Rehabilitation of the urban landscape

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RehabiMed training course

Rehabilitation of the urban landscape Lefkosia, Cyprus. from 7 to 14 November 2005


RehabiMed follows and enhances a network and 2 projects

• CORPUS, which aimed at understanding if traditional mediterranean architecture was a relevant and homogeneous concept • CORPUS LEVANT, which entered the practice in concrete details

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RehabiMed seeks •

Increasing activity in rehabilitation as a sustainable development factor • Improvement of life conditions of a broad population spectrum • Preservation of the historical and cultural identity of the traditional architecture heritage

• Creation of synergies and transnational networks of experts

Concepts Mediterranean traditional architecture • Common, alive because it is occupied, pre-industrial and a tradition result • Built by craftsmen with local materials and expertise • Expression of a community’s culture • Built on the areas around the Mediterranean sea

Rehabilitation • Large range of actions to recuperate a lost function • Different rehabilitation levels from the urban one to the building • Balance between technical aspects and hereditary values • Bear in mind sustainable criteria (economical, social and environmental)

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Two weights and measures

Target public • Politicians and government experts (at national, regional and local levels)

• The agents of the rehabilitation sector (architects, engineers, building contractor, craftsmen, manufacturers, academics, …)

• The users and inhabitants of rehabilitated urban areas and buildings

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Partnership of the projet

Project structure

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S.I Knowledge and methodology Methodology, strategy and work tools for rehabilitation

S.II Training Knowledge transfer of the experts’ networks

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S.III Pilot operations Starting the introduction of methods and knowledge

Regional conference Conclusion and dissemination of Project results

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S.I Knowledge and Methodologies Objective To help the rehabilitation of the traditional ways of Mediterranean dwelling, to guarantee the perpetuation of its hereditary and historical values and the quality of dwellers’ way of life

How Developing the protocols that collect the principles of action as a practical guide to the different agents in every step of the rehabilitation process by experts’ networks

S.I Knowledge and Methodologies Networks of experts • Urban rehabilitation management • Building rehabilitation methodology • Experiences of urban rehabilitation and construction

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Urban rehabilitation management The network understands the actions on the urban fabric as a whole of pluridisciplinary actions which goal is the environmental, economical, social and physical rehabilitation

Objective: • Defining the precise strategy to plan, encourage, control and direct the urban rehabilitation actions • Setting up work methods • Making a specific application of the method in every pilot operation • Dissemination of the method to all the partners

Building rehabilitation methodology The network understands rehabilitation as a whole comprehension of the building and its problematics

Objective: • Creation of a methodology and work tools, according the Mediterranean experience, based on « diagnosis »

• Setting up work methods • Making a specific application of the method in every pilot operation • Dissemination of the method to all the partners

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Experiences of urban rehabilitation and construction A network of experts is working to identify and document Experiences of urban and building rehabilitation Objective: to create a database that showcases Mediterranean experience in the field of rehabilitation in a broad sense.

Traditional forms of habitat We refer to traditional forms of habitat in Mediterranean, as the natural, often unplanned way, in which humankind has settled in the Mediterranean territory throughout history—that is, the basic expression of the culture of different societies, their way of living in community and their relations with nature and landscape.

Not only referring to single constructions but also to interventions that form part of an urban or territorial ensemble, with its streets or tracks, its inhabitants, etc., defining a traditional human and built environment that is the reflection of a history as well as of a way of life and settlement in the territory.

These are ways of constructing the habitat (villages, historic centres, etc.) that are facing tragic situations today, subject to a constant loss of their social and cultural character, and threatened by intense degradation due to the urban processes that emerged with industrialization.

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Regional Symposium

RehabiMed Bulletin

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RehabiMed website

Website: Menu RehabiMed What is RehabiMed? Working countries Press file

Databases International experts Specialised companies Rehabilitation products

Bulletin Suscription to the Bulletin Archive of published bulletins

Activities

Downloads RehabiMed documents Other documents

RehabiMed activities Other activities

Legislation

Technical area

International By country

Urban management Building rehabilitation Experiences

Pilot operations Lefkara (Cyprus) Cairo (Egypt) Kairouan (Tunisia) Marrakech (Morocco)

Bibliography Documentation centre: Database for free and guided consultations Bibliography

Links

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S.II Training and knowledge transfer Seminars: • Cyprus. Urban landscape. Lefkara • Egypt. Craftsmanship. Islamic Cairo • Morocco. Social action. Marrakech • Tunisie. Sustainable tourism. Kairouan

S.III Pilot operations 1. Heritage workshop 2. Construction site •

Lefkara (Cyprus). Rehabilitation and urban landscape

Cairo (Egypt). Rehabilitation and craftsmanship

Marrakech (Morocco). Rehabilitation and social action.

Kairouan (Tunisia). Rehabilitation and sustainable tourism.

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My role in this session • More sensible than scientific or learned • More cultural than technical • Doubting is better than asserting • An environment, which must be regarded as multifarious rather than unique • Its future is not in protection, but in use and relevant transformation

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LEFKARA SETTLEMENT ISSUES OF THE CORE AND THE PERIPHERY

REHABIMED SEMINAR

Nicosia, Cyprus, 7 November, 2005

Irene Hadjisavva MINISTRY OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT OF TOWN PLANNING AND HOUSING

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE SETTLEMENT

Agios Andronicos church Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

The Settlement in the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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The Settlement in the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

The Settlement in the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

The mixed typology

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Architecture of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Degradation of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Degradation of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Degradation of the Core… and the Periphery…

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Unsuccessful interventions on traditional buildings

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Unsuccessful new development

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Unsuccessful new development

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Unsuccessful treatments

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Unsuccessful treatments

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Opportunities for sustainable tourist and economic development Central geographical position, easy access from the national road network Remarkable and rather preserved architectural heritage Traditional crafts of lace and silver Uniqueness of the landscape and the natural environment

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Ancient Monuments

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Lefkara Local Plan

Sustainability: economic development+heritage preservation Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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Listed Buildings

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

Listed Buildings

• Cash Grant

• • • •

Tax deduction Transfer of development rights Provided plot ratio Direct intervention subsidies

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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THANK YOU

Lefkara Settlement, Issues of the Core and the Periphery

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The urban landscape

A pilot project for Lefkara

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Criteria for the choice of the pilot site 1. Feasibility 2. Accessibility 3. Obvious Results 4. Examplary buildings 5. Impact on the population 6. Acceptance by the local authority Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

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Candidate places for the pilot project

1. Principal entrance to the town 2. Central square 3. Principal commercial street 4. Square around the church of Saint Andronikos

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Main entrance to the town

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

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Main square

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Main commercial street

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

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Square around St. Andronikos

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Identification of problems 1. Alterations of the faรงades 2. Commercial signs 3. Introduction of new elements on the facades 4. New architecture 5. Electrical network 6. Mobilier urbain 7. Signage Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

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Commercial signs, new architecture, ‌ Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Electrical network, additions on the facades

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Alterations of openings, introduction of wrong elements

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Alteration of the roofscapes

Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

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Previous studies Local team Problem evaluation, positif values and feasibility Definition of the working area Team Oxford Brookes University Holistic approach Durability of the action Participation Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

Next steps (RehabiMed Method) Measured drawings of the facades and streetscape Historic studies Research on the original colours Research on the needs of the inhabitants Proposal for the action Organisation of the pilot action teams (masons, craftsmen) Department of Antiquities, Cyprus

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A Presentation on

Vernacular Architecture of Lefkara

By students and staff of the Masters course in International Studies in Vernacular Architecture ISVA 2004-2005 Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK

Method of Approach

Mind map Analysis

Personal Interviews

Observations

Inferences

Recommendations and Proposals

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

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Methodology and Findings 3.

