Asma Al Adhamy 2014
Ajman University of Science and Technology Department of Architectural Engineering
A Dissertation Submitted to the Department of Architectural Engineering at Ajman University of Science and Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Architectural Engineering Asma Al Adhamy
Marina Terminal Graduation Project
Done by: Asma Al Adhamy Supervised by: Dr. Gisela Loehlein
All tables, Diagrams, and information are written and designed by me, others are mentioned with referance is at the end of this thesis
To people who stand by me, make me smile in the harsh time, I thank GOD that you surround my life. My parents who dreamed, Worked and strived to make me who I am. I canâ€™t pay off your effort but I will keep looking you at the peak. MY brothers, I just think how blessed I am for having you around me. My friends who keep asking me if am going to Abu Dhabi, I am already there. My Professor, Dr. Gisela Loehlein, you put me in the challenge , I would never have been done with this without your support to make it happen.
Abstract • Aim The aim of this project is to s show urban evolution. It does not mean that it become a station for transportation only, it also an entertainment space which it include a public spaces, pedestrian walk way, bicycles and open spaces to accommodate people with the nature and socialize them. The space inside responsible of being dynamic, calming and functional. The space can create a life different from their own. The rapid evolution in Abu Dhabi city and the urban expansion inspired me to design such a project especially that they focusing on the island’s growth. Island growth defiantly means that the city will have a huge extending in the maritime adoption. This thesis proposes the design of portable marina terminal for use in transport, entertain, and landmark applications in remote locations. Currently, remote research is conducted from the heritage of the city. This thesis proposes a terminal that is gateway, special, and unique. One of the aspects that I want to achieve is preserving the culture, and the heritage of the city in a side, presenting the modernism and indicating the place in such project in the other.
• Method The design approach to create the design of spaces where people intervene, planning spaces where people can socialize and cultures can overlap, gathered around one function, using the interaction and interference - with water - in this case, and hence the project name - Marina terminal - considering the following : Focused on blurring boundaries between water and built up area and environment, all of this would be done with the taken in consideration of the architectural values and cultural aspects.
The topics were presented in five chapters, each chapter contained different analysis of different aspects. Chapter One, is a general introduction about water, ports, the history of the oldest settlements on the edge of the water and how these elements relate to the Project. Chapter Two, is a collection of such cases to be studied and analyzed, in order to get as much information as possible about the structure of the project in many aspects. Chapter Three, programing and studying spaces standard based on the cases, Neufert, and project’s needs. Chapter Four, three site alternatives studied, analyzed then categorized according to criteria, then the site se¬lection would be selected upon this comparison. Chapter Five, is the conclusion; site is selected upon the best criteria, the project program is set as per the area of the site, conceptual forms are presented.
“Architecture is the art of how to waste space.” Philip Johnson “If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water” LorenEiseley
Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
Water Water and Civilization Introduction History Evolution and modern ports Conclusion
2 3 4 6 8 10
Case Studies 01 02 03
Marine Gateway in Taiwanese city of Kaohsiung Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center New Keelung Harbor Terminal
20 32 42
Programing 3.1 Spaces Relations Chart 3.2 Standard Detail 3.3 Building Program & Area
63 64 65
Site Analysis 4.1 Site Selection 4.2 Site Analysis 4.2.1 Location and Access 4.2.2 Function and Landmarks 4.2.3 Demography 4.2.4 Environment 4.2.5 Historic and Developments 4.2.6 Skyline 4.3 Comparison
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Concept 01 02 03
Concept I Concept II Concept III Discussion Conclution
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Table of Figure Caption
Small Boats surrounding the main ZIGGURAT An Algerian battle ship manufactured in the port Water and Sailing-Civilizations Farming – Irrigation Civilization Theme - water surrounding site Jebel Ali Port Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau Terminal-Taiwan Harbor-Ports-Marina-Collage Khufu ship Old Port The Port of Antwerp-Belgium (old) Fishermen on boats-Basra Qatar port Dubai Marina Nakheel - Palm Deira marina Nakheel - Deira Islands- hotels and a marina History Time Line
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Case Studies Collage Marina Gateway Marine gateway- City Perspective Shot Marine gateway- Circulation Marine gateway- Side view Marine gateway- Site Circulation Marine gateway- Ground Floor Marine gateway- Floor plan 01 Marine gateway- Floor plan 02 Marine gateway- Floor plan 03 Marine gateway- roof plan Marine gateway- cross section Marine gateway- long section Marine gateway- Spaces Marine gateway- Interior shot natural light Marine gateway- structure diagram Marine gateway- Environmental diagram Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center Kaohsiung Port – Form concept diagram Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center Kaohsiung Port and – Circulation diagram Kaohsiung Port – Circulation Kaohsiung Port – Ground Floor plan Kaohsiung Port – Floor plan 02-03 Kaohsiung Port – Floor plan 01 Kaohsiung Port – Floor plan 04-05 Kaohsiung Port – Space Planning Kaohsiung Port – interior shot day light Kaohsiung Port – interior structure Kaohsiung Port – Environmental diagram Kaohsiung Port – radiation study New Keelung Harbor New Keelung Harbor – City Night Elevation New Keelung Harbor – Perceptive Night Shot New Keelung Harbor – City Day View New Keelung Harbor – circulation diagram 01 New Keelung Harbor – circulation diagram 02 New Keelung Harbor – floor plan 01 New Keelung Harbor – floor plan 02 New Keelung Harbor – floor plan 03
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New Keelung Harbor – floor plan 04 New Keelung Harbor – Elevation 01-02 New Keelung Harbor – Section 01-02 New Keelung Harbor – Spaces New Keelung Harbor –Programmatic Distributio New Keelung Harbor – Interior View New Keelung Harbor – Interior View New Keelung Harbor – Interior View New Keelung Harbor – Environmental diagram New Keelung Harbor – Environmental Section 01
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Case Studies’ Space Planning Bubble Diagram-Public Services. Bubble Diagram-Tours Services Huma Scale Seating Airport Runway and Aprons Airport Planning Airport Terminal Schedual-Public Services Schedual-Tour Services Schedual- Public Services- Abu Dhabi Marina Schedual-Tour Services- Abu Dhabi Marina
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Futurristic Vision of Abu Dhabi- Collage United Arab Emirates World Map United Arab Emirates Map Abu Dhabi Location on Map Site I- Abu Dhabi – Al Saadiyat Island Site II- Abu Dhabi – Yas Island Site III- Abu Dhabi – Coconut Island Abu Dhabi- Solar Energy Proposal-Collage Abu Dhabi- Marina Proposals and activities-Collage Site I- Al Saadiyat Island –Site location and Access Site II- Yas Island –Site location and Access Site III- Coconut Island –Site location and Access Site I- Al Saadiyat Island –Functions and Landmarks Site II- Yas Island –Functions and Landmarks Site III- Coconut Island –Functions and Landmarks Site I- Al Saadiyat Island –Tourists and Local ratio Site II- Yas Island –Tourists and Local ratio Site III- Coconut Island –Tourists and Local ratio Site I- Al Saadiyat Island – Environment Site II- Yas Island –Environment Site III- Coconut Island –Environment Site I- Al Saadiyat Island-Surrounding currently Site I- Al Saadiyat Island-Surrounding Developments Site II- Yas Island- Surrounding currently Site II- Yas Island- Surrounding Developments Site III- Coconut Island-Surrounding currently Site III- Coconut Island- Surrounding Developments Site I- Al Saadiyat Island- Skyline Site II- Yas Island-Skyline Site III- Coconut Island- Skyline A table comparing between all sites
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96 Concept Development 97 Environment- Daylight Effect
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Zoning Site Location Concept Development Environment-Daylight Effect Zoning Site Location Concept Development Environment-Daylight Effect Zoning Site Location A table comparing between concepts
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1.2 Water and Civilization
Since the beginning of humankind Water has shaped our civilizations. In earliest generations, the used to be hunters and gatherers, wandering around to find food and water to sustain their needs. Evolution led to early civilizations understanding agriculture which allowed them to stay in one place and create civilizations. They would form small cities around water for agricultural reasons (FIG 001). People’s economic structure was dependent on the flooding from spring that would produce the cropped for the next year. Inhabitants understood so the used to measure water level of the river each spring and, if it was high, they would tax the farmers more because the farmer’s perceived crop would be larger than usual because of the silt-rich water the river carried to the farmer’s irrigation structure. Middle Eastern, Asian and European civilizations all had similar economies that were water-centric (FIG 002,003). Water influence lifestyle of a city. Historically, there is an imitation of using water in sculpting, veneration, inspiration, art and veneration. The richness of water that a city’s has helped to be an essential spot for a tourism for its celebrated geographical area, art ,architecture. Venice, London and Paris are used to be commercial cities because of its position. For Abu Dhabi water is the precious source for energy, transportation, and trades.
