Page 1

Ashley Wu

TAICHUNG GATEWAY PARK

Academy of Art University Landscape Architecture Thesis Book Summer 2015


水湳,地名起源於聚落四周被八寶圳支線圍繞,原排水不 良,多疏鬆軟土因以名,按「湳」閩南語讀音與「濫」意 近似。 台中水湳機場

2


CONTENTS 01 / PROJECT STORY

HISTORY P. 6 - 7 FUTURE P. 8 - 9

02 / PROJECT OVERVIEW

ABSTRACT P. 12 - 13 RENOVATED AIRPORT P. 14 - 15 SCOPE OF RESEARCH P. 16 ROLE OF DESIGN P. 17

03 / ANALYSIS HISTORICAL AIRFIELD P. 20 - 21 LAND USE MAPS P. 22 DEMOGRAPHICS P. 23 CLIMATE P. 23 HEAVY METAL POLLUTION P. 24 - 25 GREEN SPACES IN TAICHUNG P. 26 - 27 WATER MANAGEMENT ISSUE P. 28 - 29

04/ CASE STUDIES

TAICHUNG GATEWAY PARK P. 32 - 33 VATNSMYRI MASTER PLAN P. 34 - 35

05 / INSPIRATION

FORMER STRUCTURE P. 37 CANAL AND FARMLAND P. 38

06 / DESIGN PROPOSAL

CONCEPT AND IDEA CONTEXT MAPS DIAGRAMS SITE PLAN SECTIONS WATER FLOW HISTORY FLOW VEGETATION FLOW

P. 42 - 43 P. 44 - 45 P. 46 - 51 P. 52 - 53 P. 54 - 55 P. 56 - 81 P. 82 - 89 P. 90 - 95

07 / ABOUT

AUTOBIOGRAPHY P. 98 RESUME P. 99 REFERENCES P. 100 - 101 3


01 / PROJECT STORY

HISTORY FUTURE

4


5


HISTORY

ORIGINAL FORM Before 1500s ALLUVIAL PLAIN

AGRICULTURAL USE 1600s ABORIGINAL PEOPLE

AIRPORT 1945

1922 JAPANESE ARMY USE

The forming of the Dadu Tableland and Pakua Tableland created the Taichung Basin during the Pleistocene Era. The site was formed by scouring of the Dadu River that created an alluvial plain with fertile lands in Taichung. The Aboriginal people (The Plain Group) used this fertile land for agricultural use. After the Qing dynasty lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan , China ceded the Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki. The site was taken as a Japanese military airport during occupation in 1922. In 1945, after the defeat of the Japanese Empire in World War II, Taiwan took back the site and used it as a military base. Moreover, the site was the most important part of Taiwan’s aviation and the airport relocation policy was made in accordance with the Central International Airport Policy. Taichung Airport was relocated to CCK International Airport. Ownership of the land was transferred to the National Property Bureau and is now partially managed by Taichung City Government, which is planning to create a grand park in Taichung City.

6


AIRPORT 1946

PLANNING

1947

TAIWAN ARMY USE

1970

2002

CIVIL AIRPORT

CENTRAL PARK 2005

Now

PLANNING INTO LARGE PARK

IMPORTANT FACTS ABOUT TAICHUNG AIRPORT

• Taichung Airport used to be the only place where Taiwan produced and tested planes. • It was the first civil airport in Taichung City.

REASONS WHY TAICHUNG AIRPORT CLOSED

• Taichung City wants to become a municipality and the city expected the Taichung Airport to become an International Airport. However, the airport is too small to become an international airport. The city decided to move to the new airport, CCK International Airport, 12.4 km away from the site in Taichung. • The airport used to be surrounded by suburbs with farming land around the site. In the recent years, the city expanded quickly and the Taichung Airport is surrounded by buildings and markets today. The law for limiting the building height because of the airport influenced the development of real estate in West Valley and North Valley resulted in low rise buildings surrounding the project site.

7


FUTURE In the existing Master Plan, the park features scalloped edges, which increase the possible surface area for adjacent buildings. The architects call for the restoration and extension of a hydrological network that will subdivide the enormous park into manageable parcels that complement adjacent neighborhoods. Each of the surrounding districts will have its own character: The Waterfront Residential District will be characterized by quiet single-family homes, low-density 1/3 Commerce

1/3 Park

apartments and condominiums, and light commercial uses. The Cultural District will be much higher in density, featuring more and taller apartments and condominiums on a grid of avenues. The plan is intended to engender a lively atmosphere conducive to art galleries and creative living. The Academic District will build on the proximity of Taichung’s Feng Chia University to explore creative energy in a different context. Middensity zoning will accommodate student facilities and amenities.

1/3 Culture

TAICHUNG GATEWAY

WATERFRONT RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT

ACADEMIC DISTRICT

8

CULTURAL DISTRICT

ACADEMIC DISTRICT


0 200’

1200’ 600’

2000’

9

N


02 / PROJECT OVERVIEW ABSTRACT RENOVATED AIRPORT SCOPE OF RESEARCH ROLE OF DESIGN

10


11


ABSTRACT

12


Taiwan is the 7th densest nation in the world. Today, over 80% of people live in the urban and metropolitan areas of Taiwan where the density is extremely high. Skyscrapers and buildings take over spaces where we live. It is hard to find green spaces in our cities and people who live in cities are desperate to seek natural places for relaxing. The situation is similar in my hometown. In the province of Taichung, 80% of the population lives in Taichung City which has a density of 6,306 people per squarekilometer and the population is 1,027,878. Taichung’s population density is almost as the same as Hong Kong, which has 6,396 people per square-kilometer. The population in the city grows every year yet the number of green spaces grow slowly. People don’t have enough green open spaces in the city. City parks and open spaces can improve human’s physical and psychological health, strengthen our communities, and make our city more suitable and more attractive to live in. The World Health Organization (WHO), in its concern for public health, produced a document on the subject stating that every city should have a minimum of 9 m2 of green space per person. An optimal amount would be between 10 m2 to 15 m2 per person (sustainablecitiesnetwork 2011). However, in Taichung, the green space available for each people is 5.45 m2 per person, just over half of WHO’s recommendations. There is not enough green space currently available for people in Taichung City. In the 19th-century, Frederick Law Olmsted brought the idea of the large public parks in cities and gave us New York’s Central Park,

