prepare for floods and storms Things you can do NOW to prepare your home and family
Make a plan for your family that outlines what you would do in an emergency
Prepare an emergency kit in case you lose power or need to leave your home in a hurry
Secure or put away items that could blow around in strong winds
and... when a storm is coming
Head inside and bring pets with you
Eliminate the baddies Teach your kids the difference between good and bad eggs. Download the FREE game now. foodauthority.nsw.gov.au/egggame Available on the iPhone & iPad
Macleans®, the iconic Nurdle device, and Milk Teeth, Little Teeth and Big Teeth (stylised) are trade marks of the GlaxoSmithKline group of companies. © 2012 The Wiggles Pty Ltd. iPhone® and iPad® are registered trademarks of Apple Inc.
11742 MACLEANS NURDLES PL AD FIN 2.indd 1
5/04/12 10:00 AM
NFA0149_130x55_v3_240412.indd 1 26/04/12 8:32 AM To have your company’s message/advert appear in a future edition of this publication – please contact the Publisher on 02 9437 5155 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
HEALTH & SAFETY Ways to make eating safer for young children
• Do not give foods that can break off into hard pieces. • Avoid foods like raw carrot, celery sticks and apple pieces. Hard foods should be grated, cooked or mashed. • Cut sausages, frankfurts, and other meats into small pieces. Tough skins on frankfurts and other sausages should be removed. • Do not give popcorn, nuts, hard lollies, cornchips or other similar foods to young children. At eating times
• Always stay with young children and watch them while they are eating. • Make sure that young children sit quietly while eating. • Never force young children to eat, as this may cause them to choke. What to do if a young child chokes on food
• Check first if the child is still able to breathe, cough or cry. If the child is breathing, coughing or crying, he or she may be able to dislodge the food by coughing. • Do not try to dislodge the food by hitting the child on the back because this may move the food into a more dangerous position and make the child stop breathing. • Stay with the child and watch to see if their breathing improves. • If the child is not breathing easily within a few minutes, phone 000 for an ambulance. If the child is not breathing
• Try to dislodge the piece of food by placing the child face down over your lap so that their head is lower than their chest. • Give the child four sharp blows on the back just between the shoulder blades. This should provide enough force to dislodge the food. • Check again for signs of breathing.
• If the child is still not breathing, urgently call 000 and ask for an ambulance. The ambulance service operator will be able to tell you what to do next.
Dental Health A healthy mouth helps people to eat and to speak and socialise without pain, discomfort or embarrassment. The main diseases relating to the mouth are tooth decay and gum diseases. They are minor conditions but if they are not treated they can lead to infection, pain and swelling and eventually to tooth loss. Tooth decay may be painful or you may not even know it is there. Gum disease can start as mild bleeding when you clean your teeth. But they are both preventable. What causes tooth decay?
• not brushing your teeth every day with fluoride toothpaste • eating sugary, sticky food frequently throughout the day (like cakes, biscuits, pastries, lollies, chocolate) • drinking sugary drinks between meals (like soft drink, cordial, fruit juice, flavoured milk) How can I prevent tooth decay?
• eat healthy snacks that help protect your teeth (like fruit, cheese and yoghurt) • limit sugary food and drinks, especially inbetween meals – they cause tooth decay • drink tap water throughout the day - it contains fluoride, which helps protect teeth from decay • brush your teeth morning and night with fluoride toothpaste for healthy teeth and gums • have regular dental check-ups – don’t wait for a problem • chew sugar-free gum – it creates saliva (spit), which protects your teeth. Injuries to the mouth
To avoid injuries to the teeth and mouth:
• wear a mouthguard when playing contact sport • wear a full-faced helmet or face guard when playing sport like cricket. Knocked out or broken teeth
The following sequence should be followed when a tooth is knocked out of its socket: Step 1
• Remain calm and try to find the tooth. A dental professional will want to see the tooth and/or the tooth fragment(s). It is important to know whether the tooth or tooth fragment(s) have been inhaled. • Inhaled teeth are a medical emergency and the child MUST be taken immediately to the Emergency Department of a Hospital for a check-up and a possible chest x-ray. Step 2 • If it is a baby tooth, do not put it back in the socket because it will damage the underlying developing permanent (adult) tooth. If there is any doubt about whether it is a baby tooth or an adult tooth, put the tooth in milk or saline and take the child to a dental clinic immediately. • If a permanent tooth has been knocked out, locate the tooth and hold by the crown (top part) only. If the tooth is clean place it back into the socket immediately and hold the tooth in place by biting gently on a handkerchief or clean cloth. • If it is not possible to replace the tooth into the sock-
et place it in milk or saline (eg contact lens solution) immediately to avoid dehydrating and damaging the delicate cells on the root. Do not rinse or scrub dirt off the tooth. The dentist will do this if necessary. Do not allow the tooth to remain dry at any stage. • Notify parents/carers of the incident. • Go to a dental clinic or the Emergency Department of a Hospital as soon as possible. Time is a critical factor in saving the tooth. Remember in the following weeks or months after the dental injury, if there are any unusual red or swollen gums, or if the tooth changes colour, make an appointment at a dental clinic as soon as possible. For further dental information
Public dental services call-centre phone numbers: Local Health District
Central Coast Northern Sydney
1300 789 404
Hunter New England
1300 651 625