Historically, water was a source of power that should be controlled. The four great civilizations were in the river age, Egypt’s Nile River, Babylon’s Euphrates and Tigris River, India’s River Ganges, and China’s Yellow River and Yangtze River, and all of them developed along rivers. The role of river in a civilization are Water, and Sustainable Development. Civilizations set the example, being masters in irrigation and the creation of major water works that controlled water’s ways (FIG 004,005). People believe that water is engrained as the ancient symbol of life. In the ancient culture it is consider people would achieve good or bad rain making abilities at their birth and death. Their abilities calibrated controlling the natural environment and for their healing powers and would be employed by outside tribes to make rain or heal the sick. There are many water-related cultural traditions rooted in the diverse cultures. Today, concerted efforts should be made to carefully check how far cultural traditions can be integrated or combined with modern concepts to sustainably use water resources. Evolution approaches are to human development in a way that sustains resources established on the recognition that human consumption is occurring at a rate that is beyond earth’s capacity to support it.
FIG 004: Farming – Irrigation
FIG 001: Small Boats Terminal surrounding the main ZIGGURAT
FIG 002: an Algerian battle ship manufactured in the port
FIG 003: Water and Sailing, Civilizations, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 005: Civilization Theme - water surrounding site
Harbor A harbor is a body of water where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors and ports are often confused with each other. A port is a facility for loading and unloading vessels; ports are usually located in harbors ( Figure8). Marina The word marina used for inland wharves on rivers and canals that are used exclusively by non-industrial pleasure craft such as canal narrow boats. Marina terminal used only for people not for goods. And at this time countries use marina terminal as entertainment place and landmarks (figure9). Is a dock or basin with moorings and supplies for yachts and small boats. A marina differs from a port in that a marina does not handle large passenger ships or cargo from freighters. A terminal is a place where loading and unloading of people or goods takes place like for e.g. a bus terminal or a train terminal. In simple terms it can be said that marine terminals are stops or stations for ships and boats (figure 8).
The first thing that I need to mention that am going to design a marina terminal as a modern landmark transporting and entertaining place. so at the beginning I need to start searching generally and specifically about the ports and transportation system, how, and when it begun. Marina terminal can reach you to meet new people, new heritage and new life, and! It can also reach to different life with no people, no buildings and no modernism. Differences, curiosity, change and modernism are the most important things that catch tourists and local to get information about life style, history and heritage of countries. This will create direct interaction between tourists and local which could be by form a space that accommodate visually and mentally with the city( FIG 008). Port The port is a very busy place. There are not just passengers arriving but there are also people waiting to aboard a ship. In addition to so many people, there is also the hauling and offloading of cargo that needs to be done since cargo ships also form a major component in ports (FIG 006,007).
FIG 009: Yas marina
FIG 006: Jebel Ali Port
FIG 007: Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau Terminal, Taiwan
FIG 008: Harbor, Ports, Marina, Collage, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
Port of Antwerp The first evidence for the existence of the port of Antwerp dates from the 12th century. Antwerp is a point of embankment for passengers traveling to England and Zealand, and as an export port for wine from Germany to England.
Before 10,000 years ago the first vessel known, it was very simple idea for a ship. At the beginning navigators start using animal’s skins or woven fabric for sails. It fixed to the top of a pole up right in a boat which it gave early ships range. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians started to use wooden planks into a hull. They lashed the planks together by woven straps and the used reed and grass between the planks helped to seal the seams. The Greek historian and geographer Agatha chides had documented ship-faring among the early Egyptians
Industrial products such as wool and cloth created more commerce in the city. Great storm floods made the Scheldt more accessible, enabling shipping traffic to flourish. The 16th century has gone down in history as Antwerp’s Golden Age. The port benefited from the flourishing export of goods produced in the South Netherlands provinces. Via Antwerp, these products, including art, found their way to France, Spain, Portugal and Morocco. Halfway the sixteenth century, ten jetties and eight inland ports were built to facilitate this growth. When Antwerp fell into Spanish hands in 1585 and there was a blockade on the Scheldt, the city went from commercial world center to an inland port for two centuries. In 1863, the Scheldt becomes toll-free which has a very beneficial effect on commercial activity. In 1869, more than one million tons of cargo are handled for the first time and this number will regularly double over the next decades. In this period, the Red Star Line, a shipping company that transported about two million people to America, also started its activities (FIG 0 13).
“During the prosperous period of the Old King -dom, between the 30th and 25th centuries B. C., The river-routes were kept in order, and Egyptian ships sailed the Red Sea as far as the myrrh-country”. Agatha chides, in Wilfred Harvey Scoff
The earliest civilizations Egyptian and Mesopotamian make extended use for ships in Nile, Tiger and Euphrates. E The wind was the main factor that effected the direction of ships. The wind always blows from north to south and the current always flows from south to north in Nile River. One of the oldest ship is Khufu ship (FIG 011). It was a remarkable example of their shipbuilding skills. A vessel 143 feet (44 m) in length entombed at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza around 2500 BC and found intact in 1954. The Egyptians, with access to the Mediterranean, also use larger seagoing vessels. These become known as Byblos boats, revealing that their trade is with the eastern coast of the Mediterranean. Byblos is the main port for the export of the valuable cedar wood of Lebanon, essential for Egypt›s architecture and for boat-building.
In the 16th century the shipping become active and many ships was sailed between kingdom of Cambia, India and Mogadishu with cloth and spices, and the return received gold, wax and ivory. Then Barbosa also highlighted the abundance of meat, wheat, barley, horses, and fruit on the coastal markets, which generated enormous wealth for the merchants. In the medieval Islamic historians started voyager with Abu Abdullah Ibn Battuta.
FIG 010: Old Port
9 Port of Basra
FIG 009: Khufu ship
FIG 011: The Port of Antwerp, Belgium (old)
FIG 012: Fishermen on boats, Basra.
The Port of Basra also known as Al Maqal Port is an Iraqi port, situated on the Arabian Gulf. Located in downtown Basra City, Iraq, on the banks of the Shatt Al Arab River, 135 kilometers upstream from the mouth of the river, close to many of Iraq’s giant oil & gas fields which means the location is so magnificent. It constricted during the First World War while Iraq was under occupation of British. To exploit the commercial hub and to worthy the economic between Europe and Asia British prepared to build the first modern Iraqi’s port (FIG 014). 7
1.5 Evolution and modern ports
Marina • Services Restaurants Nightlife Shopping Beauty & Wellness Golf
The ports supposed to be a gateways through the early modern time. The role ports assumed as gateways during the Early Modern period can be a Couse to the fact that they were urban environments where cooperation took place. Those dealing were increased and mirrored the multifunctional character ports had at the time.
