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ENDEAVOR A Publication for Families and Professionals Committed to Children Who Are Deaf and Hard of Hearing

The History of Deaf Education

INSIDE THIS ISSUE: ASDC Conference: Mark Your Calendar! p. 8 History of Deaf Education p. 35 Deaf Education: A New Philosophy p. 51 2011 Deaf Camps p. 61

TIME TO THINK ABOUT YOUR SUMMER CONFERENCE PLANS! Register now for the 22nd Biennial ASDC Conference

“PARENT CHOICES: KEYS TO YOUR CHILD’S FUTURE!” Registration forms and conference information are available at,, and on












22-26, 2011 Erin Buck (301) 360-2054

SEE YOU AT MSD IN Lori Bonheyo FREDERICK, MD (866) 729-7602 (VP/Voice)


A Note from the Editor Before you know it, winter is over, spring begins, and then summer is just around the corner. That’s Tami Hossler why ASDC is making sure that you have information on a variety of summer camps and upcoming events for your family at your fingertips. This summer, we are gearing up for the 2011 ASDC Conference hosted by the Maryland School for the Deaf (MSD) in Frederick, Md., on June 22 -26. You are sure to love the beauty and


history surrounding MSD and the town of Frederick. It is not just a conference but a union of families coming together sharing similar dreams for their children. We have included conference information in this issue and on ASDC’s website. See you there! Speaking of history, this issue’s theme is the history of Deaf education. While some of us are history buffs and others are not, history continues to play a huge role in our Deaf children’s education. As parents and educators, how much or little we advocate for quality Deaf education programs today does impact Deaf children tomorrow and in years to come. Together, let’s make 2011 historic!

Rochester Institute of Technology

Prepare for Success Cutting-edge career education for students with hearing loss • Dynamic, high-tech learning environment • Hands-on experience in your field • Outstanding access and support services For more information, call 585-475-6700 (voice/TTY) or email 2


American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Avenue, NE Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 Toll-Free Help Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732)

A Look Inside EVERY ISSUE A Note from the Editor


President’s Column


ASDC Board


Membership Form


FEATURES Conference information


(Mis)understanding Hearing Loss


THE ENDEAVOR STAFF Editor Tami Hossler

Library of Congress Selects NAD Film for Preservation


Ask the Expert: Questions about IDEA


First 30 Schools for the Deaf


Assistant Editor Barbara Boyd

Getting Back to Clerc’s Roots in Bilingualism: A Deaf-Centric Approach


Publication Services T.S. Writing Services, LLC ASDC STAFF Director of Advocacy Cheri Dowling © 2011 ASDC. The Endeavor is ASDC’s news magazine published four times a year. Published articles and advertisements are the personal expressions of their authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASDC. The Endeavor is distributed free of charge to ASDC members.

ADVERTISING For advertising information, contact ASDC is a 501(c)(3) public benefit corporation.

History of Deaf Education The Beginnings of Deaf Education


A Turning Point in American History


Perspectives: The Language Deaficit... What’s Really Wrong with Deaf Education


Deaf Education: A New Philosophy


A Mother’s Account: Learning from Mistakes and Obstacles


How to Choose a Summer Camp


A List of 2011 Deaf Camps


Going Green! Would you like to help save trees and costs by receiving an online version of The Endeavor instead of a hard copy? If so, e-mail 3

President’s Column

Including Deaf Adults in Our Homes and Schools

This issue’s theme is the of the controversy about history of deaf education. the best way to commuReflecting on the history of nicate with and educate a education for deaf and hard deaf child. From the very of hearing children leads day Talitha was diagnosed, one to expect the system I was given information to has changed for better. Yes, avoid the deaf community; it has in many ways, yet we Beth S. Benedict, Ph.D. I used only oral language, still have significant gaps. avoiding sign language. I Below is a very heartwas told that would enable warming letter that was sent to my Talitha to grow up totally conversant friend “Nancy” in November; I want in the hearing world, that she would to share this as a reminder for families speak as a hearing person, and so on. and professionals that deaf adults must Even though I had not even met a be involved with families having deaf or deaf person before, something told me hard of hearing children. Research has this information wasn’t right for my demonstrated that when families first daughter. At the conference where I learn that their child is deaf or hard of met you, I was bombarded with profeshearing, they respond more positively sionals emphasizing that the oral/aural if they have the privilege of meeting was the way for Talitha. deaf and hard of hearing adults. This I remember seeing you and Jeff must not change. throughout the conference. I was (Portions of the Nov. 28, 2010, letter are mesmerized as I watched you commuprinted below.) nicate with each other. You both had Hello Nancy, such dignity. I noticed Jeff used no You won’t know me. I live in New speech at all yet had such charisma Zealand and saw you and Jeff when you and presence.  I was so deeply touched were here in 1986.  I attended a confer- by everything you said at your talk.   I ence where you gave a talk on growing can remember to this day every detail up as a deaf person in a hearing family. I of what you said and how it was to be attended that conference with my four- a deaf child growing up in a hearing week-old daughter who had been diag- family. I knew straight away that this nosed as being profoundly deaf, a diag- matched with the instinct I felt within nosis that launched me into a world I myself. knew nothing about.   I became aware I left that conference with a new 4

confidence as Talitha’s mum.   I told the professional people involved that I had made a decision to use sign language with Talitha. I received opposition to this, some of which I felt was unprofessional and abusive. However I knew deep in my heart I was doing the right thing so was able to step back from them and embrace motherhood in a way that I felt was right… The flip side of the opposition was the deaf community, here in New Zealand, where I found many people who were incredibly supportive. They treated Talitha as their own and totally accepted me, my husband, and our four hearing children into their lives. After your talk at the conference, I knew Talitha did not have a disability. I did not see her as a child who needed “fixing.”  I felt privileged to have a deaf child. I learned to love and admire her language and culture. I was fascinated to watch her growing up in a hearing family yet develop as a deaf person. I leaned and relied on deaf people as I knew they could give Talitha something I couldn’t. I leaned and relied on them also to take me into the language, culture, and world of a deaf person. It

was not long before Talitha was doing this as well. Talitha is now 24 years old.   She is a bright exceptional person. Now a mother herself, she is studying to be a teacher of deaf students. She tutors sign language [learners] and does wonderful work in this country for deaf people. She is a prolific reader and extraordinary writer. She has close ties with her siblings, all of whom became fluent signers when they were young. I believe I am extremely blessed to have a deaf daughter. It has been a wonderful journey and continues to be so. I am forever grateful for the close bond we have and continue to enjoy - I truly am blessed among women. Nancy, thank you for sharing your story all those years ago.  When times have been tough dealing with professionals, or when I have felt alone, I have remembered your story, believing that all would be well, and it surely is.  I am forever thankful to be Talitha’s mum and I know our whole family would say the same. Kind regards, Alison Redden

MARK YOUR CALENDARS for the 2011 ASDC Conference Maryland School for the Deaf June 22-26, 2011

Scholarship and registration forms on pages 8-15, or visit 5

ASDC BOARD Executive Council Board of Directors President Beth S. Benedict, Ph.D. Germantown, MD

Treasurer Timothy Frelich, M.A. Jessup, MD

Vice President Joe Finnegan, M.S., M.A., Ed.S. St. Augustine, FL

Executive Secretary Kristen DiPerri, Ed.D. Falls, PA

Members at Large Barbara Boyd, Ph.D. Northridge, CA Jeff Bravin, M.A. West Hartford, CT jeff.bravin@asd-1817. org Jodee Crace, M.A. Indianapolis, IN John Egbert Ham Lake, MN Lisalee Egbert, Ph.D. Sacramento, CA legbert@saclink.


Richard Flores St. Augustine, FL richardflores@hotmail. com Robert Hill, M.A., M.Ed., Ed.S. Tucson, AZ Tami Hossler, M.A. Miromar Lakes, FL Erin Kane, Ph.D. Rochester, NY Carolyne Paradiso, M.A. Sulphur, OK cparadiso@osd.k12.

Todd Reeves, J.D., M.S. Etna, PA Tony Ronco, P.Eng. La Mesa, CA Paul Rutowski, M.A. Austin, TX Council on Education of the Deaf Representatives Beth Benedict Cathy Rhoten

ASDC Welcomes Erin Kane Erin Kane joined ASDC’s Board of Directors last October.    She works at the Rochester Institute of Technology’s National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) as Assistant Director of Admissions and Visitation, responsible for open houses and campus visits.  She holds a master’s degree in education and human development from The George Washington University and has worked in the career devel-

opment field for non-profit organizations.  Erin is married to Mike Kane, a faculty member in the Business Studies department at NTID.  Both deaf, they are proud parents to two young daughters, Emma (7) and Julia (4).  Emma and Julia are also deaf and were adopted from China in 2006 and 2010, respectively.  ASDC is pleased to have Erin aboard, and has enjoyed working with her.

ASDC Bids Farewell to the Gelonas ASDC would like to thank Jeff and Vicki Gelona for their service and contributions over the past several years as board members. They are extraordinary parents and advocates for Deaf children. They both will be greatly missed as ASDC board members.


The International Association of Parents of Deaf was founded in 1967 by concerned parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. The organization changed its name in 1985 to the American Society for Deaf Children. Today: • • •

ASDC is the oldest national organization founded by and governed by parents of deaf and hard of hearing children. ASDC depends solely on donations, memberships, and proceeds from conferences for operations. ASDC’s board is a “volunteer” board with members who pay their own travel and lodging expenses for all ASDC events. Become a part of this innovative organization by joining today! See membership form on page 65. 7

Parent Choices: Keys to Your Child’s Future JUNE 22-26, 2011 Crucial information and resources to help families understand and successfully raise deaf and hard of hearing children. Conference objectives are to: Increase parents’ awareness and knowledge of key issues related to raising a deaf child. Support parents’ ability to make choices that positively impact their child’s development. Provide information and experiences that strengthen relationships and promote understanding and acceptance among parents, hearing siblings, and deaf children. Planned and hosted by Maryland School for the Deaf (MSD), it is the biennial conference of The American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC). About ASDC and MSD ASDC is the primary independent non-profit organization in the U.S. that supports and educates families with deaf or hard of hearing children. More information can be found at MSD is an independent state agency and Maryland’s center of knowledge and experience in the education of deaf and hard of hearing children from birth to age 21. More information can be found at 8

Who Should Attend Any parent of a deaf or hard of hearing infant, child, or teenager will benefit from this conference and is encouraged to attend. More than 500 participants are expected. Over half will be parents, both hearing and deaf. Many will bring their children. Families that have attended a previous conference often return to continue to benefit from conference activities. They are mentors and role models for new participants. Did you know‌ ‌ that well over 90% of babies born without hearing have hearing parents? These parents need help to learn about deafness and hearing loss and how to communicate with and raise their child. Early and active parent engagement is critical to the development of every deaf child. At this conference, indepth information and resources will be available in one place. For parents and siblings, this conference is often a life changing experience. Especially for parents or families from isolated areas or of low income, it may be a first, or only, connection to in-depth information, resources, and peers.

Parent Choices: Keys to Your Child’s Future This theme reflects Frederick area history and examines opportunities and choices in five key areas of critical importance to families with deaf children - Family, Communication, Education, Extracurricular Opportunities, and Community. Participants will learn from professional experts in relevant fields and benefit from meeting and networking with local, regional, and national service providers, exhibitors, and other families. 9

Conference Schedule Wednesday Registration and Opening “Sample Our City” Family Fun Night! Families will sample menu items from Frederick area restaurants, learn about Frederick cultural venues, shop at local merchant booths, and enjoy activities such as face painting, a petting zoo, games, and more.

unique experiences of deaf youth and siblings will be addressed through art, drama, and team building activities; sibling workshops; and games, field trips, and more.

Evening Activities: Family oriented activities each evening offer family and social time. On one evening, participants will explore Frederick’s sights, shops, Thursday through Saturday – galleries, and parks; enjoy Parent Workshops: Three dinner on their own; and full days of concurrent experience living history workshops on issues, choices, through Ghost Tours. consequences, and the many available resources that can Exhibit Hall: Sponsors, profoundly impact the businesses related to any of the development of deaf or hard of conference key areas, hearing children. Professionals educational institutions and will present in each of the five organizations, and local key areas covering such agencies and vendors will diverse topics as family display information and dynamics, cochlear implant products in the Exhibit Hall. effective use, language Museum: MSD’s Bjorlee development, secondary Museum is packed with conditions, education choices, historic information and community support options artifacts relating to the school, and access, and many more. Frederick, the Hessian BarChildren’s Program: A racks, multiple wars, and comprehensive three-day more. program of planned, Sunday morning – Final supervised activities for breakfast and Conference children and teens ages 0 to 21 Wrap-Up; airport in four age groups. The transportation provided. informational needs and 10

Lodging and Transportation: Two Frederick hotels have blocked rooms at special rates. Contact these hotels and mention you are booking rooms for the American Society for Deaf Children Biennial Conference before May 20th to ensure conference room block rates! Best Western: Reservation Line (301) 695-6200 Sleep Inn: Reservation Line (301) 668-2003 Limited on-campus housing is available in MSD dormitories on a first-come, first-serve basis. Transportation for conference travel will be provided from Baltimore/Washington International (BWI) Airport as needed. Registration Conference registration includes all activities and meals from Wednesday’s opening evening through Sunday morning, except for Thursday’s “Explore Frederick” and dine out evening. Registration and other forms can be found online at by clicking on the ASDC tab on the bottom left of the home page and at by clicking on “Conference” on the home page.