Mid North Coast Northern NSW
1300 651 625
Far West Western NSW
1300 552 626
Nepean Blue Mountains Western Sydney
1300 739 949 02 9845 6766
South Western Sydney Sydney
02 9293 3333
Illawarra Shoalhaven South Eastern Sydney
1300 369 651 1300 134 226
Murrumbidgee Southern NSW
1800 450 046
• Centre for Oral Health Strategy NSW: http:// www.health.nsw.gov.au/cohs/ • Australian Dental Association (NSW Branch) Limited: http://www.adansw.com.au/ • NSW Multicultural Health Communication Service: http://www.mhcs.health.nsw.gov.au/ Information reproduced with the permission of NSW Health – Centre for Oral Health – www.health.nsw.gov.au/cohs/
Child Safety Handbook
HEALTH & SAFETY
Food allergies: be allergy aware Food allergy occurs in around 1 in 20 children. Allergic reactions happen when the immune system responds to specific foods in an abnormal way. Reactions can be mild, or they can be severe and cause a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis. If you think your child may have food allergy, it is important to have the allergy confirmed by a qualified medical practitioner. Allergic reactions can be caused by any food, but the most common are: • peanut • tree nuts (e.g. cashew, almond, Brazil nut) • milk • egg • fish • shellfish • wheat • sesame • soy Products must include an ingredients list on the label or, if no label is present, ingredients must be available on request. Watch for alternate ingredient names and compound ingredients. Caring for others’ children
There are many situations where you may be responsible for other people’s children, such as during parties, sports activities and play dates. It is important to check with another child’s parents if they have a food allergy and if so, find out what foods are appropriate. Exposure to even minute amounts of an allergen can be life threatening for someone with a severe allergy. • Treat their allergy seriously. Understand their food safety needs and know how to recognise and respond to an allergic reaction. If the child carries an adrenaline autoinjector, such as an EpiPen®or an Anapen®, ask the parents to show you how to use it and the child’s ASCIA Action Plan for Anaphylaxis. 64
Child Safety Handbook
Preventing exposure is essential
• Ask the parent of the child with an allergy to provide their food if they come for a play date or birthday party. • Check product labels carefully every time for allergens. Be careful with foods that are not packaged or labelled. Foods from a bakery, butcher or deli, or meals in outlets such as restaurants or cafés can contain small amounts of allergens. Ask about ingredients and risk of contamination when purchasing them. If you are not sure if a food contains the allergen, avoid it or contact the manufacturer for more information. • Be aware of cross contamination risk when purchasing, preparing and storing foods. If possible, prepare the food for the allergic individual first. After preparing food containing an allergen, wash hands and clean cutting boards, utensils, and bench tops thoroughly. Responding to a reaction
• Know the signs and symptoms, which range from mild or moderate and include hives, vomiting, abdominal pain and /or swelling of the face, lips or eyes, to more severe reactions (anaphylaxis) such as tongue or throat swelling, hoarse voice, difficult breathing or persistent dizziness and collapse. Young children can become pale and floppy. Visit www.allergyfacts.org.au or call 1300 728 000 for more information. • If you suspect a child is having a severe or anaphylactic reaction, follow their ASCIA Action Plan. Give the adrenaline autoinjector (if available) and call an ambulance. Lay the child flat, allow them to sit if breathing is difficult, but not to stand or walk. Even if they start to feel better, make sure the child receives follow-up care and monitoring in hospital. Information reproduced with the permission of NSW Food Authority – www.foodauthority.nsw.gov.au
Get Active Let’s get physical
Did you know that while being active is great for the body, it has important benefits for the mind? And when those minds belong to growing children, the benefits are even greater! Research shows that taking part in regular sport and physical activity is particularly important for children. It’s essential for their health, growth and wellbeing. Being physically active improves fitness levels, strength, flexibility and coordination, and also establishes a solid foundation for a lifetime of healthy habits. Sport and physical activity programs are also powerful, positive influences for a child’s personal and social development, right through to the teenage years and into early adulthood. Sport helps children and young people understand values of fair play and teamwork and how to cope with winning and losing. Taking part in sport helps develop communication, interpersonal and leadership skills.
It promotes self-discipline, responsibility and organisational skills. On a more personal level, participation also builds self-esteem and confidence while improving concentration levels. Best of all it’s a great way to meet people and make new friends, breaking down barriers that can lead to social isolation. More than just good fun
We know that taking part in sport is good for physical and mental health, but research also shows that aerobic exercise triggers the growth of new nerve cells in the brain. This is especially so in the area that controls learning and memory, decisionmaking, multi-tasking and planning. These effects are even more powerful when it comes to the developing brains of children. Taking time out to participate in physical activity positively affects learning and improves children’s academic performance. In 2001, researchers from the University of Tasmania compared school marks of some 8000 Australian 7-15 year olds with their
HEALTH & SAFETY
activity level in the past week and results of a fitness test. They concluded that on average, the more fit and active children and young people are, the better they perform at school. So parents can rest assured that time spent in regular sport and physical activity does not adversely affect academic success or progress.