• Accommodation Hotel Apartments, Hotels
The aim and function of the modern ports are to transfer goods and trade, but during the evolution the ports used to have a wide range of services such as a national registration, credit, and insurances.
The ports currently, become more specific in use. Port’s function is deferent depending on the needs. Some ports applied for goods and industries. Others utilized for passengers and tourism. These are become a landmark for entertainments and socializing. Also usually it used to be part from nature and landscape befit to support the concept of reflecting cultures of cities (figure 15). Dubai marina A marina may have refueling, washing and repair facilities, marine and boat chandlers, stores and restaurants. A marina may include ground facilities such as parking lots for vehicles and boat trailers. Slipways transfer a trailered boat into the water. A marina may have a boat hoist well operated by service personnel. A marina may provide in- or out-of-water boat storage. A marina may have residential area, hotel, mall, restaurant, retail facilities and park (figure 16).
Things To Do Arts and Crafts Attractions Beach Clubs Cinemas City Tours Culture and Heritage Desert Safaris Equestrian Golf Kids Entertainment and Indoor Play Leisure Activities Parks and Beaches Sports and Extreme Sports Water Parks Water Sports
• Events & Promotions: it is unique and will always appeal to families and tourist. The events are in line with what one would expect in a Marina lifestyle, with a touch of European flair.
FIG 014: Dubai Marina
FIG 013: Qatar port
FIG 015: Nakheel - Palm Deira marina.
FIG 016: Nakheel - Deira Islands market, hotels and a marina.
A time line showing the rapid changing in ships and ports as well. This can give an expectation about the future development of such a project architecturally as a building construction and socially for the cities transportations.
Changes occurred in a relatively short period of time economically it increase port trades, spatial move of production and logistics growth. In transportation side Shipsâ€™ size become verify, Specialization and Transshipment also it Develop the dry ports and inland terminals which affected the industrial organization. These changing affect ports directly. It saving labor and consuming space. More contest between ports and the danger of the ability increasing affect ports in marketing side. Architecturally, ports and terminals changed in functions, area, concept and activities. The changing provide a new space that related to the ports such as the marina which is considered more entertaining, extra activities, and modern.
FIG 017: History Time Line, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
Methodology After searching about the different type of ports and history of it which started with the creation of ships and boats that used for a specific duty then tracking the development of it and how it become a main transportation system to touring the world for many duties. Now I need to pass through some cases that present and discuss the terminal designed for sailing boats and ships. Mostly it will be a contemporary case which I can find in libraries and Internet web sites. also I need to search about the modern elements that support, create, and complete the building. Cases can help me to understand more the needs and expand my knowledge about the terminals. The explore will be the basis for the next stage. 12
If you've ever tried to learn a new concept, you probably appreciate that "knowing" is different from "doing." When you have an opportunity to apply your knowledge, the lesson typically becomes much more real. Case studies are a great way to improve a learning experience, because they get the learner involved, and encourage immediate use of newly acquired skills. With a case study, however, you might explore whether a building should provide more spaces, or whether a site is about to make a good sanctuary. Suddenly, the act of calculating ratios becomes secondary â€“ it's more important to understand what the ratios tell you. This is how case studies can make the difference between knowing what to do and knowing how, when, and why to do it. This chapter discussing some of precedent studies to obtain knowledge and information about life style, environment, facilities and cultures and how these element effect the building and spaces especially that usually it will be a landmark for the city. Structure, landscape, circulation and material support the concept of design and reflect the uniqueness of architecture that needs to be studied also. 18
FIG 2.1.1 Marine gateway- model perspective shot, asymptote website .
Marine Gateway in Taiwanese city of Kaohsiung 01 The new interchange transportation of the art which designed by Asymptote and Artech Architects is Kaohsiung Marine Gateway Terminal in Kaohsiung city, Taiwan. The project is for Kaohsiung Harbor Bureau, it is an urban destination for both terminal and public facilities including exhibition and event spaces for the people of Kaohsiung as well as for national and international visitors Parsons Brinckerhoff is the Cruise Consultant of the project. The project transforms the site from its industrial roots into a dynamic urban hub and a global gateway that bring a powerful and electric experience to the city 24 hours a day. The project Occupies 40,000 sq. m. The proposal took the second prize in the competition.
I chose this project because of the future point view of the city planning. The port terminal extends the urban domain from the center of Kaohsiung to the city’s waterfront and connects this new urban space with the future’s vitality of Pop Music Center and other public recreational activities that are to be located along the planned park at water’s edge. It is designed to refresh and activate Kaohsiung’s city edge at the water.
2.1.1 Architectural view The key component of this port facility is the towering terminal building that accommodates the major programmatic elements associated with passenger travel. This powerful yet elegant structure is constructed and framed by two flanking dynamic towers that create a new gateway for Kaohsiung. The relationship between the towering cruise terminal structure and the two companions' office towers are an open plaza, an articulated yet continuous public space located at the very intersection of circulation paths that draws the urban space of Kaohsiung into the heart of the project and the water’s edge back towards the city. These pathways provide an efficient means of circulating through the site and to the waterfront as well as civic access to a number of important public spaces and programs. This intertwining of public and private access as well as programming creates an invigorated public realm, providing a unique experience to ship passengers. The Kaohsiung Marine Gateway Terminal is not only a well-functioning port facility but also an eventful and visually striking landmark for the city of Kaohsiung. The terminal approached from the city side a softly graded ramp invites people up to the Gateway Plaza, an active public space located below the illuminated and sculpted underside of the floating Terminal Building. From the city, the terminal frames the harbor and water beyond. The new elevated public space, hidden from the strong sun and seasonal rains, provides a spectacular priority point to overlook the several surroundings of the Port of Kaohsiung. This dramatic yet repeated plaza frames views of the city and its’ skyline on one side while providing exciting views of the harbor and sea beyond on the other. The elevated cruise ship terminal sits delicately and splendor above a large open public landscaped plaza that is activated by the flow of people moving back and forth between the harbor edge and the city.
FIG 003 Marine gateway- City Perspective Shot 
FIG 004 Marine gateway- Circulation 
FIG 005 Marine gateway- Side view , Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
Inspired by the canopies and majestic overhangs of traditional Taiwanese architecture, the cantilevered architecture of the new Kaohsiung Marine Gateway Terminal provides not only a sense of architectural spectacle and event but creates exciting vistas and public spaces for both visitors and locals alike. Within the buildingâ€™s curvilinear architecture are numerous exhibition and event spaces, night markets, cafes and restaurants. These public programs are all integrated carefully with the architecture of the Terminal and the landscaping of the site and surroundings to create a vibrant addition to the new green edge of the Kaohsiungâ€™s waterfront.
FIG 007 Marine gateway- Ground Floor .
FIG 008 Marine gateway- Floor plan 01 .
FIG 006 Marine gateway- Site Circulation , Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 009 Marine gateway- Floor plan 02 .
FIG 010 Marine gateway- Floor plan 03 .
FIG 012 Marine gateway- cross section 
FIG 011 Marine gateway- roof plan 
FIG 013 Marine gateway- long section .