Field sketches: courtyard house plans

Relationship between architecture and life

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

Mind Map Analysis

Sample of Mind Maps

Analysis of Mind Maps

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

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Groups Interviewed

Cypriot settlers More than 50 People Interviewed

Non Cypriot settlers Visitors Shop keepers Teenagers School Children

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

Community Response Responses about Lefkara • The people interviewed were largely positive about Lefkara, including the old stone buildings and the community spirit • People complained about the traffic in the town, and the loss of population and the possible decline of the native craft industries of lacemaking, and silver work

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

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Observations of the Community Positive Aspects Community Spirit Safe Environment – Community Policing Trustworthy and Honest Community Chapels Maintained by the Community School Location of Village Traditional Architecture

Concerns Traffic Issues Decline in Lace and Silver Industries Diminishing size of Younger Population Lack of Amenities for Young People Modern Buildings Diluting the Character of the Village Derelict Buildings Tourism Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

Tourism Concerns

Observations General confusion about orientation Circulation through Immediate Shopping Facilities Unaware of other attractions Duration of stay limited

Possible Reasons Lack of appropriate information Non-specific signage

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

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WASTE MANAGEMENT

RECOMMENDATIONS ツケossible implementation of a strategy for waste management

ツイollection strategies could be devised to enable safe and efficient disposal of waste

Map showing Districts within Lefkara

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

RECOMMENDATIONS

April 2005

TREATMENT OF ROOFSCAPE

ツオmprove the treatment of the Roofscape

skyscape of Lefkara

Oxford Brookes University, UK

Example of Solution

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

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Existing Signage Lack of Appropriate Maps and Signage Misleading Information Repetition of Signs Location of Signs Clarity of Road Signs Non-specific Signage

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

Rehabilitation Stabilising Derelict Buildings Opening Abandoned Courtyard for Public Use Creating Employment

Existing Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

Proposed April 2005

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Traffic Proposed Traffic Revision • A Pedestrian Zone is needed, because the laceworkers sit on the street sewing

• One-Way Streets should channel the traffic around the main area

Key Pedestrian Zone

• Two-Way roads connect to the One-Way loop, and lead out of town

One-Way Loop Main Two-Way Streets Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

Suggestions for Improvement Renovate Town Square • Town Square is crowded with many cars and pedestrians – which creates a dangerous traffic situation • Town Square should become a pedestrian free zone, and a new fountain should be the centre-point of the square

• An expanded public square with a park, or green area in front of the school • more plants, more landscaping and more benches and seats

Oxford Brookes University, UK

A Presentation on Lefkara

April 2005

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THE TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHTECTURE OF CYPRUS

Maria Philokyprou, Department of Town Planning and Housing

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE

Traditional architecture refers to the monumental and anonymous architecture of the cities

Part A: Analysis of the urban tissue Part B: Analysis of the buildings

Monumental Architecture Public Buildings Residences and private shops and workshops

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EVOLUTION OF URBAN TISSUE

Co-existence of buildings of the Medieval, the Renaissance, the Ottoman periods, the British Colonial Rule.

EVOLUTION OF URBAN TISSUE

Nicosia and Famagusta had a high degree of organization due to

The existence of defence walls The societies which inhabited them

The main characteristics which the conquerors wanted to add to these cities were:

The magnificence of the Administrative and Religious buildings

The establishment of organised open spaces

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EVOLUTION OF URBAN TISSUE FAMAGUSTA

Sea Gate

PORT

Inland Gate

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Monumental Architecture

Defence Walls (Nicosia, Famagusta) Castles (Limassol, Paphos, Larnaca, Kerynia) Administrative Buildings Religious Buildings

Gothic, Renaissance churches Greek Orthodox churches Islamic religious buildings

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Monumental Architecture Greek Orthodox churches

Franco – Byzantine type of church

Elements of Gothic art with regard to construction (wide use of ashlar, pointed arches) Byzantine plans of churches Ay. Nicolas (Bedestan)

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Monumental Architecture Rustication

BUINDING MATERIALS

Wide use of ashlar stone Rustication in some facades

Building of the Renaissance period - Famagusta

Famagusta Gate

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PUBLIC BUILDINGS Khania

Two storey buildings with rooms around a central courtyard Khani tou Symeou

Buyuk Khan

Kumarcilar Khan

PUBLIC BUILDINGS Baths (Hamams) Buyuk Hamam – St George of the Latins church - Nicosia

Francish Baths - Paphos

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences - Workshops

“Wide front and flat roof type” encountered in the Eastern Mediterranean – with the long side of the house along the street

Earlier times - placing of the house in the inner part of the plot Later on- the house is situated on the road boundary

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences - Typology

Arcade – iliakos at the rear façade of the house

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences - Courtyard

a) Original Courtyard house type

c) Planned serial house type

b) Minimal Courtyard house type

d) New Courtyard house type

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Mansions

The Mansion of the Dragoman of Cyprus Hadjigeorgakis Kornesios

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Mansions

Private Baths in Mansions

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences - Morphology ROOFING Flat roofs Inclined roofs

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences - Morphology

ENTRANCE DOORS

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences – Morphology

Symmetry in neoclassical buildings

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences – Morphology

One of the side rooms becomes larger because of its function as a reception room thus the façade losses its symmetry

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Residences – Morphology

Co-existance of balconies, covered balconies and kioskia in Nicosia

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Building Materials – Ceilings and Walls

CEILINGS AND WALLS

Plain timber planks Carved planks with painted decoration

TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE Workshops

Single storey Arches and iron beams in the interior Large rectangular or arched openings

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TRADITIONAL URBAN ARCHITECTURE CONCLUSIONS „

The urban architecture of Cyprus Cities comprises a mosaic of different styles and influences. The gothic religious buildings, the venitian defencive works, the mansions of Ottoman rule coexist with the houses of the British Colonial Rule, creating an interesting urban character of the cities. In the buildings themselves ancient and more recent morphological elements are incorporated in a unique manner.

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Mediterranean traditional architecture. The reasons for its rehabilitation and maintenance.