Immunisation Immunisation means becoming immune to a disease as a result of receiving a vaccine. It is an effective and safe way of preventing a person from getting an infectious disease.
How does immunisation work?
A growing body of research suggests that physical activity can also help the brains of adults. Participation in sport and active recreation contributes to lifelong learning for individuals. This is particularly true for the volunteers who work in sport and recreation such as coaches, officials and sports administrators through training and professional development courses. But the benefits don’t stop with the individual. Sport is a great way to bring people together socially, for the players, the volunteers who have a huge role in enabling community sport to take place, and spectators. According to the Premier’s Council for Active Living, active communities ‘are more connected, participate more in community activities, are more productive, and reduce the environmental impacts of car dependence.’
Every time your child has an infection, cells of his/ her immune system are stimulated and become active. They also produce some special protein chemicals called antibodies to fight against that infection. Different antibodies work against different infections. Immunisation mimics a natural infection without giving the child the disease. This stimulates the body’s immune system so that it becomes prepared to fight against that infection if it comes along. The immunity produced by vaccines can survive for a long time; sometimes even a lifetime. So your child builds up resistance to the virus or bacteria without having to suffer from the infection, with its distress and risks of complications. If the immunised person comes into contact with the disease in the future, the body is able to make antibodies fast enough to prevent the person getting sick most of the time. Vaccines that are recommended for the general population to take are highly effective. These days, children are recommended to receive more vaccines than in the past. Some parents may be concerned that their baby or small child might not be able to cope with so many vaccines at a time. In fact, several vaccines can safely and effectively be given at the same time. Some vaccines are being made as combination vaccines so that the child can get protected against many diseases using fewer needles (for example there is a vaccine formulation for infants that protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis, “Hib” disease, and hepatitis B in one injection). Humans are in contact with thousands of “antigens” (the part of a virus or bacteria) that stimulate the immune system every day. The small number of antigens in vaccines are like a “drop in the ocean” compared with those the body can react to at any one time. It is safe,
So how do you get your child off to a healthy and active start in lifelong participation in sport and physical activity? ‘Gateway to Sport’ (www.dsr.nsw.gov.au/ gatewaytosport) is a handy resource to help parents find out about over 70 sport and recreational activities including how to participate, links to state sport associations and local clubs in New South Wales. Information reproduced with the permission of New South
Wales Department of Sport & Recreation. www.dsr.nsw.gov.au/gatewaytosport
and in fact recommended, that all due vaccines are given at the same visit. Giving all due vaccines at the same visit will also cause less trauma for your child and yourself than stringing them out over several visits.
Nutrition Maintaining a healthy diet is crucial for a healthy body and mind, especially for children.
Where to go for immunisation
Enjoy a wide variety of nutritious foods.
• Your local doctor (general practitioners - GPs). • Your local council, hospital or community centre may have free immunisation clinics. • NSW Health implements the NSW School-based Vaccination Program. Through this program vaccines recommended for adolescents by the National Health and Medical Research Council are offered to students. http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/PublicHealth/Immunisation/school_prog/index.asp.
Children and adolescents should be encouraged to: • Eat plenty of vegetables, legumes and fruits. • Eat plenty of cereals, (including breads, rice, pasta and noodles), preferably wholegrain. • Include lean meat, fish, poultry and/or alternatives. • Include milks, yoghurt, cheese and/or alternatives. Reduced fat milks are not suitable for young children under 2 years old, because of their energy needs, but reduced fat varieties should be encouraged for older children and adolescents. • Choose water as a drink.
Side-effects of immunisation
Immunisation is very safe and effective. The huge benefits of immunisation far outweigh the very small risks. Like many useful substances, be it a medication, a lotion or a food item, a vaccine can sometimes cause side-effects in an individual. These are usually minor, such as soreness at the injection site, mild fever or being a bit irritable. In very rare cases, a child may have an unknown sensitivity to a vaccine component and develop a more serious reaction. Sometimes a child may happen to get sick after taking a vaccine, but not because of the vaccination. Discuss your concerns about possible side-effects with the doctor or nurse who give your child the vaccine. They will also advise on ways to reduce sideeffects. Having a cough or cold (with no or only mild fever) is not a reason to delay immunisation. In very rare cases, if your doctor thinks that it may not be wise for your child to have a particular vaccine in the GP surgery, there are special clinics held at both The Children’s Hospital at Westmead and Sydney Children’s Hospital, which can provide expert advice and give the vaccine under supervision if necessary. Contact these hospitals for further information about these clinics.