Prospect Park, and similar grand parks in cities across America and Canada. Those large parks provide people who live in the city recreation, inspiration, and escape from the city’s blare and bustle. The large parks give people the chance to enjoy and experience nature in cities without going to the countryside. Today, the third biggest city in Taiwan, Taichung, has a 613 acre airport, which has been abandoned. Besides the abandoned airfield, there is also a former army base connected to the site, as well as agricultural land that the city has acquired with plans for future development. The site has a great opportunity to be transformed into a grand park similar to New York’s Central Park, San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park, London’s Hyde Park, and Amsterdam’s Bos Park. In the future, Taichung Gateway Park can achieve many benefits for the residents of Taichung. To create a large public park in my city, I want to bring nature into the city. I would like to keep the aviation history in the site, using historical elements to create a park that express the history with natural form. The park will provide a space where people can do physical activities and be exposed to nature and greenery to promote health. The park can use many strategies for environmental benefit including pollution abatement and control of stormwater runoff. It can provide social benefits, give people recreation opportunities, and strengthen the bond of neighborhoods and communities. By providing more green spaces and other amenities, the site will become a destination for residents and visitors from all over Taichung City for many generations.

13


RENOVATED AIRFIELD

Taiwan

14

Taichung

Taichung City

Taichung Former Airport


The site is a former airport with a long distinguished aviation history. Taichung Airport closed in 2002 and remained abandoned until 2004 when the Taichung City Government decided to designate the site as a large park for the city. The 613 acres of empty land has the potential to become as important to the city of Taichung as Central Park is to New York City or Bos Park is to Amsterdam. However, the site has many challenges that needs to be solved. The site has always been a barrier between the North Valley and West Valley. The road system doesn’t connect to the two regions because of the airport. Moreover, the site has a significant history for Taiwan, but people cannot access the historical elements. To emphasize the site’s history and create a connection between the two regions will be primary concerns in the design. According to the government proposal, there should be five districts in the site, including an International Cultural District, an Academic Research District, a Waterfront Residential District, a Shopping District and a Taichung Gateway Park. These five districts should be well connected in the site with different programs to serve a variety of purposes for residents and visitors. I have developed a Master Plan for the entire site based on the government guidelines.

For my thesis project, I will focus on Taichung Greenway Park. The site history of aviation and airplane production is the inspiration for my concept which is the idea of building the future. I want to create a futuristic site where people can believe that everything is possible and anything can happen. Furthermore, I want to use flow movement as a design principle creating sinuous movement and making the connections on the site. For the future, I hope the Taichung Gateway Park can achieve many benefits for citizens and the city. I hope that people can access the park and recreations facilities to lead more healthy lives, both mentally and physically. The park can provide a more suitable place for people. The green spaces play a key role for preserving water, improving air quality, reducing pollution, protecting wildlife as well as benefit the environment. The park can provide community space for socializing, and give the community a vital identity. It can help to create strong, safe, friendly community. The site is surrounded by two schools and it can provide a chance for communication between students. Moreover, the park can give educational opportunities for people. The park will enhance property values, contribute to healthy and productive work forces and help attract and retain businesses. Those benefits can provide both residents, and visitors a new lifestyle, experiences–all important economic benefits in Taichung City.

15


SCOPE OF RESEARCH Based on the Urban Plan and Regional Plan of Taichung City, Taichung Former Airport is destined to become a large park. It is a valuable land of 613 acres with plenty of resources to draw from. In Taichung City, people don’t have enough green spaces and that’s the reason that the government wants to change the former Taichung Airport into a park. In the government proposal’s guidelines, the government wants to have five districts: International Cultural District, Academic Research District, Waterfront Residential District, Shopping District and Taichung Gateway Park. In the Master Plan of the site, I will incorporate the government guidelines and follow the Master Plan from the government. The Master Plan was developed by New York architect, Stan Allen, and responds well to globalization trends, anticipates growth due to the Taiwan-China Trade, and transforms the city into an international metropolis. My thesis project will focus on Taichung Gateway Park, which is approximately 170 acres. My plan is not only to build a large park with multiple uses, but also to achieve a sustainable and ecological design. Within the boundaries of the site there are plenty of opportunities, including various historical elements, existing canals, and the surrounding communities. The goal of the design is to connect the resources together into a sequence of spaces serving needed functions for education, recreation, exhibition, entertainment and cultural preservation into a cohesive network.

16


ROLE OF DESIGN The thesis will take the proposal from the government and based on its guidelines, focus on the design of the 170 acre park itself. The research addresses current issues of urbanization and aims to provide possible solutions through design. The research focuses on two primary issues: how to engage with the urban fabric and incorporate its historical identity. The first issue responds to urban water management problem. The thesis does not try to change the entire city infrastructure, but uses landscape design as a solution for mitigating water management problems in the city. The design components seek to present a research of stormwater management through detention, retention, filtration, infiltration, collection, and storage as well as utilize the flow of water to reinforce circulation within the park and its urban context. The second issue researches the proposal from the government and the site history. The thesis does not change the Master Plan, but cooperates with it. The research will find the site’s historical identity and engage with the proposal that the government provided and make the connection with the airport’s historical identity .

104

connect wit tion h spillway to deten

nd po

108

nd po connect wit tion h spillway to deten

17


03 / ANALYSIS

HISTORICAL AIRFIELD LAND USE MAP DEMOGRAPHICS CLIMATE GREEN SPACES IN TAICHUNG WATER MANAGEMENT ISSUE

18


19


HISTORICAL AIRFIELD TERMINAL Taichung Former airport used to be the only civil airport in Taichung City, and the terminal has historical meaning for representing the first civil airport. (Built in 1971)

RUNWAY The runway was built during World War II. It has been repaired and enlarged several times. It is the most obvious reminder of the site’s former use as an airport.