2.1.4 Space Planning
2.1.5 Interior the new Terminal reaches a stunning climaxing; defined by the sophisticated geometry of the curved ceiling and illuminated by an ever-changing pattern of natural light, the dramatic views towards the City and the Kaohsiung skyline on one side views and sweeping panoramas of the Sea, the sky and the beckoning horizon on the other, celebrate the events of both arrival and departure. After entering the admiration and massive check-in hall, passengers rise up and through a dramatic vertical opening into an expansive and dynamic departure lounge area that hovers above the site. the Terminal craves to absorb and canal the vibrant energy of Kaohsiung into a spectacular and dynamic urban exchange where maritime travel and public interaction together provide a powerful experiment of a landmark gateway and a key urban destination in and of itself. Constructed on equipping an urban center of activity, excitement and sophistication, the Terminal celebrates the city, the sea and Taiwanese culture. Event and space brought together through a harmonious and powerful architecture.
FIG 014 Marine gateway- Spaces, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 015 Marine gateway- Interior shot, natural light , Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
2.1.6 Tectonic The roof structure covers the span over the tracks. It is made of formed steel with rectangular cross sections, which is layered in two independent layers that are rigidly attached to each other. This steel structure is covered with concrete which has been shaped to match the contours of the steel. The concrete is attached to the outer layer of steel. The geometry of the roof structure allows for an inexpensive and precise manufacturing process to produce the steel beams and glass. 28
FIG 016 Marine gateway- structure diagram .
FIG 017 Marine gateway- Environmental diagram , Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
2.1.8 Conclusion The concept of the project started with the canopies of traditional of Taiwan. These canopies can reflect the meaning of grouping people under one canopy. And the project successes in dealing with crowd control and efficient transportation design. The space inside in force local and visitors to socialize, interact, and companion. The modernism of architecture, structure, space, and material support the concept and it makes people more active. The landscape and surrounding helped to luring people to the inside. The direct and clear interaction between the building and the sea added the Enthusiasm to the environment to feel people more energetic. 31
Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center 02 HMC Architects was one of five finalist for the Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center International Competition in 2010. It was for Kaohsiung, ministry of transportation and communication, TW. The proposal envisions an iconic gateway to the City of Kaohsiung, and a lens into the outer-world visualized from within. It occupied 300,000 sq. ft. It creates a new urban fact—an inviting nod—to allow a new connection between visitors, citizens, and the City of Kaohsiung. This gateway is designed to serve as a physical and economical impetus to the City’s goal of transforming its waterfront from its industrial past into an inviting future. Moffatt & Nichol was the Coastal and Marine Engineer. The landscape architect is Liukuo Design. 32
I chose this project because it presenting the integration between the building and the landscape. It gathering green, water, and building mass in one landmark gateway. The wavy roof support the landscape natural surface and also it use a green roof which it improve the merging with the landscape.
2.2.1 Architectural View The design become an iconic gateway to the city of Kaohsiung, and a charm into the outer-world visualized from within by being efficient, adaptive, and diaphanous while fostering a poetic and interactive space that cuddling a lifelike urban serendipity. As a sustainable structure that reverberate seamlessly with its context in the forces of nature (sunlight) sculpt the building shape and the design is also qualified for Gold Certification and Silver Certification. The program consists of cruise and international ferry terminals, 700-space subterranean parking garage, and a Port Bureau office. In a quest for serenity in the occasion of traveling.
FIG 020 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center 
"This proposal elevates the design for the port terminal by solving the programmatic, technical, and planning challenges while activating the future development of Kaohsiung’s waterfront. The fluid form is a direct response to the interweaving relationship between the movements of three types of visitors -- the port authority employees, the secured terminal travelers, and the public Enhancing the experience of each of these user types, the building connects with the city and its people as a dynamic transportation hub and marine gateway. Combining strong design with efficient planning, this proposal is a relevant example of enhancing the port terminal typology" .
FIG 019 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Form concept diagram 
FIG 021 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Circulation diagram  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 022 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Circulation 
FIG 023 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Ground Floor plan 
FIG 025 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Floor plan 01
FIG 024 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Floor plan 02, 03
FIG 026 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Floor plan 04, 05
2.2.4 Space Planning
2.2.5 Interior Interior spaces are path with comfortable natural light and skylines to ocean and city to create arise experience to maritime travelers and commuters. Its translucence optimizes way-finding, a key element in palliate people movement, allowing the building to effectively cuddle its users’ constant motion and accommodate occasional sudden flow of massive cruise passenger volume. Natural light allow users to be more active indoor space. The glass has fascinating effect that let people connect with outer easily, this can satisfying people to captivate the indoor lifestyle. Glass give the opportunity to show the different sides activity that surround the building. Material used in building envelope is linear mullion elements and for facade is glass system.
FIG 027 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Space Planning, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 028 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – interior shot, day light pass through interior space  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
2.2.6 Tectonic As Tectonic underground they used reinforced structure and above ground steel structure. A sustainable structure that resonates seamlessly with its context, the natural sculpt the building design. Its skew gently self-shading exterior casing nearly standardize with the path of the sun direction and wind to achieve outstanding energy performance that passed through glass. The extensive elevated track and green roof promote nature diversity and enhance planting green index to allow the design to the target. 38
FIG 029 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – interior structure  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 030 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – Environmental diagram 
FIG 031 Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center – radiation study 
Sustainable environment is the main thing that architect focused on. It started from the nature outside and goes gradually to be part of the mass building by using green roof. Then from inside, the structure supports the concept. Glass surrounds the building to get the energy from sunlight and green to the inside. This is can show the real nature outside as a paint surround the interior façade. The form assists the sustainable structure. Story terminal is adaptive, and lucid while enhancing a philosophy of space that encourages a vibrant civic arena 41
New Keelung Harbor Terminal 03 The New Keelung Harbor terminal building is one of the best project that proposed as a landmark for the city by Synthesis Design + Architecture. It consists of an office tower, retail, Amenities and small plaza. It suggested by the Port of Keelung, Taiwan International Ports Corporation, Ltd. To form a transportation terminal venue city alongside the sea in Keelung, Taiwan. It occupying 140,000 sq. m.
I chose this project because of the uniqueness of the form. It present the new technology and the modern architecture which is defiantly clear in the facade. the skin of the skin attract people not people outer only but also the insider by reflecting sunlight in a classic pattern shape displayed in the ground in artistic sense.
agram could define relationships, the placement of specific anchor programs re-distributes transitional programs into a gradual domain variation of densities and distributions of pixels.
2.3.1 Architectural View The proposal focuses on the SYNTHESIS of three core notions into a cohesive, classy, and iconic unit which indicate the identity of new Keelung Harbor. It sought to equip a landmark and gateway for Keelung which admit its context and heritage, while jointly projecting its potential future by forming a gateway with the tower on the opposite side of the gulf, presenting the historical features of Keelung Chinese name (the Hen Cage), and encouraging the local industry of yacht manufacturing to recognize inspiration and resource of the formal, material and structural language. Revival the waterfront by, connecting public circulation flows by classifying pedestrian activity to be more useful and tonic for movement and flows, activating surrounding buildings by involvement the scheme, create open space planning to smoothing sailing by create soft boundaries that define field conditions rather than enclosed spaces. Obstetric design concepts visually, structurally, and environmentally by optimizing building orientation and massing for passive environmental design and control, get Benefit of wind, rain, and sun in geometric form, connecting to district heating/cooling and waste disposal systems, and merge structure and skin through geometric and material composition.
