Page 1

URBAN manual for

INTER S

s s

TITIAL

P A C

E Ashwini Dhamankar | Master of Urban Design


Urban Negative : A manual for Interstitial Spaces Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Urban Design Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Urban Design at Savannah College of Art and Design

Ashwini Dhamankar Savannah, GA Š March 2017 Ryan Madson, Committee Chair Alice Guess, Committee Member Lauren Fraley, Committee Member


Acknowledgements I appreciate the effort put forward by my mom , dad and sister financially because of whom I could survive in SCAD for two long years and more. I would like to extend my gratitude to my SCAD professor team of Ryan Madson and Alice Guess who pushed me throughout my thesis till the level of being chosen as an award honoree. Special thanks to Lauren Fraley for her continuous inputs, comments and her time outside of SCAD. Without their passionate participation and inputs, my thesis would have been rendered useless. My special thanks to all my friends including Sarah, Karishma, Priyanka for being there always without whom I wouldn’t have been as inquisitive as I am today. My profound gratitude to my parents, and family back in India for unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my study. This stage of life would have been impossible without them. Without the help of above all, the completion of this study would not have been possible.


CONTENTS


01 02 03 04 05

List of figures

1

Glossary

8

Abstract

9

Introduction

11

3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3

What is an Interstitial Space? Goldman Alley, New York The Ghost Train Park, Lima. Peru Highline, New York

18 19 20 24

4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Case Studies MAT Architecture The Social of Small Urban Spaces Atlanta Beltline Conclusion

25 26 30 34 36

5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

Urban Voids Unpacked Planned Voids Functional Voids Geographical Voids Residual Space Typologies Concluding on Voids

37 38 39 40 41 42


06

6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5

Atlanta Building Atlanta Building Streetcars - Introduction and Exit Finding Voids Addressing the Voids SLOAP - Spaces Leftover Over After Planning

43 45 51 55 56 57

07

7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3

Introduction to the SITE The Gulch, Atlanta Lots and Lots of Parking Lots Panoramas

59 61 67 69

8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6

In and Around The Districts Downtown Atlanta North Downtown Atlanta South Downtown Atlanta Block Analysis Castleberry Hills

81 82 83 85 87 90 91

09

9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5

Talking Numbers and Charts Base map Conceptual Ideas Green Spaces Demographics Population Influx

97 98 99 100 107 108

10

10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

Thinking Design Strategies Bike Share Streetcar Expansion plans Conceptual Design

111 113 115 117 121

08


11 12 13 14 15

11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6

Bridging Interstitial Spaces Statistics Goals Site specific goals Strategies Right of Way Multi level Atlanta

123 124 126 127 129 131 137

12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7

Manual for Interstitial Spaces Sound Mitigation and Strategies Habitable barriers Spatial scales Building edges Space + Typologies Architecture Urban Squares

143 144 146 147 148 149 151 153

13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3

Design Applications Urban squares in place Masterplan Anonometrics

155 156 159 160

After Thoughts

163

Final Exhibition Boards

165

Annotated Bibliography

169


List of Figures

02 03 04 1

Figure 01 Figure 02 Figure 03

Urban fabric of Rome Source: ‘Great Streets’ by Allan Jacobs Under the elevated railways in New York Sorce: www.nycsubway.org Empty parking garage in Winsconcin Goldman Alley New York

13 15 16

Figure 04 Figure 05 Figure 06 Figure 07 Figure 08 Figure 09 Figure 10

Goldman Alley New York Ghost train park , Lima Ghost Train Park, Lima Ghost Train Park, Lima Lines on the High Line, New York Highline reference photograph Renovating Highline, New York

19 20 20 20 21 22 23

Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13

Traditional quarter of Algerian Kasbah Alison and Peter Smithson visions for an ideal city Analysis of plans for Frankfurt-Römerberg, by Candilis, Josic, Woods and Scheidhelm Competition model for Frankfurt-Romerberg Center Mies Van Der Rohe’s Seagram Building Social life of small Urban Spaces by William Whyte Social life of Small Urban Spaces by William Whyte Jan Gehl’s Life Between Buildings Jan Gehl’s Life between Buildings Atlanta Beltline- Where Atlanta comes together Source: https://beltline.org/ Atlanta Beltline Master strategy plan Art on the Atlanta Beltline Art on the Atlanta Beltline Art on the Atlanta Beltline

26 26 27

Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24

28 30 31 31 32 32 33 34 34 34 34


List of Figures

05 06

Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29

The Visionary Urban Design of the Eixample District, Barcelona Detroit defunct space in Detroit Source: www.devianart.com Los Angeles River, California A typology of urban residual spaces. By Erick Villagomez. Aerial photograph of Atlanta, 1919

38 39 40 41 42

Figure 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42

Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology Aerial view of Downtown Atlanta 1929 Old picture of Atlanta’s Alabama St underground, 1920 Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta Trolley construction Atlanta streetcar Atlanta streetcar on streets Atlanta streetcar on streets Two Conductors Outside Streetcar 169 End of the River Line at Riverside Atlanta Georgia in 1908 – Georgia State University Library Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s land parcels Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s left behinds Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s underutilized spaces Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s edges Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s edges

45 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 51 51 52 53 54

Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47

07

Figure 48 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51

Site introduction representational map Photograph showing the site and the neighborhood Site photographs Site photographs

55 55 55 56 56

61 63 65 65 2


08 3

Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64

Site photographs Site photographs Site photographs Site photographs Site photographs Site photographs Site photo highlighting the taking over by parking lots Site panorama Site panorama Site panorama Site panorama Site panorama Site panorama

65 65 66 66 66 66 67 69 71 73 75 77 79

Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 Figure 72 Figure 73 Figure 74 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 79 Figure 80 Figure 81

Google image highlighting the downtown area Google image highlighting the north of downtown area Google image highlighting the south of downtown area Analysis of Street network of Downtown Atlanta Analysis of mass void percentage in downtown Atlanta Analysis of surface parking percentage in downtown Atlanta Representational map of downtown Atlanta in relation to the Gulch Sketches showing the quality of life of downtown Atlanta Sketches showing the quality of life of downtown Atlanta Analysis of Street network of North Downtown Atlanta Analysis of mass void percentage in North Downtown Atlanta Analysis of surface parking percentage in North Downtown Atlanta Representational map of North Downtown Atlanta in relation to the Gulch Sketches showing the quality of life of North Downtown Atlanta Sketches showing the quality of life of North Downtown Atlanta Analysis of Street network of South Downtown Atlanta Analysis of mass void percentage in South Downtown Atlanta

82 82 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 85 85 85 85 86 86 87 87


09

Figure 82 Figure 83 Figure 84 Figure 85 Figure 86 Figure 87 Figure 88 Figure 89 Figure 90 Figure 91 Figure 92 Figure 93 Figure 94 Figure 95 Figure 96

Analysis of surface parking percentage in South Downtown Atlanta Representational map of South Downtown Atlanta in relation to the Gulch Sketches showing the quality of life of South Downtown Atlanta Sketches showing the quality of life of South Downtown Atlanta Aerial view of Downtown Atlanta Block analysis in downtown Atlanta Block analysis in North Downtown Atlanta Block analysis in South Downtown Atlanta Castleberry Hill buildings Public urban fabric of Castleberry Hills Public urban fabric of Castleberry Hills Public urban fabric of Castleberry Hill Representational map showing the adjacent neighborhoods in relation to the site Graffiti wall in Castleberry Hill Graffiti wall in Castleberry Hill

87 87 88 88 89 90 90 90 91 92 92 93 94 95 95

Figure 97 Figure 98 Figure 99 Figure 100 Figure 101 Figure 102 Figure 103 Figure 104 Figure 105 Figure 106 Figure 107 Figure 108 Figure 109 Figure 110 Figure 111

Base map Current situation of Surface parking Expected scenario Figure comparing percentages of green spaces across cities/states Atlanta downtown pictures Atlanta downtown pictures Site pictures Site pictures Site pictures Graffiti wall in downtown Atlanta Pie chart comparing the population percentage Pie chart comparing the house percentage Pie chart comparing the crime percentage Representational map of future plans by the City of Atlanta Upcoming development in Atlanta

98 99 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 107 107 108 109 4


10 11 5

Figure 112 Figure 113 Figure 114 Figure 115

Upcoming development in Atlanta Upcoming development in Atlanta Upcoming development in Atlanta Upcoming development in Atlanta

109 109 110 110

Figure 116 Figure 117 Figure 118 Figure 119 Figure 120 Figure 121 Figure 122 Figure 123 Figure 124 Figure 125 Figure 126 Figure 127

Initial sketch of the proposal Design Idea representational maps Design idea representational maps Bike share maps of London Bike share map of London Bike sharing cities in America Atlanta streetcar Representational map showing the streetcar stops Aerial photograph of Atlanta streetcar Representational map showing the proposed streetcar stops Design idea for transformation of Marta Atlanta Station Design idea transformation for residential quarter

112 113 114 115 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122

Figure 128 Figure 129 Figure 130 Figure 131 Figure 132 Figure 133 Figure 134 Figure 135 Figure 136 Figure 137 Figure 138 Figure 139

Site goals Site bound goals Site bound goals Site Strategies Site strategies Current street section Proposed street section Visual thinking diagrams Visual thinking diagrams Visual thinking diagrams Many levels of Atlanta’s terrain Aerial view of five points showing the construction of

125 127 128 129 130 131 133 134 135 136 137 138


Figure 141 Figure 142 Figure 143

the fourth national bank building Atlanta 1904 Representational map showing the important transit networks and urban fabric of Atlanta Design strategies manipulating the terrain of Atlanta Representational map showing the evolution of terrains through sections Spatial analysis

Figure 144 Figure 145 Figure 146 Figure 147 Figure 148 Figure 149 Figure 150 Figure 151 Figure 152 Figure 153 Figure 154

Representational map of sound barriers Sound barrier strategy diagrams Habitable barriers Spatial scales - Micro, Macro and Social Strategy for building edges Spatial typology segregation Spatial typologies Proposal for local architecture Strategy for mass divisions Square in New York Roman Agoras

144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154

Figure 155 Figure 156 Figure 157 Figure 158 Figure 159 Figure 160 Figure 161

Representation of proposals for urban squares Representation of proposals for urban squares Representation of proposals for urban squares Masterplan for Gulch Sectional Axonometrics Sectional Axonometrics Sectional Axonometrics

156 157 158 159 160 161 162

Figure 140

12 13

139 140 141 142

6


“ Once a new idea springs into existence, it cannot be unthought. There is a sense of immortality to a new idea. “ Edward De Bono

7


Glossary Re-make ‘ Make something again or differently.’ Re-use ‘Use again or more than once.’ Waste ‘ Unwanted or unusable material, substances, or by-products.’ Interstitial spaces Slivers in the urban fabric often similar to the voids Urban Voids Blank and unusable space; empty but filled with potentials, these urban voids are all those things simply because of its nature, left to interpretation but mostly because of perception. Catalyst Urban design terms catalyst as a redevelopment strategy consisting of different guidelines, implementations which drive urban transformations.

8


01

9

ABSTRACT


01

Urban Negative :

A manual for Interstitial Spaces Ashwini Dhamankar March 2017

In any given city, there are slivers and portions of awkward spaces. To classify them they would be in between buildings, occupying edge conditions, not enough to occupy any form of traditional use which can be termed ‘residual’. The phenomenon of excess in the modern city which can be understood as waste of space, waste of public realm and waste of discarded materials is the result of passive actions. The urban voids are an important component in the built environment. With the discovery of each urban voids, whats the thesis revolves, is the enormity of its hidden potentials in these urban voids. However, today’s urban design is more concerned about the built. This thesis revitalizes some of the very important slivers in the city space. It aims to create a manual for dealing with such voids which can act as a catalyst in developing the environment. The research aims to emphasize the potential of the abundance of waste which can be reinvigorated through urban scale intervention. The idea is to reactivate residual spaces which can trigger for social capital and discarded space regeneration. The research intends to create a scenario of residual space reactivation through temporary use and community participation using required intervention tools. The emphasis is on creating multi-faceted responsive environment that respects both – the user and public experience. The research methodology plans to include the analysis and cataloging of a variety of residual spaces which can be culminated in a design proposal for an urban intervention. In general, residual spaces tend to be treated as land put aside for future urban occupations, environmental reserves or simply no-man’s land. My intention of this thesis is to reverse the negative impression of such spaces and thinking positively as an open space with maximum plausible potentials. The aim is to highlight the importance of considering these spaces as components and structuring elements of urban occupation. The research is an elaboration of a method of recognition, analysis, evaluation and proposal of the planning of residual spaces. The result is presented as a catalogue for dealing with such voids and turning them into potentials. Keywords : Urban infill, voids, interstitial spaces, urban design 10


02

11

INTRODUCTION


02

In the current micro-scaled panorama, the world is combating with issues such as population, diversity, pollution. While cities provide with exciting opportunities for growth and revitalization, they are also dealing with number of problems such as handling incalculable population, ecological, environmental problems. Historically, urban design is a discipline which deals with architectural outlook an planning of the city well in which we dwell. The contemporary face of urban not only now deals with simplistic economics and aesthetic factors, but also with their cultural, environmental and social impacts of those spaces.