20


BLOCKHOUSE

AIR BASE

The blockhouse was built during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The blockhouse served as a defensive storage point against any enemy and it has been left for 70 years as a significant element to represent Japanese military presence in World War II.

The Air Base was built when Taiwanese military took over the site of the Air Force Command Center. It used to be Taiwan military command center. The buildings are 60 years old.

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER

FLIGHT HANGAR

The Air Traffic Control Tower was built during the Japanese occupation and it has been renovated several times throughout the years.

The flight hangar was built when Taiwanese military took over the site. The site used to be an important place for aviation industry and the Flight Hangar used to be the place where planes were manufactured and tested.

21


LAND USE MAP

Military Use – It used to be an airbase for training soldiers and producing airplanes. Industrial Use – Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation which is one of the important aviation industry in Taiwan is in the site. Agricultural Use – It is mainly paddy rice field.

FORMER AIRPORT

GOVERNMENT USE

PARKING LOT

MILITARY BASE

INDUSTRIAL USE

COMMERCIAL USE

AGRICULTURAL USE

22


DEMOGRAPHICS

CLIMATE 2013 TEMPERATURE (F°)

GENDER

FEMALE MALE

Summer is the hottest time in Taichung where the temperature averages 82o-83o Fahrenheit.

2013 PRECIPITATION (mm)

AGES

0 - 9 YEARS 11 - 19 YEARS 21 - 29 YEARS 31 - 39 YEARS 41 - 49 YEARS 51 - 59 YEARS 61 - 69 YEARS OVER 70 YEARS April to May is the monsoon season in East Asia, however, there are higher levels of precipitation from July to August.

2013 SUN EXPOSURE (Hour)

EDUCATION

HIGH SCHOOL OR LESS TRADE SCHOOL COLLEGE GRADUATE / PROFESSIONAL

April has the least sun exposure coinciding with the monsoon season. October has the most sun exposure.

23


HEAVY METAL POLLUTION

CONTAMINATED AREA

CADMIUM

24

CHROMIUM

POTENTIALLY TREATABLE

As a former military base and aviation center, heavy metal substances such as copper, lead, and cadmium were used in the manufacturing and maintenance of the airplanes. The report from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration states that high concentrations of heavy metal contamination, which includes capacitor oil, copper, lead, cadmium, and chromium, are found near the Air Base and Flight Hangar. These heavy metal substances may pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment if brought to the surface and handled in an uncontrolled manner.

ALUMINUM


HEAVY METAL SOIL CONTAMINATION POSITION

AREA

CONTAMINANTS

AIR BASE

2,669 ft2

ALUMINUM

ELECTROPLATE FACTORY

64,583 ft2

COPPER LEAD

FLIGHT HANGAR

15,069 ft2

CADMIUM CHROMIUM

THE SOLUTION FROM TAICHUNG CITY According to the report from the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration, the site has a 1.9 acre and 16 foot deep area of contaminated soil. The government budget plans to spend $200 million (TWD) to clean and remove the contaminated soil. The government will use a dilution method, chemical neutralization, and solidification for different levels of contamination in soil remediation.

COPPER

THE SOLUTION FOR THE THESIS The thesis proposes a different method than the government to resolve the heavy metal contamination onsite. Instead of removing the contaminated soil from the site in a costly manner, the solution proposed by this thesis utilizes sustainable practices to treat and prevent exposure to heavy metal contamination. First, I shall identify the types of heavy metal contamination and then catalogue which substances are potentially treatable and which are less likely to be treated through phytoremediation. For untreatable contamination, the design uses a landfill cap to contain the pollutants. For treatable contamination, phytoremediation will be used to remove the pollutants. The design aims to achieve sustainability goals that are both ecologically and economically beneficial.

LEAD

25


GREEN SPACES IN TAICHUNG LACK OF GREEN SPACE

According to the American National Standard of Green Spaces, there should be a minimum of five acres of green space per thousand people, which equates to about 20 m2 per person. In San Francisco, there are 7.2 acres of green spaces per thousand, which is 27.5 m2 of green spaces per person. In Taichung City, there is only 5.45 m2 of green space per person. Compared to San Francisco and the American National Standard of Green Spaces, Taichung City does not provide an adequate amount of green space per person.

26


27.5 m2

SAN FRANCISCO 30% 27.5 m2 for per person

19.5 m2

NEW YORK 30% 19.5 m2 for per person

5.45 m2 Increase

TAICHUNG 3%

8 m2

Now : 5.45 m2 green spaces/per person After Taichung Greenway Park built: 8 m2 green spaces/per person

27


WATER MANAGEMENT HYDROLOGICAL ISSUE - LOSING WATER CAPACITY

TAICHUNG The temperatures in summer achieve 35 Fo, and usually come with huge rainfall.

LOSING WATER CAPACITY

28

URBANIZATION

Sub-Tropical Monsoon Climate Tropic of Capricorn Tropical Monsoon Climate

STEEP TOPOGRAPHY


THE ISSUE OF TAIWAN Taiwan receives 2.6 times more rainfall than the global average – yet it is nevertheless classified by the United Nations as an area of scarce water resources. Despite plenty of rainfall in Taiwan, more than half of rainfall drains to the ocean because of Taiwan’s steep topography. Due to the central mountain range in the middle of the island, water runs to the ocean quickly during storm events. Furthermore, urbanization, channelized rivers, and canals increase the speed of water runoff. Losing of water capacity is one of Taiwan’s major issues.

EXISTING CHANNELIZED CANAL

THE ISSUE OF THE SITE The water situation is also a concern on the site itself. There are two channelized canals that run through the site. One of the channelized canals has a large catchment area of 5,800 acres that is prone to flooding during storm events (occurs offsite). This thesis responds to the important water issue of Taiwan to grow its water capacity and collect rainwater. Moreover, the design seeks to protect the channelized canal from the flooding issue of storm surges and reduce stormwater load on the sewage system. The methods of stormwater management in the thesis try to minimize the risk and maximize the possibility of water management.

