Samsung Network Security Solution provides the smartest possible way for your businesses
SAMSUNG TECHWIN AMERICA Inc.
100 Challenger Rd. Suite 700 Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660 Toll Free : +1-877-213-1222 Direct : +1-201-325-6920 Fax : +1-201-373-0124 www.samsung-security.com
SAMSUNG TECHWIN EUROPE LTD.
Samsung House, 1000 Hillswood Drive, Hillswood Business Park Chertsey, Surrey, UNITED KINGDOM KT16 OPS Tel : +44-1932-45-5300 Fax : +44-1932-45-5325 www.samsungsecurity.co.uk
TIANJIN SAMSUNG TECHWIN OPTO-ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.
No.11 Wei 6 Street. Micro-Electronic Industrial Park Jingang Road, Tianjin, P.R. CHINA 300385 Tel : +86-22-23887788 Fax : +86-22-23887788 www.samsungcctv.cn
2 Megapixel 20X Network PTZ Camera
SNP - 6200/6200H • Max. 2 Megapixel resolution • 16 : 9 Full HD (1080p) resolution support • Built-in 20x optical zoom lens (4.45 ~89 mm) • H.264 & MJPEG dual codec • Smart Codec ( ROI encoding) • Bi-directional audio • Built-in SD memory slot • IP66 ( SNP- 6200H )
Full HD in 20X
500°/sec High Speed Pan / Tilt The 500° per second high-speed pan/tilt in the SNP-6200(H) allows instant monitoring of both large and selected area.
255 preset & Group Function SNP-6200(H) can be preset up to 255 places for automatic monitoring. Its group function allows to set a sequence monitoring among preset points.
preset1 preset 2 preset 3 preset 4
preset5 preset 6
IP66 / IK66 (SNP-6200H)
SNP-6200(H) provides a powerful 20x HD optical zoom performance, so that user can view the scene in much greater clarity. While in playback the digital zoom will reveal still more detail when compared with a conventional SD zoom.
SAMSUNG TECHWIN CO., LTD. 701, Sampyeong-dong, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do Korea 463-400 Tel : +82-70-7147-8741~8749, 8752~8760 Fax : +82-31-8018-3745
SNP-6200H supports perfect operation even in the extreme environment like very low or high temperature condition, raining or very high humidity condition. Also it’s vandal-resistant casing can protect against external impact perfectly. IP66
SHS-5230 Digital Door Lock
SHN-8327 Home Network
Samsung Smart Home benefits your quality life. Consider how convenience can be smarter with security, which your family needs most. Leave your home to the care of Samsung.
Homepage : www.samsungsns.com E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org, Sales : Chris,Kang (Tel : +82-2-2225-6594)
Digital Door Lock
Smart Cities Move Beyond
Concept to Reality 38
The smart city is a sexy concept, combining high-tech networking with feel-good conservation. As some 4 billion people live in cities, it is imperative that city dwellers have access to municipal resources and services.
46 S mart Cities Go Green
32 Image Sharpening in Real Life BUSINESS TALK
84 Social Media in Security:
Dream Come True or Living Nightmare? SHOW REVIEW
114 Secutech 2012 Celebrates 15th
Anniversary With Total Security and Protection 118 Secutech India 2012
India Booms With Buzz The buzzing Indian security market is reminiscent of the dotcom boom that created quite a hustle and opened a whole new world of fresh prospects in India. Similarly, security is now the new buzzword in the market.
MAY / JUN 2012
Courtesy of IP Video:
Tough Love for Open-Platform VMS Video management software (VMS) is exactly that â€” a software that manages a video surveillance system. While this used to mean monitoring the video streams from various cameras, open-platform VMS is gaining momentum, riding on the coattails of the IP revolution and catering to the needs of increasingly complicated and interconnected security systems.
70 Verticalization: VMS Reaches For End Users 76 Mapping VMS Uptake in Different Regions 78 Product Showcase
14 18 20 20
In this three-part feature,a&s presents some key findings and interesting developments from Secutech International 2012 in Taipei.
Key Findings from Secutech International 2012:
Complete IP and HD Solutions Coming to Fruition 98 States of IP, HD-SDI and Cloud 106 Secutech International 2012: A Korean Perspective
MAY / JUN 2012
Contents Editorâ€™s Note Corporate News Market Observer
28 122 124 130
Products of the Month Show Calendar New Products Companies in This Issue
a&s Asia, published by Messe Frankfurt New Era Business Media Ltd., is a bimonthly professional publication for channel players in the regional electronic security industry. It caters to importers, distributors, OEM/ODM searchers, system integrators and other product purchasers to get updates on product sources and developments in CCTV, Digital Surveillance, Access Control,
IP READY FOR PRIME TIME
Biometrics, Intrusion Alarm, Intercom/Video Doorphone, Home Automation and other fields relevant to electronic security.
ISSN 1997-6259 中華郵政台北雜字第1570號 執照登記為雜誌交寄
Two years ago when IP topics were brought up, ensuing discussions usually revolved around cost and integration impossibilities. That day is long gone, judging from this year’s trade show observations and interview findings at ISC West in Las Vegas and Secutech International in Taipei. For starters, standardization has made tremendous strides. ONVIF 1.0/2.0 configurations are now commonplace on OSDs in most network cameras, making equipment identification and pinning a breeze. Advanced features like video analytics and access control can be set up and integrated with other subsystems, with just a few mouse clicks and key strokes. Firmware and software interfaces are much easier to navigate and manage, for installers and operators alike. Simplicity is now a more feasible reality, in both hardware and software, in real-life security.
Parson Lee Publisher & Managing Director Joseph Lee General Manager John Shih General Manager Regina Tsai General Manager Editorial
General Press Hayden Hsu Editor in Chief Alf Chang Senior Consultant Gary Tang Reporter Tevin Wang Reporter Jessica Kao Reporter Sally Tsui Coordinator
email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Gaven Lee Mao Chang Arthur Wu
Executive Designer Designer Designer
Circulation & Subscription
Collins Yuan Nadia Lee
Group Manager Coordinator
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Cost concerns have also been addressed significantly, thanks to ever-evolving technical breakthroughs and solution providers. Easier to set up and use, high-quality IP-based systems and products are shipping in greater quantities, further driving down costs of chipsets, image sensors, network modules, form factors and finished products. Training courses and hands-on seminars/webinars are being offered round-the-clock, by both manufacturers and channel partners, around the world. There are also more alarmmonitoring companies, telcos, ISPs and cable companies offering cloud-based, managed services, rendering security more mobile and user-friendly than ever.