And care should be taken to:
• Limit saturated fat and moderate total fat intake. Low fat diets are not suitable for infants. • Choose foods low in salt. • Consume only moderate amounts of sugars and foods containing added sugars.
‘Occasional foods’ (Not recommended for schools)
Information reproduced with the permission of the Children’s
Hospital Westmead – www.chw.edu.au
Child Safety Handbook
The Fuel offer is available to IGA customers EVERY DAY! There is no doubt that every Australian family is interested in saving money. The offer is simple: • Go fill up your family car* at any service station • Come and shop with us at a participating IGA store any day Terms & conditions apply.
and spend $30.00 • Bring in your fuel receipt • We will reimburse you 4c a litre on your petrol receipt.
* Offer is limited to one petrol receipt per customer transaction for a fuel purchase of up to 80 litres. Participating stores only.
Download your free IGA iPhone/iPad/Android app
For your nearest store Fresh and healthy meal solutions - Shopping List - Store Locator visit www.iga.com.au
Keep up to date with Upcoming Promotions, Store Launches and of course Great Specials available at your local IGA, just How the locals like it™! Follow us on Twitter @IGA_NSWACT.
Austar Coal Mine is proud to support the NSW Police Legacy in the development of the Child Safety Handbook. Our wish is to see that our employees and their families are safe whether they are at work, school or at home.
Austar Coal Mine is located 8km west of Cessnock in the Lower Hunter Valley, NSW. For more information about Austar Coal Mine, visit our website www.austarcoalmine.com.au
HEALTH & SAFETY
The new Healthy Kids website provides information, resources and ideas on physical activity and healthy eating for children and young people. There is also a specific section for parents and carers about healthy lifestyles for children. For more information see http://www.healthykids.nsw.gov.au
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Make sure your baby’s head remains uncovered during sleep
Healthy School Canteen
The Fresh Tastes NSW Healthy School Canteen Strategy is all about giving students across NSW a taste for healthy foods. It heralds a move beyond nutrition guidelines for school canteens to a government-endorsed approach that helps schools determine the healthier types and frequency of foods that are available for sale in their canteens. The Canteen Menu Planning Guide offers a new way of designing school canteen menus. You will see three categories: RED, AMBER and GREEN. This is the food spectrum – a visual guide that shows you where certain foods fit on the menu. RED ‘Occasionally’ • Lack adequate nutritional value. • Are high in saturated fat, and/or added sugar and/or salt. • Can contribute excess energy (kilojoules). AMBER ‘Select carefully’ • Have some nutritional value. • Have moderate levels of saturated fat and/or added sugar and/or salt. • Can, in large serve sizes, contribute excess energy (kilojoules). GREEN ‘Fill the Menu’ • Are good sources of nutrients. • Contain less saturated fat and/or added sugar and/or salt. • Help to avoid an intake of excess energy (kilojoules). Children and adolescents need sufficient nutritious foods to grow and develop normally. Growth should be checked regularly for young children. Physical activity is important for all children and adolescents.
MAKE UP YOUR BABY'S COT USING SAFE SLEEPING
Sudden infant death syndrome, referred to as SIDS or Crib Death, is one of the leading causes of deaths in infants under the age of 1. It is also one of the number one fears every new parent experiences. There is no known cause of SIDS, but there are certain preventative measures you can implement to reduce the risks of SIDS. After the age of 1, the risk of SIDS is dramatically lowered, in fact, most cases of SIDS occur between two and four months of age. Since its inception in the early 1990’s, the campaign has reduced the incidence of SIDS by 85% saving over 6,000 babies lives. Vigilance is still required in delivering our Safe Sleeping message to the broad community as sadly the cause of sudden infant death syndrome remains unknown with more research into the cause still needed.
Put your baby on its back to sleep
Do not put your baby on a water bed or bean bag
Use a firm, clean well fitting mattress.
Tuck in your baby’s bedclothes securely
Position your baby’s feet at the bottom of the cot
Quilts, doonas, duvets, pillows, soft toys and cot bumpers in the cot are not recommended
How to Sleep your Baby Safely:
• Always lay the infant on their backs, never on their stomachs or sides. If you are worried about the possibility of flat spots, let them roll around on their stomach during waking hours. • Never put the infant on a soft surface to sleep, such as water beds, soft mattresses, or couches. Only put the infant to sleep on firm mattresses in the crib or bassinet. • Avoid having the infant sleep with you, especially among the blankets and pillows on your bed.
• Do not use layers of blankets or clothes when putting the infant to bed. Bedding materials such as pillows, stuffed toys, and soft quilts and blankets increase the risk of SIDS. • Remove any plastic covering from crib or bassinet mattress, plastic has shown to prevent air circulation in the bassinet and crib. Only use fitted sheets designed for the specific size of mattress. • Do not expose the infant to smoke. Smoke exposure has been associated with SIDS, as well
as other illnesses. Fragrance exposure should also be avoided, especially from perfumes, air fresheners, and chemical based cleaning supplies. These types of chemical irritants could cause irritation in the infant’s air passage, causing their breathing to be difficult. • Breastfeeding has many health benefits for the infant including lowering the risk of upper respiratory infection and SIDS. For more information: www.sidsandkids.org Child Safety Handbook
Top 10 tips
Be an active part of their lives Make sure you set aside time to spend with your kids. Take an interest in their interests and establish a routine for doing things with them. Spending time as a family is important, like eating together every day. When they go out, don’t be afraid to ask where they’re going or who they’ll be with.