Reach Out! Sponsor the conference or an activity and reach a regional and national audience of parents, professionals, and families. Contact Bridget Bonheyo at Change Lives! Give a gift or grant to provide registration scholarship support to needy parents and/ or children. Contact Celinda Rother at 301 -360-1413 or

Erin Buck, Conference Co-Chair: or 301-360-2054 (Voice) Lori Bonheyo, Conference Co-Chair: or 866-729-7602 (VP/Voice). 11

2011 ASDC Conference Participant Registration Form

“Parent Choices: Keys to your Child’s Future” June 22-26, 2011 One form per family. Please type or print. Copy this form for your friends!

Name of parent/guardian

ASDC Member? Please circle Yes


Address City



Email address Phone (circle one)



Conference Fees: Meals are included in the registration cost with the exception of one evening meal. *Adults ...........................................$300.00 each *Children 12 and over ....................$200.00 each *Children 5—11 .............................$150.00 each *Children 4 and under....................$100.00 each *Family Package for ASDC Members: $900 (covers the cost of four registrations)

*Childcare and Children’s Activities cannot be guaranteed if registration is received after June 3, 2011.

Relationship to Deaf Child

Deaf/HH/ Hearing

Special Accommodations or Needs

T-Shirt Size 50/50 Polyester/ Cotton S/M/L/XL

Attending Child(ren)’s Name(s)


Deaf/HH/ Hearing

Special Accommodations or Needs

T-Shirt Size 50/50 Polyester/ Cotton S/M/L

1. 2. 3.

Late fees apply for any registration received after June 3, 2011: *Per Participant........................................ $25.00 *Per Family (any number)...................... $100.00

Attending Adult

1. 2. 3.

*Dormitory Room .................. $150.00 per room Dormitory rooms have 2 to 5 single beds, include linens and towels (please bring pillows), and are available on a first-come, first-serve basis. Families are welcome to bring sleeping bags and portable cribs to house their children in the same room at no additional cost. **Bathroom facilities are shared. To calculate COST: Multiply the total number of people by the cost for each age group. (Example: 2 adults x $300, 1 child 12 and over x $200, 1 child 4 and under x $100 = $600 + $200 + $100 = $900). Cost of Participants: Dormitory Room: Total Cost:


4. Payment Options Check or Money Order made payable to ASDC MSD Conference 2011. (No personal checks will be accepted after June 10, 2011). *Credit Card: (Please Circle) Visa



16 Digit Account #: 3 Digit CCV Code (back of credit card):

Expiration Date:

Full name of Cardholder: Cardholder Signature: Mail Payment and Registration Form to: Jennifer Lake Maryland School for the Deaf Attention: ASDC Conference Registration 101 Clarke Place, P.O. Box 250 Frederick, MD 21705

For more information regarding registration, please contact Erin Buck by phone or email: (301) 360-2054 (V) or Check our website for detailed information,

Telephone: (800) 942-2732 Fax: (410) 795-0965 Email: Website:

2011 ASDC Biennial Conference Roy K. Holcomb Scholarship Application (Please Print Clearly) Parents Name: ___________________________________________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________________________________________________ City: __________________________________________ State: ____________ Zip Code: ____________ Telephone: ______________________________________________________________________v/tty/vp Email: _________________________________________________________________________________ Number Attending Conference: Adults: _________________________ Children: ___________________ Names:


Deaf/Hard of Hearing













Total Amount of Scholarship Requested: $_____________________________________________________ Please include a brief description of why you are requested a Scholarship(please use additional paper if needed): __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ Please mail or email your request to: Cheri Dowling, American Society for Deaf Children, #2047, 800 Florida Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20002-3695. Or All scholarship requests must be postmarked no later than April 1, 2011. American Society for Deaf Children * #2047 * 800 Florida Avenue, NE * Washington, DC 20002-3695


ASDC Conference 2011, June 22-26 Hosted by Maryland School for the Deaf

ASDC Conference 2011 Exhibitor Information EXHIBIT FEES


Tables will be set up for maximum traffic flow with break time refreshments nearby. Each exhibitor will be given one skirted table, with additional tables available upon request ($100 each) and two chairs.

All handouts and materials distributed at the exhibit are subject to approval by the Exhibit Coordinator.

Non-Sponsor Level Rates Commercial............................................. $300.00 Nonprofit Organization ........................... $200.00 Each Additional Table ............................. $100.00 Individual Home Based Business .............$50.00 Sponsor/Exhibitor Levels Diamond - Silver - tables included (see level descriptions for package details and number of tables included. EXHIBIT HOURS (SUBJECT TO CHANGE) Thursday, June 23 Exhibit set up - completed by 11:00 am. Exhibit hours: 11:00 am - 4:30 pm Friday/Saturday, June 24-25 Exhibit hours: 9:30 am - 4:30 pm Sunday, June 26 Exhibit hours: 8:00 am - 12:00 pm Exhibit break down: after 12:00 pm EXHIBITOR INSTRUCTIONS 1. Please review the Exhibitor Information, then print or type all information requested on the Exhibitor Application/Contract form 2. Complete and sign the original and submit the forms with the exhibit space rental fee to the address on the Exhibitor Application/Contract form 3. Confirmation will be sent to you via email, fax or mail 4. The deadline for submitting a form as an exhibitor is March 1, 2011. COMMUNICATION ISSUES Some participants attending the event will be deaf or hardof-hearing. We advise, if possible, having someone at your table who can communicate in sign language. ASSIGNMENT OF EXHIBIT SPACE The Exhibit Coordinator will assign exhibit space in the order in which contracts accompanied by full payment are received. Placement priority will be given to Level Sponsorships. The Exhibit Coordinator reserves the right to withdraw acceptance of this contract if, in his/hers sole discretion, he/ she determines that the exhibitor is not eligible to participate, or the exhibitor’s products or services are not eligible to be displayed.

FIRE AND SAFETY REGULATIONS Exhibitor shall use no flammable decoration or covering for display fixtures. All writing devices and sockets shall be in good condition and meet the requirements of state law. STORAGE There is no designated storage area for exhibitors. Small unobtrusive packing materials may be stored under the exhibitor’s table. RELEASE OF RESPONSIBILITY CLAUSE Exhibitor agrees to observe and abide by the foregoing terms, conditions, and rules and by such additional terms, conditions and rules made by the Exhibit Coordinator from time to time for the efficient or safe operation of the exhibit area including, but not limited to, those contained in this contract. The exhibitor assumes the entire responsibility and liability for losses, damages and claims arriving out of injury or damage to the exhibitor’s displays, equipment, and other property brought upon the premises of the Maryland for the Deaf, and shall indemnify and hold harmless MSD, its employees, and volunteers of any and all losses, damages, and claims. EXHIBIT CANCELLATION If the event is canceled by ASDC, exhibit fees will be refunded in full. If the exhibitor cancels participation, such cancellation shall be considered a default and any monies paid shall be retained by ASDC. SPECIAL OFFER We recognize that not all companies will be able to send a representative. Therefore, we will have an area where materials along with order forms or business cards may be displayed. We will not sell products for you and all materials sent for display will become property of MSD. For example, if you are a publisher, you may send a single copy of a book with business cards to display. You may also send 50-100 copies of your catalog. The charge for this service will be $50.00. Please make payment to THE ASDC MSD CONFERENCE 2011 and send to: Lori Bonheyo, ASDC Conference Co-Chair Maryland School for the Deaf 101 Clarke Place, PO Box 250 Frederick, MD 21705 866.729-7602 (Videophone/Voice) Feel free to call with any questions!


ASDC Conference 2011, June 22-26 Hosted by Maryland School for the Deaf

ASDC Exhibit Space Application/Contract Form NOTE Exhibitors who plan to attend any portion of the educational workshops are required to complete both participant registration and exhibit space application forms with payment. Exhibitors not attending the workshops are not required to pay the conference registration fee.

NEEDS FOR YOUR EXHIBIT (SILVER EXHIBITOR AND ABOVE) Although attempt will be made to honor your requests, due to availability, higher levels of sponsorship will receive first considerations.  Electricity

Please type or print all information and return to address below:

 Internet (if available) REFUND POLICY

If all or a portion of space is canceled prior to January 30, 2011, full refund. On or after March 1, 2011 NO REFUND unless booth is resold, then a full refund less $100 processing fee will be issued after the conclusion of the conference. Full payment must accompany this application. If a company/ organization decides to cancel its participation in the event, no reimbursement will be made.

Organization/Company Name Contact person Title

PAYMENT METHOD (Please check all that apply)


of $

 I am enclosing a check #

City/State/Zip Code

made payable to ASDC MSD Conference 2011



 I will use my credit card in the amount of $  VISA



 Master card  Discover

Account number CCV #


(on the back of your card)

Exp Date

Name on card (please print clearly) Title Authorized Signature

Additional Exhibitor Names

Level of Sponsorship (please check which level)  Diamond Sponsor ................$10,000+  Platinum Sponsor ..................$5,000+  Silver Sponsor .......................$1,000+  Friends of ASDC .......................$500+ EXHIBIT ONLY

Exhibitor signature above stipulates having read and agreed to the complete Exhibitor Prospectus which is incorporated into this contact by reference. The application becomes a contract when accepted and confirmed by the ASDC Conference Exhibit Coordinator. Mail this Application/Contract with payment to:

Commercial ................................. $300.00 Nonprofit Organization ................ $200.00 Each Additional Table .................. $100.00 Individual Home Based Business .... $50.00 Non-Manned Display ..................... $50.00 (Materials only)

Number of booths x ($200 Organization/$300 for Profit Organization) $


Non-Profit Total

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION The following information will appear as written in the program book. (50 words or less) Please attach your description.

Lori Bonheyo, ASDC Conference Co-Chair Maryland School for the Deaf 101 Clarke Place, PO Box 250 Frederick, MD 21705 For more information, check our website for detailed information, For more information regarding exhibit, please contact Lori Bonheyo by email at or call 866-729-7602


A Salute to Roy K. Holcomb As we look at the American Society for Deaf Children (ASDC) history, one name continually appears: Roy K. Holcomb. Holcomb was one of the founders of the International Association of Parents of the Deaf (IAPD), the organization we now know as ASDC. Holcomb had a vision that parents of Deaf children needed to come together for the purpose of trying to improve the potential of deaf people. In April 1971, this vision became a reality with the first meeting at the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation in Washington, D.C. Holcomb continued his quest with a second meeting held at the Arkansas School for the Deaf in June 1971, a meeting attended by hundreds of parents. He was there every step of the way encouraging, promoting, and providing information. Through the years, he continued to be an active part

of the organization. Holcomb was responsible for establishing the prestigious Lee Katz Award, which recognizes the dedication of parents who go above and beyond the call of duty. Holcomb himself received this award in 1984 at the ASDC Convention in Fremont, Calif. ASDC owes a debt to Holcomb that the Roy K. Holcomb Scholarship Fund can never repay. He provided an example for all parents, and ASDC thanks him for the dedication and service provided to IAPD and ASDC over the years. The Roy K. Holcomb Scholarship Fund was established in 1994 to enable parents to attend the ASDC Biennial Conferences. Scholarships are available to all parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. To apply for this scholarship, fill out the scholarship form and return it to ASDC.

Deaf Culture Our Way: Anecdotes from the Deaf Community Written by Roy Holcomb and his sons Samuel and Tom, Deaf Culture Our Way includes humorous looks at everything from classic humor to new technology, from bathroom tales to classic hazards to dining out, and also explores communication, myths, and more. The book is a wonderful look into Deaf culture, and is available at www. The proceeds from this book are donated to ASDC and have provided scholarships for many families to attend the ASDC conferences over the years. 16

Nominations Being Accepted for 2011 Lee Katz Award The Lee Katz Award is presented every two years, and the next will be during ASDC’s 22nd Biennial Conference in Frederick, Md., held June 22–26, 2011. Lee Katz was the first president and executive director of the International Association of Parents of the Deaf (IAPD), now ASDC. She displayed outstanding leadership, dedication, and service to parents and families of deaf and hard of hearing children. The Lee Katz Award recognizes extraordinary parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Nominees should possess the qualities of leadership, dedication, and service. To nominate someone, please submit

the nominee’s name, address, telephone, e-mail, family circumstances, leadership qualities, service, special accomplishments, and three to five references. The person making the nomination should include his or her name, address, e-mail and phone number. All nominations should be sent to: ASDC Lee Katz Award Nominee, #2047, 800 Florida Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20002-3695, or e-mailed to Nominations must be received no later than April 1, 2011. For questions, e-mail Cheri Dowling at or call (800) 942-2732.

