Endeavor Spring/Summer 2017

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p erie n x e f c ea


h roug art

t i a n e g th r C




In this issue:

Celebrating 200 Years of Deaf Education A Publication Dedicated to Families and Professionals Who Are Committed to Deaf Children


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2 A Message from the President. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A Note from the Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ASDC Educational and Organizational Members. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

42 Membership Form. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


4 Dinner Dialogues Build Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 ASDC Conference Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Using a Bilingual Approach in the Education of a Deaf Child. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 American Deaf Culture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Why I Designed a “Sign Union” Flag for Deaf People Everywhere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

The cover painting is by Nancy Rourke. To learn more, see story on page 29.

Creating the Deaf Experience Through Art. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Years of Deaf Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

29 32

What Type of Signed Music Should My Deaf Child Listen to? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .



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American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Avenue, NE Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 Toll-Free Help Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732) (202) 644-9204 VP asdc@deafchildren.org www.deafchildren.org Facebook: www.facebook.com/pages/ ASDC-American-Society-forDeaf-Children/215538915154965

The Endeavor Staff Editor & Advertising Tami Hossler asdctami@aol.com Managing Editor Anita Farb Publication Services T.S. Writing Services, LLC www.tswriting.com

ASDC Staff

Director of Advocacy Cheri Dowling asdc@deafchildren.org © 2017 The Endeavor is ASDC’s news magazine published three times a year. Published articles and advertisements are the personal expressions of their authors and do not necessarily represent the views of ASDC. The Endeavor is distributed free of charge to ASDC members

ASDC is a 501(c)(3) public benefit corporation.

2 The Endeavor

Tami Hossler

Editor’s Note I am especially excited about this issue of The Endeavor. ASDC is gearing up for its annual conference (see page 4) at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) in Hartford, Conn. This year commemorates the 200th anniversary of American Deaf education, with ASD being the first Deaf school in America established by Laurent Clerc and Thomas Gallaudet. In this issue, you will find the story of how this event changed Deaf children’s lives forever. We also celebrate Deaf cultural art in this issue. Just as language and culture cannot be separated, art and culture cannot be separated. Deaf art, whether it be through visual art, performing art, media art or literature is a big part of Deaf culture. Introducing your children to the arts can lead to a lifelong passion for creating. There is so much you can do and experience with your child. Summer camps, the ASDC conference, and experimenting with the arts are just a few great ways to enjoy the summer break. If you are interested in writing an article, we want to hear from you. Stay updated on ASDC events, news, and stories by checking our Facebook page and subscribing our monthly emails. Contact me at asdctami@ aol.com if you have questions or want to submit an article. www.deafchildren.org

Avonne BrookerRutowski

ASDC Board EXECUTIVE COUNCIL President Avonne Brooker-Rutowski, M.A. Austin, TX MEMBERS AT LARGE

President’s Message It is with mixed feelings that I write my final message as ASDC president. I was first elected to the board in 2010, became vice president in 2012, and then president in 2015. As a mother of one Deaf child and one hearing child, and a Deaf educator, I had long known about ASDC but had not been part of it until the board invited me. I have come to appreciate ASDC on a daily basis, and have seen firsthand how much ASDC does for families of deaf and hard of hearing children through a wealth of resources. The best thing about ASDC is that it has given me the privilege of meeting parents, making friends, and working with a wonderful and ever-changing team. Ending my presidency at the ASDC conference in June, held at the American School for the Deaf (ASD) will be extra special because ASD is celebrating its 200th birthday. Be sure to read about its celebration on page 41. ASDC has definitely claimed a special place in my heart and I thank everyone for the opportunities to be part of it. I look forward to continuing as a past president and working with the board in a different capacity. I wish everyone a happy and cool summer!