FIG 033 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – City Night Elevation 
FIG 034 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Perceptive Night Shot 
2.3.2 Concept The Inspiration started with geometric patterns of Taiwanese Hen Cages and the structural shells of luxury racing yachts. The dynamical gradient forming the building that translate from exo-skin to exo-skeleton response to pictorial content as well as per-formative needs. Thus, what appears to be formal expression, is actually “informed form” which responds to the merging of weather, urban context, program, circulation, and sustainability through integrated design reply that inform the building orientation, spatial layout, façade design, and choice of material and structural system. Considering the scheme as a self-organizing system of agents of programmatic pixels which synoptic based upon specified anchor programs. bubble di44
FIG 035 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – City Day View 
FIG 036 New Keelung Harbor Terminal â€“ Program circulation diagram 01  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 037 New Keelung Harbor Terminal â€“ Program circulation diagram 02  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 038 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – floor plan 01  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 040 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – floor plan 03  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 039 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – floor plan 02  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 041 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – floor plan 04  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 042 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Elevation 01, 02  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 043 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Section 01, 02  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
2.3.4 Space Planning
FIG 044 New Keelung Harbor Terminal â€“ Spaces, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 045 New Keelung Harbor Terminal â€“Programmatic Distribution Diagram 
2.3.5 Interior If a building has a very nice facade it is sure to have something quite nice on the inside. The skin has a dynamical unique pattern that displayed inside the building as modern interior lighting pattern by passing sun radiation to the indoor space. This form of facade can help to use a passive energy inside the building during the day and feel people the outdoor nature inside the building. Again it affect the ventilation of the building and cooling the building naturally. FIG 046 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Interior View, Sitting Area , Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 047 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Interior View, Sitting Area , Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 048 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Interior View, Sitting Area , Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
2.3.7 Environment The building strives to generate an efficient operational strategy using passive techniques that manipulate the natural environment for the benefit of the internal environment. The building is orientated into the prevailing wind direction which allows the air flow to be tuned around the flanks of the tower between the main structure and the façade .
FIG 049 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Environmental diagram  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 050 New Keelung Harbor Terminal – Environmental Section 01  Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
Hen cage and structure shell inspired the architect to create a dynamic form gradient traditional exo skin to exo skeleton. Three essential elements enhanced the form, synthesis of coherent, elegant and iconic form to create new identity for Keelung Harbor, animate and connect with waterfront, and integrate visual, structure, and environment. Interior sustainable environment by orienting the building and tower and provide structure and skin which helps encourage it. Forming multi forms in one is the biggest challenge and it was influential. 57
2.4 Recapitulation for the case studies Case studies can offer you a chance to get informed how the architect dealt with the building typology and the building's surrounding context, landscape, sustainability, spaces inside, concept and new technologies. The first case that I choose and asses was the Marina Gateway in Taiwanese City of Kaohsiung, I was initially mesmerized how the architect presenting the traditional canopies in modern landmark form structure and glass effect of the building form and how it provides the energy inside the building as if you are purely outside that what caught my interest in Kaohsiung Port and Cruises services center project. In New Keelung Harbor Terminal the skin is adorable. I can imagine how it change the inside look and how it effect the interior environment and as well the outer. Certainly, the nature can be a miraculous for any project, which it considered as basis to success the project and let it be more powerful to attract people. Generally, cases' concepts in most of the time shows that there is a relation between the design and the traditional and history of the country especially such projects that become a landmark for the city. Technology become a significant element in architecture that reflect the modernism of material, construction, and architecture. Simplicity of design and circulation also considered as modern architecture and it was so clear in Kaohsiung Port and Cruises services center By JA studio. These studied element will be part of my project. Then calculation become the step that follow the case studies' research.
In space planning, the design professional blocks out interior spatial areas, defines circulation patterns, and develops plans and layouts for furniture and equipment placement. Also Space planning may involve landscape and outdoor settings. Space planning services consider numerous design parameters, including the project's goals and priorities, the organizational structure and relationships, space allocation criteria, building codes and access for the disabled, furniture standards, circulation and work flow, design considerations, the constraints of fixed building elements and building system interfaces, security and privacy issues, and flexibility for accommodating future space needs.
3.1 Spaces Relations Chart
Neufert considered the main source you need in space planning and case studies. Starting with the cases I will programing the spaces then the Neufert and finally with my project needs. Case Studiesâ€™ Space Planning The diagram shows a comparison between the three spectrum diagrams of the chosen precedent which have been analyzed previously.
FIG 002 Bubble Diagram, Public Services.
FIG 001 Diagram, Case Studiesâ€™ Space Planning.
FIG 003 Bubble Diagram, Tours Services
3.2 Standard Detail
3.3 Building Program & Area
FIG 004 Huma Scale 1, Neufert Standard.
Neufert Slandered Using the Neufert Standered book will make it easy to get the right area that you need to know about the spaces in any building. some spaces you can not find it directly so you need to use the spaces that has the same function use or near to it to calculate the area which need. here goes to search in the spaces that are familiar with use in other building such as the multipurpose halls and the exhibition area, the others which is the torus spaces I find some in the airports terminals sections and transportations. (FIG 009) Calculate the spaces that going to be used by the public which means the spaces that are not related to the terminal. (FIG 010) Calculate the spaces that going to be used by the traveler or people will use the boats, ships, or seaplanes.
Abu Dhabi Marina Termina Based on the spatial analysis and space calculations in the case studies and the the neufert, it is easy for me now to calculate the spaces and the total area that I am going to use in Abu Dhabi Marina Terminal. The calculations will based also on the needs of the project depending on the location area importance, users, and functions will improved inside. (FIG 011) the calculations for the public spaces that going to be used by visitors. (FIG 012) calculations for spaces going to be used for tourists or people will use boats or seaplanes. to be noted, this area is the primer calculation for the building which almost will have some changes in the development in design stage which will be in grad II.
FIG 009 Schedual, Public Services, Neufert Standered.
FIG 011 Schedual, Public Services, Abu Dhabi Marina Terminal, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 010 Schedual, Tour Services, Neufert Standered.
FIG 012 Schedual,Tour Services, Abu Dhabi Marina Terminal, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 005 Seating, Neufert Standard.
FIG 007 Airport Planning, Neufert Standard.
FIG 006 Airport Runway and Aprons, Neufert Standard.
FIG 008 Airport Terminal, Neufert Standard.
FIG 4.2.7 Futuristic Vision of Abu Dhabi, Collagesma Al Adhamy 2014
4.1 Site Selection Marina terminal requires a site approaching from the water surface for its needs of usage will be based on water, the United Arab Emirates has its largest cities approaching to the Arabian Gulf From the Top side and Gulf of Oman from the Lower side, The lump of the Emirates are Costal Cities, and its most famous Ports are Zayed in Abu Dhabi, Al Hamriya and Jebel Ali in Dubai, other Ports are located in the other cities like Sharjah, Ajman and Fujairah, all of the ports are mainly trading Areas, also its most famous marinas are Abu Dhabi marina and Yas marina in Abu Dhabi, other marinas are located in Dubai and Ajman, other projects like Marina Clubs, Yacht Clubs , Sailing Clubs are distributed around the Emirates, but no such project as a marina terminal is yet existed. I chose to locate my project in Abu Dhabi for many reasons. Starting with it’s strategic fascinating location which it’s very rich in water. Then the new vision of architectural development in the city and the surrounding and exploits the water to increasing the islands also the rallying between the tourism, culture, and entertain (FIG 4.1.1-6).