Vivien Hsiu Juihui Lin Alice Yang Chihung Lee
Project Manager Assistant to Managing Director Accounting Manager IT Manager
email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
Web Editor in Chief
Secutech & Events (Overseas)
Sandra Chen Iris Pan Tina Chang
Project Manager Assistant Manager Assistant Manager
email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Secutech & Events (Domestic)
Veronica Chen Group Manager
For integrators and installers reluctant to go on networks, HD-SDI solutions are becoming more mature and complete (and more economical in the second half of 2012), from cameras and transmission to storage and displays. Evidentiary-grade, quality video footages and access audit reports are easily and affordably obtainable. Who knew security technology and personnel could go front and center, instead of being in a dark corner or control room? Our cover story this month focuses on smart cities, dissecting the roles of security systems in making more and more cities worldwide more modern, efficient and green/sustainable in almost all aspects. Product Exploration discusses emerging technology trends in open-platform VMS offerings, highlighting integration and differentiation capabilities. Also in this issue are Special Feature on image-sharpening software tools, Business Talk on social media, Regional Perspective on India, and Industry Report on some very interesting findings and discussions from Secutech 2012. Enjoy!
Hayden Hsu firstname.lastname@example.org
Echo Lin Joanne Wu Kay Yang Audrey Fang Helen Chen Winnie Ho Jessica Lee
Manager Officer Operation Officer Coordinator Coordinator Coordinator Assistant
email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
[Branches & Representatives]
Bobbie Ferraro Carolina Pattuelli Cemre Ilkan Evris Consolos Muris Hadzic Manish Gandhi Tim Shen Y. C. Suh Takashi Komori Nguyen Thu Ha
USA/Canada Europe (Italy) Europe (Turkey) Europe (U.K.) Southeast Europe India China Korea Japan Vietnam
firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com
Messe Frankfurt New Era Business Media Ltd. Taiwan Branch: 2F, No. 8, Lane 360, Sec. 1, Nei-Hu Rd.,Taipei 114, Taiwan Phone/886 2 2659 9080 Fax/886 2 2659 9069 Web site/www.mfnewera.com Messe Frankfurt New Era Business Media Ltd., a company formed by Messe Frankfurt (HK) Ltd. and former A&S Group in 2009, is an integrated media service provider in the security industry. Our service covers magazines, Web sites, events and trade shows. The portfolio of a&s Magazine includes a&s International, a&s International China Best Buys, a&s Asia (above published in English), a&s China, a&s Installer, a&s Taiwan, a&s Solution, Fire & Safety and Info Security (above published in Chinese). a&s Turkiye, a&s Adria, a&s Italy, a&s India, a&s Japan and a&s Vietnam are licensed editions. For changes of address or subscription problems, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org Copyright© 2012 Messe Frankfurt New Era Business Media Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this magazine may be republished, reprinted or redistributed in any forms, including electronic, without written consent from the publisher.
Advertisers are responsible for their own advertisement content. The publisher is not liable for any legal, image, patent or trademark disputes from advertisements or among advertisers. Legal consultant: Julia S.H. Yu, Attorney at Law, First Law & IP Offices
MAY / JUN 2012
CORPORATE NEWS WD Completes Acquisition of Hitachi Global Storage Technologies and Signs Agreement With Toshiba Western Digital (WD) announced that it has completed its acquisition of Viviti Technologies (formerly Hitachi Global Storage Technologies), for US$3.9 billion in cash and 25 million shares of WDC common stock valued at approximately $0.9 billion. Hitachi has the right to designate two individuals to the board of directors of WD. The new WD will operate wi th WD Technologies and HGST as wholly owned subsidiaries. Aggregated revenues of the two companies in 2011 were $15 billion. CEO of WD, John Coyne will head up the new office of the CEO, with Steve Milligan as President,
Tim Leyden as COO and Wolfgang Nickl as CFO. WD has also entered into a definitive agreement wi th Toshiba on Toshiba' s acquisition of a portion of WD's 3.5-inch hard disk drive (HDD) manufacturing equipment and related intellectual property. In return, Toshiba will transfer Toshiba Storage Device (Thailand) to WD. Toshiba Storage Device Thailand is Toshiba's wholly-owned HDD manufacturing subsidiary located in Thailand. Toshiba and WD aim to complete the acquisition and transfer by March after obtaining approval from the relevant authorities.
IMS Research: City Surveillance Others Projects Drive Indian Surveillance Market Growth
SaaS 1.3 Million
In a recently published market report “The Indian Market for CCTV and Video Surveillance Equipment,” IMS Research, recently acquired by IHS, forecasted that city surveillance will be the fastest growing vertical market in the country over the next five years. Such city surveillance projects have received much media attention due to their size with projects typically involving thousands of cameras. Since the Mumbai terrorist attacks in 2008, city surveillance has become a high priority for India. Video surveillance equipment has been sold for a number of city surveillance projects in recent years, including Bangalore and Kolkata. Many more city surveillance projects are planned for the future. India has 28 states, most with a capital city and a number of other large cities, and video surveillance installations are being planned in many of them. Advanced plans for city surveillance are already in place for some, including Surat and Ahmedabad. A large project in Mumbai has been delayed many times, but is now expected to begin in late 2012. Jon Cropley, Principal Analyst from IMS Research said , “Planned city surveillance projects have received lots of press coverage due to their size. Five thousand cameras are planned for Mumbai alone. However, suppliers should not overlook the fact that many other verticals will grow quickly. For example, video City Surveillance in India surveillance revenues for Indian airports are forecast to almost quadruple between 2011 and 2016.” Fastest Growing Vertical Unlike the more developed over Next 5 Years video surveillance equipment markets of Europe and the U.S., India was far less impacted by the recent economic downturn. With a growth rate averaging more than 20 percent over the next five years, India will continue to offer suppliers solid growth opportuSource: IMS Research nities.