Gilles Nourissier Mediterranean space The value and the use of this heritage Architectural typologies Materials and building techniques Transformation process and the future

Mediterranean area • • • •

Geographical diversity Seasonal landscapes A circulated space Common land, common sights

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Roman empire

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Islamic Mediterrenean

Ottoman Mediterranean

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During colonial times

Mediterranean region today

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Traditional architecture • Traditional, vernacular, ordinary, anonymous, pre-industrial, without architects… • Simple, adapted to its environment, answering needs, according to cultural reference… • Build with basic and local materials • Obviously reflecting a common imaginative Mediterranean world

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A domesticated land • A land of cities networking territories • An intensive use of territory for production purpose • A range of others buildings, answers to fit the necessities • A net of roads that weave and structure territories • A vast diversity of landscapes

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Living in community • Social organizations in urban or rural communities • Compact urban fabric with streets, piazzas and public spaces • The urban area is fed and provided by trades, religions, feasts and holidays, politics… • A sustainable model, self-sufficient and ecologically profitable

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Multiple places and ways of living • • • • •

Outside Interior versus exterior, Air and light filtered, Transition spaces Green architecture

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Architectural typologies • • • •

Elementary house Patio house High houses Scattered settlements

Elementary houses

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Patio houses

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Maison Ă patio

High houses

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Scattered settlements

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Building arts local materials and traditional techniques

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Building arts local materials and traditional techniques • • • • • • •

Floors Cupolas Vaults Timber frames Roofs Stone walls Earth walls

• Wood structures and facings • Light houses • Rendering and lime washes • Know-how

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Time works on architecture • • • • • • • • •

Living architecture Evolving architecture Ongoing transformation Abandoned and ruined As a museum picturesque Architecture for a cultural tourism Rehabilitated architecture Re-interpreted architecture

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Looking at the future Traditional architecture can be: • A driving force for social and economic development • A solution for housing problems • A development tool for cultural tourism • A resource for inter mediterranean culture

As a result of its rehabilitation and revitalization

Transformation process endangered heritage

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Today we have • A network of experts of traditional mediterranean architecture • Exhibitions, to raise awarness on a heritage present but often forgotten • On the Web, database on typologies, building materials and techniques and a selection of significant sites • A book, synthesis on this architecture, its evolution and future • Another book, a Manual of Rehabilitation and maintenance

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Urban landscape and rehabilitation 1. 2. 3. 4.

Spatial organisation Alterations caused by new functions, Regulation process Practical exercice, case study

Attached documents • • • • •

Venice charter, 1964 Washington charter, 1987 Vernacular architecture charter, 1999 Nara document on authenticity, 1993 Xi’an declaration on settings, 21October 2005

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Hybride entre monumental et vernaculaire

Hybrid: between Monumental and vernacular

Entre les mailles de nos chartes mais relevant de toutes

Slipping through the nets of our charters, and yet in the essence of all

Inconnu comme catégorie propre puisque il tient plus de l’évolution que de la conservation

A heritage not considered a category, linked more to evolution than conservation

Il n’est pas caractérisé par son pittoresque ou sa rareté mais par son anonymat et par sa masse

It is neither picturesque nor rare but on the contrary anonymous and abundant

Far from being secondary, it embodies Il n’est pas secondaire et incarne the very values of urban pride and the l’ambition d’édilité, d’urbanité et de dignity of its populations dignité de ses populations

1 Spatial organisation • • • • •

Urban morphologies Views, vistas Streets and piazzas Regular composition or organic fabric The moving scenery of the façades

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An architecture by men of the trade, without architects

Modest variations based on sophisticated models

An architecture by men of the trade, without architects

Modest variations based on sophisticated models

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2 Alterations caused by new functions • Ageing • Town mutation • Modern equipements of public space and of buildings • Advertising, signs • Architectural disorganizations

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3 Regulation process • Architectural specifications and building codes – Size, volumes, heigths, – Shapes and dimensions – Materials, textures, colors

• Guidelines, awareness raising • Store fronts

Rules and recommendations Example of Greoux, France • Zones (heritage, covisibility, green) • composition • Building line • heights • Volumes • Façades • Openings • Projecting, overhanging elements • Roofs

• • • • •

Surrounding walls, fences superstructures Shop fronts Equipments Public space

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Rules and recommendations Example of Embrun, France, Accepted, Forbiden, 0bligatory, Recommended • Volumes (position in relation to street, to limits, heigth) • Roof (materials, slope, overhang, glass surfaces) • Façades – composition

– – – – – – – – – – –

Renderings Color Patterns, decoration Windows, Shutters Doors Balconies Shop fronts Awning, shades Gutters staircases

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Awareness raising of local heritage • • • • • • • • •

Traditional houses Village house Urban house Burgess house Rural house Renderings Plaster implementation Color palette Doors & windows colors

• Façade composition • Roofs • Fences and walls

Old buildings façades restoration

Store front design and rehabilitation

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3 categories of shop windows • Door type (or window type) From 0,80 m to 1,80 m wide • Portico type, (flat or arch) ≥ 1,80 m wide

• Applied, added on type ( wood, marble, glass, metal) Projecting box covering structural elements (lintels, jambs)

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Pas de porte means key money for a shop

And pas de porte also means doorstep

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Door type

Portico type

Simple, regular organization or layout

Simple, regular organization, with entresol or mezzanine

…with base

…with enlarged openings

3 possible positions for the shop window • Set back • At the rebate of the wall • In front

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Awnings or shades, signs

Practical exercice, case study •

What people do is on picture A while the reference is on B : which specification would be necessary to improve the result?

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B

Practical exercice, case study •

If you consider pictures C and D are not satisfactory, how would you formulate the rules to avoid such treatments?

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C

D

Practical exercice, case study • Picture E shows an image of the village one wishes to conserve. What do you propose to achieve that result?

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E

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5 Principles • • • • •

Integration (versus isolation) Globalism (versus specialization) Coordination (sharing versus selfishness) Flexibility (versus rigidity) Adaptability ( versus univocal attitude)

RehabiMed Method for the rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture ORIENTATION

DIAGNOSIS

STRATEGY

ACTION

FOLLOW-UP

1

POLITICAL WILL

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3

PRELIMINARY DECISIONS

ANALYSIS TERRITORY

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5

INTEGRATED DIAGNOSTIC

STRATEGIC REFLECTION

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6 ACTION PLAN

IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

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CONTINUAL EVALUATION

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RehabiMed Method for the rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture ORIENTATION

DIAGNOSIS

1

2

POLITICAL WILL identification of problems

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PRELIMINARY DECISIONS deciding on the need to act

political approach and justification of the intevention

ANALYSIS TERRITORY

delimitation of the physical area of intervention urban nucleus

social approach? urban planning viewpoint?

rural nucleus Rural territory

economic viewpoint?

nature and scope of the intervention

environmental viewpoint?

definition of the framework of governance and participation

heritage viewpoint?

public authorities technical team social agents residents & users

RehabiMed Method for the rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture DIAGNOSIS

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STRATEGY identification of prevailing legal framework