URBAN SPRAWL OF TAICHUNG CITY

5,800 ACRES

WU RIVER THE SITE 1,000 ACRES

29


04 / CASE STUDIES

TAICHUNG GATEWAY PARK - STOSS VATNSMYRI MASTER PLAN DESIGN

DESIGN BY PAISAJES EMERGENTES QUITO AIRPORT DESIGN COMPETITION

30


31


TAICHUNG GATEWAY PARK - STOSS WATER TREATMENT

32


INTRODUCTION Aqua-cultures is an innovative park model that integrates recreation, culture, water treatment, and biodiversity. Aqua Cultures is a living filter for water and air that catalyzes a robust range of urban programs. Recreational and cultural activities occur within, atop, and beside the pools of water -- floating lanterns flickering in the night, kayaking and canoeing on warm summer afternoons, children laughing as they watch for fish in the dense reeds, and secluded moments of quiet reflection next to the gurgling waters.

DESIGN STRATEGIES Aqua Cultures highlights the importance of water cleansing and recycling by bringing a portion of the system to the surface and fully integrating that footprint within the recreational, cultural, and ecological uses of the park. The spine of Aqua Cultures is a Living Machine, a biological treatment system that is capable of cleansing municipal greywater. Constructed, robust, and rich, this new landscape anchors an ‘urbanized’ biodiversity which resonates with the Dadu’s and Bagua’s larger ecological networks. SOURCE: STOSS_ TAICHUNG GATEWAY PARK

33


VATNSMYRI MASTER PLAN DESIGN RUNWAY DESIGN - RUNWAYS TO GREENWAYS

34


INTRODUCTION

Runways to Greenways, an urban design proposal for the Vatnsmýri area of Reykjavík, seeks to simultaneously acknowledge the rich history of the site while looking forward to new economies and public realms. The area under consideration is a defunct World War II runway, established by the Americans. The area, significant in size relative to the historic area of Reykjavik, is slated for universities, biotech development, housing and commercial.

DESIGN STRATEGIES This proposal identifies exterior space as equally charged with activity, use and event as built or interior spaces within the city. The project begins by establishing “no-build” zones or public landscapes. The figure of the runway is used to identify three primary axes. Each former runway is converted into a “greenway” that uses a quality of the city as its primary trait. The three large greenways are programmed as: ecology, recreation, and production. SOURCE: LATERAL OFFICE_ VATNSMYRI MASTERPLAN DESIGN COMPETITION

35


05 / INSPIRATION

FORMER STRUCTURE CANALS AND FARMLAND

36


37


FORMER STRUCTURE HISTORICAL ELEMENTS This inspiration came from aviation. The site was an airfield, and there are great elements, such as a runway, flight hangar, and airplanes. These elements inspire the design from the form of the landing strip and the structure of the flight hangar.

38


CANALS AND FARMLAND FLOW OF WATER This inspiration came from the surrounding condition of the site. The lands around the site were for farming. The farmlands are rectangular with canals and ditches passing through the farmland. The geometrical shape with canal’s carved movement becomes a beautiful landscape.

39


06 / DESIGN PROPOSAL

40


0

200’

1200’ 600’

N 41


CONCEPT AND IDEA Taichung Gateway Park integrates surrounding resources and historical elements, and creates a flow system for movement. A new vision moves from city to nature, history to future, and ground to sky.

FLOW SYSTEM The idea of a flow system symbolizes breaking down the boundary between the former airfield and Taichung City and turns the park into a bridge that connects hydrology, ecology, and circulation. The flow system not only resolves the hydrological and disconnection issues, but also brings activities and recreations into the park.

240’

42

The flow system dissolves the barrier between the former airport and the city and creates a harmonious flow system integrating human activities and natural systems for experiencing, exploring and discovering without ignoring its history. Taichung Gateway Park becomes the bridge for connecting the disconnected systems by providing flow movement. It is a new vision for bringing the nature to the city, history to future, and ground to sky.

140’


HISTORICAL FLOW

URBAN FLOW

WATER FLOW

FLOW SYSTEM

240’

43


CONTEXT MAPS REGIONAL SCALE

GREEN NETWORK OF TAICHUNG

HYDROLOGY OF TAICHUNG

44


CITY SCALE

VEHICULAR CIRCULATION OF TAICHUNG CITY

WEST DISTRICT

NORTH DISTRICT

LINKAGE AND NEIGHBORHOODS OF TAICHUNG CITY

45


DIAGRAMS SEATING BOATING

WATER ACTIVITIES RUNNING SPORTS FARMING

THEATER

EVENT

FESTIVAL

VIEW

FARMER MARKET WATER THEME EVENT USE NATURAL AREA COMMUNITY USE CULTURAL USE GEENARY BOULEVARD EDUCATIONAL USE

TRAIL PLAY

NATURE SPORTS PICNIC BIKING HISTORY MUSEUM

CULTURE GARDEN EXHIBITION TENNIS COURT

GREENWAY GARDEN

EDUCATION BIRDS WATCHING SPORTS FARMING PLAY

BUBBLE DIAGRAM

46

ACTIVITIES

BASKETBALL FIELD


HARDSCAPE

SOFTSCAPE

47


DIAGRAMS

WATER MOVEMENT

48

VEHICULAR


MAIN CIRCULATION SECONDARY CIRCULATION TRAILS

PEDESTRIAN

GREEN STREET

49


DIAGRAMS

VIEW VISTA

VIEWSHED 50

105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96

EXISTING TOPOGRAPHY


CUT OUT FILL IN

CUT AND FILL

116 114 112 110 108 106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90

DESIGN TOPOGRAPHY 51


SITE PLAN

1 LAKE 2 WATERFRONT DECK 3 WATERFRONT SEATING AREA 4 BOAT RENTALS HOUSE 5 BASEBALL FIELD 6 COMMUNITY FARM 7 PLAYGROUND 8 AMPHITHEATER 9 OBSERVATORY DECK 10 SCULPTURE PARK 11 PARKING LOT 12 GOLF PRACTICE HILL 13 SOCCER FIELD 14 KITE HILL PARK 15 RUNWAY PLAZA 16 AIRPLANE PLAZA 17 AIR & SPACE MUSEUM 18 BASKETBALL AND TENNIS COURSE 19 GREENHOUSE 20 HABITAT POND 21 FLOWER GARDEN 22 COMMUNITY LIBRARY