1.8 Million in 2011
MAY / JUN 2012
Dahua Tailors ATM DVRs for a $14.7 Billion Commercial Bank in Indonesia One of the largest commercial banks in Jakarta, $4.5 Billion Indonesia specializes in financial services, such as insurance, credit cards and checking/saving accounts. The bank currently owns more than 875 domestic branch offices and more than 6,300 ATM locations. The rise and development of ATMs brings convenience and 24/7 service for clientele. However, ATM-based crimes have also increased, which led to requests for a surveillance system. In a video surveillance system, in addition to the high quality cameras, high quality DVRs are also important. With its confined installation space and 24/7 hour operation, the ATM-monitoring DVRs need to be compact in design and have better ventilation performance with controllable costs. The bank introduced a high number of ATMs out of business expansion and planned to purchase necessary security devices to build a Double-digit surveillance system. Dahua Technology proposed a solution Growth over the whereby four ATM kiosks Coming 3 Yearsare monitored with four cameras and one DVR, which uses two-thirds the amount of equipment in comparison with conventional solutions adopted in other regions and countries. So far, 2,000 units of Dahua DVR have been installed for the bank. The spokesman of bank remarked that they are satisfied with this project and look forward to a further cooperation.
CORPORATE NEWS Hikvision Makes a Big Impact at Pakistani Power Plant When it comes to Pakistan’s Nishat Power Limited power plants, located in the city of Jambar Kalan and their head office in Lahore, one can see that there has been considerable developments in security in recent times. Nishat management took steps to install security at a number of their Pakistani power facilities. Hikvision was brought on board for these installations, both inside the plants and out. Management at Nishat Mills Limited, the parent company of Nishat Power Limited, decided to introduce a comprehensive security system specifically to monitor movement of personnel and outside traffic. To do so, a number of considerations were taken into account: foremost among them, the architectural layout of the
facilities, lighting conditions and the variety of dissimilar working areas. In the later case, the differences extended between employees working outdoors on the top of elevated buildings, to smaller office spaces used for shipping. In order to achieve these security arrangements, Kamran Rashid, CEO of Digital Links, the Pakistani firm contracted for this project, relied upon Hikvision. “The performance of Hikvision at these Nishat plants has had a cascading effect," said Rashid, “From performance to the ability to generate savings, to the excellent customer service, Hikvision has made a very positive impact in these Nishat facilities.”
OthersWorth More ABI Research: RFID Market Than $70 Billion Over Next Five Years
SaaS 1.3 Million
The market for RFID transponders, readers, software and services will generate US$70.5 billion from 2012 to 2017. The market was boosted by a growth of $900 million in 2011 and expected to grow 20 percent year-over-year per annum. Government, retail, transportation and logistics have been identified as the most valuable sectors, accounting for 60 percent of accumulated revenue over the next five years. “To date, the automotive sector has been a strong proponent of RFID, largely for immobilization and keyless entry,” said John Devlin, Group Director of ABI Research. “However, penetration is already high and will be constrained by the slower rise in automotive production volumes. As a result, it will lose status as a leading RFID market due to other established RFID markets with excellent potential for further adoption. Retail in particular is set to experience strong growth; it will become the largest RFID sector in 2015.” Efficiency and improved operational capability are the overriding goals behind this adoption. Retail growth is driven by the proven returns that item level tagging can deliver. RFID will cross over into customer-facing services with NFC for product information and smart marketing. Government is a high-value sector, with strong uptake of contactless/RFID in documents and credentials. However, the drive for increased efficiency in a p p l i c at i o n s s u c h a s a s s e t tracking, fleet management, personnel location and security RFID Market are increasing the acceptance and uptake of RFID solutions. US$70 Billion Transportation and logistics increasingly make use of the ability to accurately track and trace items and goods at item, pallet and container level as service providers look to generate more detailed data for themselves and their From 2012 to 2017 customers. Source: ABI Research
1.8 Million in 2011
MAY / JUN 2012
India's Largest Gas $14.7 Billion Company Installs Vivotek Cameras at 1,000 Stations $4.5 Billion
Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited (BPCL) is a state-controlled oil and gas company headquartered in Mumbai, India. Recently, BPCL embarked on a surveillance project as part of the organization’s initiative to restructure the internal surveillance system. Prior to the structure reform, the old surveillance system was not centralized. Headquarters wanted to gain better understanding of the operations at each branch location in order to improve business and communications between the headquarters and each station. BPCL wanted to use high quality video cameras not only to monitor the customer experience for quality control but to also enhance the level safety for customers and employees. A process of competitive bidding resulted in Vivotek cameras being selected for the project, with systems integrator Livedarshan Double-digit developing the deployment, the typology and the engineering the implementation. Growthaspect overofthe According to Vivek Bagri, CEO of Livedarshan, Coming 3 Years one of the factors that led BPCL to choose Vivotek for this large-scale project was the company's favorable previous experience with Vivotek. For the first phase of the deployment, Livedershan installed around 60 cameras for BPCL. Thus far, more than 100 BPCL stations have been outfitted with Vivotek cameras. BPCL is hoping to finish deployment of all 5,000 cameras in 1,000 BPCL stations by the end of this year.
CORPORATE NEWS HID Global Access Control Solutions Increase Security at Major Power Plant in China HID Global announced that the company's network access control solutions and contactless readers have been deployed at the Fuxi power plant in China's Sichuan province. The new system provides increased security that ensures the operational safety of production and facility areas, offers real-time monitoring at the central station and enables security administrators to remotely close facility doors for improved safety management. HID Global's network access controllers, contactless readers and ID cards were installed at the 141-acre power plant, enabling administrators to restrict staff access levels and entry times based on job titles and critical entry zones, such as the main production plant, engine room, central station and chemical waste areas. With the new system, access to the chemical waste area is restricted to authorized
Morpho to Receive Provisional Certification in India for Single Fingerprint Scanners Morpho (Safran Group) is the first company to receive provisional certification in India for its single fingerprint scanners. The provisional certification, granted by India's STQC, confirms that the devices meet the Unique Identification Authority of India's (UIDAI) requirements for reliability, safety and security. Morpho's single fingerprint scanners have successfully passed the tests under the STQC's Biometric Device Certification Scheme, designed to facilitate availability of quality assessed biometric devices to identity verification agencies. The provisional certification covers a compact biometric module, a USB scanner and a device combining a fingerprint scanner and a smartcard reader. These all-in-one compact devices not only capture high quality fingerprint images, but also embed powerful biometric feature extracting and matching algorithms. In addition to being a trusted partner in Aadhaar's enrollment phase, Morpho is also a key solution provider for the multiple biometric verification applications currently being deployed in India.