ANALYSIS TERRITORY planning the diagnosis

identification of the needs & expectations of residents and users

Programme of multisectorial studies urban planning and architectural approach

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INTEGRATED DIAGNOSTIC

STRATEGIC REFLECTION

socio-economic approach

territorial context, integration & continuity of fabrics

integration & territorial polarity

structure of the territory (built space, open space & infrastructures)

demography

uses of the area/ territory

antrhropology / cultural values

builiding & residential typologies

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sumary of potentials & dysfunctions of the area

sociology / social values

Psycology / life-related values

urban planning tensions & state of conservation

economic parameters

heritage values

real-estate dynamics

construction & formal values

territorial & administrative organization

social consensus and political backing

mobility & accessibility

biophysical approach physical environment natural landscape

historical & geographical approach historical & territorial context

environmental parameters

historical evolution and conditions of structural evolution

environmental parameters

archeology

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RehabiMed Method for the rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture STRATEGY

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6

STRATEGIC REFLECTION planning the decisionmaking process

ACTION PLAN definition of scenarios of intervention

evaluation of scenarios of intervention

criteria of reflection

criteria of evaluation

strategic premises

coherence of scenario

reconciling the long and short term

overall cost

chosing the target scenario and social consensus

compared impacts subsidiarity of scales sustainability of scenario Synergy between public & private interests

Viability of scenario priority objectives of sustainable rehabilitation Improving residents’s quality of life

economical viability juridical viability social acceptance

valorization of cultural & natural heritage improving social cohesion promotion of economic vitality environmental efficiency

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RehabiMed Method for the rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture STRATEGY

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ACTION

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STRATEGIC REFLECTION

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

ACTION PLAN drafting of the specification & rehabilitation quantification of Action Plan the actions to be carried out

to modify the structure of the territory projects of intervention on architecture and open spaces

social consensus and political approval

complementary sectorial policies (social, economic & environmental)

definition of apropiate legal tools

urban planning instruments specific ordinances rehabilitation manuals heritage legislation sectorial legislation

definition of the working framework

financing instruments management bodies & agents involved training strategy communication & promotion strategy mechanisms of participation

timeline & organization of phases

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RehabiMed Method for the rehabilitation of Traditional Mediterranean Architecture STRATEGY

5

FOLLOW-UP

7

STRATEGIC REFLECTION

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IMPLEMENTATION PLAN

CONTINUAL EVALUATION

development of urban planning procedures

actions to modify structure of the territory actions to modify and/or substitute buildings actions to transform open spaces actions to improve infrastructures

development of specific projects

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projects for the insertion of new buildings projects for the treatement of open spaces building rehabilitation projects RehabiMed Guide for rehabilitation of traditional buildings

ACTION PLAN development of sectorial policies

observatory of evaluation of the implementati on of the Plan

social policies economic policies environmental policies

Development of complementary campaigns

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Diagnosis and intervention on façades I 1. 2. 3. 4.

Constitutive elements and vocabulary Architectural composition Materials, textures and technologies Colours studies and planning

1.1 Horizontal elements •

The base or baseplate constitutes the element on which a building is erect. It is therefore the lowest level, conceived in a way to set the upcoming construction. It is always processed with more power elements than upper floors. It is often enhanced with powerful bossage, and false bonds and courses.

The string course splits 2 horizontal levels. It is usually positioned at the same level as the floor or window supports. It is flat, slightly overhanging, with a rectangular section. When the profile is rounded into a curved moulding. it is then called a cordon.

The baseboard is the course running along the base of the wall. It is found even when the first level is processed like a base.

The levels are the different heights of the construction. It is a term used in composition; the level is to the façade what the floor is to the construction. It is delimited by string courses. When there are no string courses, one considers the limit to be the height of the tail-bay.

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1.1 Horizontal elements (follow) •

The entablature constitutes the coping of the construction. It is made of three elements, cornice, frieze, and architrave (the architraved cornice cancels the need for a frieze.)

The cornice is the coping of the entablature. It is most often made of a rail - shaped by a round moulding, for example an ogee or a cyma - and a drip designed to stop rain runoff.

The frieze is under the cornice. It is a non-moulded horizontal strip, sometimes decorated with a painted or sculpted pattern.

The architrave is the lower part of the entablature. It represents the lintel, which spans between two supports (column, pillar…). In a decorative entablature for a façade, it is very much like a moulded string, a belt, which no longer spans or covers empty spaces.

1.1 Horizontal elements (follow) • The attic head constitutes the coping of the construction. The height is much lower than that of other levels, and it is separated from the other elements by a usually much larger moulding (cornice, frieze) than the actual attic level. If there are no clear moulding, a floor which is much lower than the others is simply called a mezzanine floor. • The entresol is a mezzanine floor just above the ground level, usually smaller in height, was elements are usually included in the first level (the base level).

2


1.2 Vertical elements •

The bay or section, in common architecture, refers to the superimposition of bays on a vertical axis. The lateral limits of a bay are the axis of the pier (or the needling and axis of the first pier)

The pier refers to the wall between two bays openings of the same level.

The needling is the panel between the angle of the building and the first lateral bay.

The full bay is the panel between two bays of a same section.

The cornerstone is the vertical linking element between two walls making up an angle. It is made with superimposed heading courses. The materials used are usually different or larger than the rest of the facing (when false architectural elements are implemented, with rendering or painting, the same characteristics are applied to differentiate corner elements from walls). The main elements are usually toothed: toothing describes the alternate laying of short and long elements, thus creating a tooth pattern.

1.2 Vertical elements •

The jamb (door) (post for windows) is a vertical element secured into a course wall or partition. Toothing can be applied.

The pilaster is a vertical support, a rectangular element, slightly more protruding than the facing. It usually consists of the base and always includes a capital.

3


1.3 Façade terminology •The bay (opening) refers to any opening in a wall, the bay element includes the frame. A blind bay or blind arcade (an opening from the ground up and surmounted by an arch) are also considered as bays or openings. •The niche is considered an opening. The backing is flat or concave. •The lintel is the element that covers an opening. It can be flat or arched. It is monolithic, that is to say, one solid element. •The band moulding is an arch which is flat on the underface. It is made with arch stones; the centre stone is called a keystone. When used to cover an opening, the band moulding replaces the monolithic lintel. On façades, bay covering is often constituted of three parts: two lateral transomes, laid on sidewall elements, with the central keystone. When a keystone goes beyond the main lines of the Arch, it is called “passante” [French word], (towards the top) or hanging (towards the bottom). When it stands further out than the facing it is called overhanging or protruding.

1.3 Façade terminology (follow) •

The support is the lower horizontal elements of an opening or bay (window, fake window, but not the door). It can be flat like the wall or protruding. When protruding, it can be moulded with elements protruding further out than the column, jamb or architrave of an opening.

The column is a loadbearing element for the covering of an opening. Support columns are also the lateral limits of piers. In façade terminology, the column facing parallel to the band moulding is called the jamb. The return thickness, from the arris to the opening, is called a vertical side.

The frame (or casing) is the frame of an opening on the facing of a wall. It can be moulded. When the frame is decorated with an offset or projection, it is called “à crossettes” [French word].

4


1.3 Façade terminology (follow) •

The basement of the window (or apron) refers to a wall panel between the floor and the support of an opening, as well as between the horizontal jamb liners. This part of the wall carries the woodwork, and is often thinner and lighter than the façade wall. This element is invisible from the outside, but can be indicated on the façade by panel work or a slight projection of a moulding.