52


4 3 2

1

5

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT

GATEWAY DISTRICT

6

8

7 9

12

11 10

14 15

FENG CHIA UNIVERSITY

CULTURAL DISTRICT

13

NORTH DISTRICT

17 16 WEST DISTRICT

18 19 ACADEMIC DISTRICT

ACADEMIC DISTRICT

20 21

0 200’

22

1200’ 600’

2000’

N 53


SECTIONS A - A’

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT

LANDFORM

B - B’ A’ A

UNIVERSITY B’

B

C - C’

C

C’

ACADEMIC DISTRICT

54

GARDEN


OBSERVATORY DECK

PARKING LOT

GATEWAY DISTRICT 120’

DETENTION POND

LANDFORM

RUNWAY

GARDEN

40’

20’

0

CULTURAL DISTRICT 120’

DETENTION POND

80’

80’

40’

20’

ACADEMIC DISTRICT 120’

80’

40’

20’

55

0

0


WATER FLOW STORMWATER MANAGEMENT EXISTING CANAL

THE PARK -

WITH FLOODING AND LOSS OF WATER CAPACITY PROBLEMS DURING STORM EVENT

MINIMIZE RISK AND MAXIMIZE POSSIBILITY

KEEP WATER CAPACITY PROTECTIVE FLOOD CONTROL

EXISTING CANAL 5,800 ACRES CATCHMENT AREA

WATER RUNOFF SPREAD

RAINWATER HARVEST RETENTION SPREAD

SLOW SPILLOVER

DETENTION

SLOW

DETENTION

DETE SLOW

RAINWATER HARVEST SPREAD WATER RUNOFF

56


ANOTHER SMALL CANAL SMALL CATCHMENT AREA WITH OPPORTUNITY TO FURTHER MITIGATE STORMWATER RUNOFF PROTECT AGAINST STORM SURGES FROM CANAL COLLECT RAINFALL REDUCE STORMWATER LOAD OF SEWAGE SYSTEM

SMALL CANAL POLLUTED WATER

1,000 AC RES CATCHMENT AREA

GARDEN FERTILIZER

RAIN GARDEN SLOW

RAIN GARDEN

ENTION SINK TREATMENT

SOAK

SLOW

DETENTION SOAK

SPILLOVER

RETENTION SPREAD

SLOW

RAIN GARDEN SPREAD

SPREAD

SLOW

GARDEN FERTILIZER

DISCHARGED TO SMALL CANAL

57


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES RETENTION POND NORMAL WATER LEVEL

100

10-YEAR STORM EVENT

104

m

25-YEAR STORM EVENT

108 m

m

RETENTION POND is a constructed stormwater pond that is consistently wet and retains water for biological treatment. The retention pond creates more volume for stormwater runoff and mitigates the flooding issue from the existing canal with a 5,800 acre catchment area. The design of the retention pond can achieve a holding water volume for 25-year stormwater event.

DETENTION POND NORMAL CONDITION

GREEN STREETS evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration evapotranspiration

DETENTION POND is a stormwater basin design to intercept stormwater runoff and metered discharge to a conveyance system. The design of the detention ponds prevent the overflow from the retention pond during the storm event, and reduced stormwater load from the conveyance system; also keeps water capacity in the park.

STORM EVENT

evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration

run off

run off

run off

infiltration

NEIGHBOR HOOD

STREET

infiltration infiltration

infiltration

evapotranspiration

infiltration infiltration

evapotranspiration NEIGHBOR infiltration HOOD

evapotranspiration

infiltration

evapotranspiration infiltration evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration

run off

run offoff run run off

SOURCE: UACDC Low Impact Development

infiltration

infiltration

infiltration

infiltration

infiltration

58

run off run off

infiltration

NEIGHBORHOOD

evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration

evapotranspiration

infiltration

PARK

STREET

infiltration infiltration

STREET

GREEN STREETS create streets with green medians that also deliver water treatment services. The design cooperates with new neighborhoods with three different types of green streets to convey water runoff from the streets to the park. Moreover, the greens streets provide the connection from the streets to the park; they not only provide the connection for people and water, but also create pedestrian safety and friendly for neighborhoods.

PARK


6 ZONES OF STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 1 RETENTION POND OPEN UP FOR THE EXISTING CANAL

ZONE 2 RAINWATER HARVEST COLLECT RAINWATER

GREEN STREET RETENTION POND DETENTION POND RAINWATER HARVEST

ZONE 3 DETENTION POND

RAIN GARDEN

PROTECT FROM STORM SURGES

BIOSWALE RUNOFF ( ON THE STREET) RUNOFF ( IN THE PARK) GRASS SWALE

ZONE 4 RAIN GARDEN POLLUTANT TREATMENT

ZONE 5 DETENTION POND RESTORE HABITAT

ZONE 6 RETENTION POND DISCHARGED TO CONVEYANCE SYSTEM 0 200’

1200’ 600’

59 2000’

N


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 1 - LAKE AS RETENTION POND

60


A RETENTION POND is not just designed for stormwater management, but also serves as an amenity for multiple activities such as boating, sailing and fishing. Furthermore, when properly maintained it has a great opportunity to provide an aquatic habitat for the park. The design seeks to draw the aquatic life from the Fatsu River, which is the main stream from the existing canal. By providing a wet pond, it can function for both human activities and the restoration of a diminishing habitat.