Wall & Waterman, 2010

“ Contemporary urban design exists at a crossroads of architecture, landscape architecture and city planning. It functions as a collaborative creative process between several disciplines and results in three dimensional urban forms and space, enhancing the life of the city and its inhabitants. Urban design is concerned with how places function, not just how they look. “ During the past decades, different movements have taken place without the consideration of the most important facto - THE HUMAN BEING - leaving a lot of unused spaces within the urban context. Relying on case studies, references and research , this master thesis deals with such specific kind of not functioning parts of the urban environment, the urban voids.

Auge, Marc. Non-places : Introduction to an anthropology of supermodernity. London, 1995

“ We have to relearn to think about space “ The phenomenon of excess in modern city, which can be understood as waste of space, waste of public realm and waste of discarded materials is the result of passive actions to agile changes in urban fabric. Urban negative illustrates the idea of residual space being reactivated which can act as a social capital. The intended result is to create long term impacts with maximum public interventions . By claiming residual spaces as temporary arenas for public interactions, these interstitial spaces in the city can be closed, enhancing public realm and urban experience. 12


Figure 01. Urban fabric of Rome Source: ‘Great Streets’ by Allan Jacobs 13


Approaching design amidst issues such as ever increasing population, complexity, diversity of people and their uses is a tricky situation for the current and the future generations. Wasting land is a common phenomenon man has been dealing with since quite some time now. Various solutions to deal with this issue has been implemented: some have been successful while some stay stagnant. Residual space, as it exists today, is a recent urban phenomenon. Alan Berger describes this fact in Drosscapes: Wasting Land in Urban America, as he follows the creation of wasteland as a natural result of modern urbanization and the complex interaction of social, technological and economic processes that drive contemporary urban growth. Cohen, Stephen and Zysman, John. Manufacturing Matters: the Myth of the Post-Industrial Economy. Basic Books, 1987

Mumford, Lewis. What is a City? 1937

“We are shifting not out of industry into services, but from one kind of industrial economy to another.� Historically, land was too valuable to be wasted, neglected or simply to be left unused. Urban life and intense land use were an interdependent phenomena from the medieval fortified towns throughout Europe to dense cities of Asia. Today, with a time of unprecedented material wealth and technological innovations, this legacy of spatial utilization has been forgotten. Smaller size of settlements, local involvement and the slower pace at which urban centers developed enhanced the residual spaces, if any, in the past. Walkable city scale allowed for daily movement of people resulting in usage of spaces with efficacy. Concluding, city scale, size and public interaction were some of the main factors for effective space usage rendering it less for residual/ leftover spaces. The city in its totality is understood as a geographic plexus, an economic organization, an industrial process, a theatre of social action, and an aesthetic symbol of collective unity

14


Figure 02. Under the elevated railways in New York Sorce: www.nycsubway.org 15


Figure 03. Empty parking garage in Wisconsin 16


INTER

s s

TITIAL

S PAC E 17


03

What is an Interstitial Space ?

The nexus between architecture and landscape designer is the interstitial space , giving a designer to design a fascinating place with loads of opportunities. Interstitial spaces are those that fall in the category of ‘in-betweens’. It is the very edges of the built environment. These spaces can offer richness to the spaces adjacent by shaping the human experience through a variety of details such as places to sit, canopied structures or reusing with functional programs. The intention is to weave public space into the project and connect them into the context by making new public spaces which could be of measurable benefit to the community and hence people. More recently, these interstitial spaces have been a matter of concern for designers as it becomes difficult to deal with such spaces. Architects refer to the interstitial spaces between existing building, blurring the boundaries of the intermediate and the experienced or the journey and the destination.

18


3.1

Goldman Alley, New York, United States

New York’s Goldman Alley is a fairly modest structure, an angular canopy over an obscure but busy pedestrian street called North End Way that has redefined the in-between or the interstital space per say. Designed by Preston Scott Cohen, the canopy covers 11,000 sqaure feet of an easement in Battery Park city, is a north-south passageway composed of three tilting, jagged triangles. They filter ligh gracefully through enameled panes, the lights shifting with the passing day. The arcade belongs to an informal network of pedestrian circulation on the west side of Manhattan. Perceptions shift as you move through the space. These in-between space designs take a new face in term of architecture thinking deep into public enhancing designs.

Figure 04. Goldman Alley New York 19


3.2

The Ghost Train Park, Lima, Peru

In 2010, the Basurama collective turned an abandoned railroad track in Lima, Peru into a playground using repurposed tires, ropes and paint. Widely known as Ghost Train Park, this urban decayed land was converted into an amusement park with bright colors and games made with recycled materials such as car tires, a canopy line, swings and climbing structures, an urban intervention that celebrates the dumps and industrial waste spaces. Spanish group Basurama, these converted the concrete columns and pass ways of Lima’s most unusual set of structural systems that were going to be the railways of an electric train. The Basurama collective is a group of eight architects who are skilled at making functional public art out of trash and other discarded items.

Figure 05-07. Ghost train park , Lima 20


Figure 08. Lines on the High Line, New York 21


Figure 09. Highline reference photograph 22


Figure 10. Renovating Highline, New York 23


3.3

High Line, New York, United States

Across the United States, opportunities exist to transform decaying infrastructure through urban renewal projects, such as 1960s-built highways that cut through almost every major city. Urban renewal is a desperately needed strategy to reduce suburban sprawl and reinvigorate languishing and forgotten inner city areas which are made inaccessible to people. So, when a handful of residents of Manhattan’s Chelsea neighborhood banded together in 1999 to prevent the demolition of an abandoned elevated railway that hadn’t been used in two decades, High Line was conceived. Stretching Chelsea near the Hudson River on Manhattan’s far west side, High Line has drawn millions of people visiting the elevated park appreciating the transformation in the urban fabric. The High Line has also had a profound economic impact on the neighborhoods that surround it, increasing the housing prices by 10% within one-third of a mile of it.

24


04 CASE STUDIES

25


4.1

MAT Architecture

Fig.ure 11. Traditional quarter of Algerian Kasbah

Figure 12. Cluster of overlapping functions. Source : Smithson and Smithson, 2005

The discourse of Mat-Building emerged from the Smithson’s fascination with the traditional Arabic Kasbah. In her search for signs that identify ‘mats’, Alison Smithson goes back to Katsura, Sinan, Honan, the vaulted constructions of Greek and Arabic architecture, as well as Mies van der Rohe’s work in America. The Kasbah also resembles the metaphorical reference: ‘full of starts and stops and shadows,, with a high degree of connectedness to allow for change of mind and the in-roads of time”. Mat building emerged in the late 1950’s as a consequence of the debates within CIAM over principles of functional zoning. Alison Smithson described the mat concept and defined mat-building as follows: “Mat-building can be said to epitomize the anonymous collective; where the functions come to enrich the fabric, and the individuals gain new freedoms of action through a new shuffled order, based or interconnection, close knit patterns of action through a nre shuffled order, based on interconnection, close knit patterns of association and possibilities for growth, diminution and change.” It is through their insistence that modern urbanism could express a higher degree of particularity and identity that Team 10 argued for a greater individual focus over the universalizing approach of the functional city . Instead of a static architectural composition, mat-architecture is the installation of a generative structure: urban forms shaped by the unique characteristics of particular places, specific patterns of human association, open to transformation, respectful of local nature and climate. The mat was intended to provide flexibility in planning for a range of functions over time, thus assuring its own longevity; its very realization is spread out over time and subject to revision and adaptation.

26


Figure 13. Analysis of plans for Frankfurt-Rรถmerberg, by Candilis, Josic, Woods and Scheidhelm

27


Mainstream mat-building became visible in Team 10’s work with the completion of the project for the Frankfurt-Römerberg center (1963) and the Berlin Free University (1963) by Candilis-Josic-Woods, where their work attempted to demonstrate the environmental responsiveness of mat-building in the context of a large and rapidly evolving institution. The principles of these and other mat structures are now reappearing in the contemporary debates on sustainable architecture and urban development. According to Hashim Sarkis, “Today mats are appearing everywhere. We call them fields, grounds, carpets, matrices. The mat answers to the recurring calls for efficiency in land use, indeterminacy in size and shape, flexibility in building use, and mixture in program. In the face of these challenges, and in every other design published in every other magazine, the mat claims to address a wide range of problems preoccupying contemporary architecture” (Sarkis, 2001). The Candilis, Josic, Woods design demonstrates the common values of ​​ the traditional city and the urban fabric composed by the mat-building Figure 14. Competition for reconstruction of FrankfurtRömerberg centre, 1963

28


““So-called ‘undesirables’ are not the problem. It is the measures taken to combat them that is the problem.”. -William Whyte

29


4.2

The Social of Small Urban Spaces Architect Philip Johnson: “ We designed those blocks in front of Seagram’s building so people could not sit on them. But, you see, people want to so badly that they sit there anyhow. They like that place so much that they crawl, inch along that little narrow edge of the wall. We put water near the marble ledge because we thought that they’d fall over if they sat there. They don’t fall over; they sit there anyhow.” Heinrich Klotz: “ Well it’s the only place they can sit.” Philip Johnson: “ I know it. It never crossed Mies’s mind. He told me afterward, “ I never dreamt that people would want to sit there.”

( Conversation with Architect, 1973 from The social life of small urban spaces)

Figure 15. Mies Van Der Rohe’s Seagram Building

The lack of understanding of what people need for space can be an obstacle to create a better urban space, a space for life stimulation. Urban designers need to understand and consider human aspect and their behavioral pattern while designing spaces - public and private - for successful usage and activation. Edward T Hall, a cultural anthropologist wrote The Hidden Dimension (1966), a book that focuses on how different cultures use space and physical environments, emphasizing on the following aspects : 1. How people actively use and shape physical environment, not just react to the environment 2. The use of physical environment in the management of social interaction His interests in shaping the environment shaped the term called as ‘proxemics’ defined as “ the study of man’s transactions as he perceives, uses intimate, personal, social, and public space in various settings while following out of awareness dictates of cultural paradigms. “ ( Hall, 1974) He followed qualitative, interviews, natural observations for the study in physical environments.

30


In 1970, William Whyte formed a small group The Street life Project which observed many plazas and open spaces of New York City to find out why some city spaces respond well to the needs of people while others are left out, understanding the basic elements of successful small urban spaces. This ultimately resulted in the book ‘The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces’ and a film based on the book eventually. The project explored the idea of inhabited social spaces and was purely based on timely observations, interviews and time lapse. This eventually gathered the statistics concluding that such spaces offer more than just mere physical comfort; A reason more than mere comfort zone. William H. Whyte studied the human behavior in urban setting. While working with the New York city Planning Commission in 1969, Whyte began analyzing the newly planned city spaces and their space working strategies. The Social Life of Public Spaces. Whyte wrote that the social life in public spaces contributes fundamentally to the quality of life of individuals and society as a whole. He believed that we have a moral responsibility to create physical places that facilitate civic engagement and community interaction. Whyte advocated for a new way of designing public spaces – one that was bottom-up, not top-down. Using his approach, design should start with a thorough understanding of the way people use spaces, and the way they would like to use spaces. Whyte noted that people vote with their feet – they use spaces that are easy to use, that are comfortable. They don’t use the spaces that are not comfortable; places that are odd to use. Whyte believed in the Power of observation. By observing and by talking to people, Whyte believed, we can learn a great deal about what people want in public spaces and can put this knowledge to work in creating places that shape livable communities. We should therefore enter spaces without theoretical or aesthetic biases, and we should “look hard, with a clean, clear mind, and then look again – and believe what you see.”

“It is difficult to design a space that will not attract people. What is remarkable is how often this has been accomplished.” Figure 16-17. Social life of small Urban Spaces by William Whyte 31


Figure 18-19. Jan Gehl’s Life Between Buildings

Jan Gehl, a Danish architect, points out interesting fact about pedestrian patterns in his book, Life Between Buildings, simplified and divided public outdoor activities in a city into three categories : necessary activities, optional activities and social activities. 1. Necessary activities: these are mandatory more or less compulsory activities, independent of time, place and conditions such as going to work, shopping, waiting for transportation. The users have no choice but comply to it and generally involve lot of walking. 2. Optional activities: these are walking out for some air, sunbathing and enjoying sitting in the garden. These are pursuits depending on human moods and time and other factors that takes into consideration for such possibilities. These conditions also have to depend on exterior optimum conditions- e.g. if the weather permits to go out. 3. Social activities: these activities depend on the presence of public in open spaces. These are spontaneous activities such as greetings, children playing, conversations, different communal activities. Gehl mentions that these social activities happen when two people are in the same space. Hall, Whyte and Gehl conclude on these activity and human based patterns and makes us understand the importance behind proper designing of urban spaces. These spaces can create places and hence cities. Despite the fact that people are essentially the most important and only clients of the built environment, the responsible figures who design, produce and makes decision about the built environment do so without critical consideration of how developments will affect the experiences of their most important clients - the users of the public spaces - the people. By understanding how people respond to their surrounding environments, urban designers would be able to think critically and simultaneously, rather than detachedly, about the impacts of their designs on the behavior and experience of people.