The transom, in woodwork, refers to a sash superimposed to the main opening element, whether mobile or not, with or without windows, it is separated with a horizontal bar (a transom bar).

The oculus is a round window (when there is woodwork), or aperture (when there is no closing device). In a dormer window it is called a bull's-eye.

1.3 Façade terminology (follow) •

The Mullioned window is an opening, divided vertically by a mullion device, a narrow fixed woodwork or masonry. It is often re-divided horizontally with the same material, it is then called a casement window. (the mullion and horizontal element create a cross shape).

The Pediment is a low-pitched triangular head or cap, triangle formed by sloping roof and horizontal cornice, shaped with a moulded frame (cornice moulding: drip and rail). Found on the front or centre of façade elements, above openings: doors or windows.

Broken pediments, are pediments that are interrupted before the tip of the triangle. Other variations of the pediments are interrupted in the centre of the horizontal cornice. To make an arched pediment, one replaces the two sides of the triangle with a single arch.

The balustrade is made of a base, and a line of balusters crowned with a continuous rail. It can either be a balustrade used for person security or as a decorative element of the entablature.

5


FACADE VOCABULARY - Renderings

In the French tradition, outstanding civil architecture uses noble materials: a variety of stones and marbles. This lavish and monumental architecture constituted a model for a wide range of constructions, from common civil buildings to modest constructions. Rendering plays a major role as a substitute for stone.

A first category of rendering can either: - look like stone, imitating its aspects faithfully, even to the point of texture imitation, - reproduce the patterns of its elements -outlining courses, mouldings, angle stones. In these two cases there is an explicit and obvious reference to stone architecture. This reference can go from hyper realistic to a more discrete outline.

FACADE VOCABULARY – Renderings (2)

A second category of rendering no longer refers to stone construction models and becomes a fully expressed façade material. Rendering can be a simple coating used for technical reasons, on storage annexes or buildings where decor is not an issue for the owner. But rendering can also be used, almost always in urban environment, as a means to display a more refined architecture. In this case, rendering is used in a design spirit, to reshape the façade, displaying the construction techniques of a building, exploiting a more or less elaborate decorative art. This design — which calls upon drawing, textures, and colour — refers to specific construction elements (loadbearing constituents, openings) and outlines the composition of a building: patterns, divisions and proportions.

Observing the renderings of the building, as well as the way they constitute or enhance profiles and mouldings, will bring forth the architectural intentions of the builder. Contrary wise, a building which has lost its rendering seems deprived of identity, stripped from any signs of its civil role.

6


2 Architectural composition • Partition is meaningful • Elaborated yet modest, hierarchically organised • Partly, totally regular • Totally irregular

7


3

Materials, textures and technologies

• Wall structures and wall facings: stone, bricks, earth, plasters, limewashes, wood

4 Colours studies and planning The menu and the recipe • From the color plan – Limits of specification

• To the ad hoc, tailor-made study – Observation – Fragment taking – Sample making, palette of textures – Recipe writing

8


Color to be chosen in bright or pastel palette … decoration and in relief elements are to be painted choosing in stone tone palette

RENDERING • Finishing coat • Agregate • Dosing • Finishing tool • Technique • Aspect • Color • Recommendations • Difficulties • remarks

PAINTING • Description • Technique • Composition • Color • Stabilization

9


Bush hammered stone

Diagnosis and intervention on faรงades II 1. Intervening on a faรงade project 2. Pathology, diagnosis and specifications 3. Practical exercice case study

10


FAÇADE DATA SHEET

Practical exercice case study • What do you observe on this picture and its detail? • List and describe succinctly all the solutions that could be proposed for a good presentation of this façade?

11


Introduction to façade pre-diagnosis -

A preliminary diagnosis: to make a first evaluation of the condition of the building and defining the various fields and tasks that could be involved in the project, during this first visit.

Note : a general principle to have in mind : • No prescription should be done without a good understanding of the causes and origins of the decay

Twelve rules for the owners, for efficient maintenance 1 Maintain the roofing in good condition 2 Clean obstructed gutters and repair all cracks 3 Fill the small cracks and the opened pointing 4 Protect wooden constructions against humidity 5 Paint all iron components regularly 6 Protect the building against all damaging animals 7 Avoid all mosses and plants 8 Aerate all the rooms 9 Control regularly all technical installations 10 Have the thunderstorm protection inspected every year 11 Avoid extensive use of the building 12 Keep all rooms and spaces easily accessible

12


RehabiMed training course:

REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE 7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia

DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FAÇADES THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

Athina Papadopoulou architect-conservator

• Introduction-Bi-communal projects • Restoration of façades in urban regeneration • Development Schemes and other public actions which involve restoration of façades • Diagnosis and Intervention on Façades in Nicosia • NMP Interventions – The Philosophy • NMP Interventions – The Process • Three Case Studies RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

1


Bi-Communal Projects Building bridges between the two communities • 1978: Agreement for the preparation of a common sewerage system

Finding ways of collaboration in order to resolve the problems of the divided city

• 1979: Agreement for the preparation of a common master plan for the city

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

The Nicosia Master Plan Team 1981: A bi-communal multidisciplinary team of national and international experts was formed in order to prepare a physical Master Plan for Nicosia

Aim: • To improve the present and future living conditions of all the inhabitants of Nicosia Study Area

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

2


A DIVIDED CAPITAL Major urban issues: • The division of the town into two separate urban parts • The abandonment of the city’s core adjoining the buffer zone • The extensive urban sprawl towards the outskirts

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

The Nicosia Master Plan A FLEXIBLE PLAN ADAPTABLE TO CHANGING CIRCUMSTANCES

First phase :1981-’84 • Formulation of a general planning strategy for Greater Nicosia

Second phase: 1985 • Preparation of a detailed operational plan for the City Centre

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

3


THE HISTORIC CENTRE Third phase: • The walled city constitutes a common heritage for all the communities of Nicosia • The historic centre is considered by the NMP team as the most important and precious part of the city • For many years this area is subject to physical decay and socio-economic decline Revision • Through continued dialogue and with the assistance of planning experts, the NMP team is currently revising the original Plan in light of the developments over the last twenty years, the needs of the city’s contemporary users and the challenges posed by future development. The NMP ‘’New Vision’’ initiative will define new short and long-term initiatives that will bolster the city’s development as a centre of economic activity based on Nicosia’s rich cultural heritage.