FIG 002United Arab Emirates World Map
FIG 005 Site I, Abu Dhabi – Al Saadiyat Island, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 003 United Arab Emirates Map, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 006 Site II, Abu Dhabi – Yas Island, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 004 Abu Dhabi Location on Map, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 007 Site III, Abu Dhabi – Coconut Island, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
Facts and Figures
Climate: Tropical, semi-dry climate, with hot summers, warm win ters and scanty rainfall. History: The British drag from the Persian Gulf in 1971, and the Trucial states became a federation union called the United Arab Emirates (UAE). TGeography: in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, extends along part of the Gulf of Oman and the southern coast of the Persian Gulf. The nation is the size of Maine. Its neighbors are Saudi Arabia to the west and south, Qatar to the north, and Oman to the east. Most of the land is barren and sandy. Language: The Official language of UAE is Arabic, but English is widely spoken and understood in the busi¬ness environment. Local Time: The UAE uses Gulf Standard Time (GST), which is 4 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT+4). Currency: The monetary unit is the Dirham (DH or AED) which is divided into100 files. Social & Business hours: Private sector hours are typically from 8.30 or 9.00 am to 5.30 or 6.00 pm and the government sector from 7.30 am to 2.30 pm within. But in Ramadan month, the daily work is reduced to 6 hours and legally this could apply to all employees, however not all firms apply it to Muslims. Friday and Saturday are the official days off. (FIG 4.1.7-9). 70
FIG 008 Abu Dhabi, Solar Energy and Desertâ€™s Heat Solutions Proposal, Collage, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 009 Abu Dhabi, Marina Proposals and activities, Collage, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
4.2.1 Location and Access Site I: An entire district on Saadiyat is devoted to culture and the arts. Unprecedented in scale and scope, Saadiyat Cultural District will be a center for global culture, drawing local, regional and international visitors with unique exhibitions, permanent collections, productions and performances. Its iconic institutions will be housed in buildings constituting a statement of the finest architecture at the beginning of the 21st century. It is only 15.4 km from the center of Abu Dhabi, taking 20min. by car, 3km from Manarat Al Saadiyat taking 5 min., and 30.1km from Yas Island taking 19min. The site surrounded by many museums and in the opposite side sheikh Zayed port. Marina terminal located in the cultural district of the island exactly on the gulf nearby Sheikh Khalifa Bridge (FIG 4.2.1). Site II: The region’s prime leisure and entertainment destination, picture a place purpose built to provide all your business needs. A home to some of the UAE’s most spectacular attractions, racing events, concerts, and luxury hotels. It is only 25 minutes from Abu Dhabi, 45 minutes from Dubai, and 10 mins. From Saadiyat Island. Yas Island is very accessible. Marina terminal located in the Yas North nearby the gulf. It is surrounded by all the entertaining districts that support the terminal to be in a strategic area for tourists and locals (FIG 4.2.2).. Site III: Coconut Island designed to be a high luxury residential, retail, and commercial space. It’s easy to attract people to visit for the landmarks that it surround it and because it’s almost in the middle of the city. It is only 12 minutes from Abu Dhabi, 1hour and 35 minutes from Dubai, 24 mins. from Saadiyat Island, and 35 mins. from Yas Island. Marina terminal located in the Southeast of the island and has a direct access from main road (FIG 4.2.3).
FIG 010 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island –Site location and Access, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 011 Site II, Abu Dhabi, Yas Island –Site location and Access, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 012 Site III, Abu Dhabi, Coconut Island –Site location and Access, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
4.2.2 Function and Landmarks The new strategy for Abu Dhabi is to increase the island that surrounds the center of Abu Dhabi because of the increasing in population and the needs. They used to distribute the city’s function with the needs of the spaces which is also a variation in use. In Abu Dhabi Islands there are many functions they are provided with. On each island there are many functions they used to have like governmental, recreational, educational, cultural, parks, hotels, retail, and residential area (FIG 4.3.1). Site I: Al Saadiyat Island is varied with the function that going to be used. The main District that gathering this function is the culture that is because it’s going to be rich with the museums and exhibition centers. Also an open space will be available like the Saadiyat beach and the golf club. So the population in this area going to be very high because it will attract the tourists not only the locals (FIG 4.3.2). Site II: the most exclusive and special on Yas Island is that it will be an entertainment center which it consider it is not far that much from Dubai. The Island almost half of it is an amusement area and the other half is residential, hotel, reservation, and recreation. So the area that will surround the site is perfect for gathering tourism and residence which means that the population going to be high specially that the area designed for an open space and built up area. Site III: People are usually attracted to exposed spaces. Especially in the last four months when the weather going to be beauteous to use the outside, otherwise they attract to the shopping mall, restaurants, and marina club. Coconut Island is not built yet so the population is very little but the surrounding variant between high and medium density because the area considered the center of Abu Dhabi (FIG 4.3.3).
FIG 013 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island –Site Functions and Landmarks, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 014 Site II, Abu Dhabi, Yas Island –Site Functions and Landmarks, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 015 Site III, Abu Dhabi, Coconut Island –Site Functions and Landmarks, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
4.2.3 Demography Population in Abu Dhabi is 2.34 million. 476,722 of them are national, 1,857,841 are non-national, 1,396,449 are urban population and 938,114 are rural population. The average annual population growth rate (2012): 7.9%. Tourism increased by the time to become an important economic district. This is needed more build up area, open spaces, transportation, and places to be visited or used by tourists and locals. The three diagrams show the differences of tourists and locals ratio. Year: census 1975 census 1985 census 1995 census 2005 Abu Dhabi: 211,812 566,036 942,463 1,399,484 Site I: In Al Saadiyat Island the population density that can occupy the area of the island is 80,000 people. But because that the island not designed to be a residential so this ratio can be available for a specific time depending on the Occasions that gathering people in the cultural, reserve, and lagoons districts (FIG 4.4.1). Site II: Yas Island does not have that difference of population which can occupy, it can reach 75,000 people. But again the island will not be a resident only, it’s designed to be mainly for entertaining. Almost half of this area will be for a residence and the other half will have a variation in density depending on the occasions. So almost half of the people’s ratio will be Residents on the island and it can be increased (FIG 4.4.2). Site III: Coconut Island designed to be a residential isle and it will be very luxury residence. But because it’s new so there is no ensure information about what is the percentage of high rise, medium rise, and low rise building. This means that we cannot assume the percentage of the population density. But generally the area of the Island almost 3 Km square (FIG 4.4.3).
FIG 016 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island –Tourists and Local ratio, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 017 Site II, Abu Dhabi, Yas Island –Tourists and Local ratio, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 018 Site III, Abu Dhabi, Coconut Island –Tourists and Local ratio, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
4.2.4 Environment The UAE is blessed with sunshine year round and is known as a tropical desert climate. During the winter months, December – March, rainfall is rare but peaks in February; expected temperatures pleasantly average 23ºC / 73ºF. The summer months can reach scorching highs of 45ºC / 104ºF but you’ll find the region is very well equipped with cooling systems. Site I: In Al Saadiyat Island and precisely the cultural district, it located side by the gulf so the humidity in this area will be at the peak comparing with the inner districts that located away from the gulf. The wind in UAE in the north-west so it will be from the water side, this is can provide cool air for the area. And about the noise, mainly it focused on the main vehicles rail otherwise the noise will be in the museums and exhibition centers depending on the enumeration of the occasions. Cooling spots come from the water side and the green area (FIG 4.5.1). Site II: Yas island also located side by the gulf so the humidity in this area will be at the peak comparing with the center of the island that located away from the gulf. The wind in UAE in the north-west part of it will be from the water side, this is can provide cool air to the area and about the noise, mainly it focused on the main vehicles rail otherwise the noise will be in the public spaces and entertainment centers .Cooling spots come from the water side and the green area (FIG 4.5.2). Site III: Coconut island located on the gulf so the water is surround it from all the sides and because it’s small island, so the humidity will be high in all island. The wind in UAE in the north-west so it will be from the water side, and again this will provide cool air for the area. about the noise, mainly it focused on the main vehicles rail otherwise the noise will be in the public spaces and entertainment centers .Cooling spots come from the water side and the green area (FIG 4.5.3).