32


Figure 20 Atlanta Beltline- Where Atlanta comes together 33


4.3

Atlanta Belt Line

This case study focuses on sustainable redevelopment encompassing a historic 22mile railroad corridor encircling the downtown region of Atlanta, connecting 45 neighborhoods by pedestrian friendly trails, parks, affordable housing and public art. The beauty of this case study is the way it connects existing infrastructure to further benefit the city's residents and economy through necessary studies in land use, transit nodes, community engaging schemes, storm water management, and understanding the economic development. The corridor will act as a linear parkway with multi-use trails linking existing neighborhoods and park together and creating greater accessibility. Beltline accommodates 1300acres of abandoned land and brown-fields into a variety of green spaces. The neatly crafted green spaces built incorporates solar panels, organic landscapes and underground cisterns. The Beltline plan calls connections to the light rail streetcar transit system which then connects with existing local transit system MARTA to further provide connectivity to downtown, midtown and other neighborhoods. Atlanta Beltline also provides amenities such as walking and biking as a crucial form of the planning system through its multi use trails and plans thus increasing walk-ability and quality of life. Most design projects start with a problem such as improving a suppressed quality. What Atlanta Beltline looked at was the overall scheme of the problem, understood the problems at macro stages and then went and detailed out at micro scales. It spoke for million Atlanta residents and was incorporated and is still being put to practice.

Figure 21 Atlanta Beltline Master strategy plan

Figure 22 Art on the Atlanta Beltline

Figure 23 Art on the Atlanta Beltline 34


Figure 24 Art on the Atlanta Beltline 35


4.4

Conclusion

My personal interest in this study arises from the situation of Gulch, its usage to lame parking spots which is currently used in much lower numbers as compared to the expected figures, and also observations made of people and their use of public space. The purpose of this study is to explore how public spaces influence human behavior in order to gain an appreciation of the significant role that public spaces play in the daily lives of people which will enable built environment professionals and public authorities to comprehend the effects of planning, design development are capable of having on the social, psychological and emotional wellbeing of people. Considering that people are the most important element of any environment, it is crucial that planners build environment that responds to the needs of the users.

The words of Grtaz convey a truth about the value of public space :

The street, in fact, is the most important thread in a city’s fabric. It knits the city together as a city. To kiss the street goodbye is the kiss of death for a city.

36


PREFACE

05 URBAN VOIDS UNPACKED

37


5.1

Planned Voids

Planned voids: Planned voids are created due to lack of understanding the spatial needs of the urban environment. These planned voids are prominently visible in an urban area.

Figure 25. The Visionary Urban Design of the Eixample District, Barcelona 38


5.2

Functional Voids

Functional voids: Functional voids can be distinguished as left-over spaces or defunct built-mass. In general, these functional voids can be termed voids under litigation or are under governmental property where reallocation of functions will have to go under incredible long bureaucratic process

Figure 26. Detroit defunct space in Detroit Source: www.devianart.com

39


5.3

Geographical Voids

Geographical voids: Voids created due to a presence of geographical feature, which are resultants of planning processes.

Figure 27. Los Angeles River, California

40


5.4

Residual Space Typologies

1

3

5

2

4

6

Figure 28. A typology of urban residual spaces by Erick Villagomez.

1. Spaces Between The result after urban demolition 2. Spaces Around The result of new development in old context when the new infrastructure creates hindrances for the old ones rendering it useless.

41

3. Wedges The result of conflicting urban grids or infrastructural lines 4. Redundant Infrastructures Infrastructure which is not in use anymore

5. Voids Large underutilized spaces surrounding buildings 6. Spaces Below Spaces below infrastructural elements such as elevated railway lines, motorway flyovers.


5.5

Concluding on Voids

‘Void’ is something which is ‘being without’ and applies to an urban scale as well. Zooming out to the urban scale voids, these are the city spaces which disrupt the urban tissue, leaving us to question the purpose of their existence. They are at the limit of being in between private and public space, without being belonging to either one of them. There are many spaces in urban fabric which needs reactivation due to the lack of identity or no functionality. These spaces vary in shape and type and can be perceived as waste lands. Reactivation of residual spaces is a need for every modern city and needs methodologies of dealing with it. A lot of modern cities have started engaging communities which benefits local residents through their engagements. When I talk about reactivation, it also goes for its accessibility to public use. Hence finding those voids in the cities are more than necessary to recreate design recommendation for their proper usage.

42


06

43

ATLANTA


Figure 29. Aerial photograph of Atlanta, 1919 44


6.1

Building Atlanta

The evolution of Atlanta has undergone distinct phases, each seemingly in association with transportation. In the early 1840s, the city emerged as a pattern of colliding grids coming together around three intersecting railroads. By the late 1890s, the first curvilinear street patterns were introduced in the early suburbs along with the street car as an early form of mass transportation. The increase in the use of the automobile in the 1920s is associated with faster growth in the suburbs, although many of them were still curvilinear. The first interstates were built in the 1950s and pushed urban expansion to a much wider radius around the old historic city center of Atlanta. In the 1960s, cul-de-sacs and residential enclaves became the dominant mode of growth and remain so.

The set of maps in the following few pages have been picked up from Georgia Institute of Technology ( Pepnois, Bafna and Zhang 2008) . It serves a purpose of analyzing the center and the multi-grid city of Atlanta. 45

Figure 30-31. Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology


The evolution of the center of Atlanta is tracked more systematically, through the analysis of historic maps: 1853, 1864, 1872, 1886, 1893, 1928, 1955, 1977, and 1995. The aim is to see how the center of the city has changed as a result of the birth and expansion of the metropolitan area around it. The relationship between changes inside the historic center and larger scale urban growth was initially described by Doxiadis in 1968, which brought it to the attention of city planners and urban designers. He claimed that as the city expanded, there was a tendency for a continuous rebuilding of the center, which was destructive to historic continuity and urban memory, and that this tendency could be avoided by designing linear centers that grew outward as a function of metropolitan growth. Our results so far indicate that there have been significant shifts in the spatial structure of the urban area even when we do not take into account the “distributed spatial connectivity attraction� exercised by metropolitan growth. Through this period, however, the urban center of Atlanta has maintained a particular characteristic: it is an assembly of distinct clusters of greater street density linked by a set of often disparate long lines of directional reach. Thus, the center of Atlanta appears as a shifting patchwork of distinct sub-areas, not as an integrated system, almost a microcosm of patterns that are much more evident at the metropolitan scale. Figure 32. Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology

46


Evolution of the cognitive core of Atlanta, and its ever increasing fragmentation of the city structure is evident. In particular, the strongest lines occupy areas increasingly distant from the center, creating a network that is initially less invested with buildings and land uses, as if to anticipate a subsequent phase of growth.

Figure 33. Aerial view of Downtown Atlanta 1929

Figure 34. Old picture of Atlanta’s Alabama St underground, 1920 47


Figure 35. Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology

Figure 36. Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology 48


Maps of the Longest Lines found in Atlanta – defined here as those segments with the highest Directional Reach when measuring zero changes in direction, with 10 degrees as the threshold of direction change

49

Figure 37. Map presented by Georgia Institute of Technology


The grid is a robust system; the street hierarchy is not. As the authors of Suburban Nation, a cornerstone for the New Urbanist movement, write:

Duany, Andres; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Speck, Jeff. Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and the Decline of the American Dream. North Point Press, 10th Edition

“[The grid] accommodates all the same components as the suburban model, but they are organized as a web, a densely interconnected system that reduces demand on the collector road. Unlike suburbia, the neighborhoods presents the opportunity to walk or bicycle. But even if few do so, its gridded network is superior at handling automobile traffic, providing multiple routes between destinations. Because the entire system is available for local travel, trips are dispersed, and traffic on most streets remains light. If there is an accident, drivers simply choose an alternate path.”

Atlanta’s connection-sparse road network, argues Atlanta Unbound author Carlton Wade Basmajian, also originates in the metro area’s connection-sparse regional planning:

Basmajian, Carlton Wade. Atlanta Unbound. Temple University Press, 2015.

“[B]ecause so much of metropolitan Atlanta’s development was happening in unincorporated areas, a significant portion of the region’s surface streets and neighborhood roads were laid out and constructed by individual landowners and developers, only being turned over to local government control once the lots in the residential development had been sold. The vast majority of these routes were designed to only serve specific land subdivisions, which meant that the internal street networks tended to be self-referencing and essentially fenced off (or cul-de-sac’d). Without governmental oversight, adjacent subdivisions were only rarely connected together. The ARC [Atlanta Regional Commission] was not in the business of building roads (or anything else), which meant that most counties were left with little alternative but to accept new residential roads as ‘gifts’ from private developers. As a result, aside from a few places, a secondary network of through routes did not emerge by accretion as in other regions of the country. In other words, the grid so common in many urban areas simply never came to exist in metropolitan Atlanta, a fact that forced distributed traffic patterns into a constrained system of arterials and freeways.

50


6.2

Building Streetcars - Introduction and Exit

Urban negative aims to identify and articulate the various types of residual spaces common to urban landscapes, learn and analyze their creation and understand their potential uses. The main feature necessary for this research is also to understand the immediate surrounding, their needs and their issues, which might be one of the problem of left out spaces. One important step in this direction is to identify and articulate the types of residual spaces common to urban landscapes, learn how they are created, and understand their potential uses. In this research, the analysis of written sources is combined with a contemporary mapping technique. Apart from textual interpretation of historical sources, graphic interpretation contributes to a better understanding of infrastructure and urbanization of cities like Atlanta. Historical maps and technical drawing are accommodated with contemporary GIS data in visualization tools. Reading, mapping, writing, drawing are therefore equivalent and complementary apparatus for this research. Until 1836, Georgia had no connection with-the US Mid West, when Georgia decided to build a railroad. By 1839, settlements grew. The city continued gaining importance being the rail-hub after the American civil war with ample of manufacturing units, industries settling down. Introduction to new technologies and electric streetcars added suburbs of todays. Atlanta has one of the finest systems of electric railways in the country, reaching every section of the city so thoroughly that almost every door is in proximity to its line. Atlanta began as a transportation town and stayed that way from its origin as a railroad terminus to its present day status. Atlanta’s history marked a 80 year period of streetcars from 1871-1949. These streetcars were a mode of transportation that not only moved people through the city, but also shaped urban development and the built environment. After the Civil War, Atlanta Street RailRoad Company was introduced into the General Assembly getting an approval in February 23, 1866. In 1871, two investors George W. Adair and Richard Peters who had worked for Georgia Railroad before the war, improved the transportation nearby. April 1871, Atlanta saw its first line of Street Railway. Opening late the same year, it used horse-powered streetcars on tracks running from the center of the town south down Peachtree to Mitchell to Forsyth to Trinity to Peters and ended on now the site of Spelman College. In 1872, a second line opened running over almost everywhere in Atlanta. 1880’s saw the expansion of street railway extending the routes to places which were difficult to access otherwise. All of the routes used mules and horses to pull the cars. One non-animal power source that was procured was steam, in the form of small locomotives disguised with a streetcar-like enclosure around the engine. Called steam dummies, these vehicles would pull one or two trailing cars with passengers. These dummies 51

Figure 38. Atlanta Trolley construction

Figure 39. Atlanta streetcar


Atlanta streetcar on streets

Figure 40. Atlanta streetcar on streets

52


allowed for a faster schedule. Additionally, steam power was a time-tested, reliable technology that had been used on Georgia’s rail for a half century. The only downside was smoke from the engine which was considered a nuisance on city streets especially in residential areas. Their faster speeds made dummies appropriate for longer suburban lines especially those on private rights of way where streets and neighborhoods had not been built yet. Keeping future in mind, the Metropolitan Street Railway secured permission in 1887 to operate steam dummies. Atlanta’s patronage of her street-cars is immense. Suburban lines of the same system extend to Marietta, twenty miles; College Park, nine miles; East Point, six miles; Fort McPherson, four and one-half miles; Oakland City, Decatur, six miles; Kirkwood, five miles, and Edgewood suburb, three miles. All of these lines enjoy a splendid patronage, while they afford great convenience to a very large percentage of business men and women of the city, who make their homes in these neighboring towns. Another feature of the trolley system of Atlanta which renders travel on it lines simple and easy is the fact that from a single block in the almost exact center of the city practically all of its lines radiate, and all but four of them from a single corner. The late 19th century was a time when upwardly mobile families sought to move away from the increasingly dangerous and polluted city of Atlanta; accordingly, ‘country living” in the suburbs was promoted for its health and moral benefits and the new technology of streetcars made this bucolic dream a reality for many in the upper middle class families. For the first quarter of the twentieth century and into the second quarter, streetcar travel was in vogue for the citizens. After electrification, service expanded exponentially into a spiderweb of 200 miles of line where a rider could go anywhere. However, a slow decline in ridership factor was the main reason for the disappearance in the streetcar as automobile took its effect. Automobile began to gain popularity in the 1930’s leading to increased operating expense and decreased ridership, finally closing down in 1949. One by one, the track lines were ripped up or often paved over leaving behind their imprint on the built environment which as time went by, was undecipherable to generations . During nineteenth century, Atlanta’s geographic expansion was largely due to the influence of the railroad. The street pattern was grid and was radiated on a perpendicular plane from the railroad tracks in the downtown business district.