2 DRUG AWARENESS WHAT IS A DRUG? A drug is a substance, other than food, which is taken to change the way the body and/or mind function. Mood altering drugs are also called “psychoactive drugs”. They can affect the way a person thinks, feels and acts. These drugs usually have physical effects as well, but what sets them apart from other drugs is that they work on the mind and the senses. HOW COULD DRUGS AFFECT YOU?
The effects of any drug vary from person to person. How a drug affects a person can depend on their size, weight and health, also whether the person is used to taking the drug, and whether other drugs are in their system at the same time. The effects will also depend on the amount taken. It can be hard to judge how much of an illegal drug has been taken, as they are uncontrolled, so quality and strength will vary from one batch to another. 68
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These include alcohol, benzodiazepines (minor tranquillisers), cannabis, GHB, heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone, and some inhalants. Depressants do not necessarily make a person feel depressed. They affect the central nervous system, slowing down the messages between the brain and the body. They can affect concentration and coordination. They slow down the person’s ability to respond to unexpected situations. In small doses they can cause a person to feel more relaxed and less inhibited. In larger doses they can cause drowsiness, vomiting, unconsciousness and death. STIMULANTS
These include caffeine, ephedrine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine and ecstasy (MDMA). Stimulant drugs speed up the messages between the brain and the body. They can make a person feel more awake, alert, confident or energetic. Large doses of stimulants can cause over-stim-
Listen to your kids Showing that you’re prepared and willing to listen will help your kids feel more comfortable about listening to you. During a conversation try not to interrupt them or react in a way that will stop whatever you’re discussing. Encourage them to feel comfortable about telling you their problems, and ask for their input on family decisions to show that you value their opinions.
Be a role model When it comes to drugs there’s no such thing as ‘do as I say, not as I do’. If you take drugs yourself you can’t expect your kids to take your advice. It’s important not to underestimate the influence your behaviour has on them, particularly when it comes to alcohol or tobacco, or misuse of medications.
Be honest with them It’s natural that you won’t necessarily know everything about drugs. So while it’s important to be informed, you shouldn’t pretend to have answers to every question. Be prepared to say ‘I don’t know but I’ll find out for you’. If you’re honest and clear about where you stand, your kids will find it easier to be honest with you.
Pick your moment Make sure you pick the right time to discuss drugs with your kids, by looking for natural opportunities as they arise. This might be when you’re all watching TV, or when they’re talking about someone at their school or in their friendship group.
Here are 10 ways to encourage your kids to talk about drugs with you.
Be calm When it comes to talking about drugs, being calm and rational is important, as well as not overreacting. Make sure not to ridicule or lecture, as this could make future discussions about drugs more difficult and make your kids more resistant to talking about them at all.
Avoid conflict It is difficult to solve a problem where there’s a conflict. Try to see their point of view while encouraging them to understand yours. If a confrontation does develop, stop the conversation and come back to it when you’re both calmer.
Keep talking Once you’ve had a discussion about drugs it’s important to have another. Start talking to your kids about drugs early, and be willing to talk to your kids about the issue at any time.
Set clear boundaries Generally kids expect and appreciate some ground rules. By actively involving them in setting the rules you can encourage them to take more responsibility for sticking to them. Once you’ve decided on these rules, enforce them, and let your kids know the consequences of breaking them. Discuss and agree to ways your kids will act if they find themselves in situations where drugs are present. For example, let them know that you’ll always collect them if they need you to, whatever the hour. However, make it absolutely clear that you would rather they didn’t put themselves in a situation where they are likely to be exposed to drugs in the first place.
Focus on positives Be sure to reward your kids’ good behaviour and emphasise the things they do well. Encourage them to feel good about themselves and let them know that they deserve respect and should also respect themselves.
STANDARD DRINK SIZES 425ml Schooner full strength beer 4.9% ALC/VOL
285ml Middy/Pot full strength beer 4.9% ALC/VOL
285ml Middy/Pot full strength beer 2.7% ALC/VOL
tions can produce unwanted side effects. It is important to be careful when taking any type of drug.
• Whether the alcohol is consumed with other drugs. • Age and gender.
Talking with young people about drugs
SOME IMMEDIATE EFFECTS MAY INCLUDE;
Parents need to realise that just like smoking or drinking, trying a type of drug or alcohol does not necessarily mean that your child is a drug addict or an alcoholic. If you do find out that your child has experimented with drugs or alcohol, the key is not to panic but to use this opportunity to open up the lines of communication.