Pacific Swallow Tawny Prinia

WOODLAND

Sparrow

GROUND PLAIN (FLOODING PLAIN)

Frog Night Heron

SHORE

Alcedo

Grey Heron Egret

UNDER WATER Tilapia

Duck

Taiwan chub Carp

Catfish

SEDIMENT STORAGE

61


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 1 - RETENTION POND

62


THE RETENTION POND helps to remove pollutants from the first flash of a storm event through biological uptake and sedimentation. The design of the retention pond can hold a water volume of 280,000 m3 from the existing canal, which has a flooding issue. The park’s stormwater management system includes a safety zone where water cannot flood. If stormwater exceeds the volume that the retention pond can hold, additional stormwater features in the park mitigate the overflow.

25 - YEAR STORM EVENT 10 - YEAR STORM EVENT TREATMENT

RETENTION

TREATMENT

63


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 2 - EVENT SPACE AS RAINWATER HARVEST

64


RAINWATER HARVESTING is one of the solutions for keeping water capacity in the park. Using planting areas for rainwater collection and planting to help runoff infiltrate, they are additional water storage basins underneath the planting areas collect rainwater. After a filtration and disinfection processes, the reclaimed water can be used to flush toilets and irrigate gardens.

OBSERVATORY DECK

AMPHITHEATER

INFILTRATION

INFILTRATION FILTRATION

STORAGE BASIN

STORAGE BASIN

RECLAIMED WATER

DISINFECTION

IRRIGATION

65


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 2 - RAINWATER HARVEST

66


DURING A STORM EVENT, water runs to the collection areas and emergency spillways that are designed for connecting stormwater systems throughout park.

RAINWATER COLLECTION

RAINWATER COLLECTION

67


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 3 - OPEN SPACES AS DETENTION POND

68


THE DETENTION PONDS are designed to prevent the overflow of the retention pond during a storm event. The detention ponds function not only as a stormwater management feature, but also as an amenity for people. They are a series of open spaces programmed for multiple activities including golf practice hills, soccer field, and picnic areas. The stormwater features in the park can achieve the water volume capacity of a 25-year storm event.

NORMAL WATER LEVEL

10-YEAR STORM EVENT WATER LEVEL

25-YEAR STORM EVENT WATER LEVEL

STORM EVENT DETENTION

69


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 4 - RAIN GARDEN FOR RUNOFF TREATMENT

70


HEAVY METAL POLLUTION is present underneath the flight hangar. For untreatable substances (chromium, aluminum, copper and lead), the design uses landfill to cap the contamination and rain gardens around the contaminated area to prevent exposure to heavy metal contamination. For the treatable substance (cadmium), the planting design includes plants that can remove cadmium from the contaminated soil. The phytoremediation process requires a decade to remove heavy metal substances from the site.

FLIGHT HANGAR

PHYTOEXTRACTION

CAP UNTREATABLE CONTAMINATION

CADMIUM

PLANTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION

SUNFLOWER Helianthus

INDIA MUSTARD Brassica juncea

WHITE CLOVER Trifolium repens

HONEY LOCUST Gleditsia triacanthos

SUGAR MAPLE Acer saccharum

71


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 4 - RAIN GARDEN

RAIN GARDEN

72


TO PREVENT HEAVY METAL SUBSTANCES from exposed during a storm event, the design uses rain gardens to prevent exposure. Rain gardens also help to mitigate stormwater pollution through a phytoremediation process as water runs through the plants and soil community.

RAIN GARDEN

PHYTOREMEDIATION

73


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 5 - HABITAT POND AS DETENTION POND

74


THE DETENTION POND, designed with native and adapted plants, attracts wildlife creating a viable habitat.

75


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 5 - DETENTION POND

76


DURING A STORM EVENT, the plants around the detention pond further absorb the fertilizers used in the garden and clean the water before it drains to the pond. The detention pond connects with other stormwater feature in the site and meters discharged stormwater to a conveyance system.

GARDEN

DETENTION

GARDEN

77


STORMWATER MANAGEMENT ZONE 6 - FOUNTAIN AS RETENTION POND

78

EXISTING CANAL


THE PARK DESIGNS AS A MEDIA that prevent the overflow for the city sewage system, and stormwater would slowly discharge to the existing canal, which has small catmint area in southern side of the park. The park stormwater conveyance system connected to the retention pond in the south side of the park, and the water will slowly discharge back to the city infrastructure. The design uses the water feature to remind people that the park is not just provide for recreation, but also as function for stormwater management.

PIPES CONNECT TO EXISTING CANAL

RETENTION POND

LANDFORM

79


SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY CUT AND FILL BALANCE

80


IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE SUSTAINABILITY, the design includes a soil management plan to balance the cut and fill during the construction. The soil excavated by creating the stormwater features can be used as landfill to cap the contaminated soil and created landforms in the park. Using landforms creates high and low viewing experiences for users and goes with different layers of vegetation.

STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3

CUT OUT FILL IN

81


HISTORY FLOW REVITALIZING HISTORIC STRUCTURES

82


THE FORMER FLIGHT HANGAR is the only historical structure that remains in the Master Plan with significant historical meaning to the site. The design preserves and protects the flight hangar turning it into the Air & Space Museum and Airplane Plaza. This is where people can see the history and learn the stories behind the site before it opened to the public.

83


HISTORY FLOW RUNWAY REUSE IDEA TH

ED

IRE C

TIO

N OF

AIRPL

ANES TA KE OFF

OPEN UP THE FORMER RUNWAY

TO GO UP AND VIEW BACK TO TAIC

HUNG CITY

OBSERVATORY DECK

(10% of former structure remains)

OPEN PLAZA

(100% of former structure remains)

OPEN PLAZA

(50% of former structure remains) (Reuse onsite asphalt as paving material)

GARDEN

(10% of former structure remains)

84


As the runway is one of the most important elements for the Taichung former airport, the runway redesign idea maintains the onsite structure, but also will open up for certain degrees with planting design. The reused runway not only maintains the history of the site, but also turns it into a new and vivid greenway by providing activities and planting.