Vice President Lisalee Egbert, Ph.D. Sacramento, CA Treasurer Timothy Frelich, M.A. Jessup, MD Executive Secretary Tony Ronco, P.Eng. La Mesa, CA Alisha Joslyn-Swob Rochester, NY Jacqueline Laldee Olney, MD Gregory Mendenhall Dublin, OH Gina Oliva Laurel, MD Susan C. Searls Rochester, NY CED Representatives, Joint Committee on Infant Hearing Beth Benedict, JCIH Chair, and Jodee Crace Past President Beth Benedict, Ph.D. Germantown, MD Parliamentarian Jeff Bravin, M.A. West Hartford, CT asdc@deafchildren.org

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Mark Your Calendar! 2017 ASDC Conference The American School for the Deaf (ASD) is very excited and proud to host the 2017 ASDC Conference, “Bridging Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow,” on June 25-27 in West Hartford, Conn., a beautiful New England destination. Founded in 1817, ASD is the oldest school for the deaf in the United States, the oldest special education facility of any kind in the Americas, and Connecticut’s only educational organization devoted to serving the deaf community. ASD is celebrating its 200th anniversary as ASDC celebrates its 50th anniversary. This year’s conference focuses on celebrating families, and empowering them with resources and advocacy knowledge and skills. The schedule includes two keynote speakers, diverse workshops and round table discussions led by professionals and/ or parents, kick-off ceremony, closing banquet, and children/teen activities. Registration $275 per adult, $225 per child Includes all meals, conference, and children’s activities. Transportation and Lodging A shuttle will be provided between ASD and most of the following locations. 4 The Endeavor

Airport Bradley International (BDL) Schoephoester Road, Windsor Locks Approximately 20 minutes to ASD Bus/Train Hartford Union Station 1 Union Place, Hartford Lodging American School for the Deaf (limited space), 139 North Main Street, West Hartford: Dorm rooms, shared co-ed bathrooms; $10.00 a person per night; with two people per room Hotels: Conference participants are responsible for their own reservations. Room blocks are set up under ASD/ASDC. Courtyard by Marriott, Hartford/ Farmington, 1583 Southeast Road, Farmington (860) 521-7100 Homewood Suites by Hilton, 2 Farm Glen Boulevard, Farmington. (860) 321-0000 Register at www.asd-1817.org/page. cfm?p=1297&LockSSL=true.



The American School For the Deaf IS PROUD TO HOST

The American Society For Deaf Children National Conference June 25—27, 2017

Bridging Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow Spring-Summer 2017

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n o i t a m r o f n I C ASD t e l k o Bo

rmation_ o f n i _ c d s a dc/docs/ s a / m o c . u u 015 https://iss booklet_2

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Dinner Dialogues Build Language By David R. Meek Lamar University

Most hearing children are raised learning their family’s native language by listening, talking, reading, and writing. During conversation, communication includes both verbal (spoken) and nonverbal (body language or facial expression) language or cues that can either be clear or vague. Spoken language includes intonation, tone, stress, and the rhythm of the voice. Nonverbal language, such as gestures, can help people understand what is being said, even without speech. For instance, you can nod your head to show that

Spring-Summer 2017

you are paying attention and understand the speaker rather than say, “Yes, I understand.”2 Another example is raising a hand to represent “stop” without actually saying the word. Facial expressions with body language convey many meanings, including the person’s mood. If we imagine a child who misbehaves, parents can look at the child with a scowl or with their hands on their hips to show the child that the behavior is not appropriate. This acquisition of language is different for deaf children, as 90% are born

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into hearing families. Often, these language that they cannot hear or see families have never met a deaf person to respond, the message most likely before, and likely do not yet know will not lead to multiple exchanges sign language. What are the benefits between you and your child. In other of learning a signed language, such words, your child’s understanding as American Sign Language (ASL)? of the word depends on the converWhen parents decide to acquire ASL, sation that is taken place. If there is they and their son or daughter can no turn taking between yourself and learn the language together. You may your child, there is limited exposure ask, “Wouldn’t it be better to use to the language experiences you want spoken language?” for them. To answer that question, let’s explore However, if you, and hopefully the Providence Talks project in Rhode your whole family, begin to learn Island, funded by Bloomberg Philan- sign language, you can improve the thropies, that strived to boost chil- communicative environment for dren’s school your deaf success. The child. Do not goal was to Communication among family worry that increase the your child members should be open number of is learning words that and equal, where everyone sign language the children at the same participates. heard every time as you. day. This Your child will intervention was based on research notice the regularities in your signfindings showing that children from ing and be able to transform your families with higher incomes levels language to a more formal form of heard more words than children from ASL. Now you can have dialogues families on welfare. Perhaps you are that start by your child opening the thinking, “yeah, but doesn’t that conversation. You follow up and the support using spoken language?” two of you can engage in two, three, Oh, but there is another piece of the or even more turns in the conversapuzzle: language must be based on tion. the interests of the child. It also needs These two important ideas — follow to include multiple turns between your child and expand on their interthe child and the adult, to expand on ests — will build their language skills the child’s original comment or ques- and provide them world knowledge, tion.7 So if your deaf son or daughter especially during dinner dialogues. points to a dog and you use spoken They will continue to acquire ASL 8 The Endeavor