• • • • • • • • • • • •
ALCOHOL 375ml Full strength beer 4.9% ALC/VOL
375ml Full strength beer 4.9% ALC/VOL
170ml Average serve of sparkling wine/Champange 11.5% ALC/VOL
30ml Spirit nip 40% ALC/VOL
100ml Standard serve wine 12% ALC/VOL
60ml Port/Sherry 18% ALC/VOL
WHAT IS ALCHOL?
Alcoholic drinks contain the drug ethanol (ethyl alcohol). A drug is a substance which changes the way your body and mind work. Alcohol is a powerful drug. It is a depressant drug and not a stimulant, as many people believe. It slows down the activity in parts of the brain and the nervous system. The 2007 National Drug Strategy Household Survey found that 19% of young men aged 18–24 years reported that they had engaged in risky/high risk drinking at least once a week during the last 12 months. This was double the rate of risky/high risk drinking among men aged 25 years and over (8%). Among young women aged 18–24 years, 16% reported risky/high risk drinking on a regular basis, around three times as high as the proportion of women aged 25 years and over (5%). EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL
ulation, causing anxiety, panic, seizures, headaches, stomach cramps, aggression and paranoia. Long-term use of strong stimulants can also cause these effects. HALLUCINOGENS
These include ketamine, LSD, datura, magic mushrooms (psilobycin) and mescaline (peyote cactus). Cannabis and ecstasy can also have hal-
lucinogenic qualities. Hallucinogens distort a person’s perception of reality. People who have taken them may imagine they see or hear things, or what they see may be distorted. The effects of different hallucinogens vary. THERE IS NOT SAFE LEVEL OF DRUG USE. Use of
any drug always carries some risk—even medica-
The effects of alcohol will vary from person to person. They depend on: • How much and how quickly the alcohol is consumed. • The person’s body size. • How good their health is, and particularly, how well their liver works. • The occasion on which the alcohol is consumed, eg with a meal, alone or at a party, after hard physical exercise.
Relaxation. Feeling of well being. Loss of inhibitions. Flushing; dizziness. Unclear judgment. Uncoordinated movements. Slow reactions. Blurred vision. Slurred speech. Aggression. Vomiting. Unconsciousness.
The use of standard drinks can help a person monitor his or her alcohol consumption and exercise control over the amount they drink. Different types of alcoholic drinks contain different amounts of pure alcohol. A standard drink is defined as one that contains 10 grams of pure alcohol. KEEP IN MIND
• The ‘standard’ size of drinks served in some hotels may be bigger than a standard drink. Large wine glasses can hold two standard drinks – or even more. • Drinks served at home often contain more alcohol than a standard drink. • Cocktails can contain as many as five or six standard drinks, depending on the recipe. MINIMIZING THE RISKS FROM DRINKING ALCOHOL FOR MEN AND WOMEN
At low levels of drinking there is little difference between men and women. However at higher levels of drinking: • Women are at a greater risk of developing an alcohol-related disease such as cancers, diabetes and obesity. Child Safety Handbook
approximately three-quarters of a million hospital bed-days were a result of tobacco use.
• Men are at greater risk of an alcohol-related injury such as a car accident, assault and violence HINTS FOR DRINKING LESS
THERE IS NO SAFE LEVEL OF TOBACCO USE.
• Have a “spacer” every couple of drinks. Start with a non-alcoholic drink to quench your thirst before you start drinking alcohol and have a non-alcoholic drink every second or third drink. • Pace yourself. Take sips, not gulps and drink at your own pace not someone else’s. This means trying to avoid drinking in rounds where you are trying to keep up with the fastest drinker. If you are in a round, drink a low or nonalcoholic drink. • Use a smaller glass. Try drinking smaller glasses of beer or wine and make them last longer. • Don’t let people top up your drink. Always finish your drink before getting a new one, this helps you keep track of how much alcohol you have consumed. • Avoid drinking high-alcohol content drinks– try the low alcohol alternative. The number of standard drinks contained in an alcoholic beverage is listed on the side of the can or bottle. Some cans may contain over two standard drinks. If mixing your own drinks, use less alcohol than normal. • Eat before and while you are drinking. Eating slows your drinking pace and fills you up. If you have a full stomach, alcohol will be absorbed more slowly. But avoid the salty snacks as they make you thirsty, so you drink more. • Don’t just sit and drink—stay busy. Play pool, dance, or talk to friends. If you have something to do, you tend to drink less. • Don’t be pressured into drinking more than you want or intend to. It’s OK to say no.
Use of any drug always carries some risk—even medications can produce unwanted side effects. It is important to be careful when taking any type of drug.
The health risks of tobacco are well known, but kids and teens continue to smoke. Many young people pick up these habits every year — in fact, 90% of all adult smokers started when they 70
Child Safety Handbook
IMMEDIATE EFFECTS Low to moderate doses
90% of all adult smokers started when they were kids
were kids. So it’s important to make sure kids understand the dangers of tobacco use. Smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths in the Australia, and can cause cancer, heart disease, and lung disease.