53

From: Atlanta, the Metropolis of the South, Franklin-Turner Co., 1907.

Figure 41. Atlanta streetcar on streets


Figure 42. Two Conductors Outside Streetcar 169 End of the River Line at Riverside Atlanta Georgia in 1908 – Georgia State University Library

In 1874, the boundary of Atlanta was enlarged by 0.5miles while maintaining its circular configuration. By 1889, it was further enlarged by 1/4th mile and broke the traditional concentric patterns of growth and included Inman Park, a well planned residential suburb. By 1903, Atlanta’s 11square mile land was roughly four times as small as the size of Boston and a gigantic 30times smaller than New York. The history of urban sprawl and individual automobile-based infrastructure began with the introduction of individual means of transport for the masses, the car. Lanes were separated from the rest of the road space for the benefit of automotive traffic, and exclusive caronly motorways were developed. The creation of a new network for the individual use of motorized vehicles enabled the spread of urban development into the hinterland and throughout the region. Apart from the railways, this new network and its hierarchical yet flexible structure has structured the urban fabric in unprecedented ways. This has resulted into “islandisation” of places that depends on other modes of movement. Atlanta’s scale maintained the city as a “walking city” and more attention was paid to the construction and maintenance of sidewalks than streets. Radical changes in Atlanta’s form, fabric and physical characters began to occur in between 1900 and 1930; one of the leading forces being automobiles. The event of Automobile Week in Atlanta invited an enormous number of automobile industrialists; the Piedmont Driving Club played a part in the rapid growth. The Good Roads Movement between 1870 and 1920s eventually improved the street conditions. Along with the automobile businesses, surged the automobile related jobs and hence surging of new building constructions to house the incoming firms. In 1949, Atlanta’s last streetcar made an exit. Individual’s private motorcars replaced the streetcar system between 1920 and 1930. By 1930, private motor car owners moved to new suburbs outside of the streetcar services. The middle landscape between the city and countryside gained popularity and the presence of automobiles and the economic prosperity of the twenties facilitated a suburban boom. Demand for decentralized housing was generated with the increase in commercialization in the downtown area and with the ever increasing population. Whites started moving to the north side while blacks moved to the west. In the twentieth century, automobiles became the primary means of transportation for Atlanta. The first paved national highway linked north and south was in 1929 which converged at three major south-eastern interstate highways: I-20, I-75 and I-85.

54


6.3

Finding the Voids

The spaces found under and around elevated highways can also be understood as “heteropias” which Michel Foucalt describes as “ real places- places that do exist and are formed in the very founding of the society which are something like counter-sites, a kind of effectively enacted utopia in which real sites, all the other real sites that can be found within the culture, are simultaneously represented, contested and inverted. “ These elevated pieces of infrastructures certainly facilitate necessary systematic processes of opening and closing of spaces, but we have difficulty finding social groups which appropriate these spaces and lend them social relevance. The space under or around these networks can be in most cases understood as a mere void. “Voids” have been overlooked and in various discourses from the realms of architecture, urban planning design and urban theory are depicted as negative referred to as terrain vagues ( De Sola Morales), dead zones ( Doron:2000), para-functional space (Papastergiadis), spaces of uncertainty (Cupers and Miessen), voids (Armstrong) and urban interstices (Tonnelat). The environmental impacts of urban sprawl in Atlanta are among the most significant and widespread with Atlanta achieving the home of four of the ten fastest growing counties in United States. While growth and development are some of the boosters for its economy, rapid seemingly unchecked growth is responsible for major environmental impacts related to the quality of the life. Geographically placed on the south-eastern region, there are no large bodies of water, mountains or major federal land holdings to limit the city’s outward growth. Atlanta’s urban land expanded 47% between 1990 to 1996. With its growing population, the amount of green space lost to development in the Atlanta metropolitan area has increased by 38%, according to government of Atlanta. Much of this loss has resulted from encroachment by low density sprawl development into forested and agricultural areas, leaving behind bare minimum green space in the city. Not to forget, the planning system of transportation networks has rendered the edges of the city worthless. The traditional grid has now been encroached upon by freeways and numerous interstates leading to under utilization of the edges. These edges then become attractors to crime and unplanned greens.

55

Figure 43. Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s land parcels

Figure 44. Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s left behinds

Figure 45. Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s underutilized spaces


6.4

Addressing the Voids

Figure 46. Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s edges

Addressing these issues require a systematic approach because the major components such as housing, water, security, transportation are interconnected and inter related. Considering these issues in isolation can be counterproductive. The continuous changing fabric of Atlanta has led to the following conclusions after mapping and analyzing through diagrams. 1. The city is well knitted in the interiors while the edges/ periphery seem to be loose or left to rot. 2. The periphery is mostly unclaimed or underutilized with huge parking lots left as the most common or appropriate function thought for it. 3. The lack of well connected social spaces has rendered the fabric of Atlanta’s urban design questionable. The freeways/interstates, besides serving the purpose of a transportation network, facilitates movement throughout the city and contact between settlements and open spaces. However, it also acts as an element having spatial characteristics separating settlements of different uses acting as a barrier and hindering the passage individuals within the ecosystems.

“ Roadway infrastructure also fragments the natural habitat by interfering with water flows through ill-adapted bridges and via-ducts and through soil erosion, mainly on steep embankments. “ Hence, these may looked down as they degrade visual attributes. These dissociations of roadways suggest that they can be a connecting space with a landscape that conforms to the open space.

Figure 47. Analysis diagram of Atlanta’s edges 56


6.5

SLOAP - Spaces Left Over After Planning

The inseparability of impression and place White dew; Over the potato field; The Milky Way. And A summer shower; Green pine-needles Stick in the sand. And In the dark forest, A berry drops; The sound of water. Or Basho: The first snow: The leaves of the daffodils Are just bending.

57


Moughtin, Cliff; Shirley, Peter Urban Design : Green Dimension

Sloap (1989) was a term used to describe for ‘soulless undefined places, poorly landscaped with no relationship to surrounding buildings’. These leftover plots between roads, houses and factories, which no one appears to own, and often for which no one wants to take responsibility, can be death traps for children, valued community green space, relics of industry. Sloap first premiered in Helsinki, Finland as a part of the Urb Fest 2013 and was invited by West Kowloon Cultural District , Hong Kong, to be presented in their first Freespace Fest , November 2014. Its an architectural term that reconfigures public spaces or ‘non-spaces’ into inspiring and creative places, in collaboration with local artists. It critiques the co-opting of public space into exclusively commercially owned property. Spaces Left-Over After Planning account for marginal lands in the periphery and are characteristically different from real estate valued land. The one that interests me are found specifically at intersections between systems of planning when infrastructure meets the suburban fabric causing in-between spaces to be produced. Others are also important as leftovers from real estate development which have been described as ‘terrain vague’; a term which also encompasses ‘derelict’ and ‘no man’s land This thesis touches on a similar category of land and aims to give definition and a push to the potentials for densification and diversification in the Downtown Atlanta. The intention further continue to systemise to an approach that is informed by the conditions of sprawl at the periphery to give character to the urbanization of inter-nodal developments.

58


07

59

INTRODUCTION TO THE SITE


The American urban environment has been created under various economic, demographic and political conditions over last two centuries. These conditions gave birth to great city transformations, among which were modern urban planning initiatives that gave American cities their identity, but inevitably, they also produced certain urban conditions that need to be changed for contemporary society and for new economic realities. This thesis project is concerned with the question of the urban renewal of American cities and especially the use of public space as a catalyst for redeveloping blighted areas. By renewal, underutilized areas, abandoned industrial zones, historic sites and various other urban revitalization initiatives, are studied. The problems of the urban environment and factors that contributed to the ‘lost space’ concept: zoning, land use policies,car dependence, relocation and abandonment of industrial sites. Finally, contemporary solutions for these problems and new strategies that include changes in urban planning and transportation are introduced through research and analysis of the site. This thesis serves as a design proposals for the urban renewal of Atlanta’s downtown ‘Gulch zone’. The term ‘Urban Negative’ shows the intention to remove these negatives of the current deteriorated situation and complete the scenario with a variety of activities, well defined and designed public spaces, right of ways for pedestrian movement, new residents, tourism and new public life. The idea is to re-activate by pedestrian pathways on the surface and by commercial activities inside of it. The people in this model act as a theme for design proposals. This urban catalogue is generated for the city of Atlanta in its own special context, but the more general idea can be implemented in any American downtown that needs special attention for renewal. A renewal that makes people understand what a downtown could be. Like many cities across the United States, the City of Atlanta is faced with the challenge of planning for change and determining new uses for post-industrial and underutilized areas. This evolving opportunity includes the transformation of vacant land, surface parking lots, abandoned rail lines and deteriorating buildings into highly desirable places where parks and greenways can be integrated and drive future economic development.

60


7.1

The Gulch, Atlanta

Gulch encompasses a prime area of Downtown Atlanta, Georgia unbuilt since decades, left out for major development and enormous master plans for years. The Gulch area is at ground level, while the streets that surround it are elevated. Throughout the research, interstitial spaces have been talked about. Gulch is seen as such one interstitial space surrounded by number of attractions that it can take advantage of but haven’t till now. Atlanta has been known to everybody as a terrain and having crazy city levels. Gulch is at the lowest level and the streets surrounded were elevated in the early 20th century so that traffic could flow easily above the railroad lines passing through Downtown Atlanta.

Figure 48. Site introduction representational map 61


The freeway and railroads are an integral part of the open space of the American City, a series of infrastructural systems that affect the spatial characteristics of our natural and cultural landscapes. By re-inventing how we see and care for our infrastructure, the transformation of the Gulch serves as a catalyst that can change the perceptions of our unused spaces. Embedded in our landscapes and urban environments, the quality of our connectors also influences the urban character of adjacent properties, neighborhoods, and the City as a whole. In its current state, the Gulch creates a decidedly negative impression for the City of Atlanta, damaging both the visitor’s opinion of the City and its urban fabric. This in turn impacts the situation, affecting connectivity, transit ridership, tourism, and ultimately tax revenues and jobs in the urban core. The main strategy employed in the transformation of the Gulch is re-envisioning the dead site as a bold stroke of landscape infrastructure which creates a simple framework derived from movement, views, and connectivity with the urban community adjacent to, and beyond this site. Over the last decade and a half Downtown and Midtown Atlanta have become models for urban redevelopment with proposals flowing in all over. Thousands of new housing units; millions of square feet in new office space; expansion of educational and cultural facilities; and over $50 million in transportation improvements, public safety initiatives, and environmental enhancements have reshaped Atlanta’s urban core into a vibrant, walkable, cosmopolitan center, preparing to satisfy today’s generation. Despite the recent recession, Midtown and Downtown strive to gain acclaim for their progress and livability. The condition of the Gulch stands in stark contrast to our current improved urban centers. The 2-mile stretch of this railroad continuing and connecting different areas is marked by aging infrastructure, concrete retaining walls, and limited landscaping and maintenance. Despite significant redevelopment that has taken place within the urban districts, a number of large parcels adjacent to the Gulch are vacant and unattractive, rendering the adjacent neighborhoods useless. The goal of the this thesis is to generate beautification and urban design strategies that will create a new front door for the City of Atlanta and energize the margins of this neglected corridor. By looking at the Gulch as a public open space threading through the heart of the City, the transformation of such interstitial spaces can become the catalyst for a new public open space that is green and cooling, solves environmental issues, incorporates art, and changes an eyesore into an amenity for Atlanta.

62


63


Figure 49. Photograph showing the site and the neighborhood

64


65

Figure 50-53. Site photographs


Figure 54-57. Site photographs

66


7.2

Lots and lots of parking lots

Parking like driving, has been a fundamental part of our everyday life since the invention of the automobile. In the beginning, the few automobiles on the roads parked alongside horses and wagons at the curbside. As the ‘horseless chariots’ took over cities and towns, the need for storing and parking them had to be accommodated outside of the street space. To ease this ever-growing need, municipalities and private entrepreneurs started to offer off-street parking. While we all recognize that parking lots are more important part of our transportation network, too little is it considered on its design and impacts. Parking lots are also central part of our social and cultural life. They influence the way we drive, the way we live, the destinations we choose, and the way and the way we behave while looking for a parking space. These lots inhabit a feel of danger and dependency.