Tips for a Successful, Inclusive Dinner Chat • Remember that everyone has to have eye contact. • Remember that only one person at a time can sign. • Remember that hearing people get their turn by beginning to talk and everyone then turns their attention to that person; with a deaf person try these ideas: • Establish a conversation moderator who makes sure that only one person is communicating at a time. • Have the moderator point to the current speaker to allow the deaf child to switch attention to that person. • Request that people raise their hands to get a turn, then have the moderator recognize who is next to communicate. • Allow a bit of time for everyone to turn their attention to the person whose turn it is to communicate. • If someone doesn’t know a sign, have a sign dictionary at the dinner table so they can look it up and all can learn that sign. There are sign dictionary apps that are available (paid or free) for iPhone and iPad such as The ASL App, ASL Dictionary, Marlee Signs, ASL Coach, Signing Savvy, ASL Dictionary from NTID, ASL Translator, and others. • If the deaf child knows a new sign but you don’t, ask the child MEAN WHAT? • Follow ASL grammatical rules, which are distinct from English grammatical rules, when using ASL. • Monitor that the deaf child gets to take turns in the ongoShare your ASDC make a space. ing conversation; photographs • The longer with each conversational dialogue the better. If the childus! has three or more turns, you can be sure that they are engaged and learning. asdctami@ • Laugh and have fun. aol.com

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naturally and quickly, through other language models and deaf peers, which will also help improve your signing. This meaningful communication with you and your family creates a bond that supports the structure of your family unit. Most deaf children are visual learners, so you are taking advantage of their natural learning abilities and providing a fully accessible language. Also, using sign

language can minimize family frustrations and maximize your child’s ability to understand jokes, teasing, and sarcasm. These are some of the reasons for learning and using sign language with your child. Imagine a family of four: a hearing mother, hearing father, deaf daughter, and hearing son, sitting at the dinner table. Everyone, except the daughter, is using their voices to


The International Association of Parents of Deaf was founded in 1967 by concerned parents of deaf and hard of hearing 10 The Endeavor 10

children. The organization changed its name in 1985 to the American Society for Deaf Children.

www.endeavor.org www.deafchildren.orgwww.deafchildren.org


talk about their day-to-day activities. The daughter is the only deaf member of the family and uses ASL as her main form of communication. However, the other members of the family are not familiar with ASL. While you all do include her in some conversations by pointing or gesturing, she is not completely included in dinner conversations with her family; these interactions are known as the “dinner table syndrome.” Now imagine that all of you have begun to learn sign language. Your daughter just got home from soccer practice and runs in to join all of you at this table. She is excited and signs, GUESS WHAT? You sign back, WHAT? She goes on to say, ME CAPTAIN FOR-FOR SOCCER TEAM. You don’t know the sign for CAPTAIN*, so you ask, MEANS WHAT? She explains and you all congratulate her, telling her how proud you are of her achievement. Notice the differences in the dinner talk. In the first example, the daughter is mostly isolated while in the second example she is sharing

her day with her family and teaching them new signs. Dinner time should be an opportunity to have these kinds of rich, interactive conversations between family members. Communication among family members should be open and equal, where everyone participates. Having dialogues between family members stimulates language and intellectual growth for your deaf child, which leads to independence. The fluency of communication and language in the deaf child’s family should be balanced between all members so that everyone can understand each other. For a complete list of references, contact asdctami@aol.com. *ME CAPTAIN FOR-FOR SOCCER TEAM is what is known as an ASL gloss. It intends to capture the ASL signs and grammar in written form, and is not an English translation. Keep in mind that ASL and English have separate grammatical rules.