FIG 019 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island – Environment, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG 020 Site II, Abu Dhabi, Yas Island –Environment, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
FIG021 Site III, Abu Dhabi, Coconut Island –Environment, Asma Al Adhamy 2014.
4.2.5 Historic and Developments Site I: Al Saadiyat Island will provide many spaces that can gather people who lives in the UAE or even the tourist weather it’s a hotel, shopping centers, residencies, exhibitions, or entertaining spaces. Part of it planned to be open spaces and others are built up. With the raped changing in architecture and the expansions of the city, Al Saadiyat Island had some parts that opened and others are under constructions (FIG 4.6.1). Site II: Yas Island currently is developing to achieve it’s own goal to be the island that people can entertain in. And because it has a huge area so most of the spaces are either underconstraction or not built yet. Otherwise the entertainment centers and the retail building opened during the past period (FIG 4.6.2).
FIG 022 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island –Site and Surrounding currently
FIG 023 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island –Site and Surrounding Developments
FIG 024 Site II, Abu Dhabi, Yas Island – Site and Surrounding currently
FIG 025 Site II, Abu Dhabi – Yas Island, Site and Surrounding Developments
FIG 026 Site III, Abu Dhabi, Coconut Island – Site and Surrounding currently
FIG 027 Site III, Abu Dhabi – Coconut Island, Site and Surrounding Developments
Site III: Coconut island currently is empty and there is nothing built yet. almost everything is under planning stage. But the surrounding are built already. Some of them since the length of time and the other was in the past period. The island going to be a very high luxury space that contains a hotels, retail, and residential buildings (FIG 4.6.3).
4.2.6 Skyline Site I: Cultural Area in Al Saadiyat Island has a variation in the height of the buildings. Most of the building which near by the museums considered a mid-rising level so it will not be a crowded area compared with the inner part that has different height level. The highest points in the area the landmarks which is the museums to be the focal spots. Other buildings going to be lower than them (FIG 4.7.1). Site II: Yas Island North has a height level between low rise and mid rise level. starting with the residential villas to the mid rise hotels that are nearby the gulf. Landmarks which are the entertainment centers are a low to mow-mid rise level this is can affect the height of the buildings in the island specially that is the main thing on this island is to be an entertainment island (FIG 4.7.2).
FIG 028 Site I, Abu Dhabi, Al Saadiyat Island –Skyline
Site III: Buildings at the north-west side of the Coconut Island are a high rise hotel and started to get lower away from the island. The other sides have different height levels. the governmental buildings which near from the island are almost mid rise. On the other side of the main road, buildings getting higher level (FIG 4.7.3).
FIG 029 Site II, Abu Dhabi – Yas Island,Skyline
FIG 030 Site III, Abu Dhabi – Coconut Island, Skyline
FIG 031 A table comparing between all sites, The light blue cells show the positive aspects of choosing the site, and the peach ones are mutual. Choosing criteria mentioned earlier.
In this chapter Am going to propose three design concepts for Abu Dhabi Marina Terminal and I will include concept development, environment, zoning and location. Then I will choose one of them to be continued in Grad II with more detail about drawings, spaces, landscape, constraction and material. 94
7:00 am Summer
12:00 PM Summer
6:00 Pm Summer
FIG 002 Concept Development, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 003 Environment- Daylight Effect, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
5.1.3 Zoning and Location
Entertainment Exhibitions and Conferences
FIG 004 Zoning, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 005 Site Location, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
7:00 am Summer
12:00 PM Summer
6:00 Pm Summer
FIG 006 Concept Development, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 007 Environment, Daylight Effect, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
5.2.3 Zoning and Location
Parking Exhibitions and Conferences
FIG 008 Zoning, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 009 Site Location, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
7:00 am Summer
12:00 PM Summer
6:00 Pm Summer
FIG 010 Concept Development, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 011 Environment, Daylight Effect., Asma Al Adhamy 2014
5.3.3 Zoning and Location
Parking Plaza Entertainment
Exhibitions and Conferences
Exhibitions and Conferences Parking Plaza
FIG 012 Zoning, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 013 Site Location, Asma Al Adhamy 2014
FIG 014 Comparison between the concepts
Starting with chapter I, I discussed briefly the needs of the water and how people was searching for, and how the idea of the travelling in the sea and rivers. The examples that I used to study during the history is the Port of Antwerp and Port of Basra as historical ports and Dubai marina as contemporary. The difference very clear between them that at the past , The port used to be a place for loading goods to and travel by them to other countries for trades or getting people needs in other cities. The site of the ports was not big that much as the area because it was not easy and cheap to buy the ships. The port was an area with one or two security to that set in a small closed room. The idea of the ports become bigger depends on the needs of the city, the use of it, and how many ships they have. By the time, port started to transport people between cites for education, detections, treatment, and entertain. The Sailing expanded to be an important issue in normal life. This is affect the surrounding of the port. The small room which used to be for security become a small building then a big building that people can wait, set, and travel or arrive in. The second example shows that marina is another meaning or use for ports. It is for a small boats or yachts and it include shops, restaurants, coffee shops plaza, and playing area so it became a place for entertain. So there are many factors affect the development of the port the life changes and the increasing of people’s requirement until it become a basic transportation system now a day. The Definition of the project and how the spaces’ functions affected by the name of the terminal whether it is port, cruse, harbor, or marina. Now most of the cities they do not mix between the ports and marina for example because they cannot control the site easily. The case studies was the next chapter. I chose three contemporary cases that help me to be closer to the notion and how architects now dealing with such projects. each case presented the concept, architectural view, interior spaces, tectonic, and façade of a building and how each part can add a touch to the building mass until it looks a piece of artificial gateway. It was very obvious that the architects in each case tried to link the project with the past, heritage, or the traditions of the city. As an architecture view, architects tried to form the building to be a landmark that attracts people to visit and not to forget to present the tradition of the concept in modern view or sometimes the main point in the form is in line with the climate or weather effects. One of the most important things that I learned from these cases is 108
the clear, easy, and the strong circulation inside the building. This create a compacted functional spaces that smoothing the flow of the people. Two things that supporting the indoor spaces are the construction of the building and the façade. The tectonic of each case shows the clearness of the modern look of the architecture. Usually, the clearance of the modernism of architecture can be seen in the façade because it is the first thing that catch the people visually and create for them the first impression about the building. The façade’s concept was very obvious in the cases that I used to study. In the first case the façade created from the concept which is the canopies. it used to be part of the form. Two sime-domes connected with each other and the opening is a small rhomboid shape distributed in a rhythm on the surface of the roof. In the second case, the skin is pure glass and the roof is green to be linked with the landscape. But in the third case the architect used to create a parametric design for the skin that cover the whole building and. Also he used a double skin so light can pass through the holes that created in the parametric to the indoor by the glass which it protect the indoor from the openings. The structure also has different trace on the buildings. When it be seen in the project it makes people closer to the design or creativity in the building. Also it can be part of the special feature or element that entices the public to the building. In the first case, the structure was very obvious on the ground, interior and exterior that it surrounds the building. Compare it to the second case, the structure is clear in the roof of the building otherwise the facade shows the fixation of the glass clearly also the columns are shown. The most interesting structure that presented in the third case, because of its used double skin so it becomes more complicated. There are three layers presented in the façade; glass, louver internal skin, and the fiber structural skin. Also in the atrium the structure was seen in the facade they used carbon fiber truss with glass and carbon fiber for the flooring. This complicated seen structure can add a different touch to the building whether in the interior or exterior. The most influential element is the glass. It can match between the senses of being outside in an indoor space. This is considered a smart concept especially in the countries that have the uncomfortable climate to use the outer. As well it can feel people in energetic, vim, and vigor because of the sun’s light that can pass through it. Environmentally, second case considered
the clearest project that showing how it dealt with sunlight as an example. It’s so clear the changing in the direction of the building to be more lighted inside with no direct sun radiation that pass to inside which could increase the heat. But the other two cases it almost works the same direction.