Figure 58. Site photo highlighting the taking over by parking lots

67


CONCERN

DIAGNOSIS

Jackson, John Brinckerhoff ; Landscape in Sight: Looking at America; New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997

It is estimated that 500million surface parking spaces exist in the United States alone – a number that increases every day. In some U.S. cities, parking lots cover more than a third of the land area, becoming the single most salient landscape feature of the built space. “Once could plausibly argue that a hybrid Prius and a Hummer have the same environmental impact because both are parked the same amount of time and both occupy the same 9-by-18-foot standard rectangle of paved space. Regrettably, most of us do not spend much time thinking about parking unless we are looking for a space. “ Parking lots are usually considered a necessary evil; unsightly, but essential to the market success of most developments. The surface parking lot is a landscape ripe for transformation. The question here is : why can’t parking lots be modest paradises ? Can they be designed in a more attractive and aesthetically pleasing way ? Can they be integrated into our built environment more than just for a practical necessity? Something elegant and an enjoyable space? Urban Negative worries on the immense amount of surface parking lots available in a crucial neighborhood of Downtown Atlanta. If it were buildings, the real estate value of these lots would have touched the sky considering the location of these under-used lots. It focuses on the beauty of the parking lot. It celebrates both the existing and the potential lot. In the process, it also gives attention to the lot’s history, its potential for design innovation, future change and modification, and environmental and cultural promise.

“ I am tempted to dwell on the importance of the parking lot. I enjoy it as an austere but beautiful and exciting aspect of the landscape. I find it easy to compare it with such traditional vernacular spaces as the common: both are undifferentiated in form, empty, with no significant topographical features to determine use, both easily accessible and essential to our daily existence. But on another level, the parking lot symbolizes a close, more immediate relationship between various elements in our society: consumer and producer, public and private, the street and the dwelling. “

68


7.3

69

Site Panoramas


PANORAMA - 1 Figure 59. Site panorama

70


71


PANORAMA - 2 Figure 60. Site panorama

72


73


PANORAMA - 3 Figure 61. Site panorama

74


75


PANORAMA - 4 Figure 62. Site panorama

76


77


PANORAMA - 5 Figure 63. Site panorama

78


79


PANORAMA - 6 Figure 64. Site panorama

80


08

81

IN AND AROUND


8.1

The Districts

D O W N T O W N

N O R T H

D O W N T O W N

S O U T H

D O W N T O W N

Figure 65-67. Google image highlighting the downtown, north downtown and south downtown area

82


8.2

Downtown Atlanta

Figure 68. Analysis of Street network of Downtown Atlanta

Figure 69. Analysis of mass void percentage in downtown Atlanta

Figure 70. Analysis of surface parking percentage in downtown Atlanta 83

Figure 71. Representational map of downtown Atlanta in relation to the Gulch


Downtown Atlanta is home to many exciting attractions and destinations. Many of the city’s most sought after attractions are all within walking distance of each other. The close proximity of the major attractions such as Centennial Olympic Park, hotels, Philips Arena, CNN are the ideal place for many visitors to start their experience of this cosmopolitan southern city. Downtown Atlanta is the central business district of Atlanta with a lot of professional sport happenings in the region itself. Atlanta’s major league sports continue to play their games downtown in Georgia Dome, and Philips Arena. A major railroad hub and manufacturing center, Downtown Atlanta gained a lot of attraction during the outbreak of the Civil War. By 1864, Atlanta was the only major American city to be ever destroyed by war.

Figure 72. Sketches showing the quality of life of downtown Atlanta

Figure 73. Sketches showing the quality of life of downtown Atlanta

84


8.3

North Downtown Atlanta

Figure 74. Analysis of Street network of North Downtown Atlanta Analysis of mass void percentage in North Downtown Atlanta

Figure 75. Analysis of mass void percentage in North Downtown Atlanta

Figure 76. Analysis of surface parking percentage in North Downtown Atlanta 85

Figure 77. Representational map of downtown Atlanta in relation to the Gulch


North Downtown Atlanta is now a home to a lot of high end hotels and restaurants including Hyatt, Westin, Hilton and Hard rock Cafe. Compared to the open, crime infused south downtown Atlanta, this neighborhood is fairly compact with big storied buildings filling the skyline for the city.

Figure 78. Sketches showing the quality of life of North Downtown Atlanta

Figure 79. Sketches showing the quality of life of North Downtown Atlanta

86


8.5

South Downtown Atlanta

Figure 80. Analysis of Street network of South Downtown Atlanta

Figure 81. Analysis of mass void percentage in South Downtown Atlanta

Figure 82. Analysis of surface parking percentage in South Downtown Atlanta 87

Figure 83. Representational map of South Downtown Atlanta in relation to the Gulch


South Downtown is a historic neighborhood of Downtown Atlanta , primarily home to a lot of city, county, state and federal offices. Although much of the South Downtown is dominated by surface parking lots, the neighborhood has the remains of the redevelopment boom from the 1960-70’s . A lot of architecturally significant Downtown building have been demolished during 1960’s resulting in the vacant and to much contrast a part of the Downtown Atlanta. The result are a myriad buildings from the 1950’s and earlier that retain their historic structural integrity. Over the year, it has ben tagged with it being Government Walk, the Railroad District and also South CBD. South downtown was a booming commercial center during the 19th and 20th century . Retail outlets, produce stands, it stands true to the city’s economic and cultural growth origin, very well read through the architecture of the neighborhood. The gold dome of Georgia’s Capitol and Atlanta’s City Hall stand prominently on the skyline while gazing through South downtown Atlanta. It is also a mix of other vibrant and diverse communities. Residents live in lofts and apartments alongside historic churches, nonprofit organizations and long term retail outlets.

Figure 84. Sketches showing the quality of life of South Downtown Atlanta

Figure 85. Sketches showing the quality of life of South Downtown Atlanta 88


89

Figure 86. Aerial view of Downtown Atlanta


8.6

Block Analysis BLOCK

SIZE

POTENTIAL

CIRCULATION

200 X 200 DOWNTOWN Figure 87. Block analysis in downtown Atlanta

390 X 450

Figure 88. Block analysis in North Downtown Atlanta

NORTH DOWNTOWN

365 X 750

SOUTH DOWNTOWN

Figure 89. Block analysis in South Downtown Atlanta 90


8.6

91

Castleberry Hill

Figure 90. Castleberry Hill buildings


Figure 91. Public urban fabric of Castleberry Hills

Figure 92. Public urban fabric of Castleberry Hills

Located on the southwestern edge of the Atlanta Central Business District and south of the Phillips Arena, Georgia Dome and Georgia World Congress Center, Castleberry Hill is one of about 230 neighborhoods defined by the City of Atlanta. Castleberry Hill is a unique urban community with a strong historic identity. Many of the early 20th-century warehouse buildings have been converted to lofts and are now the predominate housing type. The population is culturally diverse and the area is continuing to grow in both the number of residents as well as retail and other establishments. This area was originally part of the renegade Snake Nation community but by the Civil War was becoming industrial with terra cotta and other building material factories, cotton warehousing and grocers, one of whom, Daniel Castleberry, it is named for. By the early 1990s, it had fallen on hard times, serving as the backdrop for dystopic films such as Freejack and Kalifornia. Loft conversions began in the 1980s, and by 1992, there were 120 lofts with 150 residents. The 1996 Olympics saw another influx of development. Today the area is thriving with retail shops, restaurants, apartments and condos. The proximity to all that Atlanta has to offer in a short walking distance and easy highway and public transportation options are, and will continue to be, major draws to the area.

92


Castleberry Hill was the name generally associated with a topographic rise that peaked along Walker Street between Fair and Stonewall Streets on land owned by Daniel Castleberry, an early settler. As Atlanta grew after the Civil War from a newly chartered city to a regional rail distribution center, so did Castleberry Hill. The area began as a residential district with Peters Street functioning as a trade and commercial strip supporting adjacent residential areas as well as the railroad-related businesses. As a business center, Peters Street received a boost in 1871 when the first horsedrawn trolley line in Atlanta was routed along it. In 1878, the City Directory lists laborers, clerks, carpenters, saloon keepers, weavers, tailors, grocers, butchers, blacksmiths, cabinet makers and other occupations typical of the pattern of the era of living within walking distance of work. The principal community facilities were the Walker Street School and fire station on the corner of West Fair and Bradberry Streets. By 1892, a substantial increase in non-white occupancy had occurred, mainly concentrated in the southern part of Walker Street, due in part to the continued displacement of non-white housing by commercial/industrial expansion within the district and the availability of housing for whites in other parts of the city. Real estate development activities were formidable throughout Atlanta in the first three decades of the 20th century, and the effect of this transformation on Castleberry Hill was dramatic. In more recent years, activity returned to Castleberry Hill as a few artists began to inhabit and work in the old warehouse buildings. With the surge in popularity of loft living and the robust economy, the renovation and adaptive reuse of buildings has continued, and the population is growing. One of the more notable characteristics of Castleberry Hill is its federally recognized historic district, placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Early 20th-century commercial and industrial structures form continuous frontages at the street and railway lines, giving the area a distinctive urban look. Peters Street, the traditional route from Downtown to West End, cuts through the district.

93

Figure 93. Castleberry Hill buildings


ENGLISH AVENUE

MIDTOWN

North D O W N T O W N

VINE CITY

DOWNTOWN

South D O W N T O W N

HI

LL

CA

ST

LE

BE

RR

Y

ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CENTER

With its relatively tucked-away location, divided from downtown Atlanta by The Gulch, the proud, artsy, post-industrial wonderland that is Castleberry Hill can be easily overlooked. Hence, the thesis attempts to connect this beautiful district to the downtown Atlanta.

Interstate-20

ADAIR PARK

PITTSBURG

Interstate-85

MECHANICSVILLE

Figure 94. Representational map showing the adjacent neighborhoods in relation to the site 94


95

Figure 95. Graffiti wall in Castleberry Hill


Graffiti wall in Castleberry Hill

Figure 96. Graffiti wall in Castleberry Hill

96


09

97

TALKING NUMBERS AND CHARTS


9.1

Base Map MIDTOWN

Civic Center

North D O W N T O W N

VINE CITY Peachtree Station

Vine City Station

DOWNTOWN Five Points Station Georgia State Station

RR

South D O W N T O W N

MARTA Station

HI

LL

HI

CA

LL

CA

ST

ST

LE

BE

RR

Y

ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CENTER

BE

Ashby Station

LE

CNN Station

A graphical of V I Nrepresentation E CITY the current staging from above at The Gulch, Atlanta. The Base map indicates the mobility services available to the siteVine City Station Ashby Station as well as the surrounding typologies. One of the predominant usage of the site is as a parking lot which takes up a majority of the spatial environment. The continuous flow to the site is serviced ATLANTA UNIVERSITY CEN by transportationT Enetworks such as bus, R MARTA stops and the interstates. CSX train passes through the site with regular passing of the goods train through the site connecting the south-east to the north of United States. This means that there will be steady traffic and public flow if used the resources appropriately.

Interstate-20

WEST END

West End

Interstate-85

Interstate Highways METRO Rail Network CSX METRO Station Site

WEST END

West End

Interstate Highways METRO Rail Network CSX METRO map Station Figure 97. Base Site

98


9.2

Conceptual Ideas

Figure 98. Current situation of Surface parking

Figure 99. Expected scenario

BUILDING FORMS SURFACE PARKING

99


9.3

Green spaces

A T L A N T A

CH I C A G O

4%

8%

L O S

A N G E L E S

10 %

N E W

Y O R K

19 %

Figure 100. Figure comparing percentages of green spaces across cities/states

100


101


102


103


104


105


106


9.4

Demographics

31500

32000

14000

POPULATION

DOWNTOWN CASTLEBERRY HILL VILLAGES OF CASTLEBERRY HILL

107

91200

3585

HOUSEHOLDS

14500

460

590

545

CRIME

The surrounding neighborhoods of the site were important to analyze, because of their respective impacts now and in the future upon our site. Gathering data for the current demographics in those neighborhoods, including population, crime rates, a clearer picture could be cited for the social and cultural contexts. Since the site is centrally positioned, touching different neighborhoods of people coming from diverse backgrounds, culture and traditions, it is an ideal place to stimulate urban regeneration by implementing lots of temporary and permanent uses for these urban voids.


9.5

Population Influx

CNN PHILIPS ARENA

UNDERGROUND ATLANTA MERCEDES STADIUM

RENOVATIONS MERCEDES STADIUM

UPSCALE HOTEL

CASTLEBERRY HILL

Figure 110. Representational map of future plans by the City of Atlanta 108


Proposed Future The Falcon’s next home, a new stadium is planned for a currently vacant lot to the south of the Georgia Dome towards Castleberry Hill. The stadium is estimated to cost upwards of $1 billion with approximately $200 million of that coming from the City of Atlanta’s hotel tax.

The MMPT would serve as a connecting point for all of the region’s various mass transit options. Situated adjacent to MARTA’s Five Points station it would also include a large bus terminal, regional / commuter rail and ideally Amtrak in the future. Unfortunately there has been a lack of political will to push the MMPT forward and for the moment it still remains just an incredible vision.

An upscale hotel project is in the works for the Castleberry Hill community that would serve the new $1.2 billion retractable-roof Atlanta Falcons stadium now under construction. A team that includes Atlanta-based Gallman Development Group LLC is planning a roughly 200-room hotel with about 130 apartments, retail space and a small park on a site bounded by Centennial Olympic Park Drive and Mitchell, Chapel and Magnum streets. Called Castleberry Park, the project would be within walking distance of the new football stadium.

109


Real estate developer WRS Inc., contracted to buy Underground Atlanta from the city for $25.75 million, has released a preliminary site plan for the 12-acre plot. Between $350 and $400 million could go to transforming Underground.