• Tar – which is released when a cigarette burns. • Carbon monoxide (CO) – a colourless, odourless and very toxic gas. Smokers typically have high levels of CO in the blood.
WHAT’S IN TOBACCO SMOKE?
EFFECTS OF TOBACCO
There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco smoke. Many of these chemicals are poisonous and at least 43 of them are carcinogenic (cause cancer).
The effects of any drug (including tobacco) vary from person to person. How tobacco affects a person depends on many things including their size, weight and health, also whether the person is used to taking it. The effects of tobacco, as with any drug, also depend on the amount taken. In Australia, tobacco use is responsible for approximately 15,000 deaths each year. In 2004–2005
THE THREE MAJOR CHEMICALS IN TOBACCO SMOKE ARE:
• Nicotine – the chemical on which smokers become dependent.
Some of the effects that may be experienced after smoking tobacco include: • Initial stimulation, then reduction in activity of brain and nervous system. • Increased alertness and concentration. • Feelings of mild euphoria. • Feelings of relaxation. • Increased blood pressure and heart rate. • Decreased blood flow to fingers and toes. • Decreased skin temperature. • Bad breath. • Decreased appetite. • Dizziness. • Nausea, abdominal cramps and vomiting. • Headache. • Coughing, due to smoke irritation. Higher doses
A high dose of nicotine can cause a person to overdose. This means that a person has taken more nicotine than their body can cope with. The effects of very large doses can include: • An increase in the unpleasant effects. • Feeling faint. • Confusion. • Rapid decrease in blood pressure and breathing rate. • Seizures. • Respiratory arrest (stopping breathing) and death. 60 mg of nicotine taken orally can be fatal for an adult.
DRUG AWARENESS LONG-TERM EFFECTS
Tar in cigarettes coats the lungs and can cause lung and throat cancer in smokers. It is also responsible for the yellow–brown staining on smokers’ fingers and teeth. Carbon monoxide in cigarettes reduces the amount of oxygen available to the muscles, brain and blood. This means the whole body—especially the heart—must work harder. Over time this causes airways to narrow and blood pressure to rise, which can lead to heart attack and stroke. High levels of CO, together with nicotine, increase the risk of heart disease, hardening of the arteries and other circulatory problems.
• Increased risk of stroke and brain damage. • Eye cataracts, macular degeneration, yellowing of white of eyes. • Loss of sense of smell and taste. • Yellow teeth, tooth decay and bad breath. • Cancer of the nose, lip, tongue and mouth. • Possible hearing loss . • Laryngeal and pharyngeal cancers. • Contributes of osteoporosis. • Shortness of breath. • Coughing. • Chronic bronchitis. • Cancer. • Triggering asthma. • Emphysema. • Heart disease. • Blockages in blood supply that can lead to a heart attack. • High blood pressure (hypertension). • Myeloid leukaemia, a cancer that affects bone marrow and organs that make blood. • Stomach and bladder cancers. • Stomach ulcers. • Decreased appetite. • Grey appearance. • Early wrinkles.
Some of the long-term effects of smoking that may be experienced include:
Caffeine is the most popular and widely used drug in the world
• Slower healing wounds. • Damage to blood vessel walls. • Increased likelihood of back pain. PASSIVE SMOKING
Passive smoking is a term used to describe the effect of tobacco smoke on people who don’t smoke but spend time with smokers. Mainstream smoke is smoke drawn through a cigarette into a smoker’s mouth and lungs. Second-hand smoke is the smoke
exhaled (breathed-out). Side stream smoke is the smoke that drifts off the end of the cigarette into the air and is completely unfiltered. Some poisons in tobacco smoke are much more concentrated in side stream smoke than in mainstream smoke. There is evidence on passive smoking that it is a significant cause of lung cancer in non-smokers and acute asthma attacks in asthma sufferers. Children of smoking parents also have an increase risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
(SIDS) and serious chest illnesses such as pneumonia and bronchitis. The effects of passive smoking will depend on how long the nonsmoker spends in a smoke-filled environment, how well the air flows in the area and how many cigarettes are being smoked. HEALTH BENEFITS OF QUITTING
• After twelve hours almost all of the nicotine is out of your system. Child Safety Handbook
• After twenty-four hours the level of carbon monoxide in your blood has dropped dramatically. You now have more oxygen in your bloodstream. • After five days most nicotine by-products have gone. • Within days your sense of taste and smell improves. • Within a month you blood pressure returns to its normal level and your immune system begins to show signs of recovery. • Within three months the blood flow to your hands and feet improves. • After twelve months your increased risk of dying from heart diseases is half that of a continuing smoker. • Stopping smoking reduces the incidence and progression of diseases including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. • After ten years of stopping your risk of lung cancer is less than half that of a continuing smoker and continues to decline (providing the disease is not already present). • After fifteen years your risk of heart attack and stroke is almost the same as that of a person who has never smoked.