Marine Gateway in Taiwanese city of Kaohsiung took 39% of the area, 14% in New Keelung Harbor Terminal, and in Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center there is no plaza as a space.
As the outcome of cases’ program I started to sort the spaces that I can add to the Abu Dhabi marina There is an opening in the covered skin that allow terminal, starting with the bubble diagram that can the light to pass through. But also these cases façade nearing the space distribution of the design and this many interior spaces that looks dark. The landscape could envision me more of the rooms inside if it need has a special, exceptional, and fascinating touch and more area, spaces, or detailing. It’s supposed to be a the surrounding. Landscape not only add a beautiful good starting point for the design stage. I divided the sense, it’s also defined the outer spaces and become bubble and spatial analysis into two parts; the main a guide to the building access. In addition it breaks one is sailing part that contains the arrival and departhe rigidity of the mass as a solid bloc by adding soft- ture halls, bags’ store, tickets, customer services, and en, colorful, and relaxation to the site. activity area. And the other one is the spaces that used by the public which it almost the entertainment All of what mentioned previously are elements that section. This is managing to simplify the projects and provides to create a distinctive, cheerful, and debo- spaces’ sections. You can see that most of the spacnair interior spaces. These spaces have to specified es have no strong relationships to be near from each depending on the needs and how many persons that other, but! It can complete each other in one buildcan Accommodated. Chapter III discussed this issue ing. starting with the spatial analysis of the case studies. Classifying the interior spaces, areas, recurrences, Then I initiated to calculate the spaces’ ratio from the and total area in each case. This could help more to Neufert. It considered the main reference for splitunderstand the needs of such projects. Then com- ting spaces and zoning the site, also it gives an examparing the ratio between the cases. ple for the areas and space planning that I need in my project. I tried to choose the nearest ratio to my Beginning with the area of the projects, the third project’s needs. The second reference is the spatial case (New Keelung Harbor Terminal) is the biggest analysis of case studies. It can give me a real example area which is 140,000 sq. m. secondly, is the second of such project that submitted to be built. According case (Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Service Center) by to what I need, how I want, and how many people HMC Architects which is around 91,440 sq. m. and can be available inside, I started to do my own space the third is the first case (Marine Gateway in Taiwan- programing. The essential space in the terminal is the ese city of Kaohsiung) which is 40,000 sq. m.. But it arrival and departure halls, lobby, the plaza whethis worth mentioning the first case study has also two er it is inside or outside (depending on design) and towers as part of the total area. The most important the landscaping. Entertainment part consist of buildthing that should be compared between the cases in ing services, shops, restaurants, coffee shops, plaza, spaces are the arrival and departure halls, lobbies, gym, and multipurpose halls. Car parking, bicycle and the plazas. The arrival and departure halls is 58% ways, and pedestrian walk way that lead to and from of the total area in Kaohsiung Port and Cruise Ser- the building. vice Center which means that this is the main goal of the project is to be for travelling landmark than 8% from the total area of Marine Gateway in Taiwan- These spacious area the crown of the project whethese city of Kaohsiung and 4% of the total area of the er it’s going to be as entertaining or as a transportNew Keelung Harbor Terminal which means that the ing system. The total area of these spaces with 20% terminal has different goals than to be traveling land- of the circulation can give me the initial percentages mark in these cases. Lobbies 18% in of New Keelung and an area for the project. Then and after studying Harbor Terminal, 6% in Marine Gateway in Taiwan- the site I can help me to border the area of the site ese city of Kaohsiung, and 3% in Kaohsiung Port and that I need with the availability or at least it will diCruise Service Center this affected by the function rect me to know how many floors am I going to build. spaces that used in the projects. And the plaza in 109
After studying the space programing I started to search about the site that support the idea that I got from the previous studing. Firts I search about the country and I chose United Arab Emarites specifically Abu Dhabi which is the capital. Then I suggusted three sites in Abu Dhabi Al Saadiat Island, Yas Island, and Coconut Island. I analyse each site suparitlly but sharing the caractiristics. After the analysis I compared between them and i chose Coconut Island which has the highest rank.
the tangible needs that found in tourism and lifestyle of the city. This idea of a consistent environment (melded between heritage and modernism) is reinforced specifically within building form and functionality, utilizing prefabrication technologies and buildingâ€™s form as a way to mitigate exposure to overt solar radiation and exterior distractions. For this point of view, each module acts as its own space within the city system and allows people to progress forward according to their own needs. In this sense, the architecture is flexNext, continued by suggested three concept design ible and non-site specific which will allow for greater for the building that have different forms and zoning. feasibility in a variety of climate and user groups. As a to be continued next semester with the design stage reflective thought, my desire is to pursue this project wholeheartedly into possible realization. with more details and drawings.
Conclusion This thesis was prepared to begin a foundation of research and initiatory studies in improvement of form and space. In this manner, the work was done attempting to state an idea, analyze, or justify any article related to the project. Rather, this work is to act as a starting point for a lifetime of observation, sensation, and meditation. Representing a cell into a new education, the previous educational years culminated into a driven belief and a willingness to test it. With an assertion on the subject and notion, this is in no way meant to decrease the truth or honesty of the researches and studies in this document. The observations and interpretations of this thesis will arrive at end to the main point; however, it had to be stated that the peak directive of this document is to develop a tool, from which future referral, renewal, and reassurance may come. What are probably unique about this thesis are its experience, and its systems approach in studying architectural entrench. The contribution of the study to achieve on Abu Dhabi architectural approach is therefore both locally and internationally. The study has identified the special organizational characteristics of architectural tactic in Abu Dhabi. It has also specified the basis of the harmony processes and functioning of architectural basics in UAE. The architecture proposed within this thesis aims to merge the seemingly fathomless gap between wide life and water life for the tourists and locals in the city. It also means to serve such an architecture to 110
Marina Terminal Graduation Project References
Books • Contemporary World Architecture, Hugh Pearman 1998. • Development Program Of The Cruise Terminal Of Trieste (Molo Bersaglieri). • New Transport Architecture, Will Jones, Mitchell Beazley Isbn 1845332180 • Port Architecture: Constructing The Littoral By Peter Quartermaine, First Published In Great Britiain In 1999 By Academy Editions. • The Geography Of Transport Systems Port Terminals, Authors: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dr. Brian Slack And Dr. Theo Notteboom, Third Edi tion Jean-Paul Rodrigue (2013), New York: Routledge, 416 Pages. Isbn 978-0-415-82254-1. • Transport Facilities Edition 2012, Carles Broto • 2011 Competition Annual All standards were obtained from the following books : • Time Saver: all building types. • Neufert.
• anamouhandiss.blogspot.ae • architizer.com • architype.org • hmcarchitects.com • housevariety.blogspot.ae • issuu.com • Synthesis-dna.com • urbanlabglobalcities.blogspot.ae • • • • • • • • • • •
www.architizer.com www.asymptote.net www.bustler.net www.contemporist.com www.indianetzone.com www.metalocus.es www.mimdap.org www.oneviewcg.com www.portofantwerp.com www.suckerpunchdaily.com www.wikipedia.com