Conversion of older building to roughly 240 apartments by an unknown developer.

110


10

111

DESIGN THOUGHTS


Figure 116. Initial sketch of the proposal

112


10.1

Design Strategies

4 50

124

60 6

5

261 5

5

6

14 4 90

21 8

91

74

5 74

55

Transportation networks

113

Density

Population Influx


Proposed Transportation networks

Urban parks

Design Ideas

114


10.2

Bike Share

The graphic diagrams represent the 12.4million bicycle journeys taken on the Barclay’s Cycle Hire system in London in just seven months starting December 2013. Thickness of each segment corresponds to the estimated number of bike share bikes passing along that segment, making some street the busiest and activating the area around it. Bike share is a proven technology and form of public transport that is successful in cities around US and the world. Cities by now are looking for innovative transportation solutions that meet the needs of today and bike sharing is one of them. Mobility, afford-ability, health issues, environmental health, convenience are the elements by which today’s transportation systems are measured. Bike sharing is not only a transit methodology, but also a catalyst ready to change some fabric of the cities. The purpose of this research is to analyze the importance of bike sharing and way of incorporating in the Gulch. Figure 119-120. Bike share maps of London 115


Bike sharing systems are being implemented around the world as cities look for innovative solutions for today’s transportation needs. In the last 10 years, bike sharing has expanded rapidly around the globe. While this could be an extensive topic to research on, bike share benefits could include improvements in the mobility, accessibility, personal health and an improvised version of the city image. By offering new options, bike share will help out by enhancing mobility and accessibility by encouraging transit use, relieving pressure on public transit routes, environmental benefits and also live up to the residents expectations.

Figure 121. Bike sharing cities in America

116


10.3

Streetcar Expansion

With the deteriorating condition of the downtown, the Atlanta Government came to an idea of starting the ancient mode of transportation for a small loop. A revitalization concept while engaging people turned out good as it looped around the historic and the commercial tourist centers, increasing the density eventually. A three mile circuit in downtown Atlanta in the early 21st century is a start but nothing like 200miles of streetcar lines traversed the metropolitan area. The new downtown streetcar line seems like a correction to the over-zealous leap to automotive transportation in the past few decades when cars were too widely adopted as the primary transportation style in cities; this establishes personal cars as being part of a multifaceted mix of street-level transportation styles, instead of being the rule for mobility and for land use. That mix, with cars, buses, streetcars, bicycles and pedestrians, is much more sensible and sustainable for city streets than domination by any single one of those modes.

117

Figure 122. Atlanta streetcar


KING HISORIC DISTRICT

DOOBS PLAZA CARNEGIE AT SPRING

PEACHTREE CENTER

CENTENNIAL OLYMPIC PARK

AUBURN AT PIEDMONT

WOODRUFF PARK

SWEET AUBURN MARKET

LUCKIE AT CONE PARK PLACE

EDGEWOOD AT HILLIARD

Some of the key features of the streetcar HURT PARK

include 1. Potential for higher passenger loads 2. Draw new transit riders 3. Produces fewer emissions, impacting air quality and sustainability 4. Reduces dependence on cars in a significant live-and-work corridor 5. Appeals to visitors with its predictable fixed route 6. Potential to increase ridership on connecting transit network

SITE MLK JR SW

DOWNTOWN ATLANTA

The long term vision proposed for the streetcar is also to connect the north-south looking at the success rate of east-west streetcar route.

CASTLEBERRY HILL

STREETCAR STOP

Figure 123. Representational map showing the streetcar stops

118


119


KING HISORIC DISTRICT

DOOBS PLAZA CARNEGIE AT SPRING

PEACHTREE CENTER

CENTENNIAL OLYMPIC PARK

AUBURN AT PIEDMONT

WOODRUFF PARK

SWEET AUBURN MARKET

LUCKIE AT CONE PARK PLACE

EDGEWOOD AT HILLIARD

HURT PARK

Atlanta is a city that brings people together and connects them to opportunities said a legislative board member. Whilst Atlanta goes through a number of beneficiary futuristic plans including the Atlanta Beltline, theres a need to connect the social and the commercial strips together. With this intention in mind, the thesis aims by contributing to this progress via proposing an expansion of this streetcar route into the Gulch.

SITE

DOWNTOWN ATLANTA

CASTLEBERRY HILL PROPOSED STREETCAR STOP STREETCAR STOP

120


10.4

Conceptual Design

ENHANCED LANDSCAPE

121

PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS

DEDICATED TRAFFIC PATHWAYS

PLAYGROUND


COMMERCIAL USE

PEDESTRIAN WALKWAYS

PLAYGROUND

Figure 127. Design idea transformation for residential quarter

122


bridging

INTER S 123

s s

TITIAL

P A C

E


11.1

Statistics

CURRENT STATISTICS

100 % SITE

30 %

USABLE SURFACE PARKING

33 % RIGHT OF WAY

0% PUBLIC SPACE

20 % TOTAL BUILT FABRIC

124


SPACE To densify and generate the secondary axes to the site To use idle plots for temporary activities To reconfigue separate private and public spaces

CONNECTIONS To structure car parking To create new centralities To unify multi layered ground treatments To restore a legibility of the site

CULTURE

AND

SOCIETY

To restore the site’s own identity To favour social link between the different urban entities To inject social activities To break dullness of the site To bring diversity to the site

NATURE To brighten the presence of the railroad To insure and add the continuity of landscapes To mutualize public and private green spaces 125


11.2

Goals

Whenever we talk about huge development in bigger scales, we unfortunately cant apply the now outdated principles of central expansion. The contemporary vision for our cities must include a social and cultural touch. With the main focus on dealing with these gaps in the city as a means to catalyst urban life and improve quality of life for people, urban negative emphases the urban voids connected to the transportation networks in Atlanta because of their unique multi-layered nature. Important hubs, separated from the spine of the main city, these spaces are placed in key areas where usually we have a lack of urban life. In this case, Gulch is located between four regulatory administrative neighborhoods, making a unique connection point. Within a rich urban context and fabric around, its crucial to realize its high potential as a new urban center to be developed for the future. The key concept revolves around revitalizing : 1. Everyday places Considering to improve the quality of life and influencing the usage of social spaces 2. Developing as the next urban center and creating a contemporary identity Understanding the needs and wants of the neighboring districts, it is important to create a workable and well integrated plan. 3. Increasing the green areas Green areas act as a social medium for communities. The main objective of such green areas would be to increase the footprint in an area which otherwise is an empty island of non-livable spaces. 4. Diversity Continuing from the adjoining diverse neighborhoods, the project aims in mixing not only culturally, but also functionally. Creating mixes would create a detailed and more well - functioned neighborhood. 5. Right of Way Pedestrians or the people are the heart of any community. Understanding this would also mean creating pedestrian zones and giving them the right of way to enjoy these public spaces. 6. Traffic scenes Redirecting main traffic arteries, creating new ones for effective and smoother public and transportation flow, distribution of parking lots for its effective use and reusing the old lots much more efficiently will enhance the impact of the functional and social mix implementations and will bring vibrancy in the urban life.

126


11.3

Site-bound Goals

ANCHOR To ANCHOR is to introduce civic and public programs that serve as gathering and spark additional private investment

127

FILL To FILL is to eliminate urban voids in the fabric through new programs and strategies

SHAPE

PATCH

To SHAPE is t o define spaces to new programs and focus on those public spaces

To PATCH is to thicken public infrastructure as a means to expand public realm into existing underutilized or vacant spaces


REACH

MIX

LINK

To REACH is to extend networks or programs into the new areas

To MIX is to create places for interaction, to insert programs that connect and collect different users and create shared spaces

To LINK is to connect important landmarks, neighborhoods, parks, gathering areas by creating new pedestrian and bike networks

BRIDGES To BRIDGE is to literally of figuratively connect different neighborhoods together

128


11.4

Site Strategies

PUBLIC REALM

USABLE SURFACE PARKING

PROGRAM MIX

BUILT FABRIC

EXISTING

SITE

RIGHT OF WAY

1 00 % 9 0ac 129

30 % 27ac

PUBLIC SPACE

33 %

0 %

2

20 %

30ac

0ac

Primary Programs

of total site area


PUBLIC REALM

USABLE SURFACE PARKING

PROGRAM MIX

BUILT FABRIC

PROPOSED

SITE

RIGHT OF WAY

PUBLIC SPACE

70 %

18 %

40 %

30 %

10

40 %

6 3 ac

1 7ac

36ac

27ac

Primary Programs

of total site area 130


INTERNAL STREETS

15 30'

11.5

Right of Way

EXI STI NG CO NDI TI O NS

BRIDGES

17

17

MAIN STREETS

10

55'

10.5 PRO PO10.5 SED CO NDI10.5 TI O NS 42'

10.5

MAIN STREETS

3

10

11

11

12

15

15

48'

INTERNAL STREETS

30'

E X IS T ING COND IT IONS INTERNAL STREETS

10

BRIDGES

3

10

30'

17

17

10

55'

P ROP OS E D COND IT IONS

PRIVATE STREETS

10

6-12

T CAR LANE

MAIN STREETS SIDEWALK

12

TRAVEL LANE

3

10

10

3

STREET PARKING

11

11

12

48' Figure 133. Current street section INTERNAL STREETS

3

10

10

3

30'

131

PRIVATE STREETS

6-12

10

10

6-12


BRIDGES

10

17

17

10

55'

P ROP OS E D COND IT IONS

MAIN STREETS

12

3

10

10

3

11

11

12

48' INTERNAL STREETS

3

10

10

3

30'

PRIVATE STREETS

6-12 BIKE LANE

10

10 STREET CAR LANE

6-12 SIDEWALK

TRAVEL LANE

STREET PARKING

Figure 134. Proposed street section

Urban dictionary defines right of way as : “A right enjoyed by one person (either for himself or as a member of the public) to pass over another’s land subject to such restrictions and conditions as are specified in the grant or sanctioned by custom, by virtue of which the right exists.” American cities are in midst of urban living is getting popular with the adults. This shift is by no means limited to millennial as early nesters and families are getting used to the urban environments. The idea of streets as open space for people isn’t new for today as the concrete bath takes over. Streets have always been a vital part of the public realm, but as American land use and transportation patterns changed in the post-war years the prioritization of vehicular traffic diminished the role of streets as public space. With Americans now returning to the urban core in growing numbers to live, work and play, several trends have emerged that are repositioning streets’ role in our urban open space systems; people are more concerned with the quality of life they would have now on these urban streets. Today’s densest neighborhoods have typically have greater street grid richness and less park area per resident, which brings us an opportunity to improve quality of life and public health in most under-served communities. The idea being spoken here is to convert streets into linkages leading up to open spaces, choosing corridors and making way to community destinations. 132


133


134


135


136


11.6

Multi level Atlanta

Atlanta was born on rolling hills at the nexus of three railroad lines, Native American trails, and river crossings. Building the viaducts over the railroads, created what would become Underground Atlanta many years later. Hence, it was necessary to understand the different levels : the street, the traffic and the railroad level: so that c

Figure 138. Atlanta’s terrain 137


Figure 138. Aerial view of five points showing the construction of the fourth national bank building Atlanta 1904

138


139

Figure 140. Representational map showing the important transit networks and urban fabric of Atlanta


TOPO G RA P H Y

TO P O G RA P H Y

SECT IONA L SIT E A NA LY SIS

SECTION LINES

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL

TOPOGRAPHY

TOP O G RAP HY

TOPO G RA P H Y

SEC TI ONAL SI TE ANALYSI S

SECTION LINES

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL

MAN I P U L AT E D

BUILT ROAD LEVEL

T O P O G R AP H Y

S E C T IO N A L S IT E A N A LY S IS

S E C T I O N A L S I T E A N A LY S I S

SECTION LINES

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL

BUILT ROAD LEVEL

ROADS

MARTA NETWORK

BRIDGES

U R B A N

T R A N S I T

Figure 141 Design strategies manipulating the terrain of Atlanta

SECTION LINES

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL

BUILT ROAD LEVEL

ROADS

MARTA NETWORK

BRIDGES

140


T OP O G RA PH Y S EC TI O NA L S ITE A NA LY S IS

SECTION LINES PARKING BLOCKS

BUILT FORMS

CE N O TE L YM NNI PI AL C PA RK ROADS

1

MAR

G ST

BLOCKS

A ST

3

2

IETT

MARTA NETWORK

SPR IN

BRIDGES

I-2

0

SITE

BUILT ROAD LEVEL

P ET ER S S T SW

M IT CHELL ST SW .

M LK JR D R NW .

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL

TH S T FOR SY

141 Figure 142. Representational map showing the evolution of terrains through sections


H ST

FORSY T H ST

P EACHT RE E ST

SYT

PEACHTREE ST

FORSYTH ST

FORSYTH ST

H ST SYT

P E ACHT R E E S T

BR OA D S T

FOR S Y T H S T

The terrain or topography of the study area - the Gulch- was important to understand mainly for reasons of the development potential. The redesigned development establishes better connections ato the neighborhood and takes advantage of existing topography through new paths and entry points. Learning from the negatives observed through these sectional studies, the project aims to negate these in the proposed development.