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A C HIE V E M E N T: S TA R T S EA RLY Gallaudet University’s Department of Education is proud to host the second Summit on American Sign Language/English Bilingual Early Childhood Education for Deaf Children at Gallaudet University

APRIL 8 & 9, 2011 Registration fee: $150 per person. Includes breakfast and lunch, printed materials, souvenir kit & certificate of attendance Location: IJK Student Academic Center - Multi-Purpose Room TO REGISTER: Contact Co-Coordinators, and


(Mis)understanding Hearing Loss By Joey Lynn Resciniti Hearing loss has been difficult to explain to the people around my daughter. I rely heavily on my own past perceptions of the hard of hearing. Before I became educated and intimately acquainted with the workings of the ears, I simply didn’t understand much about hearing. Before Julia, the only hard of hearing person I knew was my grandfather. His hearing was destroyed during World War 2. He has hearing aids that he won’t wear. Our communication with him consists of yelling at increased volume and repetition. Seeing hard of hearing older folks made me think that hearing was sort of “on” or “off.” Grandpap used to hear, now he doesn’t. Everything needs to be louder. When Julia was a baby, I knew that she could hear because she responded to some sounds. I had no idea of all of the things she wasn’t hearing. The first thing the audiologist showed us after the testing was conclusive was the “speech banana.” This was a confusing bit of information at first. I remember feeling weepy when I saw that whispering and birds singing were so far out of her range. I studied

the chart and tried to figure out where Julia’s speech approximations came from and how we took so long to diagnose the hearing loss. The banana shape encompasses all of the speech sounds. Different letters are marked on the chart. Normal hearing is represented by the dashed line at the top of the banana. Taking Julia’s 55 dB loss as an example, all of the speech sounds are above that mark. Theoretically, without her hearing aids she can’t hear any of those sounds. Things louder than 55 dB, like a dog barking or a piano, would be accessible for her without hearing aids. But the tricky part is that it isn’t so cut and dry. She wasn’t missing all language and hearing dogs barking consistently. There are just too many variables to figure out what her world was like before the hearing aids. At this point, the 55 dB loss is 19

“corrected” by hearing aids. Aided, Julia hears at the dashed line above the banana. It’s still not as good as normal hearing due to background noise and other interference that I will never understand. This is why her teachers will be compelled (by me) to give Julia preferential seating and establish eye contact when giving instructions. There will be additional effort to overcome the hearing aids’ imperfections. Educators still ask, “Can she hear me?” They see the hearing aids and think she’s hearing nothing. I can show them speech bananas and explain listening bubbles, but my biggest fear with moderate hearing loss is that the school will simply ignore it. The hearing aids do get her to that dashed line, after all. My husband and I remain geared up for a long school career of advocating for our child so that her level of hearing doesn’t have a chance to interfere with learning. Joey lives with her husband, Tim, and five-year-old daughter, Julia, in the North suburbs of Pittsburgh.  Joey is a stay-athome mom and part-time freelance writer.  Since discovering Julia’s hearing loss, Joey writes weekly posts about hearing loss on her blog at

These titles and more ... available from 20

Invest in Our Future!

The NAD joins hands with ASDC in investing in the future of deaf and hard of hearing children National Association of the Deaf


Library of Congress Selects NAD Film for Preservation The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) film, Preservation of Sign Language, by George W. Veditz, was selected to the National Film Registry at the Library of Congress along with other films such as Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back, Malcolm X, and Saturday Night Fever. Preservation of Sign Language was part of a collection produced by the NAD’s motion picture committee specifically to preserve early American Sign Language (ASL) on film from 1910 through 1920. The NAD was concerned then that “pure” sign language might disappear under the pressures of oralism, and made these films so that future generations might see master signers of the past. In 1965, the NAD transferred these films to the Gallaudet University Archives for preservation and to make them more available to the public. Under the terms of the National Film Preservation Act, the Library of Congress names 25 films to the National Film Registry that are “culturally, historically or aesthetically” significant, to be preserved for all time. These films are selected as works of enduring significance to American culture. The Library of Congress described the film: “Presented without subtitles, “Preservation” is a two-minute film featuring George Veditz, one-time 22

president of the NAD of the United States, demonstrating in sign language the importance of defending the right of deaf people to sign as opposed to verbalizing their communication. . . Taking care to sign precisely and in large gestures for the cameras, Veditz chose fiery biblical passages to give his speech emotional impact. . . The film conveys one of the ways that deaf Americans debated the issues of their language and public understanding during the era of World War I.” “This selection is a tremendous honor and indeed our film by Veditz has remained priceless nearly 100 years after the fact,” said NAD President Bobbie Beth Scoggins. “This film came during a time when ASL was being oppressed and the NAD took action to preserve, protect, and promote our natural language and linguistic rights. We are thrilled with the Library of Congress’ announcement that the film will be preserved for posterity.” She added, “With this selection, our children, grandchildren and beyond, will come to understand and always remember the impact and significance of ASL on our community—including the right to express ourselves and represent our own interests.” —Excerpted from NAD press release, Dec. 28, 2010

Ask the Expert: Questions About IDEA With Barbara Raimondo, Esq. My child has a cochlear implant. I think he needs services under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA); the school thinks he doesn’t. What should I do? Sometimes school personnel make an implicit or explicit assumption that if a child uses a cochlear implant, that child becomes “hearing,” and special education is not needed. In fact, children with cochlear implants demonstrate a wide range of language and communication outcomes, and it is not possible to accurately predict how well a given child will do academically. Research shows that (non-implanted) children with mild and unilateral hearing loss experience difficulty in school (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007; Mild and Unilateral Hearing Loss: Outcomes. Retrieved from documents/unilateralhl/DRoss%20 Pkg07-MildUni-Outcomes.pdf), so it is not surprising that many children with cochlear implants need special education and related services to succeed academically. IDEA applies the same eligibility criteria to an implanted child as it does to any other child being considered for IDEA services. The decision of whether a child is eligible for IDEA services is an individual one which must be made on a case-by-case basis. In order to be

eligible for IDEA services, students must have a disability that falls into one of 13 categories such as “deafness” or “hearing impairment,” and, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services. Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section. Special education and related services are: Special education is specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability. It includes instruction in the classroom, home, hospital, institution, and other settings. Speciallydesigned instruction means adapting, as appropriate to the needs of the child, the content, methodology, or delivery of instruction. The purpose of providing specially-designed instruction is to address the unique needs of the child that result from the child’s disability and ensure access to the general curriculum. 23

The goal is for the child to meet the educational standards that apply to all children. Related services are developmental, corrective, and other supportive services as may be required to assist a child with a disability to benefit from special education. Examples include transportation, speech-language pathology services, and parent counseling and training. Eligibility for IDEA services is determined after an evaluation. IDEA spells out detailed requirements for the evaluation/eligibility process. Among them: • The school must use a variety of assessment tools and strategies, including information provided by the parent. • Assessments must be administered by trained and knowledgeable personnel. • The school must not use any single measure or assessment as the sole criterion for determining whether a child is a child with a disability for purposes of IDEA eligibility. If the child has already been receiving IDEA services, the determination that the child is no longer eligible also must be based on evaluation data. The school is not permitted to identify the child as eligible or ineligible for IDEA services based on a single factor, such as whether he has a cochlear implant. The rules outlined in IDEA must be followed. Schools must give parents “prior notice” before they take certain actions, such as when they: • Propose to initiate the identification or evaluation of the child; or • Refuse to initiate or change the 24

identification or evaluation of the child. In other words, the school must provide “prior notice” when it believes your child is no longer eligible for special education and related services. The notice must be written and must include: • A description of the action proposed or refused by the school • An explanation of why the school proposes or refuses to take the action • A description of each evaluation procedure, assessment, record, or report the school used as a basis for the proposed or refused action • A statement that you, the parent, have procedural safeguards • The means by which you can obtain a copy of the procedural safeguards • Sources for you to contact to obtain assistance in understanding IDEA • A description of other options that the IEP Team considered and the reasons why those options were rejected • A description of other factors relevant to the school’s proposal or refusal. The notice must be written in plain language. It must be provided in the native language of the parent or other mode of communication used by the parent in most cases. If your child does not qualify for IDEA services, that does not mean that he cannot receive any accommodations in the classroom. You may request

services under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Section 504 is designed to protect against discrimination based on disability. Under a “504 Plan” your child may receive the services of a qualified American Sign Language interpreter, an assistive listening device, and/or other related aids and services to accommodate his unique needs. Section 504 mandates that the quality of educational services provided to students with disabilities must equal the quality of services provided to nondisabled students. If you are not happy with the IDEA- or Section 504-related decisions your child’s school is making, you should first attempt to resolve the problem within the school, bringing forward any information, such as an out of school evaluation, that supports your position. If that is not effective, both IDEA and Section 504 provide for a complaint process. It is best to consult an attorney before filing a complaint. Attorneys can be located through the National Disability Rights Network (www. or Council of Parent Attorneys and Advocates ( My child received services under Part C, but the school says she is not eligible for services under Part B, which serves children age three through 21. Is this permitted? Part C and Part B have different eligibility criteria. Part C serves infants and toddlers birth through age two who need early intervention services because they: • Are experiencing developmental delays in: • Cognitive development • Physical development, including vision and hearing • Communication development • Social or emotional development • Adaptive development; or • Have a diagnosed physical or mental condition that has a high probability of resulting in developmental delay. Because these criteria are sometimes interpreted to be looser than the Part B criteria, it is possible for a deaf child to be eligible for IDEA Part C services but not Part B services. Further, in some states Part C and Part B are administered by different agencies, which may complicate matters. However, as noted above, the school must follow appropriate evaluation procedures in determining whether a child is eligible or ineligible for IDEA services, and it must provide notice to you, the parent, if it refuses to identify the child as eligible for IDEA services. Procedural safeguards also are available. Barbara Raimondo, Esq., has worked as a government relations liaison, director of advocacy, parent consultant, attorney, and trainer. She was an ASDC board member for many years as well as a staff member and Lee Katz award recipient. She and her husband are the parents of two deaf children. 25

ASDC Advocating Everyday EHDI Conference 2011: A Big Thank You to DawnSignPress! Atlanta, GA, Feb. 20-21, 2011 ASDC attended the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Conference and presented on a variety of topics related to early intervention, language learning, education and advocacy. A big thank you to DawnSignPress for sponsoring the ASDC exhibition booth. 2010 Investing in Family Support Conference The 5th Annual Investing in Family Support Conference was held Oct. 1 – 12 in Kansas City, Mo. ASDC attended this exciting conference once again. Thank you to The Described and Captioned Media Program for sponsoring the ASDC’s exhibit booth. The conference provided opportunities to network and a variety of workshops and exhibits. The conference began with a special presentation by Rud Turnbull of the Beach Center, who discussed the seven principles of partnerships. The evening continued with a presentation by Joey McIntyre. Many remember him as a member of the pop singing group, New Kids on the Block, but they may not know Joey and his wife have a young deaf child. Joey talked about his journey, his family, and the hopes and We hope you will consider making a taxdreams they have for their child. deductible charitable contribution to Among the diverse work- ASDC. By donating, you are investing in shops was one by ASDC Presi- the future of education for deaf children, dent Beth Benedict, who talked strengthening networks among families, about Deaf culture. Her session and providing a promise of a better future provided information about for our children. Donations can be sent to: how to include the Deaf commu- American Society for Deaf Children nity and their experiences when #2047 working with hearing parents 800 Florida Ave., NE of deaf children. The conference Washington, DC 20002 was closed with a presentation by Karen Putz who reminded us Or donate via PayPal at www.deafchildren. to go forward and do wonderful org; click on Donate. things but to be sure to have fun in the process.

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Collaboration Benefits Deaf Children By Jodee S. Crace, ASDC Board Member “My son was the first deaf person I ever met. As a family we embraced deaf culture, American Sign Language, deaf role models, and deaf families early in his life. He grew to become a confident, highly educated, tolerant, and patient adult. I am grateful and proud as I reflect on how enriched our lives have become.” -Parent, National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management E-Book Deaf Community Support for Families: The Best of Partnerships was written by a group of individuals as a National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM) e-book. The $500 received from NCHAM was donated to ASDC. The core values of ASDC read: “We affirm that parents have the right and responsibility to be primary decision-makers and advocates. For this role, parents need education, access to information, and support. . .respect for the Deaf, and access to deaf and hard-of-hearing role models are important to assure optimal intellectual, social, and emotional development.” Barbara Raimondo coordinated the article’s writing, and the article highlighted: • The importance of Deaf community involvement, • Who the Deaf community is • The roles of deaf community members in early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) • Examples of partnerships • Recruiting and involving more deaf and hard of hearing individuals in EHDI activities • National resources. For years, ASDC has worked to bridge the gap between the medical world and the educational world by involving Deaf and hard of hearing people through a variety of ASDC activities and resources. We continue to support this goal of collaboration as we all work together for the benefit of deaf children. The ASDC Board extends its gratitude to article contributors: Article coordinator and past ASDC board member Barbara Raimondo, Maryland School for the Deaf’s Maryann Swann and MaryAnn Richmond, ASDC President Beth Benedict, Gallaudet University’s Gina Oliva and Marilyn Sass-Lehrer, ASDC board member and Indiana School for the Deaf’s Jodee Crace, and ASDC board member Tami Hossler. 27

Keeping Teens Connected with Mobile VPs Parents of busy “tweens” and teens often wish that they could communicate with their children by cell phone without having to send a cumbersome text message. That wish is now a reality. With smartphones’ forward-facing cameras, mobile devices can be transformed into mobile videophones (VPs), empowering deaf callers to place calls as they would with a videophone. Through this technological advance, some providers are now offering video relay services (VRS) to mobile users. The largest VRS provider, Sorenson Communications®, recently announced its mobile offering: ntouch™ Mobile. Sorenson’s mobile solution functions

over 3G and 4G networks as well as WiFi. ntouch Mobile also offers additional features, such as integrated contact lists, Sorenson’s Video Center and local searches. With local searches, a caller can use their phone to browse for a local business or service provider. When the number appears on the smartphone screen, the caller can tap the displayed number and instantly be connected via a VRS call. Sorenson’s ntouch also offers an E911 icon on the smartphone’s home screen that will immediately connect a caller to the appropriate response center via VRS. Now deaf children can stay in touch with everyone in their lives wherContinued on page 50

Experience the

of your world in touch Introducing ntouch™, the most advanced way to use SVRS® from Sorenson Communications®. It’s the evolution of video relay. Available to you everyday, everywhere. You’ll be amazed. Experience what’s next in VRS from Sorenson Communications. Copyright © 2011 Sorenson Communications. All rights reserved. ntouch™ and respective branding property of Sorenson Communications.