CAFFEINE Caffeine is the most popular and widely used drug in the world. It is a substance found in the leaves, seeds or fruit of a number of plant species, such as coffee and tea plants. Caffeine is a stimulant which acts on the central nervous system to speed up the messages to and from the brain. It is made up of the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. Caffeine consumption is a part of everyday life is Australia. People have tea or coffee for breakfast, with meals or as a break for morning or afternoon tea. Children and adults consume caffeine through eating chocolate and drinking cola and energy drinks. 72
Child Safety Handbook
EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE
In small doses (such as a cup of coffee or a caffeinated energy drink) caffeine: • Increase general metabolism and body temperature • Increases urination • Increases alertness • Stimulates the secretion of gastric acid. CAFFEINE AND SLEEP
When caffeine is taken before going to bed, it usually: • Delays and shortens sleep • Reduces the deep sleep cycle • Increase the amount of dream sleep early in the night, but reduces it overall. WHAT ARE ENERGY DRINKS?
Energy drinks are drinks designed to increase stamina and improve physical performance. Some energy drinks are designed especially for elite athletes, but most are produced and marketed for the general community. WHAT ARE THEIR MAIN INGREDIENTS?
The main ingredients in energy drinks are caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone. Some new drinks on the market also contain opium poppy seed extract or ephedrine. • Taurine Taurine is an amino acid that occurs naturally in the body. Amino acids help to build protein. They are also believed to detoxify and cleanse the body of harmful substances. In times of stress and high physical activity, the body can lose small amounts of taurine. Some people use energy drinks to try to replace or build up their body’s level of taurine. • Glucuronolactone Glucuronolactone also occurs naturally in the body. It is a natural metabolite and carbohydrate formed when glucose breaks down, and is believed to be helpful in ridding the body of harmful substances and providing an instant energy boost.
• Caffeine Caffeine is a stimulant which acts on the central nervous system to speed up messages to and from the brain.
Mother (500ml) Red Bull Monster (500ml) Rockstar ‘V’ Coca-Cola Diet Coke Diet Coke Caffeine-Free Pepsi Diet Pepsi Pepsi Max
Caffeine content 160mg 80mg 160mg 80mg 78mg 48.75mg 48mg 2mg 40mg 44mg 44mg
WHAT ARE THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF ENERGY DRINKS?
Not enough is currently known about energy drinks and their effect on health and well-being. The producers of energy drinks make many claims about the health effects of their products. They say that their products can increase physical endurance, improve reaction time, boost mental alertness and concentration, increase overall well-being, stimulate metabolism, improve stamina and help eliminate waste from the body. The drinks are marketed as healthy, fun and youthful, and many children, young people and adults are taken in by the excitement created around them, believing these claims to be true. However, the evidence shows that it may be wise to be cautious in our consumption of energy drinks. Caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone occur naturally in the body, but the fact that they are present in much higher does in energy drinks may be cause for concern. Scientists say that caffeine can have an effect on the growing brain and that it may cause a decline in the body’s immune system.
The Australian Consumers’ Association advises that while energy drinks may be scientifically safe, young people especially need to be aware of their contents. Research shows that children and young people who consume energy drinks may suffer sleep problems, bed-wetting and anxiety. Children who consume two or more cans of energy drinks a day may become irritable and anxious. When thinking about whether or not to allow your child to consume energy drinks, it is useful to consider the following factors:
• Would you be comfortable with your child drinking a cup of strong coffee? Most energy drinks contain around the same amount of caffeine as a strong cup of coffee and nearly twice as much as in a cola drink. • Are you concerned about your child’s sugar intake? Some energy drink, such as Red Bull contains high amounts of sugar (equal to around 5 teaspoons per 250ml can). By comparison, a 250ml can of Coca-Cola contains 4 teaspoons of sugar while 250ml of a regular iced tea contains 18 teaspoons of sugar. • Will the drink enhance your child’s well-being, or is it potentially harmful? There is little (if any) evidence of nutritional value in most energy drinks. Some energy drinks are said to include natural vitamins and minerals, but these can be easily obtained from simple foods such as fresh fruit and vegetables. • How old is your child? Very little is known about the health effects of caffeine, so it is best to avoid giving children under age 10 products containing caffeine, especially energy drinks. Older children and young people should be careful too. The human brain continues to grow up to about age 16 (some say age 21). We know that caffeine can affect a growing brain, but we don’t as yet know how. Information reproduced with permission of Australian Drug Foundation – www.adf.org.au
MINIMUM SIZE ON BODY OF RED
REVERSED VERSION 30 mm
SMALL REPRODUCTION OPTION MINIMUM SIZE
SMALL REPRODUCTION OPTION MINIMUM SIZE ON BODY OF RED
EXTREME HORIZONTAL VERSION (PACKAGING)
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Child Safety Handbook
Lending a hand, locally $60,000,000 has been raised nationally
over the past 9 years through the IGA Community Chest and it’s associated programs for local community groups, not-for-profit organisations, charities and other worthy causes. • When you purchase a product with the IGA Community Chest logo printed on the label a percentage is automatically credited to that store’s IGA Community Chest account (some exclusions apply).