SYT

SITE BUILT ROAD LEVEL ea - the Gulch- was important to understand mainly for reasons of the MARTA NETWORK ROADS evelopment establishes better connections ato the neighborhood and takes BLOCKS BUILT FORMS h new paths and entry points. Learning from the negatives observed through these SECTION LINES ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL ate these in the proposed development. PARKING BLOCKS BRIDGES

PEACHT R EE ST

3

BR OAD ST

PEACHTREE ST

FORSYTH ST

FORSYTH ST

P EAC H T REE S T

B R OA D ST

F OR SY T H ST

The terrain or topography of the study area - the Gulch- was important to understand mainly for reasons of the development potential. The redesigned development establishes better connections ato the neighborhood and takes 2 advantage of existing topography through new paths and entry points. Learning from the negatives observed through these sectional studies, the project aims to negate these in the proposed development.

FO RSY T H ST

ST

ING

SPR

FOR

SYT

H ST

The terrain or topography of the study area - the Gulch- was important to understand mainly for reasons of the development potential. The redesigned development establishes better connections to the neighborhood and takes advantage of existing topography through new paths and entry points. Learning from the negatives observed through these sectional studies, the project aims to negate these in the proposed development.

FOR

PEACHTREE ST

SITE MARTA NETWORK BLOCKS 3 SECTION LINES1 PARKING BLOCKS

3

0

FOR

SITE MARTA NETWORK 3 BLOCKS SECTION LINES PARKING BLOCKS

H ST

FORSYTH ST

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL BRIDGES

PEACHTREE ST

ST ING SPR

BUILT ROAD LEVEL ROADS BUILT FORMS

2

FORSYTH ST

3

2

1

I-2

B R OAD ST

3

2

FOR

ST

0

SPR

I-2

ING

2

The terrain or topography of the study area - the Gulch- was important to understand mainly for reasons of the development potential. The redesigned development establishes better connections ato the neighborhood and takes advantage of existing topography through new paths and entry points. Learning from the negatives observed through these sectional studies, the project aims to negate these in the proposed development.

142


MANUAL for

INTER S 143

s s

TITIAL

P A C

E


12.1

Sound Mitigation and Strategies

As residents and business operators occupying the adjacent properties to CSX, the main concern that these owners would face is of the noise while the railroad is active. These are important issues that directly impact health, welfare and the ability to conduct business causing issues to the users. The proposals hence demand a smart design to mitigate the noises and the site demands a sound barrier system to improve the quality of life. CSX is continuously working on resolving these conflicts, however, these may take time in practical use. Introducing a noise barrier that’s functional, attractive and smart ribbon would be an ideal scenario. Its an infrastructure that will be winding its way along the wall corridor. This infrastructure can become a new landscape that integrates different neighborhoods and community. Alternatives to noise mitigation can be coupled with aesthetic and ecological improvements, leverages both local public spaces and infrastructure around it along the entire corridor. This is an attempt of populating redevelopment and improved urban outcomes along the whole corridor. The corridor passes through different neighborhoods and responds accordingly. Strategies: Looking at the location of CSX, it divides the city into two parts and hence avoids the sense of community. The rail link should be acting as a medium of connecting areas but the CSX disconnects and quarantines neighborhoods. It should be seen as a positive attribute that can create value along its perimeter that can re-invigorate and increase pedestrian and cycling networks around Gulch, hence improving its stature. The rail link should be looked as a catalyst for the positive and regenerative reconnection of historically separated neighborhoods for Atlanta residents. Figure 144. Representational map of sound barriers

144


STRATEGIES KS

ANT VAC TS LO

AR NDM

LA

KS

PAR

NOISE BARRIERS ANT VAC TS LO

RKS

MA AND

L

KS

PAR

NOISE BARRIERS AS OPPORTUNITIES

ANT C A V S LOT

RKS

MA AND

L

KS

PAR 145

Figure 145. Sound barrier strategy diagrams


12.2

SOUND BARRIERS Habitable Barriers

146


12.3

Spatial Scales

MACRO

147

MICRO

SOCIAL


ARCHITEC(X)TURE

12.4

ARC H ITE C TU RE - Bu i l d i n g E d ge Ty p o l o g y

Building Edge Conditions

This project aims to amalgamate different space typologies found in the city to merge with the urban fabric that Atlanta has built for itself. From a perimeter block typology to the open end buildings, different spatial textures are taken care of considering the kind of programs proposed.

148


12.5

Space + Typologies

ARCHITEC(X)TURE

AR C HI T E C T URE - Build in g a nd Spa c e Typolog ies

This project aims to amalgamate different space typologies found in the city to merge with the urban fabric that Atlanta has built for itself. From a perimeter block typology to the open end buildings, different spatial textures are taken care of considering the kind of programs proposed.

149


150


12.6

Architecture

+

TRADITIO N AL

=

MODER N

CONTEMP ORARY BU I LT F ORM S

Figure 151. Proposal for local architecture

151


PLOT

OPENING UP

TRADITIONAL

SUB DIVISIONS

MODERN

COMMON SHARED SPACE IN BETWEEN

Figure 152. Strategy for mass divisions 152


12.7

153

Urban Squares


Figure 154. Roman Agora

Historically, squares were the center of communities, and they traditionally helped shape the identity of entire cities. The image of the architecture around is sometimes tied to the squares. Scholars like Lynch ( 1972 ) have significantly contributed on squares, see urban squares as common types of public spaces. Since the first urban formations, from Agora of the polis, and the open market of Medieval times, such public spaces have always existed since Ancient Architecture and have been one of the important components of cities. It is a significant contribution to the cultural development of communities. Urban squares also called civic squares, plazas are always considered spaces that form focal points in the public space network, providing a forum for social and economic exchange, for landscaping. These public squares are highly accessible where people can interact, gather, linger, walk, talk with others. They tend to be formal and urban in nature in contrast to parks and open space. Urban squares also form a medium for hard and soft landscaping. A public access to these urban squares makes their use more popular. In the last few decades, the definition of public squares has been redefined within the context of urban space development. This in turn has led to numerous spatial transformations as shopping malls, parking lots, traffic roads began to be produced. Along with the development of cities and societies, urban squares acquired more functions and, became one of the key elements of city design with their significant role of creating a gathering place for people, humanizing them by mutual contact and providing a shelter in the chaos of the city. The square, as a central formative element, makes the society “a community and not merely an aggregate of individuals� An attempt to densify the region, an urban square insert wold be interesting to experiment with in such contrasting environment.

154


13

155

DESIGN APPLICATIONS


ACTIVITIES - URBAN SQUARES 13.1 Urban Squares IN PLACE

Activity squares involving activities like reading, lounging and playing

Nature trail square exploring different kinds of plant species

Artsy squares inviting more public to use the squares

156


ACTIVITIES - URBAN SQUARES

Sports grounds not only for sports but also for competitions, concert

Event spaces to re-vitalize and organize numerous activities amongst the communities.

Community Gardens to provide local engagements

157

Restructured buildings to inject new possibilities, to multiply density and reduce dullness.

Kids play area among the residential quarters


ACTIVITIES - URBAN SQUARES

Cultural event buildings to offer cultural diversity

Topographic advantage to create multi level activities

158


159 MCDANIEL ST SW

WALKER ST SW

NELSON ST SW

CHAPEL ST SW

4

CASTLEBERRY HILL

3

2

1

6

6

3

6

5

6

2

3

5

4

3

6

2

1

6

2

2

4

4

5

3

DOWNTOWN

MARIETTA ST NW

MIXED USE DEVELOPMENT URBAN SQUARES

2

6

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT

4 RECREATIONAL DEVELOPMENT 5 HIGH END RESIDENTIAL

3

COMMERCIAL DEVELOPMENT 1

MASTERPLAN

TED TURNER DR SW

BROTHERTON ST SW

GARNETT ST SW

TRINITY AVE SW

NELSON ST SW

MITCHELL ST SW

M.L.K. JR DR SW

Masterplan

MITCHELL ST SW

ANDREW YOUNG INTERNATIONAL BLVD NW

1

1

13.2


13.3

Axonometrics Proposed Connections

EXISTING BUILDINGS

Continuation of the traditional method of transportation in the newly proposed development

Proposed Connections Residential corridors attempting for densification mixed with public and civic spaces.

Proposed Connections Different building types making the building more accessible instead of strong raw edges

EXISTING BUILDINGS

Proposed Connections

Patching the existing and proposal through public transportation

A way to sync strategies at different levels , this multiview projection helps understand the levels Gulch deals with, the proposal, new levels at which it operates on and minute strategic proposals to several design problems. 160

M AS T ER P L AN


Proposed Connections Residential corridors attempting for densification mixed with public and civic spaces.

Proposed Connections Retaining walls acting as sound barriers promoting excess activities and play

EXISTING BUILDINGS

Proposed Connections Different building types making the building more accessible instead of strong raw edges

Proposed Connections

Patching the existing and proposal through public transportation

161

MA S T E R P L A N

Focussed towards a playful view. this multi level view offers a wide range of activities at different levels : Basketball, open court connecting the other side of the retail building, while interacting with the existing ground level at the other side.


EXISTING BUILDINGS

Proposed Connections Residential corridors attempting for densification mixed with public and civic spaces. Proposed Connections

Proposed Connections

Continuation of the traditional method of transportation in the newly proposed development

Air right infills for usable spaces above them

EXISTING BUILDINGS

It also deals with the variety of architecture that can be shaped owing to homogenity with the Atlanta’s urban fabric with a hint of contemporary form

MA S T E R PLA N

162


14

163

AFTER THOUGHTS


PROPOSED STATISTICS

70 % SITE

As important as the built environment, urban voids are an important tissue in the fabric of the city and needs attention for their development, than just isolation. While working with these urban voids, Gulch was an important consideration mainly because of the future governmental proposals and their shortcomings but also of its scale and its diversity. After research and development of the site, it concludes with a huge potential for building an urban center right in the center of three glorious neighborhoods of Downtown Atlanta It is important to point out the flexibility of these urban voids; the way they can be manipulated to fit in with any city fabric; to make it work and revitalize the surroundings. It is important to check their progress over time. Catalysts shape and the environment and at the same time are dynamic in nature.

18 %

USABLE SURFACE PARKING

40 % RIGHT OF WAY

30 % PUBLIC SPACE

40 % TOTAL BUILT FABRIC

164


U RBA N N E G AT I V E :

M A N U A L FO R I N T E RS T I A L S PAC E S L O C AT I O N : G U L C H Z O N E , AT L A N TA U R B A 7 9 2 - G RA D U AT E T H E S I S S T U D I O I I I N S P R I N G 2 0 1 6 , C O M P I L E D B Y : A S H W I N I D H A M A N KA R ALONG WITH: P R O F . RYA N M A D S O N PROF. ALICE GUESS M S . LA U R E N F RA L E Y

The very thought of the wastaging land available to us disturbs me. With various issues to deal with, wasting land has become a common phenomena since quite sometime now. Urbanization and the complex interaction of social, technological and economic processes derive contemporary American urban growth environment. This project questions the important arguement about the leftover spaces caused due to city transformations. In the process of American city transformations, they also produced certain urban conditions that needed to be changed for contemporary society. Learning from the history of American urbanization , issues such as leftover spaces comes into picture.

Source: Villagomez, Erick: Claiming residual spaces in heterogeneous city

The problems of the urban environment and the factors contributing to the leftover spaces goes back to zoning policies, land use, transportation dependence, ununsed industrial sites and so on. One such site - The Gulch - was studied for research and development of this project. The term ‘re-imagining’ shows the intention to add a broad spectrum of values, such as: activities focussed on public realm, well designed public spaces, mix used development and other necessary things to densidy the dead site. MORE ABOUT THE GULCH

15

Gulch area is at ground level while the streets that surround it are elevated- they were originally elevated in the early 20th century so that traffic could move more easily above the railroad lines passing through the Downtown area. Currently, the site is being used as a parking facility below the street level to the west of the downtown.

FINAL EXHIBITION BOARDS

Early photographs of Atlanta’s topographic context

PHILIPS A RE N A

DOWNTOWN

SITE

SITE

CSX

NORTH DOWNTOWN GEORGIA AQUARIUM CENTENNIAL OLYMPIC PARK DOWNTOWN GEORGIA DOME CNN

GEORGIA STATE UNIVERSITY

GEORGIA DOME SOUTH DOWNTOWN MERCEDES BENZ STADIUM

CASTLEBERRY HILL

EXISTING STREET CAR ROUTE

LOCATION AND CONTEXT

ATLANTA DOWNTOWN STATISTICS

BUILT FORMS

165

CRIME

RECREATIONAL AREAS

SURFACE PARKING


SE C T IO N A L S I T E A NA LY S I S

S I T E S T RAT E G I E S

MANIPULATED TOPOGRAPHY

URBAN NETWORKS

M A RI

ET TA

URBAN TRANSIT

P R O G RA M MIX

B U I LT FA B R I C

EXISTING

TOPOGRAPHY

PUBLIC REALM

USABLE SURFAC E PA RK I N G

SITE

ST

100 %

R I G H T O F WAY

P U B L I C S PAC E

30ac

0ac

30 % 33 % 27ac

0 %

P ri m a r y P ro gra m s

2

20 %

10

40 %

of total site area

CE N OL TEN Y M N IA P IC L PA RK

90ac

PROPOSED

ML K J R D R N W.