In the News... Kudos to Massachusetts! The Gallaudet Regional Center at Northern Essex Community College is in the process of signing a $315,000 contract with Massachusetts’s Dept. of Public Health to teach families with deaf children American Sign Language. Every family with a newborn identified with a hearing loss can participate in the Family Sign Language Program. For more information, contact fslp@, (978) 556-3701 (voice/ tty) or (978) 241-7057 (VP/VRS). Congratulations, NTID! Gerri Buckley has become the sixth chief executive officer of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf

in its 45-year history and the third Deaf individual to serve in this role. Congratulations to Dr. Buckley on this new endeavor! EHDI 2010 Signed into Law President Obama signed the Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Act of 2010 (EHDI)  into law on Dec. 22. This legislation reauthorizes and expands EHDI legislation passed 10 years ago.  The legislation increases state funding for follow-up services to ensure that babies identified with a hearing loss receive full diagnostic evaluations and are enrolled in early intervention programs.


The First 30 Schools for the Deaf 1. Connecticut Asylum (1817), American Asylum (1818) 2. New York Institution, New York, N.Y. (1818) 3. Pennsylvania Institution, Philadelphia, Pa. (1820) 4. Kentucky Institution, Danville, Ky. (1823) 5. Central New York Asylum, Canajobarie, N.Y. (1825-1836) 6. New Jersey Institution (1825) 7. Colonel Smith’s School, Tallmadge, Ohio (1827-1829) 8. Ohio Institution, Columbus, Ohio (1829) 9. Virginia Institution, Staunton, Va. (1830) 10. Indiana Institution, Indianapolis, Ind. (1844) 11. Tennessee School, Knoxville, Tenn. (1845) 12. North Carolina Institution, Raleigh, N.C. (1845) 13. Illinois Institution, Jacksonville, Ill. (1846) 14. Georgia Institution, Cave Spring, Ga. (1846) 15. South Carolina Institution, Cedar Spring, S.C. (1849) 16. Missouri Institution, Fulton, Mo. (1851) 17. Louisiana Institution, Baton Rouge, La. (1852) 18. 18. Wisconsin Institution, Delavan, Wis. (1852) 19. D.E. Bartlett’s Family School, New York, N.Y. (1852), Fishkill Landing, N.Y. (1853), Pough30

Columbia Institution

keepsie, N.Y. (1854-1860), and Hartford, Conn. (1860-1861) 20. Michigan Institution, Flint, Mich. (1854) 21. Iowa Institution, Iowa City, Iowa (1855-1869), Council Bluffs, Iowa (1869) 22. Mississippi Institution, Jackson, Miss. (1856 23. J.B. Edwards’ School, Lexington, Ga. (1856) 24. P.H. Skinner’s School, Washington, D.C. (1856-1867) 25. P.H. Skinner’s School for the Colored, Niagara City, N.Y. (18571860) 26. Texas Asylum, Austin, Texas (1857) 27. Columbia Institution, Washington, D.C. (1857) 28. Alabama Institution, Talladega, Ala. (1858) 29. Home for Young Deaf-Mutes, New York, N.Y. (1859-1862) 30. California Institution, San Francisco, Calif. (1860), Berkeley, Calif. (1869). Construction began in 1867.

VL2 is supported by the National Science Foundation Grant Number SBE 0541953 This research has been approved by the Gallaudet University IRB

Attention Parents of Deaf Children: The Early Language Longitudinal Study (EELS) is now accepting participants for an important study on early language experiences and education/ literacy. We are seeking ALL TYPES OF COMMUNICATION PREFERENCES: Oral, Sign, Cued Speech, etc. If your child is between the ages of 3 – 5 years old & is deaf in both ears Please go to: for more information on this study and to sign your child up to participate.

Questions? Feel free to contact: Thank you!!


Did You Know?

Difference Between CART and C-Print CART and C-Print are both speechto-text systems used by deaf and hard of hearing people needing access to spoken language in certain situations, unless one decides to work with a sign language interpreter. With CART, everything spoken is turned into text word for word. C-Print interprets the content of what is said but is not word for word. For a comparison chart, visit: The Difference Between “Inclusion” and “Mainstreaming” Mainstreaming a student with an IEP

is based upon the idea that joining a general education classroom will benefit the student academically and socially. The expectation is the student will handle the coursework like any other student, through modifications. Inclusion is the concept that a student with an IEP joins the general education classroom with the expectation that being there is to gain life skills and social skills. They are being “included” in their peers’ activities, but they are not expected to perform equally academically. To read more, visit www.brighthub. com/education/special/articles/66813. aspx.

Love Language Recap

Join us in MARCH 2011 as we celebrate the 6th annual Read Captions Across America event! Learn more about how you can get involved at


The DCMP is funded by the U.S. Department of Education and administered by the National Association of the Deaf.


In partnership with ASDC and the band New Heights, the Jubilee Project released a video, Love Language Recap, in November to express gratitude to their sponsors and supporters. ASDC President Beth Benedict also talks about ASDC in the video.  To date, there has been over 200,000 views and over $2,500 was raised in one month for ASDC.  ASDC thanks the Jubilee Project for its generosity and for producing the amazing video. View the video at com/watch?v=n95bv53bpjI. For more information about the Jubilee Project, visit

Getting Back to Clerc’s Roots in Bilingualism: A Deaf-Centric Approach By E. Lynn Jacobowitz, Ph.D. and Adonia K. Smith, Ed.D. (View entire article at Even before the International Congress for Educators of the Deaf’s 1880 ban of sign language in deaf education, deaf education has been largely hearing-centric. The concept of “signing” and immersion in Deaf culture has been significantly overlooked. Deaf Frenchman Laurent Clerc’s teaching strategies were among the earliest formal bilingual approaches. What would Clerc’s Deaf-centric bilingualism look like today? • Value ASL* for Deaf children. • Value ASL assessment in determining educational plans for young Deaf children. • Ensure ASL accessibility in curricula. • Use ASL materials created by Deaf people. • Focus on ASL as a first language to support English as a second language. • Offer ASL as language arts in K-12 curricula for deaf children. • Allow young Deaf children to have freedom to use ASL. • Refine Deaf children’s ASL skills. • Include ASL literature and Deaf history in curricula at all grade levels. • Introduce Deaf children to ASL parameters as a vocabulary builder for all grades. * Or signed languages in other countries with the second language being the country’s national language(s). Bilingualism is unquestionably workable and natural. Deaf children become better communicators, are more educated, and are more knowledgeable/academic. They are more likely to seamlessly participate in both the Deaf community and the hearing community. Ultimately, they become contributing members of society. There is no mystery in planning for Deaf children’s educational successes: a Deaf-centric approach that incorporates bilingualism must be included in today’s education. 33


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History of Deaf Education

The Beginnings of Deaf Education By Larry Hawkins and Sue Galloway There are many histories of Deaf education, and each depends on who is telling the story. The story we tell is a basic history from historians, documentation, and family. It, however, is only a glimmer of the history which actually must have occurred. Most historians agree that the true beginning of teaching children who are Deaf began in the sixteenth century in Spain. At that time, Spain was one of the most powerful countries in the world and perhaps one of the wealthiest. Spain was governed by many laws that were based on old Roman laws (Justinian Code), and the Justinian Code made the distinction of pre-lingual and postlingual deafness. Those who had lost their hearing after they had learned to speak and write could maintain all citizenship privileges. Those who were born Deaf and could not speak or write had to have guardians and could not make wills or create estates (Scouten, 1984). Often, wealthy families maintained

their wealth by intermarriage. It was not uncommon for cousins to marry cousins, thus keeping the wealth of a family intact. One example of this practice in Spain in the 1500s was the Velasco family. The family had two Deaf sons and several Deaf daughters. With the two Deaf sons unable to create estates or to write wills, the family wealth would more than likely fall into the hands of curators, guardians, or the government. The family turned to Ponce de Leon who had gained a reputation for teaching a Deaf boy to read and write. With the help of the Velasco family, de Leon started the first school for the Deaf with at least the two Velasco boys and probably some of the sisters as students. Both boys, Pedro and Francisco, were successful in learning to read and write and also learned to speak (Scouten, 1984). Although we cannot be for sure whether de Leon used sign language or fingerspelling, it would have been natural for him to have done so because the Benedictine monks themselves had used a system of signs and fingerspelling when 35

taking vows of silence. Around 1610, the Velasco family once again had a Deaf child to educate. Having heard the stories of how the granduncles Pedro and Francisco, had been educated, family secretary Juan Pablo Bonet began a search for a teacher for young Luis. The family found Ramirez de Carrion, a teacher of articulation who also served as a tutor and secretary for a Deaf man, the Marquis de Prego (Scouten, 1984). Prego was willing to help out the Velasco family by allowing Carrion to teach Luis for a period of three years, after which he would return to the Marquis. Bonet observed Carrion teach Luis for three years. After Carrion’s tenure had expired, Bonet became Luis’s teacher. Luis was very successful and became a favorite in King Phillip IV’s court. Because of his outgoing personality and charm, many dignitaries from other countries wrote stories about Luis, which inspired teachers in their countries to start schools for children who were Deaf. Bonet published a book in 1620 which contained the old Spanish alphabet that is a forerunner of the alphabet used today in the United States for fingerspelling. The story of Luis de Velasco’s education reached England where it was instrumental in stirring some of England’s sharpest thinkers into action regarding the issue of deafness (Scouten, 1984). Several teachers in England had great success in teaching Deaf children. Thomas Braidwood, 36

1715-1806, of Scotland was probably the most successful in that he cornered the market for schools for the Deaf in Great Britain. He kept his teaching methods secret and he swore his teachers to secrecy. Several of his family members were head administrators at the Braidwood monopoly of schools. Several American children who were deaf attended the oral Braidwood schools because there were no schools for the Deaf in America at that time. Another teacher who was influenced by Bonet’s book was the Abbe de l’Epee of Paris. He used Bonet’s Spanish alphabet to fingerspell words to his pupils. What really set de l’Epee apart from other teachers of the Deaf at that time was that he used the signs that the students were using to communicate with them. He learned their language and then changed the order to fit the French language for instruction. He began a school in his home and took in students, those who could afford to pay and those who could not. His signs flourished throughout France (Scouten, 1984). The successor to de l’Epee was the

Abbe Roch-Ambroise Sicard. He accepted the directorship in 1790 of the national Institute for the Deaf. He brought his gifted Deaf student, Jean Massieu, with him to become head assistant teacher. When they arrived in Paris they found conditions destitute, so Sicard immediately went to work to obtain funding that had been promised earlier to de l’Epee (Easterbrooks and Baker, 2002). Because of Sicard’s connections to the aristocracy in attempts to raise money, he was imprisoned during the French Revolution for a short time until some of his former students convinced the new government to release him. During the “100 Days” sojourn when Napoleon entered Paris, Sicard decided that, at age 73, he did not need the excitement of any more close encounters with the military. He took two of his best Deaf teachers, Massieu and Laurent Clerc, who both had been his former students, with him to London. Meanwhile, in America, the first school for Deaf children was established but was short-lived. Colonel William Bolling of Virginia, a hearing brother of two Deaf siblings who had attended the Braidwood School in Edinburgh, did not want to send his two Deaf children to Scotland. He heard that John Braidwood was in America trying to start a Braidwood School. Braidwood was imprisoned in New York for bad debts. Bolling bailed him out of debt and financed a school in Virginia in 1815 with five students in attendance. Braidwood was not dependable and the school only lasted

a few years. Clerc At about the same time that Bolling was trying to establish the first school for the Deaf in America, Thomas Hopkins GallauGallaudet det was setting sail to England to learn to become a teacher of the Deaf. He became interested in educating children who were Deaf through his interactions with his neighbor’s daughter, Alice Cogswell. Alice’s father, Dr. Mason Fitch Cogswell, in seeking some way to help his daughter, became interested in Deaf people in general. He obtained the help of his friends, prominent men of Hartford, and they decided to attempt to establish a school to instruct the Deaf of their country. Because there was no one who could teach the Deaf, they decided to send Gallaudet to England to determine their method of instruction. Gallaudet had very great difficulty learning anything from the Braidwood family; their school was operated for profit and they were reluctant to divulge their methods. He could take a three-year course of instruction at the school, but Gallaudet did not have the time or the 37

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money. He had heard about the lecture given by the three Frenchmen, Sicard, Massieu, and Clerc, and so he went to their lecture (Golladay, 1980). To earn money while in London, Sicard, Massieu, and Clerc gave public demonstrations twice a week which were attended by members of parliament, royalty, and the Duchess of Wellington (Barnard, 1852). Members of the audience asked questions which Sicard interpreted in sign language to Massieu and Clerc. The men wrote their answers on a blackboard (Eastman, 1978). When Napoleon had been defeated at Waterloo, Sicard knew he could return to Paris. At the last lecture the three men gave before leaving London, they were introduced to an American by the name of Gallaudet. Gallaudet was invited to visit the school in Paris and he did so in the spring of 1816. He attended classes, starting with the lowest, and observed the methods of teaching. Eventually he progressed to the highest class which Clerc was teaching. He also prevailed upon Clerc to give him private sign language lessons, and the two men met