DRY POND

(60% of former structure remains) (Open up to collect water from green streets)

GARDEN (10% of former structure remains)

OPEN SPACE

(80% of former structure remains) (Reuse onsite asphalt as paving material)

GARDEN (10% of former structure remains)

85


HISTORY FLOW RUNWAY REUSE

86


87


HISTORY FLOW RUNWAY LIGHTING DESIGN

88


89


VEGETATION FLOW LEVELS OF VEGETATION FOREST

1 TREES

Ficus microcarpa L.f. Cinnamomum camphora Zelkova formosana Hayata

2 SHRUBS

Murraya paniculata Hydrangea macrophylla Hypericum monogynum L.

3 GRASS

2

3

Cynodon dacylon (Bermuda Grass)

1

WATERFRONT PLANTS 1 TREES

Taxodium distichum

2 EMERGENT PLANTS Typha orientalis Nelumbo nucifera Pontederia cordata Thalia dealbata

1

2

3 SUBMERGENT PLANTS

3

Hydrilla Ceratophyllum

DETENTION PLANTS 1 TREES

Cercis chinensis

2 SHRUBS

1

2

3

Misumena vatia Verbena officinalis Cornus officinalis Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

TREATMENT PLANTS 1 TREES

Cercis chinensis

2 SHRUBS

2

1

Misumena vatia Verbena officinalis Cornus officinalis Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

RUNWAY PLANTS 1 TREES

Acacia confusa

Cerasus serrulata

2 SHRUBS

1

90

2

Misumena vatia Verbena officinalis


FOREST SHRUB CORRIDOR TREE RUNWAY TREE SUBMERGENT PLANT EMERGENT PLANT MEADOW DETENTION GRASS LANDFORM GRASS FLOWER GARDEN

0 200’

1200’ 600’

2000’

N

91


VEGETATION FLOW CORRIDOR CONNECTIONS AND SEASONAL TREES The corridor planting design not only creates more greenery, but also uses the colors of the trees to create distinct identities for each corridor. The planting design includes trees that are native or adapted to the area and provides the foundation for the overall planting palette. The corridor planting design is based on the color and seasonal changes of the trees and assigns different colors and species for each corridor. Each corridor has its own character and connects with surrounding districts. When people walk on the corridors, they can identify where they are going with colors and species of the trees.

GATEWAY DISTRICT

NORTH DISTRICT RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT

CULTURAL DISTRICT

UNIVERSITIES

PLANTING PALETTE

WEST ACADEMIC DISTRICT

WEST DISTRICT

92

EAST ACADEMIC DISTRICT


GATEWAY DISTRICT

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICT

1 Delonix regia 2 Pistacia chinensis

2

1

1 Tabebuia chrysantha 2 Cassia fistula 3 Tabebuia chrysantha

GATEWAY DISTRICT

3

1

2

UNIVERSITIES

CULTURAL DISTRICT

1 Koelreuteria elegans

1

UNIVERSITIES

CULTURAL DISTRICT

1 Jacaranda mimosifolia 2 Michelia compressa

1

WEST ACADEMIC DISTRICT

2

NORTH DISTRICT

1 Phoenix dactylifera Linnaeus 2 Washingtonia filifera

WEST ACADEMIC DISTRICT

1

2

EAST ACADEMIC DISTRICT

1 Bauhinia purpurea 2 Liquidambar formosana 3 Calocedrus formosana WEST DISTRICT

1

2

3

93


VEGETATION FLOW SEASONAL CHANGING

SPRING 94

SUMMER


FALL

WINTER 95


07 / ABOUT

AUTOBIOGRAPHY RESUME REFERENCE

96


97


AUTOBIOGRAPHY & RESUME I grew up in the small city of Taichung in Taiwan. I attended art schools that allowed me to cultivate diverse perspectives since I was a young girl. In high school, I got accepted by Tunghai High School, which is part of Tunghai University. The university has a famous art department, and the high school shared many resources with the university. I was very fortunate to be able to take university courses and participate in a variety of activities at school. These programs helped me to increase my creativity and made me want to become a designer in the future. After high school, I went to the Chinese Culture University, and majored in urban affairs and environmental planning where I studied urban planning, urban design and other design fields. In the second year of college, I started an important class in the major – the practicum. The practicum looked at projects that were currently happening in cities, and we had to find the opportunities and constraints of the projects; we based our design on analysis and found out the solutions to the design problems. These processes in the practicum inspired my interest in design and planning. I

98

realized that design is meaningful and interesting. From that time I devoted myself to our department courses, and cultivated a greater understanding of landscape design and urban planning. In the last year of college, I received an internship at my teacher’s firm. During my internship, I received many opportunities on real projects to utilize what I have learned in school. The project that made the biggest impression on me was a small plaza called ChinShin plaza. It was a small abandoned space between two tall buildings. After construction was done, it became a wonderful small space for public use. I was so surprised that one small space can change the surrounding area into a popular urban outdoor area. I was so proud that I was one of the people who helped to build a green space in the city. After the internship, I felt that I needed to learn more than just the big picture of urban planning. I wanted to focus on the details of landscape architecture. That is the reason that I came to San Francisco to attend the School of Landscape Architecture in Academy of Art University .


PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

• AECOM

Urban Designer at SHANGHAI and TAIPEI, DEC. 2016 - OCT. 2018

Ashley Wu

Landscape Designer, LEED GA

PROFILE

I am a landscape designer with enthusiasm to discovering urban context and transform potential places into sustainable landscape. As a designer, I believe design is not only creating a place for function and aesthetics, but also serving as a connector between people and environment. With my passion of creative design, I am eager to embark on my professional career and dedicate my expertise into high quality design, and learning from your experienced practice to continuing my professional development. Certainly, I will devote my design expertise to the office and add the company’s value.