MAY / JUN 2012
staff, and administrators can now establish access rights to prevent unauthorized entry and ensure occupational safety. Additionally, contactless readers provide data encryption and mutual authentication capabilities, significantly increasing the plant's security. “HID Global's access control system was installed in the first phase of the project, which significantly enhanced the overall security and improved efficiency,” said Fu Bo, Sectional Chief of Fuxi power plant. “By leveraging the advantages of the Web-based, centralized access control system, administrators can now remotely control various entry points, which has substantially reduced patrol deployment time. The system also provides multilayered security to eliminate unauthorized access to the plant.”
Shanghai Diamond Exchange Deploys IndigoVision Management System Shanghai Diamond Exchange (SDE), the only diamond exchange in China, has installed the IndigoVision surveillance system to assure of legal and fair transactions. SDE worked with IndigoVision partner, Shanghai Tuijin Electronics, to identify the ideal monitoring solution for its premises. IndigoVision was chosen because of its full frame rate guarantee, which ensures that nothing is missed. The stability of the system was also a vital factor, due to diamond trading rules on continuous camera coverage of transactions. Mr. Wang with the Security Department of the Shanghai Diamond Exchange said, “Diamond trading rules demand the highest possible level of monitoring and recording facilities. Thank to the state-of-the-art IndigoVision technology, we can be sure tha transactions or incidents are covered at all times.”
Raytec LED Lighting Secures Pakistani Industrial Sites IR and white-light LED lighting technology from Raytec has been deployed at various industrial sites and training institutions in Pakistan as part of a landmark perimeter security upgrade. The lighting schemes were designed and managed by Pakistani integrated security solutions provider Technology Windows Enterprises, Rawalpindi. A large number of white-light LED illuminators were installed at the security perimeter to improve the quality and effectiveness of video surveillance at the sites. The IR illuminators now enable the surveillance systems to produce the highest quality monochrome images at night, at a long range of up to 200m with zero light pollution. The IR and white-light illuminators are connected to external triggers to provide a visible deterrent to potential intruders. As well as delivering better images, the savings offered by Raytec was also a very important factor for the customer. The extremely low power consumption of the Raytec LED illuminators deliver significant energy and running cost savings compared to traditional lighting.
CORPORATE NEWS Assa Abloy Provides Singaporean Hospital With Locking Solutions Located in the heart of Singapore's medical hub, Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital will have state-of-the-art facilities including more than 250 physician suites, 333 patient beds, ample parking lots, outpatient specialty centers and aerial gardens. When the hospital opens, it will set new benchmarks for quality private health care, reinforcing the country's reputation for delivering world-class medical services. By adopting global best-practice standards for excellent patient care as well as
New Zealand Airport Improves Security and Operations With March Networks Solution March Networks announced that Christchurch International Airport in New Zealand has standardized on the company's IP video surveillance solution to support safety and security requirements across its operations. The March Networks video management software and high-definition network cameras have provided a high return in operational efficiencies and the solution is now a critical component of the airport's overall business. Christchurch Airport's surveillance commitment has increased in recent years because of the worldwide focus on transport security. The airport has expanded its coverage from a few dozen to hundreds of cameras, including more than 200 minidome and network PTZ cameras, to gain greater visibility of its terminal, airfield and automated baggage system. Christchurch Airport's security and IT teams engaged in a rigorous evaluation process before selecting the solution, working with certified March Networks provider ECL Security. As a next step, the airport is planning a complete integration with its access control system. It is also assessing the use of video analytics, such as loitering or baggage detection.
MAY / JUN 2012
clinical outcomes, Mount Elizabeth Novena Hospital will meet the continuing demand for quality health care in Singapore and around the world. Assa Abloy in Singapore was chosen to provide the complete locking solution for the hospital, including automatic doors, mechanical locks, architectural hardware and a comprehensive master key system.
Chinese Health Pharmaceutical Selects Axis Management Solution The management of Beijing TongRenTang Health Pharmaceutical wanted to create visualized management for offices and security monitoring after office hours. To achieve that, the project required an reliable and easy to operate integrated digital video security system. This system had to be comprehensive and expandable. The surveillance system needed to monitor key locations such as elevator cars, office areas, elevator lobbies, main exits, meeting rooms, corridors, parking lots and various major stores. Beijing VideoComm, with more than 10 years of research and development experience in visualized management platforms, and has worked with Axis since Axis entered the Chinese market. VideoComm's integrated visualized management platform is an integrated network video monitoring from both Axis and VideoComm and was the model chosen for the Beijing TongRenTang Health Pharmaceutical. A total of over 150 Axis network cameras were connected through Internet cables to the local area network inside the building, with the back-end management platform doing centralized management. Axis network video cameras directly transmit digital video images based on IP networks (LAN/Intranet/Internet). Users can browse high quality real-time monitoring images from any network computer anytime and anywhere. Visualized management is achieved, and system diversity is increased. A brand new monitoring network has been constructed in a simple and flexible manner, with great expansion qualities.
Secutech Vietnam 2012 Caters to Increasing Demand from Local Security and Fire Safety Sectors The fifth edition of Secutech Vietnam will take place from August 22 to 24 at the Saigon Exhibition & Convention Center (SECC), Ho Chi Minh City. Supported by local government associations, Secutech Vietnam is the country's leading security and fire safety trade show. Organized by Messe Frankfurt New Era Business Media and Vietfair, the show is expected to attract 250 booths in 3,000 square meters of exhibition space, showcasing the latest security, fire and safety and lighting products. Commenting on the upcoming show, Parson Lee, MD at Messe Frankfurt New Era Business Media, said that more than 5,000 visitors are expected to attend. “Vietnam is a dynamic market with a huge demand for security equipment and technology,” Lee said. “As a result, local distributors, resellers, system integrators and installers are actively looking for surveillance suppliers and solutions at our one-stop sourcing platform.”