Cogswell House

three times a week for that purpose. Gallaudet was very eager to learn sign language as quickly as possible in order to return to America and report to Dr. Cogswell. Clerc writes that he told Gallaudet that it would take six months to get a good understanding of sign language and a year before he knew enough about the method of instruction to be able to teach the Deaf (Barnard, 1852). Gallaudet knew he could not stay that long so he asked Clerc to find him two well-educated Deaf men who knew English to come with him to America. When Clerc did so, Gallaudet changed his mind and said that he wanted Clerc to accompany him, even though Clerc did not know English (Eastman, 1978). Thomas Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc arrived in New York on August 9, 1816 after a 52-day journey on the ship Mary Augusta. During the voyage, Clerc and Gallaudet discussed how to teach the Deaf, and continued the sign language lessons. Gallaudet also taught Clerc to read and write English by having him keep a journal. Because paper was scarce, Clerc first wrote on a clay tablet borrowed from a crew member; when corrections had been made, he then wrote his final copy on paper. Here is one of the interesting entries: Wednesday, June the 26th I talked a little with M. Wilder. . . about marriage. He asked me if I should like to marry a deaf and dumb lady, handsome, young, virtuous, pious, and amiable. I answered him that it would give 39

me so much pleasure, but that a deaf and dumb gentleman and a lady suffering the same misfortune could not be companions for each other, and that consequently a lady endowed with the sense of hearing and with the gift of speech was and ought to be preferable and indispensable to a deaf and dumb person. For the first seven months after arriving in America, Clerc and Gallaudet traveled throughout New England and the midAtlantic states soliciting funds to start the school. The American Asylum for the Education of the Deaf and Dumb opened in Hartford, Conn., on April 15, 1817, with seven students, among them Alice Cogswell and Eliza Crocker Boardman, the young lady who would become Clerc’s wife. Contrary to what Clerc told Wilder about marriage to a Deaf woman, Clerc followed his heart and married Eliza on May 3, 1819. They had six children, all hearing, and four of whom lived to adulthood. Their oldest daughter, Elizabeth, became a teacher at the school. In all, Clerc taught at the Hartford school for 41 years. At first he not only instructed the students, but also the teachers. No one knew the method of instruction or the psychology of the Deaf child like Clerc did, so to him fell the task of doing virtually everything for awhile. Some of the early heads of schools for the Deaf in other states were taught by Clerc, including Abraham Stansbury (New York), The 40

Rev. A. B. Hutton (Pennsylvania), H. N. Hubbell (Ohio), Roland McDonald (Quebec, Canada), Joseph Dennis Tyler (Virginia), John Adamson Jacobs (Kentucky), J. S. Brown (Indiana), and Isaac Lewis Peet (New York) (Golladay, 1980). Clerc died on July 18, 1869, at the age of 84. In 1874, a monument was placed on the grounds of the school that Gallaudet and Clerc had started. The inscription reads: “Laurent Clerc, the apostle of the Deaf Mutes of the New World. Erected by the DeafMutes of America to the memory of their benefactor, the pupil of Sicard, the associate of Gallaudet, who left his native land to elevate them by his teaching and encourage them by his example.” Clerc is perhaps the most important figure in the history of American Sign Language (ASL). Because of his 41 years of teaching, his instruction of staff, and his influence on the administration of most of the early state Schools for the Deaf. ASL, a blend of French Sign Language and American

signs used by students, became a standardized language used throughout America. From 1817 until 1867, most children who were Deaf attended state schools that had been heavily influenced by the work of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Laurent Clerc. In 1867, however, the first “oral” school was established in Northampton, Mass., the Clarke Institute for Deaf-Mutes. Shortly after the establishment of Clarke, Alexander Graham Bell and other oral educators had a great influence on the education of children who were Deaf. During the Milan Convention of the International Congress on Education of the Deaf in 1880, an overwhelming majority of members voted to approve the resolution that stated the “oral method should be preferred to that of signs in the education and instruction of deaf-mutes.” Only in 2010 was the resolution rejected and an apology issued by the International Congress on Education of the Deaf. Today, most children who are Deaf are educated in public schools. State schools for the Deaf, however, continue to be a viable option. By their very nature of being special schools, state schools for the Deaf often offer more opportunities to their students who are Deaf than public schools offer. References Barnard, H. Ed. (1852). Tribute to Gallaudet: A discourse in commemoration of the life, character and services of the Rev. Thomas H. Gallaudet, LLD., Delivered Before the Citizens of Hartford, Jan. 7th, 1852. Hartford, CT: Brockett & Hutchinson. Clerc family papers in author’s possession Clerc, L. Diary of Laurent Clerc, June 18-August 8, 1816. Typed copy in author’s possession. Easterbrooks, S., & Baker, S. (2002). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Eastman, G. (1978, December). Gallaudet-Clerc day banquet, The Kentucky Standard, 105(9). Golladay, L. (1980, March). Laurent Clerc: America’s pioneer deaf teacher, The Deaf American. Scouten, E. (1984). Turning points. Danville, IL: The Interstate Printers & Publishers, Inc. Hawkins is the superintendent of the Oklahoma School for the Deaf and a descendent of the Bolling family, which started the first school for the deaf in America. Galloway is the librarian at the Oklahoma School for the Deaf and the great-great-great granddaughter of Laurent Clerc, who helped establish the first permanent school for the Deaf in America. 41

A Turning Point in American History By Gary Wait and Rennie Polk The cover photo of this issue is of the American School for the Deaf in 1817. The American School for the Deaf was founded in Hartford, Conn., in 1817 when Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a recent Yale graduate and ordained clergyman, met the Cogswell family and its deaf daughter, Alice. Embarking on a voyage to Europe to learn the art of educating deaf children, Gallaudet encountered the exciting work of l’Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris (school for the deaf in Paris). He then enlisted Laurent Clerc, a talented, young, deaf teacher to join him in a historic journey back home to establish the first permanent school for the deaf in the United States. The founding of the American School for the Deaf was a milestone in the way society related to people with disabilities. The time and place are significant; a unique conjunction of different currents led to the school’s establishment. The importance attached to universal literacy (by no means common in the world at the time) and the particular missionary religious doctrines of the prevalent Protestant sects provided both means and motive for the attempt to educate deaf people. The concept of self-reliance and the belief that religious salvation is possible through understanding the Bible determined the methods and purposes of the founders. The goals were literacy, salvation, 42

and the skills needed to earn a living. Achieving these required clarity and fluidity of communication, which is why the school was based on sign language from the start. The experiment aroused great interest. Gov. Oliver Wolcott, in an 1818 proclamation, asked the public, “to aid . . .in elevating the condition of a class of mankind, who have been heretofore considered as incapable of mental improvement, but who are now found to be susceptible of instruction in the various arts and sciences and of extensive attainments in moral religious truth.” His words express the great change in attitude toward deaf people that had only just occurred. The school’s founders were well aware of the groundbreaking importance of their project; they and their successors saved a great many letters, teaching aids, illustrations, books and other objects. These materials document not only the history of deaf education, but also the study of educational techniques, the history of religion, and the history of Hartford, of Connecticut, and of the United States. Over the years, this school has served as the “mother school” in providing an exemplary model educational program; a site for teacher training and practicum; and a springboard from which trained and experienced educators of the deaf went forth to educate, to start other schools for the deaf all over the country, and to help found a college in Washington, D.C.

Perspectives: The Language Deaficit... What’s Really Wrong with Deaf Education The following includes excerpts from Kelsey Mitchell’s article of the same title. By Kelsey Mitchell Can you imagine purposefully depriving your children of one of their basic needs? As the history of Deaf education shows, deaf children in America have been and often still are deprived of one of their most crucial needs: language. In our society’s English-first, and often English-only mentality, deaf children frequently complete high school without full language. While hearingminded/oriented parents, teachers, and doctors have attempted, often fruitlessly, to teach spoken English to children who can’t fully hear/understand the English all around them, they haven’t realized that they are often taking away the children’s chance to develop cognitive language abilities, leaving the children ill-equipped to lead a successful life. Seemingly, it simply doesn’t occur to most people that a person with normal intelligence could grow up to not have a fully developed language, but this can and does happen. The consequences can be educationally, cognitively, and psychologically devastating. The worst consequence when an English-only methodology does not succeed is that deaf children often become deaf adults who lack true fluency in any language, and can’t fully understand others or express their own thoughts.

While this tragic deprivation often happens, it doesn’t have to continue; deaf children have the ability to become successful, bilingual (ASL and English) deaf adults. Recorded Beginnings From the recorded beginnings of spoken language, people have perceived deaf people as unintelligent and inferior. In 355 B.C., Aristotle stated that deaf people had no ability to learn and that they were condemned to living as perpetual barbarians. In the middle ages, many clergy claimed deaf people to be “unreachable” and unable to be saved, as they couldn’t “hear” the word of God. It wasn’t until the 1500s that hearing people even believed they could communicate with deaf people (Timeline, 2008). Hitler sterilized deaf people, both Aryan and not, and put them in labor camps where they were condemned to near certain death. In the 1800s, Canadian-American Alexander Graham Bell argued for a law forbidding Alexander G. Bell deaf people from marrying each other in order to avoid the creation of a “deaf variety” of humans ( Mo ore , 2005). There is irony in 43

this; 90% of deaf children are born to impact on educational practices hearing parents, and 90% of children occurred at the Second International born to deaf people are hearing (Grodin Congress on Education of the Deaf held and Lane, 1999), so in order to truly in Milan, Italy, in 1880. It is important prevent the birth of most deaf babies, to note that the educators who orgait would not be deaf people who would nized the conference were opposed to need to be sterilized. signing. As one British attendee raved, Though great strides have been made “The victory of the cause of pure speech toward recognizing deaf people as intel- was gained before the Congress began,” lectual equals, there remains much to (Lane, 1999, pp. 113-114). At this be done; many of the pre-sixteenth conference it was declared that the oral century attitudes still permeate the method was superior to the manual minds of today’s society. The phrase method (Bahan, Hoffmeister & Lane, “deaf and dumb” (initially intended to 1996). mean one who cannot hear and cannot The consequences around the world speak) is still used were immediate in a derogatory Though great strides and devastating. manner, and being Nearly all Deaf Deaf is consistently have been made toward teachers were fired, viewed by hear- recognizing deaf people as they were unable ing Americans as a to teach and often pathological rather as intellectual equals, didn’t support the than as a cultural there remains much to new “superior” label of a minority method. Signing be done. group. was banned not only inside the The History of Deaf Education classroom but outside as well. Children The history of Deaf education has had their hands slapped with rulers been replete with controversy among and tied behind their backs when they educators, with dire consequences for chose to sign (Bahan et al., 1996; Lane, deaf pupils. Thousands of pages have 1999). The few who were able to learn been written on the subject. However, to articulate “intelligible” speech and/ this article will provide a basic under- or acquire the ability to lipread to some standing of Deaf history critical for extent were praised for their “intelliseeing how and why deaf people are gence,” while others who couldn’t speak often raised in linguistic deprivation, intelligibly were admonished for not even today. Hawkins and Galloway have working hard enough. The “intelligent” presented a concise summary of the students often would interpret for their early history detailing the education of classmates when their teachers eyes persons who are deaf on page 35. turned toward the blackboard, and just Perhaps the event having the most a moment after being praised for their 44

lipreading abilities, would be punished for attempting to help their classmates understand their teacher. At that time, all American deaf children attended residential schools for the deaf. While formally called institutions, these schools were often a place where deaf people felt the most free. Until the Milan conference, most American schools used ASL to communicate information to their pupils, and while on the campus of such a school, deaf people had free and easy communication. As the President of the National Association of the Deaf said at the time of the Milan conference in 1880, What heinous crime have the deaf been guilty of that their language should be proscribed?... The utmost extreme to which tyranny can go when its mailed hand descends upon a conquered people is the proscription of their national language. By whom, then, are signs proscribed? By… educators of the deaf whose boast is that they do not understand signs and do not want to…, by parents who do not understand the requisites to the happiness of their deaf children… Professing to have no object in view but the benefit of the deaf, [educators] exhibit an utter contempt for the opinions, the wishes, and the desires of the deaf! [Emphasis added] And why should we not be consulted in a matter of such vital interest to us. This is a question no man has yet answered satisfactorily (Lane, 1999, p. 117). While vigorously fought by the Deaf community, the oral method did take over most American schools. The literacy rate of deaf children plummeted and has yet to return to its pre-1880 level.