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

REHABILITATION POLICY Preservation and rehabilitation as a multi-dimensional process Objectives: • •

Protection of the architectural heritage Development and traffic management in harmony with the scale of the historic centre Rehabilitation of old residential neighbourhoods and provision of community facilities Revitalisation of the commercial core and increase of employment opportunities

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

4


Architectural Objectives

• Inventory of Architectural heritage • Preservation and conservation of individual buildings and groups of buildings, with distinct historical, architectural and environmental qualities

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

Restoration of façades in urban regeneration • Urban regeneration is a multifaceted field of work which should deal with and resolve, economic, social, planning, architectural, conservation and heritage issues in order to be successful. • The restoration of façades is only one of the tools to be used in this context. • Restoring façades: - will provide the upgrading and enhancement of the physical environment at streetscape level - can save important architectural features - may raise consciousness of inhabitants about maintaining the quality of the built environment

• The restoration of façades will not magically revitalize an area unless used together with other regeneration actions to tackle economic and social problems. RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

5


Development Schemes and other public actions which involve restoration of façades in Nicosia • Restoration of façades implemented by the Nicosia Master Plan funded by the Government and foreign donors. •

Economic incentives for shop-keepers in the walled city from the District Office of Nicosia. £5.000 (€8.600) per shop façade.

NMP office facilitates District Office scheme by approving proposals and conducting on site supervision minimizing time otherwise required for planning permission.

NMP publication of illustrated guidelines for façade restoration addressed to property owners (funded by European Union through UNDP/ UNOPS-PFF).

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

Diagnosis and Intervention on Façades in Nicosia •

Priority projects specified within the NMP objectives for urban rehabilitation of the walled city. Areas of façade restoration determined according to – Architectural significance and degree of degradation – Creating links between completed or proposed rehabilitation projects – Availability of access to properties

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

6


NMP Interventions – the Philosophy •

Safeguarding the authenticity of each façade

Restoration of original elements to the degree possible

Respect to historic phases

Use of compatible and reversible materials and methods

Accommodation of contemporary utilitarian needs such as public utility systems

Public participation for the development of the proposal

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

NMP Interventions – the Process •

Historic research conducted

Documentation and diagnosis of architectural and structural condition

Research on materials carried out if necessary

Coordination with public utility authorities Consultation with property owners Proposal of interventions developed, drawings and specifications and bills of quantities produced Public tender procedure carried out for private contractors Implementation and site supervision

• •

• •

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

7


Three Case Studies 1.

Restoration of the façades of 18 residences in Archbishop Filotheou Street.

2.

Improvement of building facades and shop windows in Onasagorou and Phaneromeni Streets.

3.

Rehabilitation of Old Nicosia : The Phaneromeni Area, Phase I.

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

1. Restoration of the facades of 18 residences in Archbishop Filotheou Street • • • • • • •

Duration of project: November 2000November 2001 Two construction contracts, north and south side of street Primarily ground floor residences Public utilities remained above ground Permission for interventions from owners and tenants obtained Tender procedures and award to two private contractors Funding from USAID through UNDP/UNOPS-Bi-communal Development Programme

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

8


RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

9


2. Improvement of building facades and shop windows in Onasagorou and Phaneromeni Streets. •Project implemented in 2004 •District Office of Nicosia economic incentives scheme for restoration of façades- £150.000,00 (€260.000,00) available / 30 shop owners participated •Permission for interventions from owners and tenants obtained •Proposal and implementation by NMP following tender procedures for private contractor •Partial underground placement of public utility infrastructure

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

10


3. Rehabilitation of Old Nicosia : The Phaneromeni Area, Phase I. •

Project implemented during June 2003-June 2004

Three construction contracts, two for façade restoration and one for redesign of roads and public utilities infrastructure-total cost £850.000,00 (€1.500.000,00)

• •

Permission for interventions from owners and tenants obtained

Proposal and implementation by NMP following tender procedures for private contractor

Funding from European Union through UNDP/UNOPS-Partnership for the Future

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

11


RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

12


RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

13


Restoring faรงades will remain skindeep if it is not part of a greater network of regeneration actions working towards the sustainable revitalization of the city.

RehabiMed training course: REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE,7 -14 November 2005, Nicosia DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTION ON URBAN FACADES - THE NICOSIA EXAMPLE

NICOSIA MASTER PLAN

14


Store fronts

How to observe • • • • • •

Type Architectural composition, style, period Materials, colors Sun protection, security Signs (type, position, lettering) Lighting

1


3 categories of shop windows • Door type (or window type) From 0,80 m to 1,80 m wide • Portico type, (flat or arch) ≥ 1,80 m wide

• Applied, added on type ( wood, marble, glass, metal) Projecting box covering structural elements (lintels, jambs)

2


3


4


String course like On the transom On the door, panels Position of the shade Under the string course Top of the transom

Flag sign High or low position

5


6


1


GENERAL PRACTICE DECISION TO TAKE ACTION

THE WORK

THE REHABIMED PROPOSAL DECISION TO TAKE ACTION

I. KNOWLEDGE

II. REFLECTION AND THE PROJECT

III. THE WORK

IV. LIFESPAN

2


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings

1 PRELIMINARIES

3 DIAGNOSIS (SYNTHESIS)

4

5 PROJECT

6

7

REHABILITATION

MAINTENANCE

IV. LIFESPAN

REFLECTION AND DECISIONMAKING

III. THE WORK

(building and users)

I. KNOWLEDGE

II. REFLECTION AND THE PROJECT

2 MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES (ANALYSIS)

3


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings Good state, without new needs

1

go to

7

= program maintenance plan

PRELIMINARIES

Good state, with new needs

MAINTENANCE

= extend studies

Decision to take action / Interview with the client

Preliminary diagnosis Visual inspection of building

Preliminary diagnosis report

Habitability problems = extend studies

Conservation problems (obsolete) Identification of users

= extend studies

Big value for the community (listed)

(building and users)

I. KNOWLEDGE

Start participate process

Legal framework of building and users

= extend studies

Serious problems of habitability (overcrowding, fire security) = extend studies Serious problems of structure

go to

2 MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES (ANALYSIS)

= evacuation and extend studies

4


5


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings

2

Social aspects

MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES (ANALYSIS)

Historical aspects

Socioeconomical approach

Study of documentary sources

Anthropological approach

Archaeological method

go to

3 DIAGNOSIS (SYNTHESIS)

Oral history

(building and users)

I. KNOWLEDGE

Establishing of provisional hypotheses

Programme of multidisciplinary studies

Architectural aspects

Construction aspects

Graphic survey

Construction system

Integration in the place

Degradation phenomena

Typological analysis

Structural and fire security

Spatial analysis

Comfort parameters

Colour and decoration study

Environmental parameters

Legal and urbanistic framework

Infrastructure connectivity

6


7


8


9


10


11


12


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings return to

3

2

DIAGNOSIS (SYNTHESIS)

II. REFLECTION AND THE PROJECT

MULTIDISCIPLINARY STUDIES (ANALYSIS)

Critical evaluation of the studies

Map of values (historical, artistic...)

Confirmation of hypotheses

Writing a report Building ’s composition

Carried out studies description Justification of building values

Map of deficits (social, features, lesions...)