PRODUCTS OF THE MONTH
Panasonic X-Plus Security Lineup Panasonic has been delivering innovative video surveillance solutions worldwide, specifically engineered for professional security applications. Now, Panasonic System Communications APAC provides the X-Plus, a one-stop, end-to-end solution that integrates access control and wireless transmission systems, and is built on its core competencies in video image capturing, recording and processing. One such application comprises of a PTZ dome camera, which would automatically move to a preset location when the X-Plus access control system is triggered by a door access alarm. The system can automatically search and playback video from an NVR to review the source of the alarm trigger. The X-Plus also enhances the capability of Panasonic network cameras by enabling wireless transmission, for applications such as in-vehicle surveillance. Armed with features like H.264 high-profile video compression, image cropping, and variable image quality at specified area (VIQS), the X-Plus wireless camera recording unit can provide PoE for cameras, record video to a built-in solid-state device, and transmit data through Wi-Fi, 5 GHz or 3-G.
• Access control fully integrated with Panasonic video surveillance system • Onboard, ruggedized wireless camera recording unit with PoE and solid-state storage • Wireless transmission system integrated by Panasonic
• Panasonic System Communications (APAC)
Moxa Fanless Rugged IP Camera The VPort 36-1MP is an industrial-grade, box-type, H.264 IP camera that combines HD resolution (1,280 by 720), advanced video analytics and de-mist technology to enhance system efficiency while delivering state-of-the-art video quality. As world’s first rugged IP camera that operates in temperatures ranging from -40 to 75°C without a heater or cooling fan, the VPort 36-1MP is ideal for oil and gas, rolling stock and intelligent transportation (ITS) applications. Key Features The VPort 36-1MP is IP30-rated and provides Level-3 EMI/EMC protection for • Industrial design with -40 to 75°C consistent performance in rainy, dusty and high-EMI environments. IP68-rated for operating temperatures (heater or temper-proof, explosive-proof, outdoor applications, the camera also complies with cooling fan not required) EN50121-4, C1 D2 ATEX Zone 2 and NEMA TS2 standards to ensure reliable perfor• 1/2.7” progressive scan CMOS with HD mance when exposed to extreme shocks/vibrations and high levels of surge/EMI. resolution (maximum 1,280 by 720) With a built-in, removable IR-cut filter and automatic color mode switching, the • De-mist feature (optional) for enhanced images in rainy, foggy and hazy VPort 36-1MP is suitable for both day and night use. Highly tuned region of interest, conditions BLC and WDR functions enable the VPort 36-1MP to produce clear images, • Up to 3 independent video streams (2 and the optional de-mist function ensures the best image H.264/1 M-JPEG) quality in rainy, snowy and hazy environments. • SD storage for event and disconnection Advanced network security functions, such as recording 802.1x and SSL/SSH, are also provided to Supplier prevent unauthorized access or data • Moxa hijacking, a critical feature for many URL surveillance applications. • www.moxa.com
MAY / JUN 2012
Image Sharpening in Real Life
When surveillance video is broadcast on the evening news, it almost always looks grainy and dark. Even if suspects are looking straight at the camera, the image quality may be insufficient for identification. Image enhancement software promises to bring that to an end, with ways to amplify video signals and filter out noise. BY THE EDITORIAL TEAM
an you enhance that?” Turn on the TV and watch the dogged detectives of “CSI: Crime Scene Investigation” crack a case by enhancing a microscopic surveillance image from the reflection of an eyeball. Change the channel to “24,” where facial recognition picks out covert agent Jack Bauer on a crowded New York City street in seconds. No matter how poor the image is, image enhancement magically produces HD images ready for identification. While TV episodes and Hollywood 32 22
MAY / JUN 2012
movies are fiction, what if there really was technology that could clean up bad images? The primary objective is identification, whether it is of people or license plates, to track down suspects. However, security cameras are not always set up for identification purposes. Most people counting applications mount cameras overhead, making it impossible to capture a face. In traffic monitoring, roadside cameras watch for flow; cars are only identified by high-resolution LPR cameras when
stalled at toll stations or exit ramps. Camera placement and objectives will affect whether an image will be usable or not. Even if a face is recorded, it may not lead to an arrest, as in the case of the 2010 Dubai assassination. It may not be possible to make a thumbnail clear as day, but there are real ways to improve images. “We are able to zoom, and we’re able to enhance,” said Joelle Katz, Marketing Manager at Brivo Systems, in a prepared statement. “But don’t count on CSI’s pseudo-scientific
enhancement to be available any time soon.” Traditional government users in federal, military and intelligence agencies benefit most from enhancing security video, but the applications are limitless. “We have folks in academia that use our software for projects they’re working on,” said Benjamin Solhjem, P M o f M o t i o n D S P. “ We h a v e retail customers, such as Target and Wal-Mart, who use image enhancement for loss prevention. There’s a lot of demand for video enhancement in any application that has use for a camera.” While image sharpening technology exists, awareness and demand are limited. “We have never had a request for this, though we
have had requests for some other things that people see on TV shows,” said Bob Mesnik, President of Kintronics, a US distributor.
HOW THINGS WORK
Image enhancement for still images is all about amplifying the image signal. “Enhancement of a still picture can be accomplished using compressed sensing,” Katz said. “It’s a mathematical tool capable of creating high-resolution photos from low-resolution shots. At the very basic level, it works by repeatedly layering colored shapes into the areas where there are missing pixels to achieve what’s called sparsity, a measure of image simplicity.” While compressed sensing is still being researched for radar
MAY / JUN 2012
and medical imaging, noisy and grainy video can be cleaned up with commercially available tools. Adobe PhotoShop and Topaz Enhance tools reduce noise in a number of ways: Spatial noise reduction in each frame, temporal noise reduction between frames and combining both methods in spatial-temporal noise reduction, Katz said. Motion DSP employs spatialtemporal noise reduction algorithms, but cautioned that image enhancement is just a tool rather than a magic bullet. “‘CSI’ will show a totally crappy image the size of my finger; then blow it up to be better than 1,080p. That’s a misnomer,” Solhjem said. “But you can, utilizing certain algorithms, try to eliminate the bad data there and increase the
level of information. It does not increase the resolution per se, but makes it easier to see what the image looked like when it was imaged by the camera.” Image enhancement also has to deal with compression, which reduces the number of usable pixels for analysis. “Bear in mind that these programs work best with the highest resolution pictures they can get,” said Dave Gorshkov, CEO of Digital Grape and Chair of the CCTV and VCA Technical Standards Working Group for the American Public Transportation Association. “What you find with the current generation of network cameras is that the analytics are done on the native image in the camera, using a dedicated DSP. It is not done at the control center, because the image needs to be compressed and then sent to the control center over a low-speed backhaul network. This compromises the type and complexity of VCA able to be done in realistic time frames at the camera, as more complex analysis done with powerful computers that are server based can’t be put in network camera because of program size, processor power requirements and associated ‘on-cost’ of such a camera.” Some customers need a healthy
▲Benjamin Solhjem, PM of Motion DSP
MAY / JUN 2012
Compression is essential for preserving storage and bandwidth. However, it can also undo clear images. Storing images at the best possible quality will yield better pictures to run image enhancement algorithms. dose of reality about image sharpening. “The simple term we use is ‘Garbage in, garbage out,’” Solhjem said. “If you have something awful, we can still use it, but it’s not like ‘CSI,’ ‘NCIS’ or a Hollywood movie.”