In 1965, a congressional committee published the Babbidge Report, finding oralism to be a “dismal failure” as less than 10% of deaf children “succeeded” with this method (Baynton, 1993, p. 94; Corbett, 1985, p. 19). After the report was released, sign language was again permitted in some schools, but hearing people were still unwilling to go to the Deaf community to ask for advice. In fact, thousands of “oral failures” were used as justification by hearing professionals to not go to deaf people, as they were obviously inferior in their ability to learn. The only thing that most educators had gleaned from deaf people was the importance of using manual communication, but rather than the language of Deaf Americans, educators decided to create their own sign systems (Bahan et al., 1996). SEE I (Signing Exact English), SEE II, LOVE, and several other signing systems (collectively called Manually Coded English, or MCEs) were created by people who realized that “manual” communication was necessary for deaf children. They again rejected ASL, which had been endorsed not only by the Deaf community but also by linguists in the 45

1960s (Stewart, 2001). Educators literally held meetings where they invented signs or modified them to follow English word order and sounds (Stedt, 1990). Current Trends Today, much of the field of deaf education has reverted to the oralism it declared a dismal failure less than 50 years ago. The most current trend in deaf education is led primarily by doctors. While the medical field has historically looked at deaf people as being disabled people who should be “fixed,” no viable option to “fix” them was offered until the 1980s with the advent of cochlear implants. For children born deaf, and those who become deaf at a young age, the results have varied significantly though extensive research has not yet been done on their success. Success is often defined by professionals as the recipient of the implant having increased hearing and speech abilities post implantation but rarely compared to deaf children who have been raised with ASL, or even to hearing children. However, two things are clear through research. Firstly, implanted children are not hearing anything like what hearing people hear. What they receive is a very technical sound with a limited range (Tuning In, n.d.). Secondly, children who are raised from their early years to communicate solely using cochlear implants still have reading levels well below their hearing peers (Brenner, Geers, Moog, & Tobey, 2008). In research comparing 46

children who went to oral schools to children who went to schools that used sign language, the children who used sign language in the classroom scored significantly better on auditory receptive and expressive vocabulary skills than the children who were forbidden to use sign language (Arts, Alexander, Connor, Hieber, & Zwolen, 2000). Most troubling of all is that many doctors, early intervention service providers, social workers, and often teachers, are not required to learn anything about the historical failure of deaf education. These “experts” also rarely know anything about Deaf culture, Deaf history, or the oppression of deaf people, and often are proud to say they don’t know or use ASL. Rarely do they interact with the Deaf community they are espousing to help (Reagan, 2001). Many professionals don’t even know much about the technology they ardently support. Research shows that most teachers and clinicians admit they know very little about the cost, efficacy, and limitations of cochlear implants, let alone the devastating emotional, psychological, and social difficulties deaf children may have, implanted or not (Ben-Itzhak, 2005). When Professionals Don’t Understand The problem seems to be this: the average American does not consider, in a country so rich with resources and with a literacy rate of over 86% (NAAL, 2008), that it is possible for a person to grow up unable to read/write articulately, let alone that people can grow up

to not have a language they can use to communicate with others at all. Susan Schaller addresses this ignorance in her book, A Man Without Words. When Schaller found a deaf adult without language sitting in a classroom at a community college, she was shocked but looked for solutions. She also looked for resources to help her learn how to best teach this deprived student. When doing her research, people referred her to those who studied humans forcibly removed from communication stimulus during their childhood such as the “wild boy” in France, or “Genie” the young girl discovered locked in her bedroom where she had been tied to her toilet seat for 10 years by her father (Schaller, 1991). Successful Language Acquisition Regardless of how deaf children with hearing parents are raised, their reading levels are consistently below the levels of their hearing peers. Their common knowledge is often significantly behind as well, as they do not have access to incidental learning; in addition, they have difficulty understanding a person speaking directly in front of them. However, Deaf children of Deaf parents (DCDPs) perform better academically than deaf children with hearing parents (DCHPs) (Lieberman, Volding, & Winnick, 2004). The reason for this is partially because of access to a full language, ASL, from birth. It is well known that the critical period for children to learn language is from birth to five years of age. While attempts to teach deaf children

English through speech or manually coded English have some success, these attempts don’t usually start until the children enter school, and even then these methods don’t give full access to the language; verbal languages are only fully accessed through a fully functioning ear. DCDPs, however, have access to a language they can fully understand, ASL. It is through this language that deaf children can learn directly from their parents and teachers as well as eavesdrop on conversations of Deaf (and hearing) adults signing around them. Deaf children who use ASL are also exposed to English usage with the adults in their lives, learning English as a second language. It should be of no surprise then that DCDPs perform better academically than deaf children with hearing parents. Schools that recognize the benefits of a fully accessible signed language to teach a spoken language to deaf children often institute bilingual/bicultural or dual language (bi-bi) programs. Sweden offers a model bi-bi program. The Swedish government declared that all deaf children have the right to a fully accessible language. Deaf children in Sweden are given adult Deaf role models, and parents must sign with their deaf children, whether or not the child gets cochlear implants. Initial studies of Swedish deaf and hard of hearing children raised in this bi-bi environment, where they were exposed to Swedish Sign Language from a young age as well as written and/or spoken Swedish as young children, showed them to have the same 47

language development as hearing Swedish bilinguals of two spoken languages (Snodden, 2008). Further studies of deaf adolescents who were raised in bi-bi classrooms showed they graduated from high school with reading and mathematics scores comparable to their hearing peers (Bahan et al., 1996). While few truly bi-bi programs have been established in the United States, at a bi-bi program in Washington D.C., teachers have found a way to successfully teach deaf children, and those children are reading at or above grade level (Edwards, 2003). Deaf Americans have fought for the rights of Deaf people to acquire ASL along with English. Lawrence Siegel (2006) wrote a compelling argument for the constitutional right to language, saying that if all Americans have the right to free speech, then they have the right to acquire a language in which they can freely communicate. It has been demonstrated that no deaf child or deaf adult can fully or comfortably communicate with others in spoken English. However, every deaf child can learn to freely communicate using ASL if given the opportunity. 48

H e a r i n g people, without understanding of Deaf people, often don’t even consider being languageless as a possibility. Siegel quotes linguist and Harvard University professor Steven Pinker who says, “Language is so tightly woven into human experience that it is scarcely possible to imagine life without it.” Deaf people don’t have to imagine what life is like without a language. As Schaller (1991) noted, many experience it themselves and almost all Deaf people know someone without language. Additional Ramifications of Language Deprivation While much is written on the statistics of how well deaf people can read or speak, little is written of the ramifications. This lack of language and communication has a profound effect on deaf people and their families. Deaf children who are forbidden from using sign language, and whose families refuse to use it, often experience extreme frustration growing up and have very little contact with their family after leaving home (Hoffmeister, 2008). Deaf people often experience what is called the “dinner table syndrome”

(Haimowitz, 2008, p. 156). Deaf people My Mother’s Last Words with hearing parents recall growing At the age of 80, my mother asked me, up at the dinner table with great exas- “Did we do the right thing by sending you peration, especially at family holidays. to the Clarke School for the Deaf? Was an Family members rambled on about oral education right for you?” their personal affairs, family gossip, At 81, she said, “I should have learned and news that they’d heard during the sign language. But we were told it was day without including the deaf person. not the right thing to do by the staff at Even children with cochlear implants Clarke School. I can now see the difference still miss much of what is going on. in communication, and I see that it was a The struggles of Deaf people for equal mistake not to learn sign language.” access to language and communication On July 10, 1992, at 10:20 a.m., my is referenced in thousands of articles mother, Ruth Miller Levesque, passed and books written by Deaf people and away in the Monson, Mass., home. It was the Deaf commuobvious that we had nity. Interest- In fact, what the Deaf very little time left, ingly, nowhere so we tried to say all do the authors community desires is to the things we had in wish for Deaf be allowed to have its our hearts. I talked people to be able and lipread her. own language accepted to hear or speak, Toward the end, she or be more like and used by the deaf ed- wanted to tell me hearing people. something. I didn’t ucation system and by In fact, what the understand and Deaf community parents of deaf children. asked her to repeat desires is to be it. Twice more I allowed to have its asked her to repeat, own language accepted and used by the then finally I gave her a piece of paper. deaf education system and by parents She was only able to write the letter O, or of deaf children. This desire is not maybe C, before her eyes closed and the because deaf people wish to be sepa- deep sleep of coma overtook her. rated from hearing people. Rather, this In the weeks and months before my desire comes from having had person- mother’s death, we spent many hours al experiences of being deprived of going over issues and preparing for her communication because of speech and death. It was done verbally, not comfortlipreading, and the consequences for ably, but adequately. My mother made themselves and their families. A very sure I had the finest oral education clear example of deaf people’s experi- around. She was proud of my speaking ence is cited in the following excerpt by ability, and impressed by my less-thanJax Levesque (1992). perfect lipreading. But we never had a real 49

conversation. Communication. . .between any parents, and Oh, I knew teachers she loved me. I two people, is just too vital to attempt to knew she was be embroiled in communication teach these proud of me. skills, countBut I’ll never methodology. less deaf chilknow her last dren miss the words to me.. . opportunity to develop a full language. I can’t change anything. I can’t go back Language impacts every part of a and make her hands fly easily. But I can child’s life, and doing without it can make a plea to other parents of deaf chil- cause a lifetime of frustration. Deaf dren: LEARN SIGN LANGUAGE. children are disabled not by their lack . . .Communication between parent and of ability to hear, but by the linguistic child, or between any two people, is just deprivation imposed on them by those too vital to be embroiled in communica- who want them to hear at all costs. It tion methodology. The simple truth is this: seems it is not, as Aristotle said, that if you want fluent communication and a “the deaf” are unable to think because meaningful exchange of ideas, emotions, they are unable to hear, but actually thoughts and love with your child, sign it. that Deaf people are not allowed to Parents, don’t let idealism and rhetoric reach their full potential by people get in the way of realism. who want to limit them only to spoken Deaf people of normal intelligence language. have the ability to be successful adults through bilingualism. For Deaf people, Kelsey Mitchell holds bachelor’s degrees bilingualism means learning a signed in Deaf studies and linguistics from Calilanguage and using it as a bridge to fornia State University Northridge, and learning the written/spoken language plans to pursue a master’s degree in Deaf of their country. Though some deaf education. For the full article and list people can learn to speak and lipread, of works cited, contact her at kemomi@ many others can’t; while doctors,

Keeping Teens Connected Continued from page 28 ever they are and whenever there is a need to be connected. And calls are conducted in real time in American Sign Language. Parents can also have peace of mind knowing that their chil50

dren can call for assistance, anywhere they go. Mobile VRS is a wonderful development, but requires added responsibility from users. Parents should outline safety and courtesy guidelines with their teens for using mobile VPs. For more information about ntouch Mobile, visit

Deaf Education: A New Philosophy NTID News, November 22, 2010 Greg Livadas Research at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) is shifting the way deaf students are being educated. Recent research suggests that even with qualified interpreters in the mainstreamed classroom, educators need to understand that deaf children learn differently, are more visual, and often process information differently than their hearing peers. Research Findings at NTID A popular assumption in education for many years was that deaf students are the same as hearing students except that they simply don’t hear. But research at RIT’s NTID is contradicting that belief, and consequently altering the way deaf students are being taught. “We’re changing the face of deaf education around the world,” says Dr. Marc Marschark, professor and director of NTID’s Center for Education Research Partnerships (CERP). “You can’t teach deaf kids as though they are hearing kids who can’t hear. It’s not about ears and it’s. . .not about speech versus sign language. It’s about finding their strengths and needs. The historical approach to deaf education simply doesn’t work well enough to get deaf students where they need to be.” Through the center’s research, thousands of deaf and hard of hearing students—from children as young as

five to college students—have been tested in Australia, the Netherlands, England, Scotland, and on the RIT campus in Rochester, N.Y., to determine how they acquire new knowledge and how that knowledge is organized, understood, and communicated to others. Studies involve everything from tracking eye movements and performing memory tasks to attending experimental “classes” taught by deaf and hearing teachers. For hearing children, a flood of information arrives constantly from background noises, ambient conversations, even words heard on the television. Deaf children may not have the same opportunities to learn through hearing, but they have different opportunities, Marschark points out. But does it matter whether the child has deaf or hearing parents? Whether the child uses sign language or his or her voice? Whether the child uses a cochlear implant? Recent research findings show: • The deaf students who perform best academically usually are the ones whose parents have effectively communicated with them from an early age. • Children who sign early on generally outperform those who do not sign during their early school years. • Early language skills—both American Sign Language and spoken language—correlate with reading ability, with no evidence that one is necessarily better than the other. 51

• •

Most deaf students’ difficulties in reading are mirrored by difficulties in understanding sign language. Deaf and hard of hearing children entering school often are lagging behind hearing children in their knowledge of the world, number concepts, and problem-solving skills, not just in language. Deaf students do not always learn, think, or know in the same ways as hearing children.