Description of deficits

Diagnosis Map of former and/or existing uses Recommendations

13


14


15


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings Decisionmaking

4

Rehabilitate the faรงade and/or the roof

REFLECTION AND DECISIONMAKING

II. REFLECTION AND THE PROJECT

Feasibility

Program maintenance plan

go to

7 MAINTENANCE

Improve basic habitability

Confirmation of criteria

Improve energetic performance and comfort Improve environmental performance

Transformability map (values + deficits + existents uses)

Improve basic equipment and supplies Maximal conservation

Programme of new uses

Extensions, change of use

Structural consolidation Evaluation of regulatory factors

Maximal transformation

Seismic consolidation

Fire prevention

go to

5 PROJECT

Integral rehabilitation

16


17


18


19


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings

5 PROJECT

Outline proposals

Project

II. REFLECTION AND THE PROJECT

Technical parameters

Documentation

Planning alternatives

Incorporation of the ideas of the participate process

Agreement with the client

Local construction knowledge

Working Drawings

Visibility of the intervention

Production information

Technological compatibility

Bill of quantities

Modern equipment integration

Budget

Sustainability

Technical specification

Maintainability

Health and safety measures

20


21


22


23


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings

6 REHABILITATION

Tender action

Obtaining the building permit

Carrying out the work Follow-up

Handover of the work Organisation

Choice of the builder Ongoing revision of the project

Programming of works

Effectiveness of the construction solutions

Building protections

Tenders submission

Building contract

III. THE WORK

Workers formation

Specialised enterprises contract

Evaluation new discoveries

- from the elements - from the rehabilitation work itself

Coordinate the safety of works

Materials reuse, waste control...

As built

Entry of several trades

24


25


26


27


RehabiMed Guide for the rehabilitation of traditional buildings go to

7

1

MAINTENANCE

PRELIMINARIES

Choice of the model of maintenance Preventive maintenance

The ‘identity card’ Building informations Maintenance work according to a timeframe

As built

Use recommendations

Cleaning

Entretien correctif

IV. LIFESPAN

Maintenance timeframe Publicizing the building's values among the community

Cleaning

Repairs

Inspections

Renovation

The building needs new rehabilitation

Inspections

Repairs Reprogramme the timeframe Renovation

28


29


30


Presentations for façade analysis and project • Suppose you speak to representative of the city, or to professionals, or even to private owners of the house • You have to explain and communicate – the nature, quality, value… of the house – The good / bad condition of the building – The improvement to be carried out

• You have a maximum of 8 minutes to present

• It is not the presentation of the datasheet you have filled in • It is an argument of what has to be done and why

1


Issues to be dealt with (1 or 2 speakers) 1. An explanation of today’s situation – – –

Architecture (composition, quality…) Building technique(s) Alterations and physical conditions Î 3 to 4 minutes

2. A description of your recommendation – –

Architecture (conservation, transformation…) Technical choices and measures to be taken, (in general and detail of aspect) Î 4 to 5 minutes

2


Diagnosis and intervention on façades Two houses in SOLONOS STREET Nicosia – Cyprus

Lebanon

Presented by: Ruba Salim Iyad Issa Ziad Abi Karam Antonios El Kartabany

Palestine Palestine

Lebanon

RehabiMed Seminar, Cyprus November 2005

Location

This building is a 19th -20th century vernacular,2 story house. It is one of a series of residential buildings that agglomerated in an area with many built churches.

1


Access:

Similar architectural elemets:

2


3


Interior:

Plaster Disorders

4


Hewn Stone Disorders

Wood Disorders:

5


Iron Disorders:

6


RehabiMed 10 Nov 2005

House 50 at the Solonos Street /Nicosia Description, Assessment and Recommendations

Bassem MOUAD – Essam Latif – Fandi Waked – Marianne Safai – Nessreen Tourky – Omar al-Ghul

Nature and Values • The object of this presentation is a residential building that stands on the Solonos street. • Built in 1895, the house has a special historical value. This is enhanced by its architectural values, since it reflects the style of the traditional building in Nicosia at the end of the 19th century.

1


Nature and Value • The importance of the building is manifested furthermore by its being a part of the urban fabric of that part of Nicosia.

Nature and Value

Unity

AxisŮ?

Third Divide

Symmetry

2


Nature and Value

Current situation

Building Technique 1.The Walls • Built with a load bearing system. • Covered with white plaster and water-based paint.

3


Building Technique 2.Openings • Yellow lime-stone was used to provide a framework for the openings.

Building Technique 3.The roof • Constructed with wooden Truss beams covered with rounded tiles.

4


Building Technique 4.The Balcony • Consists of wooden frame, and supported by an Iron structure.

Alternations 1.Wood • Pealing lead to deformation and increase in volume.

5


Alternations 2.Metal • Weathering and humidity cause oxidization and deformation. • Zink of water pipes was deformed due to loss of parts of the pipes.

Alternations 3.Stone • Dirt accumulated in pores of the stone and discoloured it. • The nature of the stone and the weathering caused its degradation.

6


Alternations 4.Plaster • The lower part of the plaster was secondarily covered with a cement layer to the height of ca. one meter. • The plaster exhibits cracks on several places.

Recommendations • Several structural and architectural elements need to be replaced: • The plaster needs to repaired/replaced. • The walls should be repainted by using the same material and colour. • The stone should be restored to its original physical state. • Removal of the corrosion and paint from the metal elements and repainting it. • Replacement of the drainage pipes. • Replacement of the lost wooden parts, repair the decayed ones, and conservation of well preserved parts.

7


Recommendation

8


1


2


3


4


5


Private house Platon street Nicosia, Cyprus

RehabiMed – 7-14 November, Nicosia. Cyprus.

1


General description Traditional urban typology with an adjacent garden Urban fabric under a process of historical transformation and rehabilitation

The architectural characteristics 2 floors building

The central axe of the entrance is stressed by a kiosk above the entrance.

The building had few transformations along history.

It is assumed that the kiosk is an Ottoman element suggesting that the earliest phase of the building could be dated in that period.

2


The balconies – reinforced concrete – are from a relatively later period - international style

2 kiosk

3 Balconies

1

3


Techniques and materials

Traditional techniques in combination with contemporary in the additions (balconies in reinforced concrete)

Traditional Materials: rough stone and ashlar sand stone for the elements Mortar for joints based on lime,

Renderings: lime and gypsum plaster, recently cement for the deteriorated base

Wood and iron: wooden shutters of two types with iron accessories and window rods. Ironwork on the railings and under lintel of the main door Kiosk made of wood frame wall (dolma or bagdati) and plastered on later wooden cantilevers

Wooden overhang (caisson) Zinc gutters and drainpipes

4


Neglected infrastructure

Supportive elements altered and damaged

Shutters damaged Renderings partly disorganized Ashlar stones partly damaged Base cemented

Additional inappropriate elements

Main entrance replaced Ashlar stones cemented

5


Cracks on renderings

Visual Air condition infrastructure

Roof overhang damaged and unpainted Kiosk structure in bad condition

6


Alterations of shutters, balcony additions

7


8


9


10


11


12


13


14


15


General recommendations and proposals STRATEGY A (conservative): The keep the historical spirit of the building

To expose the different periods of the organic process and the different techniques:

By using the same techniques and by taking care of the elements of the visual communication:

Geometry – form, proportion, scale Materials Colors Texture

Detailed recommendations and proposals According the analysis there are few detailed recommendations:

16


To create internal hidden infrastructure

To renew the supportive elements

To renew shutters To renew renderings To treat/replace Ashlar stones Base cemented

17


To remove inappropriate elements

To restore the entrance door To expose the Ashlar stones

To repair the Cracks, to create a new plaster to paint all the building

To remove the Air condition infrastructure

18


To repair and paint the overhang To strengthen Kiosk structure

To renew the shutters and balcony additions

19


Other actions like: cleaning, painting etc.