CRUNCH TIME: COMPRESSION
Storage is one of the biggest costs of a surveillance project, making it a precious commodity. Network bandwidth is also scarce, making compression essential to surveillance monitoring. Unfortunately, compression can also undo clear images. “You could have a great camera capture images at high resolution, but the images are e n c o d e d , c o m p re s s e d a n d t h e final product is less than what was originally captured,” Solhjem said. “The goal of our software is to reconstruct. That’s not always possible because the image is
▲Bob Mesnik, President of Kintronics
▲D ave Gorshkov, CEO of Digital Grape and Chair of the CCTV and VCA Technical Standards Working Group for the American Public Transportation Association www.asmag.com
so degraded, but it can reveal details that were not evident at the beginning.” Compression renders megapixel’s added resolution moot. “For enhancement, we’ve got cameras deployed that are 1.3-megapixel for 1080P or 720P, but you can’t easily transmit that resolution ‘native’ over a cellular network, which many cameras are on for backhaul,” Gorshkov said. “You can use H.264 to squeeze the video signal hard, then interrogate the signal, but it throws away the resolution of images necessary for high-speed VCA capabilities.” Banks and stores that are robbed may already have video systems installed, but find that poor resolution defeats forensic purposes. While it’s possible to cram a month’s worth of video on a single hard disk drive, the resulting images are not usable. “At that point, it’s almost too late,” Solhjem said. “When it’s crunch time and you actually need the video, it’s not good.” H.264 is one of the most common compression formats, which was designed primarily for entertainment — set-top boxes and mobile phones — rather than surveillance. This means users should pay attention to how many I-frames are used and latency in I-frame timings, which affects bandwidth and storage. “A 1-megapixel image has at least twice the resolution of analog,”
Gorshkov said. “However, once you send that over the network, it’s going to be squashed a lot and have latency introduced into it due to the compression and decompression functions.” Storing images at the best possible quality will yield better data for image enhancement algorithms. “When we were developing the video surveillance and VCA standard in the U.S., local storage of high-resolution images was required,” Gorshkov said. “It’s not the compressed image operators observe, but the stored high-resolution image that is used for legal proceedings. Most network cameras now have dual or even triple streaming, which is wonderful way of doing that. Local hard drives are also not expensive.” As storing full-size images is out of the question for most applications, selecting a lossless compression and storage at the highest resolution yields the best evidence. “The effort to save space on a hard disk drive uses a compression scheme that’s great for space, but it’s not great if you need to pull out key information from the video,” Solhjem said.
Image sharpening tools can certainly deliver evidence-grade images, albeit with limitations from resolution and compression. However, not all legal systems accept digitally processed images, so the enhanced images are used as tools during investigations. Several legal trials in the U.S. and U.K allowed for enhanced images. “One time, the Metropolitan Police in London used our software to submit evidence for trials,” Solhjem said. “To my knowledge, it’s never been 36 22
MAY / JUN 2012
▲Image enhancement software can help law enforcement during investigations. However, it cannot restore low-resolution images to their original glory.
thrown out.” Some government bodies verify whether technology is suitable for police and government use. The UK Home Office uses the Image Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) test to determine whether VCA is effective in various environmental and operational conditions, Gorshkov said. These tests help reveal possible shortcomings with the algorithms. In the U.S. and Canada, Frye and Daubert hearings assess whether a new technology passes muster within the scientific and forensic community. “As long as they’re not putting things there that do not exist, it’s admissible in court,” Solhjem said.
Image sharpening software is great, but its performance is aided by good system design. This considers compression, storage and user demands. Raw uncompressed video or a lossless compression gives image
enhancement software more data to analyze. “Do a test, record some footage and see what it looks like,” Solhjem said. “You definitely don’t want to plug-and-play and forget about your video system.” Customers should also think critically about what they want their video system to do. Checking if someone came into a reception area is much easier than identifying individuals at border control. “Depending on what you do with the system, it comes back to Design 101,” Gorshkov said. “It’s understanding what it is you want from your video surveillance and VCA system, as the systems’ reliability and performance requirements are very different.” Camera placement should be optimized for the monitoring purpose — that means keeping the camera away from direct lighting that washes out image detail. Image quality also needs to be a priority, which should be as good as the customer can afford. “If you really need video surveillance, is it worth the money you’re i n ve s ti n g ? ” Solhjem said. “If you’re willing to invest this much, are you willing to invest more, in case something happens?” At the end of the day, image sharpening tools can help restore pictures to their original glory. However, much image degradation can be prevented by better compression techniques. It is not cheap to store raw video, but lossless compression with multiple streams is a step in the right direction. While Hollywood presents pure fiction, an ounce of planning plus image sharpening keeps surveillance footage from going to waste.
THE ALL NIGHT PARTY ANIMAL!
LED ILLUMINATORS FOR SECURITY WWW.VIDEOTEC.COM
The Best Light Technology from Videotec. Infrared or white light for a Hi-performance, long life, energy cost saving and zero maintenance lighting, in any environment and condition.