CERP’s Origins CERP occupies much of the north wing of the first floor of the Mark Ellingson Residence Hall and has a laboratory and office area in Peterson Hall. Five of the 10 staff members are graduates of NTID’s master of science program in secondary education; five are nationally certified sign language interpreters. All of its funding—more than $6 million so far—is from grants from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Institutes of Health, and contracts or gifts from foundations, U.S. organizations, and foreign governments. CERP has roots as early as 2002, 52

when it was awarded its first NSF grant to study factors thought to influence deaf students’ learning through sign language and barriers that hinder classroom learning. The following year, a second NSF grant was awarded for research to study communication and technological barriers to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education for deaf and hard of hearing students. “One thing we found in our early studies is that despite what some people claim, deaf students’ difficulties in mainstreamed classrooms could not be blamed on interpreters,” says Marschark. “We started realizing some differences between deaf and hearing students: how their memory works, the organization of their knowledge, and their learning strategies are simply different. So for mainstream teachers, you can’t assume the deaf students coming into your class know the same things or learn the same way as your hearing students. For example, deaf people’s visual-spatial memories are better than hearing people’s. But sequential memory isn’t as good.” For decades, expectations of education for deaf students have been lower than for their hearing peers. Fifty percent of deaf and hard of hearing students graduating high school in the U.S. read at or below fourth-grade levels. But research by Marschark and others shows that how much hearing one has doesn’t predict how much they’ll learn, either as children or adults. “Wheth-

er you use a hearing aid or a cochlear implant or are a native signer who uses ASL, they each have advantages,” he says. “But by the time they’re in college, all of that is washed out. Their experience has leveled it out.” History of Deaf Education Deaf children for centuries have not been educated as well as their hearing peers. Still today, there are no schools or provisions for teaching deaf children in many countries. Prior to the advent of television and wireless pagers, deaf people in the U.S. used to gather at clubs or on street corners to share the latest news in sign language. Then a movement grew to educate deaf children orally and encouraged (or forced) them to use their voices. In 1960, linguist William C. Stokoe recognized American Sign Language as a bona fide language, complete with its own syntax and linguistic features. More schools started to utilize American Sign Language as the language of instruction. The Americans with Disabilities Act, signed into law in 1990, also marked a change in education for deaf and hard of hearing children. More parents of deaf children were sending them to mainstreamed schools, which are required to provide necessary accommodations to ensure their education. That could include interpreters in the classroom, but qualified interpreters weren’t always found, especially in rural areas. Today, Marschark says 86 percent of deaf students in the U.S. are in main-

streamed programs all or part of the day. In many cases, they are the only deaf or hard of hearing student in their school. “Mainstreamed teachers think that if they remove the communication barriers they can teach their deaf kids as though they are hearing kids. Now that we’ve discovered some of the differences in how deaf and hard of hearing students learn, we want to know how to turn that knowledge into more effective teaching strategies. We’re in a position to educate parents and mainstream teachers about how these kids are different. Using the memory example, given their difficulties of retaining sequences, if you arrange material visually and spatially, deaf kids would do better.” Marschark is taking his research out of the laboratory and into classrooms and lecture halls around the world. He gives invited presentations to parents, teachers, and other professionals more than 20 times a year and has written several books on the subject. Marschark and his colleagues gave nine presentations in July 2010 describing various aspects of their findings at the Inter national Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED) in Vancouver, B.C. In 2009, CERP launched a website intended as a clearinghouse for objective answers to questions about raising and educating a deaf child. To date, dozens of questions have been asked and answered on the site, which has had more than 50,000 visitors from around the world. Many of his findings today about deaf 53

students’ learning would not have been politically correct to utter just a few years ago, he says. “Five years ago we thought the same thing, but we didn’t have the evidence. Now we know it’s true,” he says. “In the past, saying things like this upset people. But the climate has changed. People are accepting that differences don’t mean deficiencies. Now people better accept their strengths and weaknesses.” Today, fewer schools specializing in education for deaf students exist. And several have been eyed for closure in the near future due, in large part, to dwindling enrollments. “Rather than closing them, we need more programs that understand how to educate deaf kids,” Marschark says. “The mainstream as it exists now is not necessarily the best place for many deaf students. Sure, a kid doing OK in the mainstream will stay there. But he could be a star in another setting. The status quo is not good enough.” Changing Attitudes A lot of parents think that if their deaf child learns sign language, it will interfere with learning to speak. “Not true,” says Marschark. “Early sign language actually can support later spoken language for children with or without cochlear implants.” And his research shows that if a deaf child knows English as well as sign language, he or she tends to do better academically, socially, and with language development. “Literacy is a big challenge,” Marschark 54

says. “For 100 years, we’ve made very little progress at improving deaf kids’ reading. Current research suggests that we’ve been looking in the wrong place. The reading problem is not about reading. It’s about comprehension. They learn just as much from what they read as what is signed or spoken. It’s counterintuitive for many people, I know, but the evidence is very clear.” Just as there were varying opinions on whether deaf students should sign or speak, more recent controversy existed with the improvement of technological advances and cochlear implants (CI). More than 275 students at RIT/ NTID currently have CIs, which enable them to hear some sounds. For years, implants were controversial in the Deaf (the uppercase D denotes those who see themselves as part of a linguisticcultural minority) community, especially for young children with hearing parents. Many were afraid those children would never be exposed to sign language or their rich cultural history. “We’re not interested in the political or the philosophical. We’re sensitive to those issues, but we’re trying to figure out how we can best support learning in the classroom for students of all ages,” Marschark says. Dr. Louis Abbate, president and CEO of the Willie Ross School for the Deaf in Longmeadow, Mass., said CERP’s research was looked at when the school rewrote its mission five years ago. The school, founded in 1967, used to stress only oral communication for its students. Now, with an integrated campus, they need the flexibility to

teach students orally or in sign language or both. “We needed the flexibility to respond to the needs of each student,” Abbate said. “Marc was the first person we went to when we wanted to look at our communication model.” Abbate has often referred parents to CERP’s website: “The answers are very balanced and very reasonable. We use that all the time. So many parents are faced with either/or decisions early on, and they usually get pushed in one direction. Marc’s work is balanced. It talks about the value of different approaches and how they can be integrated with one another.” Dr. James DeCaro, interim president of NTID, says CERP’s work is an asset to the field of education of the deaf and to RIT/NTID. “Marc continues to build the pre-eminent research center in our field addressing these important teaching and learning issues,” DeCaro said. “We are lucky to have him here at RIT.” Reprinted with permission from RIT/NTID.

I Deafinitely Can!

The Endeavor is excited to feature stories of deaf and hard of hearing individuals who test and go above their limits. If you know of someone with a story to tell, e-mail the editor at Sacramento State

ASL and Deaf Studies Program INTERDISCIPLINARY


Described and Captioned Media Program

Provides Free-Loan Media for Educational Accessibility

The DCMP library provides over 4,000 captioned educational media titles to teachers, family members, and others who work with K-12 students who are deaf, hard of hearing, or deaf-blind. For More Information:

www.readcaptions 55

A Mother’s Account:

Learning from Mistakes and Obstacles By Sara Kelly I have made many mistakes in my life, but the biggest one is most likely the perception that I could make my daughter what people perceived as “normal.” As a hearing mother of a deaf daughter, I allowed hearing people to tell me what they thought was best for Vicki. Victoria was born deaf on June 25, 1998. She has been part of Virginia’s Public Schools since she was two. I have had to fight for her services every step of the way. We tried the Signed Exact English program, had Vicki implanted, and provided her with speech therapy. None of these benefited Vicki. I had done my research, and put my trust in the professionals I worked with. I asked the school administration and teachers time after time why American Sign Language (ASL) was not an option. The response was always the same: Students who use ASL will not learn to read and will have an overall lower educational level than those who use Total Communication. Even so, I specifically requested that ASL be used and my request was continuously denied. After much struggle, bringing in a parent liaison, and sending letters to the school board, we finally brought in a teacher who used ASL. This teacher was exactly what we asked for—and more. Not only was Adonia K. Smith 56

a fluent signer; she also was born Deaf and had a doctorate. The transformation in Vicki was amazing. She went from being unable to answer a question because she didn’t understand to being inquisitive, telling me stories, and engaging in banter. This transformation simply confirmed what I knew all along: Vicki had been denied access all this time because of the school’s refusal to incorporate ASL. Although I find this hard to believe, Vicki was even labeled developmentally delayed and autistic—when in reality she was simply in need of a natural, real language, ASL. But the fight wasn’t over. We requested that when Vicki was not with her teacher, that she be provided with an interpreter. The school district provided an interpreter, but not one who was fluent in ASL or qualified. The school explained that since Vicki’s IEP didn’t specify that the interpreter had to be fluent in ASL, the school didn’t have to comply. I tried to change this, and was told that the school’s computer system

didn’t allow for the ASL provision in its program nor could they write this in by hand. They finally agreed only recently, but the interpreter is Level 2—meaning, the interpreter has a 50% understanding of ASL. The school system has also replaced two teachers who were wonderful ASL role models with one who is not fluent in ASL. Vicki was again limited in access for peerto-peer relationships, schoolwork, and communication with authority. The good news is that the county finally agreed to pay for Vicki to attend the Maryland School for the Deaf in Columbia. I learned that people are afraid of the Deaf community because they do not understand it. I never really thought about the basics of being deaf until we had my daughter because I had no reason to think about it. I also learned that you and I think in words—Spanish, English, or whatever our native language is. Deaf children often have no spoken language. Instead, they watch the movements of people around them. If they are exposed to ASL at a young age, this is equivalent to being exposed to a spoken language. They will naturally grow and develop in that language. One issue that I have fought for years is having ASL lumped with communication modes such as Pidgin Sign, Signed English and cued speech. Out of all of those, ASL is the only true language. The others are artificial. I also came to realize that using multiple communication modes at one time does nothing

but confuse a deaf child. Hard of hearing children have some sound and can possibly hear some language, but the underlying issue is still the same for any child who is deaf or hard of hearing. Introducing multiple communication modes is like using one word of English, one word of Spanish, and one word of German in the same sentence and expecting the child to understand. Imagine what this mixed approach is like for a two-year-old. The Deaf community here in our county is growing. Across the river is Maryland School for the Deaf. Hearing people are surrounded by this way of life, yet many of us know very little about it. I believe if we can educate the hearing children who are in classes with Vicki and other deaf children about communication basics and how to interact with deaf children, then we can open up many new opportunities. I have heard many parents tell of the day they learned their child was deaf. They took it like a death and mourned the loss of their child’s ability to hear. I believe I even felt some of this. But allow me to offer another way to look at this “loss.” Deaf children’s other senses are heightened. They will look at this world in a different way than most people you know. They love as you do, laugh as you do, and yes, dance as you do. They will teach you things you never knew about yourself, and see you as you truly are. The old adage is true: actions do speak louder than words. You cannot sweet-talk a deaf child with flowery phrases in any language, for they will see what is truly in your heart. 57

Summer Camps for Hard-of-Hearing and Deaf Students High School Sophomores and Juniors... Come Explore Your Future at Rochester Institute of Technology! Two Sessions: July 16 – 21, 2011 or July 23 – 28, 2011 • Explore the hottest new careers • Discover new friends • Learn how to turn your interests into a future career

Apply Today! Visit or call 585-475-6700 (voice/TTY), or toll-free in the U.S. and Canada at 1-866-644-6843 (voice/TTY) Application Deadline: April 30, 2011

RIT Camp for girls entering 7th, 8th or 9th grade in fall 2011 July 30 – August 5, 2011

tech girlz

Build your own computer, investigate a “crime scene,” conduct fun laboratory experiments and more.

Register Today! Visit or call 585-475-7695 (voice/TTY) Registration Deadline: May 31, 2011

Steps to Success A weekend summer camp for African-American, Latino and Native American 7th, 8th and 9th grade students

August 5 – 7, 2011 Steps to Success

• Enjoy hands-on activities in computer design, science and robotics labs • Make new friends while you discover and explore your dream career

Register Today! Visit or call 585-475-7695 (voice/TTY) Registration Deadline: May 31, 2011

Rochester Institute of Technology • National Technical Institute for the Deaf • Rochester, New York


How to Choose a Summer Camp By Cheri Dowling, Director of Advocacy It may seem early to start thinking about camp, but summer is right around the corner, and it’s time to start looking for that perfect summer camp. That means choosing a camp that is right for both your child and your budget. The National Camp Association has the following guidelines on how to choose a summer camp. Choosing a camp program involves important research. Choosing wisely is important, considering the effect that camp will have. For example, some parents may send a child to a camp they attended without considering changes or individual needs. Regardless of your child’s age, it is important that the camp selection meet the needs, interests, goals, and expectations of both parent and child. A good way to begin is to discuss questions related to expectations, interests, camp structure, and overall intention for attending camp. You will want to consider the type of camp, cost, size, location, programs and activities, and special needs. Generally, overnight camps are coed, all boys, or all girls. In a coed camp, there may be extensive interaction between boys and girls through activities or through the use of common

facilities such as the dining hall. Sleepaway camps provide a summer residential program where campers enjoy daily and evening activities. Camp experiences range from one week to an entire summer in duration. Nonprofit camps may be less expensive than private sleep-away camps. Careful assessment of financial obligations includes the cost of staying home when compared with the cost of camp. Other expenses might be incurred— e.g., transportation, camp visits, and spending money while at camp. Camp size varies from fewer than 100 to more than 400. Smaller camps allow campers and staff to become acquainted; needs are quickly met. Larger camps are often organized into units that function much as small camps. In a good camp there may be little correlation between size and the quality of the total camp experience. Perhaps more important than size are the unique needs of the campers. Questions to ponder include: What do you do to prevent campers from getting lost in the shuffle? Can a below average athlete feel comfortable trying new things and working on skills? What is done to promote a sense of self-worth? The answers will help you identify appropriate camps as you 59

move toward a final selection. How important is location—a camp close to home or further away? More important than distance are the camp environment, security, medical facilities, and accessibility. In the final analysis, if the child is having a good experience, distance is less significant. Program offerings vary among camps. Specialty camps provide an intensive experience in a single area such as tennis, horseback riding or wilderness. A more traditional camp program tends to be broader in its offerings. You and your child should look into the total camp program as you examine the quality of the staff and facilities as well as the camp’s philosophies regarding competition, participation in new and different activities, instruction, and program structure. As you begin to gather information, you can ask other parents for recommendations as well as friends of your children. After you’ve identified camp programs that look appealing, you can collect information from brochures, videos, and web pages. Once you’ve narrowed your list, you can arrange

to correspond or meet with the camp directors for more specific information on questions such as: the age and background of the director, the goals and philosophy of the staff, facilities; camper-counselor ratio, staff make-up and training, total costs, sleeping arrangements, extracurricular programs, safety and security programs, foods offered, mail and telephone/pager policies, medical facilities, emergency preparations (e.g., bad weather), insurance coverage, and references. Don’t hesitate to ask questions, or to let your child ask questions. Good camps care about parental concerns. Do consider all facets of the camp; for example, a camp’s facility might be very impressive but won’t mean a great deal if the atmosphere is not friendly, or if the staff and program are inadequate. Above all, involve your child in the selection process. Finally, ask for references from families and children who have attended the camp. For more information, visit the National Camp Association, Inc. at or call (800) 966-2267.