General recommendations and proposals STRATEGY B: The keep the historical spirit of the building

BUT To stress and to bring into extreme the differences between the periods of the organic process and the different techniques:

By using the same techniques and by using the elements of visual communication in order to stress the different techniques along history: Geometry – form, proportion, scale Materials Colors Texture

20


Wood

2

3 Reinforced concrete

1

21


RehabiMed training course. REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE Lefkosia, Cyprus from 7 to 14 November 2005

Diagnosis and interventions on faรงades.

Aristidou & Eschiliou St., Nicosia, Cyprus

1


N

1st Floor Plan

N

Ground floor plan

Uses

Incompatibility between facades.

Neo-classical elements.

Simple and unpretentious.

North facade

Reflection of the owner’s wealth.

Kiosk (typical ottoman influence).

West (main) facade

Blind surface.

South facade

N

2


North facade

North faรงade (detail)

3


North faรงade (entrance)

South facade

4


5


West (main) facade

6


West (main) facade

Hewn stone faรงade added on top of the original.

7


Hewn stone faรงade added on top of the original.

Wood framed kiosk with wooden corbels.

Cement floored balcony with newer corbels.

8


Relieving arches of previous phase appear on the added stone faรงade.

Ground level stores.

9


Shops interiors (completely altered).

10


(Desperately) asking neighbors for information...

Try again.

When ?!?

Around 1925 1965+1890!@#%=1420!!!

???

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12


1


2


3


4


5


6


7


RehabiMed

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

1

Lefkara Practical exercice

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

2

1


Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14

Lefkara, Cyprus – Nov. 2005 – Map 4

November 2005

3

OBJECTIVE To draft a regulation/recommendation proposal for the future Presentation through a list of : • (good) results to be achieved (and how) • Things to be avoided, suppressed, forbiden…

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

4

2


METHODOLOGICAL STEPS (for each theme) 1 – Map of heritage values (sequences, variety, artefacts, authenticity…) 2 – Map of deficits (features, alterations, destructions, social aspects…) 3 – Transformability map (overlaying and analysis of the first two maps) 4 – Recommendations in terms of regulation

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

5

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

6

3


5 THEMES, 5 GROUPS (4 to 5 people) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Faรงades : on the pilot sequence (details) Faรงades : on the surrounding neighbourhood area (larger scale) Store fronts, Shop fronts Paving, flooring, Church square Street furniture, cable and wire external installations, street signs

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

7

GROUP 1 : Faรงades : on the pilot sequence (details) MAP 1

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

8

4


Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14

Lefkara, Cyprus – Nov. 2005 – Map 1

November 2005

9

GROUP 3 : Store fronts, Shop fronts MAP 2

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

10

5


Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14

Lefkara, Cyprus – Nov. 2005 – Map 2

November 2005

11

GROUP 2 : Façades : on the surrounding neighbourhood area (larger scale) GROUP 4 : Paving, flooring, Church square GROUP 5 : Street furniture, cable and wire external installations, street signs MAP 3

Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14 November 2005

12

6


Training in Cyprus, 7 - 14

Lefkara, Cyprus – Nov. 2005 – Map 3

November 2005

13

7


Faรงades of Pano Lefkara

Lefkara, Cyprus 14 November 2005

Streets


Balconies


Doors


Windows

Typologies


Colors and renderings

Cornice



Lefkara project

Facades

A

D

B C

E


Recommendations The strategic vision

To find and to characterize the identity of each focal space – A, B, C, D, E

To find and to characterize the identity of each linear space between the focal points

A

D

B C

E


A

D

B C

E

A

D

B C

E








RehabiMed 14 Nov 2005

Group 4 Squares and Pavements Rehabilitation Proposals

Bassem MOUAD – Fandi Waked – Marianne Safai – Nessreen Tourky – Omar al-Ghul

Task • Rehabilitation proposals for squares and pavements.


Squares and allais

Squares


Squares

Squares


Squares • Providing the squares with the needed: • Infrastructure: – Canalisation and sewage systems and gutters, which would drive rain water away from the structures surrounding the square. – Removal of the asphalt parts of the square.

Pavements & allais


Pavements & allais

Pavements & allais


Recommendations

Recommendations


Recommendations

Recommendations •

The square can be used as an point, where people can meet and interact, in connection with the ceremonies held at the Church, or independent from that. • For this purpose the square can be furnished with the following: • Urban furniture: Movable green containers direct and indirect lighting garbage containers The erecting of a fountain or some other similar structure that express the identity of Lefkara would enhance the attraction of the square. Purchase of the neglected piece of land adjacent of the square from the East and integration of it in the square.


REHABILITATION OF THE SITE OF LEFKARA GROUP no:5 ZIAD -LEBANON ANTONIOS - LEBANON IYAD -PALESTINE ISSAM- EGYPT

STREET FURNITURE

STREET FURNITURE ELEMENTS: • • • • • • • • • •

BENCHES LIGHTING GARBAGE & TRASH CANS SIGNALS-TRAFFIC SIGNS: MAPS – STREET/HOUSES no and names PLANTERS WATER DRAINAGE & SPOUTS WATER & ELECTRICITY COUNTERS WATER TANKS SPRINGS AND OVENS POST


Plan showing the difference between the paved and asphalted areas

Benches:


Lighting:

Garbage and Trash Cans


Signals

Waterelectricity counters And water spouts


Tanks

Springs and Ovens:


Planters


Movable street furniture

Cats:


RehabiMed training course. REHABILITATION OF THE URBAN LANDSCAPE Lefkosia, Cyprus from 7 to 14 November 2005

Diagnosis and interventions on faรงades.

Aristidou & Eschiliou St., Nicosia, Cyprus

1


N

1st Floor Plan

N

Ground floor plan

Uses

Incompatibility between facades.

Neo-classical elements.

Simple and unpretentious.

North facade

Reflection of the owner’s wealth.

Kiosk (typical ottoman influence).

West (main) facade

Blind surface.

South facade

N

2


North facade

North faรงade (detail)

3


North faรงade (entrance)

South facade

4


5


West (main) facade

6


West (main) facade

Hewn stone faรงade added on top of the original.

7


Hewn stone faรงade added on top of the original.

Wood framed kiosk with wooden corbels.

Cement floored balcony with newer corbels.

8


Relieving arches of previous phase appear on the added stone faรงade.

Ground level stores.

9


Shops interiors (completely altered).

10


(Desperately) asking neighbors for information...

Try again.

When ?!?

Around 1925 1965+1890!@#%=1420!!!

???

11


12


This programme is financed by the European Union

Ministry of Communications and Works Department of Antiquities of Cyprus

E C O L E D’AVIGNON