Smart Cities Move Beyond Concept to Reality BY THE EDITORIAL TEAM
The smart city is a sexy concept, combining high-tech networking with feel-good conservation. As some 4 billion people live in cities, it is imperative that city dwellers have access to municipal resources and services. Smart cities promise to make cities feel more like home. In the morning, citizens can check for weather and public transit information gathered from sensor networks. As they commute to work, traffic-monitoring systems manage signal lights and divert vehicles away from congestion; efficient net-zero office buildings produce as much energy as they use. By providing citizens with sustainable options and real-time data, cities utilize limited resources more effectively. Smartening up a city is not technically difficult, as technology matures and prices drop. IP is a prerequisite, mandating a scalable network infrastructure to gather data for city managers and citizens. Advances in consumer electronics signal an increasingly connected population that demands information right away. It takes vision to develop a smart city, which is colored by different perspectives. Few cities in the world are 100-percent â€œsmart,â€? due to budgetary constraints and unique needs. As economic uncertainty slows growth, municipal governments are examining which demands are most pressing. Demonstrating ROI does make a difference, but each implementation depends on the cityâ€™s vision. Clear objectives must be stated upfront, requiring extensive communication between solution providers and city councils. Smart cities will not emerge overnight, as implementation requires a long-term investment. However, more cities understand smart benefits and are willing to invest in a brighter, more sustainable future.
MAY / JUN 2012
MAY / JUN 2012
VP of Sales and rbanization has stretched Marketing, cities to the max. As the Fluidmesh Networks global population hit 7 billion in 2011, more people are residing in cities. By 2050, city dwellers are expected to make up 70 percent of the global population, according to IBM. Richard Smith, Professor in the School Spending for smart-city of Communication and Director of the Centre for technologies is expected Policy Research on Science to reach US$39.5 billion in and Technology, Simon Fraser University 2016, up from $8.1 billion Centre for Policy Research in 2010. “Smart city concepts on Science and Technology, are really taking off globally,” said Simon Fraser University. “At Josh Flood, Senior Analyst at ABI the same time, cities are facing a lot Research, in a prepared statement. of pressure. I think smart cities in the “Currently, the largest spending long term will be important, but for on smart-city technologies is for the recession and low growth, cities smart grids; however, over the next have more pressing issues.” five years, we will see a significant One of the factors inhibiting increase in spending for smartsmart-city development is outdated transportation technologies such communication infrastructure. as automatic vehicle ID and smart “Most systems are copper-based governance systems such as e-ID and for handset telephones,” said Dave ID document systems.” Gorshkov, CEO of Digital Grape. Despite rosy forecasts, uncertainty “In order to upgrade those for has slowed city spending. “The higher bandwidth, you need the notion of a smart city is attractive to capability for high-speed broadband make the city more efficient,” said — not just broadband connectivity. Richard Smith, Professor in the School Governments have to invest in fiber of Communication and Director of the to replace copper, which gives enough
▲ As more people reside in cities, it is imperative city dwellers have access to municipal resources and services.
MAY / JUN 2012
Faiyaz Shahpurwala, Senior VP of Advanced Services and Emerging Solutions, Cisco Systems
bandwidth for commercial or industrial buildings.” Even if a project does get funding, it may not be executed well. “We see integrators underbidding to do the job,” said Cosimo Malesci, VP of Sales and Marketing, Fluidmesh Networks. “They lose money upfront, but hope to get the service contract to make money on the deal.” Implementing smart-city solutions can be relatively straightforward. “The technology is something you can easily predict,” Malesci said. “Bureaucracy and funding are a whole different story.”
Each city has a distinct personality, so no smart project is alike. “Smart cities in various parts of the world need different approaches and solutions as the issues they face are quite unique,” said Faiyaz Shahpurwala, Senior VP of Advanced Services and Emerging Solutions, Cisco Systems. “Urban areas in developing countries are dealing with massive scale, and, therefore, there is a need for sustainable access and availability to community resources, including basic access to education, health care, energy and utilities. Although developed countries face similar problems, they are more focused on green-energy sources, better education and health
care, easier and more productive commutes, and citizen services.” As there is no universal definition for what a smart city looks like, connectivity is the common theme. The basic idea of a smart city is enabling the city administration to get access to information, turn that information into knowledge and to apply that knowledge to real-life implementations of policies and systems, said Maarten Mijwaart, GM of Automatic Vehicle Identification, Nedap. These responses will improve city performance on important themes such as mobility, health care, energy, education and safety Smart-city activity is underway in certain parts of Europe, such as Eastern Europe, Gorshkov said. South America is buoyant, along with India
and Africa. APAC China plays an leading role on the global stage, with rapid growth driving city development. As the largest metropolises on the coast are developed, inland Tier-3 cities are the focus of upcoming government investments, such as ones in Xinjiang and Heilongjiang provinces. Chinese “Safe City” initiatives now emphasize green benchmarks with a pollution index. “Green inspectors look at pollution reports, such as illegal dumping, and then are dispatched to sites with location data sent to smartphones,” said Weifeng Yang, VP at ZTE NetView, a Chinese network communication solution provider. “Once they arrive, they send a photo
MAY / JUN 2012
and confirm if there has been an incident. They can add if someone was responsible and should be arrested.” New cities can take the greenfield approach. “New high-tech cities in China have the opportunity to implement the latest technology that’s far more efficient,” said Dave Bartlett, VP of Industry Solutions for Smarter Buildings, IBM. “Today, wireless-sensor technology is much less expensive and easier to deploy in more infrastructure applications. That provides greater flexibility for applying sensor networks to various processes, including security, heat and humidity, corrosion and air quality. This type of data streaming from our physical infrastructure can be analyzed to drive more efficiencies, lower costs and reduce energy requirements.”