DID YOU KNOW? ASDC has a lending library free to all members. To check out books and DVDs, visit, call (800) 942-2732, or e-mail 60

A List of 2011 Deaf Camps Alabama ASD Summer Enrichment Camp P.O. Box 698 Talladega, AL 35161 Contact: Lavina Estes at Estes.lavina@aidb.state. Camp Shocco for the Deaf 216 North Street East P.O. Box 602 Talladega, AL 35161 Program Director: Ricky Milford Space Camp/Aviation Challenge for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing May 1–6 U.S. Space & Rocket Center One Tranquility Base Huntsville, AL 35805 Program Director: Amy Newland (800) 63-SPACE deaf Arizona Lions Camp Tatiyee 5283 White Mtn. Blvd. Lakeside, AZ 85929 Program Director: Pam (480) 380-4254 www.arizonalionscamp. org

California Camp Grizzly For Deaf, Hard of Hearing and KODA Youth July 31–August 6 4708 Roseville Rd. #112 North Highlands, CA 95060 (916) 349-7500 California Lions Camp, Inc. Camp Pacifica Mail Box 110 257 Belle Vue Road Atwater, CA 95301 Program Director: Brooke Batemam wwwcalifornialionscamp. org Deaf Kid’s Kamp Sproul Ranch, Inc. 42263 50th Street West #610 Quartz Hill, CA 93536 (661) 675-3323

Lions Wilderness Camp for Deaf Children, Inc. P.O. Box 195 Knightsen, CA 94548 KODAWest Camp July 10-16 3727 W. Magnolia Blvd. #273 Burbank, CA 91505 (619) 423-5850 Colorado Aspen Camp of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing P.O. Box 1494 Aspen, CO 81612 Program Director: Lesa Thomas (970) 923-2511 Connecticut Camp Isola Bella 139 North Main Street West Hartford, CT 06107 61

(860) 570-2300 Program Director: Steve Borsotti 2011 National Leadership and Literacy Camp July 7–28 American School for the Deaf 139 North Main Street West Hartford, CT 06107 Program Director: Frank R. Turk (402) 206-2527 Georgia Camp Juliena Georgia Council for the Hearing Impaired, Inc. 

4151 Memorial Drive, Suite 103-B  Decatur, GA 30032 (404) 292-5312 Program Director: Bonna Lenyszyn camp.htm Illinois Camp Lions of Illinois 2814 DeKalb Avenue Sycamore, IL 60178 (800) 933-3937 Program Director: Alan Wilson www.lionsofillinois Creative Arts Camp Sports Camp


Deaf Camps, Inc.

Manidokan Camp and Retreat Center provides a beautiful 300-plus acre facility for our programs. Manidokan is bordered by the Potomac River and the C&O Canal, and is only 20 miles west of Frederick, Md. Deaf Camps, Inc., welcomes deaf/ hard of hearing children ages 7 to 19, alongside hearing  children ages 8 to 18, who learn ASL through  lessons and shared activities with deaf peers.   Deaf/ASL Camp 2011: July 31-August 5 Scholarships available. For more information, see


Illinois School for the Deaf 125 Webster Avenue Jacksonville, IL 62650 (217) 479-4200 Program Director: Christine Good-Deal ISD Creative Arts Camp 614 Anthony Trail Northbrook, IL 60062 (847) 509-8260 Program Director: Carolyn Kalina Stan Mikita Hockey School 1143 West Lake Street Chicago, IL 60607 (312) 226-5880 Indiana Camp Willard Indiana School for the Deaf 1200 East 42nd Street Indianapolis, IN 46205 (317) 924-8403 Program Director: Linda Hines Indiana Deaf Camps, Inc. 100 West 86th Street Indianapolis, IN 46260 (317) 846-3404 ext. 305

Kansas The St. Joseph SERTOMA Clubs Summer Camp For The Deaf Or Hard Of Hearing July 10–15 14928 West 126th Street Olathe, KS 66062 (866) 760-6794 Program Director: Jerry Sanders www.sertomadeafcamp. org Kentucky Lions Camp Crescendo July 4–8 Program Directors: Will Mayer & Christina Turpen P.O. Box 607 1480 Pine Tavern Road Lebanon Junction, KY 40150 (888) 879-8884 Maryland Lions Camp Merrick 3650 Rick Hamilton Pl. P.O. Box 56 Nanjemoy, MD 20662 (301) 870-5858 Program Director: Melissa M. Lynch www.lionscampmerrick. org CueCamp Friendship June 16 – 19, 2011

5619 McLean Drive Bethesda, MD 20814 (800) 459-3529 Deaf Camps, Inc. 417 Oak Court Catonsville, MD 21227 (443) 739-0716 Michigan Deaf Music Camp Holley Family Village June 17–29 1124 Ventura Dr. Brooklyn, MI 49230 Program Director: Rosa Lee Timms director@deafmusiccamp. com www.deafmusiccamp. com (866) 506.9081 VP Minnesota Courage Center Camps 3915 Golden Valley Road Minneapolis, MN 55422 (866) 520-0504 Missouri Camp Barnabas 901 Teas Trail 2060 Purdy, MO 65734 (417) 886-9800 Program Director: Laura Edwards

New Hampshire Windsor Mountain International One World Way Windsor, NH 03244 (800) 862-7760 Program Director: Jake Labovitz www.windsormountain. org Nevada Camp SignShine 999 Pyramid Way Sparks, NV 89431 (775) 355-8994 htm New Mexico Apache Creek Deaf and Youth Ranch P.O. Box 260 Reserve, NM 87830 (575) 533-6820 Program Director: Craig Lang New York Camp Mark Seven 144 Mohawk Hotel Road Old Forge, NY 13420 (315) 357-6089 Cradle Beach Camp 8038 Old Lakeshore Rd. Angola, NY 14006 (716) 549-6307 63

Program Director: Timothy Boling Explore Your Future! Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 (585)475-6700 prospective/eyf.php Steps To Success for African-American, Latino or Native American students with hearing loss August 5 – 7 Rochester Institute of Technology National Technical Institute for the Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 (585) 475-6700 prospective/steps North Carolina Camp Sertoma June 19–24 1105 Camp Sertoma Dr Westfield, NC, 27053 (336) 593-8057 Program Director: Keith Russell


Oregon Camp Taloali 15934 N Santiam hwy Stayton, OR 97383 (503) 769-6415 Northwest Christian Camp for the Deaf July 24 - 30, 2011 Twin Rocks Camp Rockaway, OR (503) 390-2433 Program Directors: Matthew & Jessica Belwood Pennsylvania Camp HERO P.O. Box 81 Lansford, PA 18232 Program Director: Jamie N. Galgoci departments. CampHEROWeb/ campherohome.html Lions Camp Kirby 1735 Narrows Hill Road Upper Black Eddy, PA 18972 (610) 982-5731 cp2.enter. net/~c63587x1/

Tennessee Bill Rice Ranch Deaf Camp 627 Bill Rice Ranch Road Murfreesboro, TN 37128 (615) 893-2767 Deafcamp.php Texas Texas School for the Deaf Summer Programs 1102 S. Congress Ave. Austin, TX 78704 (512) 462-5353 sum_prg/index.html Vermont Austine Green Mountain Lions Camp 209 Austine Drive Brattleboro, VT 05301 (802) 258-9513 Contact: Bradley Hammond Wisconsin Wisconsin Lions Camp 3834 County Road A Rosholt, WI 54473 (715) 677-4969 Program Director: Andrea Yenter www.wisconsinlions Parent Information and Referral Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732)

MEMBERSHIP FORM Name:__________________________

E-mail: ___________________________

Address: __________________________________________________________ City: ___________________________



Phone: Voice/TTY/Videophone Membership Type Individual memberships _______$40 per year: Individual/Family Membership _______$100 per year: Three-year Individual/Family Membership _______$5,000 one-time fee: Lifetime Membership _______First-Year Free Membership (Families with deaf or hard of hearing children are eligible for a FREE one-year membership. Just fill out this form and mail, e-mail or fax it back to us.) Deaf or Hard of Hearing Child’s Name: ___________________________________ Date of Birth: ___________________________________ Group memberships _______$250 per year: Parent Affiliate Group ( ____ Number of Parent Members) _______$125 per year: Library Membership _______$250 per year: Educational Membership _______$250 per year: Organizational Membership I would like to send more than my membership dues. Enclosed is a tax-deductible donation: $10 $25 $50 $100 _______Other Total Enclosed: $__________ Make checks payable to American Society for Deaf Children. Please charge my Visa or MasterCard: Card Number:_________________________________Expiration Date:______________ Please return to: American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 FAX: (410) 795-0965 • Phone: (800) 942-2732 • E-mail: 65

ASDC’s Renewing Educational and Organizational Members Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind 33 N. Institute Street Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3599 (719) 578-2100 (719) 358-2600 VP

Iowa School for the Deaf 3501 Harry Langdon Blvd. Council Bluffs, IA 51503 (712) 366-0571 V/TTY Maryland School for the Deaf 101 Clarke Place Frederick, MD 21705 (301) 360-2000

Montana School for the Deaf and Blind 3911 Central Avenue Great Falls, MT 59405 (406) 771-6000 (866) 947-6640 VP

(240) 575-2966 VP (301) 360-2001 TTY

New Mexico School for the Deaf 1060 Cerrillos Road Santa Fe, NM 87505 (505) 476-6300

Mill Neck Manor School for the Deaf 40 Frost Mill Road Mill Neck, NY 11765 (800) 264-0662

New York School for the Deaf 555 Knollwood Road White Plains, NY 10603 (914) 949-7310 V/TTY

Membership Package for Schools/Organizations ASDC provides a very special membership option for schools and organizations. If your school or organization would like to join ASDC as an Educational Member, ASDC will provide your school or organization with: • A free one-year membership for all of your families • A special thank you in the next monthly e-mail blast • A special thank you in The Endeavor • A special thank you in the news section of the ASDC website • A link to your school or organizations website • A post of your contact information on ASDC’s Educational/ Organizational Membership web page. The membership is only $250. If you would like more information, e-mail or call (800) 942-2732. 66

Pennsylvania School for the Deaf 100 W. School House Ln. Philadelphia, PA 19144 (215) 951-4700 Rochester School for the Deaf 1545 St. Paul St. Rochester, NY 14621 (585) 544-1240 St. Francis de Sales School for the Deaf 260 Eastern Parkway Brooklyn, NY 11225 (718) 636-4573 (866) 970-7295 VP Utah Schools for the Deaf and the Blind 742 Harrison Blvd Ogden, UT 84404

(801) 629-4700 Vermont Center for the Deaf & Hard of Hearing 209 Austine Drive Brattleboro, VT 05301 (802) 258-9500 V/TTY (802) 275-0130 VP Washington School for the Deaf 611 Grand Blvd. Vancouver, WA 98661 (360) 696-6525 V/TTY (800) 613-4228 V/TTY (Toll-free) Wisconsin School for the Deaf 309 W. Walworth Ave. Delavan, WI 53115 (262) 740-2066 (262) 724-8179 VP

Beginnings P.O. Box 71646 Raleigh, NC 27619 (919) 715-4092 (919) 715-4093 FAX Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools and Programs for the Deaf P. O. Box 1778 St. Augustine, FL 32085 (904) 810-5200 (904) 201-4776 VP (904) 810-5525 FAX ASL Rose P.O. Box 614 Frederick, MD 21705 (240) 575-2130 VP/Voice (866) 311-8313 FAX

HURRY AND REGISTER TODAY! ASDC Conference June 22-26, 2011 Frederick, MD

See pages 8-15 for more information. 67





July 10 – July 23 Who Can Attend: Deaf and hard of hearing college bound 10th – 12th graders This camp prepares students to get into the college of their choice by sharpening their English and math skills and practicing for the ACT exam. Students will also learn how personality type influences study habits. In the evenings and on weekends, students will explore Washington, D.C.


July 10 – July 23 Who Can Attend: Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing 10th – 12th graders Immerse into ASL! is for deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing high school students who have little or no knowledge of ASL.


July 16 – July 23 Who Can Attend: Deaf and hard of hearing college bound 10th – 12th graders


Gallaudet University y Football Camp June 27 – June 30 Grades 9 to 12

Texas School for the Deaf, Austin, TX y Volleyball Setters/Hitters Camp June 16 - June 18 Grades 9 to 12 y Volleyball Fundamental Camp June 18 – June 23 Ages 10 to 18 y Girls’ Basketball Camp June 23 – June 28 Ages 12 to 18 y Boys’ Basketball Camp June 27 – July 2 Ages 12 to 18 California School for the Deaf, Fremont, CA y Volleyball Team Camp July 11 – 14 For high school varsity teams with 8 to 10 players

In this camp students will investigate college majors and careers by examining majors with the help of faculty in those departments and visiting Gallaudet alumni at work sites in the D.C. area. In the evenings and on weekends, students will explore Washington, D.C. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT SUMMER PROGRAMS: VP : 202-250-2160 | Voice: 202-448-7272 | |

WPSD 300 E. Swissvale Ave. Pittsburgh PA 15218

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Camp Hill, PA Permit No. 993

OUR CHILDREN ARE OUR FUTURE. Mission Statement The American Society for Deaf Children supports and educates families of deaf and hard of hearing children and advocates for highquality programs and services. Consider joining ASDC today, and receive four issues of The Endeavor each year, discount admission to the ASDC biennial conference, access to invaluable resources from the ASDC media library, and access to speakers for your parent support group or event. You will also join forces with thousands of other families across the country, and support an organization that advocates for crucial national legislation and services for deaf and hard of hearing children. American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE • Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 (800) 942-2732 • •

ASDC The Endeavor Winter '11