MI TC H EL L S T S W.

1

P ETERS S T S W

2

I-2

0

70 % 63ac

R I G H T O F WAY

18 % 40 % 36ac

17ac

P U B L I C S PAC E

30 %

P ri m a r y P ro gra m s

27ac

of total site area

3

1871

ORIGINAL ROAD LEVEL BRIDGES

SITE MARTA NETWORK BLOCKS SECTION LINES PARKING BLOCKS

H ST SY T

PEACH TR EE ST

BR OAD S T

FO R

3 F O RSY T H ST

FORSYTH ST

BUILT ROAD LEVEL ROADS BUILT FORMS

FORSYTH ST

2

1

PEACHTREE ST

SP R

IN G

ST

2012

Atlanta’s street car made an exit as private motor cars replaced the system. The site takes advantage of the street car route still in use for the downtown area and aims for the expansion for human interaction within the site in the near future.

The terrain or topography of the study area - the Gulch- was important to understand mainly for reasons of the development potential. The redesigned development establishes better connections ato the neighborhood and takes advantage of existing topography through new paths and entry points. Learning from the negatives observed through these sectional studies, the project aims to negate these in the proposed development.

INFILLS

SOUND BARRIERS

AIR RIGHTS/ INFILLED

SITE

NO INFILLS

SOUND BARRIERS

2016

PROPOSED STREET CAR ROUTE

166


O N E PAG E I D E A S - U RB A N S Q U A RE S + K I T O F PAR KS The design proposal for urban squares seem to be a necessity for densifying the urban fabric in the dead site. These urban squares are an open public space proposals used for community gatherings. As proposed, these squares respond to their surrounding buildings making them public, private semi-public squares accordingly.

SI TE + X “ What attracts people most, it would appear, is other people.” - William H. Whyte

NORTH DOWNTOWN MAR CNN

IE T T A

ST

TRADITIONAL

1

CONTEMPORARY

P HI LI P S ARENA Sports grounds not only for sports but also for competitions, concert

M AST E R PLAN

ST RS TE

ML K J R DR

Event spaces to re-vitalize and organize numerous activities amongst the communities.

PE

2

SW

TED TU RN ER DR N W

A critical manner to illustrate spatial concepts, these isometrics makes it possible to accurately represent the complex forms and levels that Gulch represents. A way to syncstrategies at different levels , this multiview projection helps understand the levels Gulch deals with, the proposal, new levels at which it operates on and minute strategic proposals to several design problems.

Proposed Connections Air right infills for usable spaces above them

MI T C HEL L S T S W

3

Proposed Connections

Retaining walls acting as sound barriers promoting excess activities and play

S OU TH DOWNTOWN ST SW NE LS ON

Community Gardens to provide local engagements

Restructed buildings to inject new possibilities, to multiply density and reduce dullness.

PE

TE

RS

ST

SW

WAL KERS ST SW

4

Proposed Connections Residential corridors attempting for densification mixed with public and civic spaces.

ST SW

C A S T L E BE RRY H IL L

PE TE RS

5

Cultural event buildings to offer cultural diversity

6

TE

DT

UR

NE

RD

RS

W

Street car expansion Continuation of the traditional method of transportation in the newly proposed development

SW

T

WH

ITE

HA

LL

FUTUR E DEVEL OPME N

ST

Cultural event buildings to offer cultural diversity

7

A

URBAN SQUARES NEIGHBORHOODS

A

B

B

C

C D

D

PROPOSED ROAD NETWORKS

Topographic advantage to create multi level activities

N

EXISTING ROAD NETWORKS

M A S TE R P L A N

PROPOSED STREETCAR ROUTE

Artsy squares inviting more public to use the squares 9

7 2

3

8 5

8

9

10

11

10 13

3

1 4

14

12

6

11

Activity squares involving activities like reading, lounging and playing

167

Kids play area among the residential quarters Nature trail square exploring different kinds of plant species

1

RESTAURANT

5

GALLERIES

OPEN TERRACE

13

RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUMS

2

RETAIL

6

EXHIBITION SPACE

10

SPORTS ACADEMY

14

RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUMS

3

COMMERCIAL

7

RESIDENTIAL CONDOS

11

PARKING

15

RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUMS

4

MUSEUM

8

RESIDENTIAL CONDOMINIUMS

12

RETAIL

9

SECTION D-D

0

25

5

50


SITE + X

S I TE + X

+

=

Traditional BUILDING TYPES

PLOT

OPENING UP

Contemporary

Proposed Connections

SUB DIVISIONS

Functional and attractive ribbon of infrastructure winding its way along the wall corridor, this infrastructure takes advantage of this opportunity to become an important component of a new landscape feature that integrates different neighborhoods and community.

MASTERPLAN

M A S T ER P L A N

Focussed towards a pl ay ful vi ew. thi s mul ti l evel vi ew o ffers a wi de range of acti vi ti es at di fferent l evel s. B asketbal l open court connecti ng the other si de of the retai l bui l di ng, whi l e i nteracti ng wi th the exi sti ng ground l evel at the other si de. It al so deal s wi th the vari et y of archi tecture that can be shaped owi ng to homogeni t y wi th the A tl anta’s urban fabri c wi th a hi nt of contempo rar y form

STREET EXPERIENCES

Focussed towards a playful view. this multi level view offers a wide range of activities at different levels. Basketball open court connecting the other side of the retail building, while interacting with the existing ground level at the other side.

Proposed Connections Air right infills for usable spaces above them

Proposed Connections Residential corridors attempting for densification mixed with public and civic spaces.

Proposed Connections

EXISTING BUILDINGS

Retaining walls acting as sound barriers promoting excess activities and play

EXISTING BUILDINGS

Proposed Connections

EXISTING BUILDINGS

Air right infills for usable spaces above them

Proposed Connections

The rail link is seen as a positive attribute that can create value along its perimeter – its shared boundaries –that can re‐invigorate and increase our pedestrian and cycling networks, be a catalyst for the positive and regenerative reconnection of historically separated neighbourhoods

Different building types making the building more accessible instead of strong raw edges

PARKS

VACANT LOTS

EXISTING BUILDINGS

LANDMARK BUILDINGS

NOISE BARRIERS

Proposed Connections Patching the existing and proposal through public realm

NOISE BARRIERS AS OPPORTUNITIES

Proposed Connections Retaining walls acting as sound barriers promoting excess activities and play

A

A

B

B

C

C D

A

D

A

B

B

C

C D

D MASTERPLAN 1

MASTERPL AN 4 3

5

2

6

1

9

7

3

10

8

1

PARKING

3

ARCADE CENTER

5

OPEN PLAY FIELDS

7

FRIEGHT SPACES

2

RETAIL

4

COMMERCIAL OFFICES

6

ART CAFE

8

UNDERGROUND GARDEN

9

SECTION A -A

GATHERING AREA

10

0

25

5

EXISTING OFFICE RESTRUCTURING

50

5 2 4

+1032

6

+1056

7

+1016

3

+1048

2

+1040

25

0 5

4

4

50

1

5 PLAY AREAS

1

RETAIL AND HOTEL

3

MINI STADIUM

2

EXHIBITION SPACE

4

UNDERGROUND GREEN AREA 6

PLAY RETAIL

7

PARKING

SECTION C-C

10

0

50

1

5

20

PARKING

2

EXHIBITION SPACE

3

GALLERY

4

OFFICE AREAS

SECTION B-B

0

25

5

50

168


Annotated Bibliography BOOKS • Chase, John; Crawford, Margaret; Kalisiki, John. Everyday Urbanism. New York: The Monacelli Press, 2008 Everyday Urbanism discusses essays relevant to theory and practice of urban design which explores cities responsive to daily routines and neighborhood concerns and offers both an analysis of and a method for working within the social and political urban framework. • Shaftoe, Henry. Convivial urban spaces: Creating Effective Public places. UK: Earthscan, 2008 The book demonstrates that successful urban public spaces are essential to the private, polarized society. Case studies in UK, Spain, Germany and Italy lays practical guidance important for urban environment. • Whyte, William. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. the University of Michigan, Conservation Foundation, 1980 • El-Khoury, Rodolphe and Robbins, Edward. Shaping the City. New York: Routledge, 2013 Rem Koolhaas. S,M,X,XL (Atlanta). New York: Rem Koolhaas and The Monacelli Press, 1995 takes on key issues in development of Atlanta from urban design perspective. • Employment Impact of Inner-city Development Projects: The Case of Underground Atlanta Employment impact of inner-city development projects: the case of Underground Atlanta Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Sjoquist, David L. and Zobay, Stephanie M. Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University 1999 Online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/9324/ MPRA Paper No. 9324, posted 07. July 2008 / • Moskow, Keith & Linn, Robert. Small Scale- Creative Solutions for Better Living. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2010 Urban interventions addressing issues such as density and limited availability of space, this book identifies and uses ‘leftover spaces/voids/ unrecognized tears’ in the city fabric. • Wooley, Helen. Urban Open Spaces. London: Spon press, 2003 The book strengthens the importance of urban open spaces in creating healthier, more sociable communities which are often ignored by architects, landscape architects in their pre occupation with more prestigious city centre spaces. The case studies included in the book reveal a range of recent landscape design initiatives which show ‘that the art of place-making is slowly being rediscovered again in city planning.’ • Rossi, Aldo. The Architecture of the City (English edition). Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England : The MIT Press, 1982 Post-modern perspective • Krier, Rob. Urban Space. New York: Rizzoli International Publications, 1979 • Le Corbusier. Towards a new architecture. Architectural Press, 1946 • Gehl, Jan. How to Study Public Life. Island Press, 2013 The book engages with the history of public-life studied over 50years and discusses methods and tools necessary to recapture city life. • Crawford, Margaret. Concrete Island: A Novel. Macmillan, 2001 169


• Hauk, Thomas; Keller, Regine; Kleinekort, Volker. Infrastructural Urbanism Addressing the In-between. DOM Publishers, 2011. • Preston, Howard L. Automobile Age Atlanta: The Making of a Southern Metropolis, 1900-1935. Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Economic History Association http://0-www.jstor.org.library.scad.edu/stable/pdf/2120476.pdf?acceptTC=true • Cuff, Dana; Sherman, Roger Fast-forward urbanism: rethinking architecture’s engagement with the city. New York : Princeton Architectural Press, 2011 • Cohen, Stephen and Zysman, John. Manufacturing Matters: the Myth of the Post-Industrial Economy. Basic Books, 1987 • Mumford, Lewis. What is a City? Architectural Record, 1937 • Harmack, Maren; Kobler, Martin. As found. Use, Meaning an-d re-appropriation of contentious Urban Spaces • Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. New York: Random House Inc., 1961 • Foucault, Michel. Of other spaces: Utopias and Heteropias. Diacritics, 1984 • Lees, Loretta; Slater, Tom; Wyly, Elvin. Gentrification. New York, Routledge, 2013 • Hou, Jeffrey. Insurgent Public Space: Guerrilla Urbanism and the Remaking of Contemporary Cities. New York: Routledge, 2010 • Preston, Howard.L. Automobile Age of Atlanta: The making of a Southern Metropolis. Athens, University of Georgia Press, 1979 • Berger, Alan. Drosscape: wasting land in urban America. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, c2006 1st ed • Bosselmann, Peter. Urban transformation: understanding city design and form. Washington Dc: Island Press, 2008 • McHarg, Ian L. Design with Nature. San Val, Incorporated, 1995 • Richardson, Harry W.; Nam, Chang Woon. Shrinking cities: A Global Perspective. New York: Routledge, 2014 • Tardin, Raquel. System of Open Spaces: Concrete Project Strategies for Urban Territories. Springer, August 2012

170


WEBSITES (For Maps | Journals | Videos) • http://www.governing.com/gov-data/atlanta-gentrification-maps-demographic-data.html Governing analyzes demographic data and summarizes the extent to which neighborhoods in Atlanta gentrified. • http://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/7297159.pdf Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Sjoquist, David L. and Zobay, Stephanie M.Andrew Young. Employment impact of inner-city development projects: the case of Underground Atlanta . School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University, 1999 • http://gis.atlantaga.gov/apps/gislayers/download/ GIS layers maintained by the Office of Planning • http://blog.perkinswill.com/the-underneath-space-reclaiming-reconnecting-people-in-the-city/ The underneath space: Reclaiming + Reconnecting people in the city BY Perkins+Will addresses unrealized potential for revitalizing spaces beneath the highways. • http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Gentrification-The-Atlanta-Way Gentrification: The Atlanta Way | King Williams | TEDxGeorgiaStateU • http://www.asla.org/2013awards/172.html • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oeMMQzJAHqg

171


172


Urban Negative : A manual for Interstitial Spaces  

Urban Design Graduate Thesis 2017

Urban Negative : A manual for Interstitial Spaces  

Urban Design Graduate Thesis 2017

Advertisement