EMEA Most European cities have existed for centuries, with city management most concerned about efficiency. “Europe has more history in smart cities,” Yang said. “There is more emphasis on the green city to meet citizen needs, improve services and manage traffic. Efficiency and going green are another effort for enterprises; they wish to waste fewer resources and utilize people better.” “The ‘Strategic Energy Technology Plan,’ adopted by the EU to support the European energy and climate policies, drives the so-called ‘Smart Cities’ initiative, which focuses on ‘models and strategies to progress toward low carbon emissions,’” said Maria Ruiz, Strategic Project Manager, Fire Safety and Security Strategy, Siemens Building Technologies. At least two smart-grid projects are underway, with the U.K. installing 50 million smart readers in 26 million homes over the next five years. In Italy, national energy provider Enel spent $2.6 billion on SIM cards for smart meters. “All public-sector projects are being constrained,” Gorshkov said. “But there are programs where people are spending to save. Governments understand the use of more reliable surveillance systems can reduce manpower and have cost-effective solutions for their guarding and
security requirements.” The Middle East has less demand for public transport, as most citizens drive. Security and infrastructure development are higher priorities. “For Cairo, waste management is a huge issue — rubbish and dead animals are poisoning the city’s rivers, while the local garbage collection is at the point of collapse,” said Erika Görge, Communications Manager, Bosch Security Systems. THE AMERICAS There is strong demand for smart solutions in the Western hemisphere. “Sao Paulo’s latest super traffic jam was 293 kilometers long,” Görge said. “Intelligent transport systems are urgently needed there.” While demand is high, governments are strapped for cash. “In the U.S., there was some force with a smart-grid grant earlier this year,” Malesci said. “But as soon as the grant passed, the money ran out.” Even relatively prosperous nations such as Canada cannot afford completely smart infrastructure. “Vancouver is gradually rolling out water meters, power meters and traffic sensors, but it’s not a transformative thing yet,” Smith said. National security is a pressing concern for the U.S., after dealing with terrorist attacks. While the emphasis
Dave Bartlett, VP of Industry Solutions for Smarter Buildings, IBM
MAY / JUN 2012
There are currently 102 smart-city projects worldwide. Regional projects are listed below. • Europe: 38 • North America: 35 • APAC: 21 • The Middle East and Africa: 6 • Latin America: 2 Source: ABI Research
has been on monitoring, congestion also factors prominently in smart projects.
As smart city projects take place all over the world, having good network infrastructure in place makes adoption much easier. “Smarter cities are enabled by technology that is more available with a lower price point and the ability to handle the Internet of things,” Bartlett said. “Connectivity is placed in every physical object in cities. Look at smartphones and what they are able to do today, such as streaming live video. Cell towers went from transmitting voice data to multimedia, which sometimes create a big backhaul of data that is available at everyone’s fingertips.” A smart city does not necessarily fit in a single category. “Arguably, how a city uses strategic information to engage its citizens; enhances its amenities for greater public Boon Chin Tan, usage; creates buzz to boost MD of the Regional its tourism, commerce and Competency Centre (Public Safety) and trade; and coordinates Senior VP of Government Solutions Business and deploys resources Unit for APAC, NEC efficiently and effectively Corporation would give us a better sense of a ‘smart’ city,” said Boon Chin Tan, MD of the Regional Competency Centre (Public Safety) and Senior VP of Government Solutions Business Unit for APAC, NEC Corporation.
Weifeng Yang, VP at ZTE NetView
SMART CITIES BY REGION
NEW SECURITY PARADIGM As safe cities evolve beyond city surveillance, security management platforms are being used for other applications. Surveillance helps achieve citywide goals with more data that is not necessarily for security, such as watching for how many cars turned left or right, rather than crimes. Smart-city success will require more security technology and services. The physical safety and security (PSS) of cities face challenges. “Organizations and cities need PSS programs designed to address traditional crime and violence, but also sophisticated terrorist attacks and natural disasters,” Shahpurwala said. Security provides multiple benefits to city management. “For insurance claims, if someone falls on the curb and files a lawsuit, the city authority is liable for certain issues,” Gorshkov said. “With security in place, you have validation of who did what. The savings on insurance and frivolous claims are an immediate cost benefit and a quantifiable ROI for using security systems.” Modern systems support change in a targeted manner. “Video technologies will be used for monitoring public space which assists in preventing crime and protecting people,” Görge said. “At the same time, they can be
used to steer traffic in a more efficient and thus more eco-friendly way. Automated video systems can simplify trade and economic processes and therefore enhance the work flow and business profits.” Hikvision Digital Technology successfully went from making DVR cards to implementing smart-city projects. It won a $1.2-billion smart-city project in Chongqing, Sichuan Province, marking a renewed position as a system integrator. This transition was not only lucrative, but indicates that physical security has a place at the “smart” table. Security is opening up to a whole new world. “We are not just here to control access or to apply video surveillance,” Mijwaart said. “We are here to ensure business continuity not only by helping manage security risks, but also to facilitate optimal use of the real estate by collaborating and exchanging information with HVAC, production or other systems that are operational within the building. The convergence to IP networks and the rise of IT standards that support system interoperability have supported this trend.” The new security paradigm emphasizes greater integration. “Another growth area in smart technologies applied to safety is
FIVE WAYS TO DELIVER SAFETY AND SECURITY • Prepare: Establish continuity and response plans, train employees, share information among organizations, review forensic evidence from previous incidents to improve processes and optimize systems. • Prevent: Employ prevention techniques, including physical barriers, access control systems, cameras and guards that can be used to prevent, deter or delay security incidents. • Detect: Minimize the security incident impact through rapid identification and notification of security breaches and other threatening events. • Assess: Determine the scope of the incident and what needs to be done next. • Respond: Coordinated, real-time communication among incident commanders, first responders, the public and other organizations during an emergency. Source: Cisco Systems
MAY / JUN 2012
software for the multidisciplinary use of systems, like public-address systems used for wide-area alarms, public screens in the city used for security messaging or security cameras used to extract traffic density, just to mention some examples,” Ruiz said. “The benefits are twofold: investment optimization and safety optimization.” More comprehensive integration enhances coordination among agencies in the event of an incident. “The police, fire brigade and civil-rescue teams can use real-time data from the security and safety management network, accessing it through personal-communication devices like a smartphone or a tablet,” Ruiz said. “The messages delivered contain not only an alarm notification, but also precise instructions on how to act or detailed status data on graphical and textual mode, depending on whom the recipient is.” Security is not just about detecting hacking or preventing a virus, but also ensures the right person makes infrastructure decisions for the city. “The worst security breach in the city often isn’t malicious; it’s the wrong person who executes a command that affects the infrastructure when they shouldn’t have had access to that system,” Bartlett said. “With Internet and smartphone accessibility, operators could erroneously perform a command online that affects a city process.” As humans are fallible, it is wise not to put too much faith in technology. “The security system is just a tool,” Tan said. “What is more important is the actual intent.” Security plays a crucial role in smart cities, helping cities meet their goals. In the next article, we examine smart applications, challenges and upcoming developments.