SKILLS Microsoft office (Excel, Word, Power Point, Picture Manager) AutoCAD Rhino Lumion3D Sketchup Adobe Creative Suite (Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, Lightroom)

Project Experiences : Sanlin Southern Riverfront Urban Design, Shanghai Jinmoa Yangpu Riversdie Concept Plan, Shanghai Boadi Tourism Theme Park Masterplan, Tianjin Changdang Lake Develop Concept Plan, Changzhou Changsha Yuhua Wellness New Town, Changsha Jinmoa Wenzhou Oujiang Project, Wenzhou Xian International Silk Road Expo Center, Xian Sanya Oriental Sun City, Sanya Greenland Kunming Wujiaba Urban Design, Kunming Jinmoa Ningbo New Town Design, Ningbo Tianjin Eco-City North Area Urban Design, Tianjin Shanghai Yangpu Riverfront Bridge Park Competition, Shanghai

• TERRAIN STUDIO

Landscape Designer at SAN FRANCISCO, SEP. 2015 - SEP. 2016

Project Experiences : Xing Yuan New Town Central Park Landscape Design Develop, Hanzhong, China Shanghai Huangpu River East Bund Competition, China

• D-SCHEME STUDIO

Design Intern at SAN FRANCISCO, MAY. 2015 - JUL. 2015

Project Experiences : Mosser Company Residential Buildings, San Francisco, USA Réveille Coffee, San Francsico, USA

• KAICHUAM URBAN AND LAND INSTITUTION Designer at TAIPEI, JUN. 2008 - AUG. 2009

Project Experiences : Penghu Aimen Golden Coast Development Plan, Taiwan Wanjing Recreation Area Overall Development Plan, Taiwan

EDUCATION • ACADEMY OF ART UNIVERSITY, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA 2012-2015 Master of Fine Art in Landscape Architecture

• CHINESE CULTURE UNIVERSITY, TAIPEI, TAIWAN

2007-2011 Bachelor of Fine Art in Urban Affairs and Environmental Planning

CERTIFICATION LEED GREEN ASSOCIATE

License Number: 11041310-GREEN-ASSOCIATE Certification Dates: February 2016 – February 2018

CONTACT E-MAIL : ashleywu926@gmail.com

99


REFERENCES INFORMATION 01

sustainablecitiesnetwork, “How much green space does your city have?”, http://blog.sustainablecities.net/2011/07/13/how-many-metres-of-green-space-does-your-city-have/ ; July 13, 2011

02

Gies, Erica, “The Health Benefits of Parks”, The Trust for Public Land, 2006

03

Economic & Health Benefits, The Trust for Public Land http://www.tpl.org/?gclid=CKmJtpO9270CFUNhfgodEa4Ayg

04

Bureau of Cultural Heritage of Taiwan, http://www.boch.gov.tw/boch/frontsite/cultureassets/

05

Taichung City Government, http://www.taichung.gov.tw/

06

Taichung City Government Department of Urban Development, http://www.ud.taichung.gov.tw/

07

Taichung City Civil Affair Bureau, http://www.civil.taichung.gov.tw/mp.asp?mp=102010

08

Geographic information System of Taichung, http://gismap.taichung.gov.tw/address/

09

Taichung Weather, Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan, http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V7/forecast/taiwan/Taichung_City.htm

10

The Former Taichung Airport Site Redeveloping Planning, http://tarp.longi.tw/

11

ParkScore, The Trust for Public Land http://parkscore.tpl.org/rankings.php

12

STAN ALLEN ARCHITECT, Taichung Gateway Park http://www.stanallenarchitect.com/architecture/TaichungGateway

13

Environmental protection administration executive, R.O.C. (Taiwan) , Environmental Evaluation of Taichung Gateway Park, http://www.cy.gov.tw/AP_HOME/

14

United Nation, Analysis and Evaluation of Taiwan Water Shortage Factors, http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ass/article/download/7599/5812

15

LCLA , QUITO Airport http://www.luiscallejas.com/QUITO-3km-Airport-park

16

STOSS, Taichung Gateway Park http://www.stoss.net/projects/29/detroit-future-city/

17

LATERAL OFFICE, Vatnsmyri Masterplan Design Competition http://lateraloffice.com/RUNWAYS-GREENWAYS-2007-08

18

Water Resource Bureau , Taichung City Government, http://eng.taichung.gov.tw/mp.aspx?mp=29

19

UACDC: LOW IMPACT DEVELOPMENT http://uacdc.uark.edu/models/low-impact-development/

20

PHYTO: Principles for Site Remediation and Landscape Design, Kate Kennen and Niall Kirkwood, Chapter 3 Contaminant classifications and plant selection

100


GRAPHIC REFERENCES 01

Stan Allen, Taichung Gateway Park Master Plan, Imagine Resources: http://www.stanallenarchitect.com/architecture/TaichungGateway

02

Taichung Gateway International Design Competition, Imagine Resources: http://architecturelab.net/the-announcement-of-taichung-gateway-park-international-competition/

03

QUITO / 3km Airport park - LCLA office Imagine Resources: http://www.luiscallejas.com/QUITO-3km-Airport-park

04

STOSS, Taichung Gateway Park Imagine Resources: http://www.stoss.net/projects/29/detroit-future-city/

05

LATERAL OFFICE, Vatnsmyri Masterplan Design Competition Imagine Resources: http://lateraloffice.com/RUNWAYS-GREENWAYS-2007-08

06

TAICHUNG INFOBOX, Stan Allen, Imagine Resources: http://www.stanallenarchitect.com/architecture/Infobox

07

Pista Viva, Caracas Venezuela Imagine Resources: http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/pista-viva-caracas-venezuela-enlace-arquitectura/

08

Copenhagen Strategic Flood Masterplan by Atelier Dreiseitl, LANDENZINE Imagine Resources: http://www.landezine.com/index.php/2015/05/copenhagen-strategic-flood-masterplan-by-atelier-dreiseitl/

101

Profile for Ashley Wu

Taichung Gateway Park_Thesis  

Thesis Book 2015

Taichung Gateway Park_Thesis  

Thesis Book 2015

Profile for ashleywu1
Advertisement