ASDC is the oldest national organization founded by and governed by parents of Deaf children. ASDC depends solely on donations, memberships, and proceeds from conferences for operations. Spring-Summer 2017

ASDC’s board is a “volunteer” board with members who pay their own travel and lodging expenses for all ASDC events. Become a part of this innovative organization by joining today! The Endeavor 11

Using a Bilingual Approach in the Education of a Deaf Child: What the Research Tells Us By J. Freeman King, Ed.D.

Research shows us that young deaf children can acquire two languages (American Sign Language, or ASL, and English) simultaneously if exposed to them in early life. However, there is the assumption, and resultantly the folk myth, that exposing a young deaf child to two languages may cause language delay and/or language confusion. There is no irrefutable evidence to support this belief. The research of Dr. Laura Ann Petitto, a neuroscientist widely known for her discoveries about the biological foundations of language, adds credence to other research findings that young deaf bilingual (ASL and English) children are not harmed, delayed, or confused by early dual language exposure. These 12 The Endeavor

children not only achieve language milestones in both ASL and English, but also reach the same semantic and conceptual development as hearing monolinguals. There are educators and parents who believe that a deaf child should be educated in an English-only environment, thus not using the one language a deaf child can easily and naturally and fully access, the visual language of ASL. They are worried that early ASL language exposure may place the deaf child in danger of never becoming competent in English on par with monolingual hearing peers, and that it prohibits or inhibits normal development in English. This concern is reflected in the fact that many deaf children receive their first formal schooling in English-only www.deafchildren.org


environments, well after the developmentally crucial years It is okay to provide access for the acquisition of a natural and continuous use of visual language. two languages with the Researchers have examined the impact that acquiring two deaf child. One language languages (ASL and English) will not compromise or simultaneously has on young deaf children in early life. Two diminish the other. general hypotheses have domiASL and English has to be extennated the field: unitary and differentiated. The unitary hypothe- sive and systematic, and encompass sis states that deaf children exposed multiple contexts. The exposure to to two languages do not under- ASL and English must occur consisstand that they are acquiring two tently in the home environment, the languages, and only begin to differ- school environment, and the social entiate the two languages around the environment; 2) Bilingual deaf chilage of three or beyond. This hypoth- dren exhibit similar development in esis asserts that deaf children expe- both languages comparable to hearrience delayed language development ing peers learning only English. They until they are able to sort out the two reach the same language milestones; languages. This assumption has been and 3) The use of two languages does prevalent in scientific literature and not damage or contaminate the home has often become educational policy. language (English or another spoken/ On the other hand, the differenti- written language) for the deaf child. Research has also found that the ated hypothesis asserts that bilingual age of first bilingual language expodeaf children can and do differentiate the two languages; in fact, current sure has a strong impact on a young research has found that the differ- deaf bilingual’s ability to achieve entiation between the two languages successful reading acquisition. Studoccurs from as early as the onset of ies conducted by Yoshinaga-Itano first words. Findings indicate that and others suggest there is a prime bilingual language exposure from age period for optimal language devel0 to 5 is optimal for dual language opment in the first years of life that can lead to reading exposure and development and mastery. Research further indicates that mastery. Studies have further shown rapid acquisition of language funda- that early exposed deaf bilinguals can mentals is possible when three key be expected to have reading perforfactors occur: 1) Exposure to both mance comparable to that of monoSpring-Summer 2017

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linguals, whereas later-exposed deaf bilinguals (ages 3-7) may have lower reading performance in their new language (relative to their home language) due largely to the incomplete acquisition of the new language and not because of a reading disability. The research supports the educational benefits of early and systematic dual language and reading exposure in both languages. Implications for Deaf Children

Based on current research, early exposure to two languages does not cause developmental language delays or confusion. Recent studies also indicate that there are optimal learning times and conditions necessary for bilingual language mastery and what happens that prevent these optimal times and conditions from occurring. Deaf children who arrive late to a bilingual context can and do achieve language competence in the new language that is introduced (ASL). Full mastery of the new language needs to occur in highly systematic and multiple contexts involving the home, the community, and the school, and cannot be achieved solely through classroom instruction alone. The general findings and implications can be instructive to educational programs and parents. Young deaf children from an English-speaking home

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entering kindergarten or first grade need not have ASL withheld from them for fear that this will prevent them from achieving fluency in English. “Read aloud� DVD books or stories in ASL also should not be withheld from them because of a concern that any exposure to ASL texts will prohibit or inhibit their capacity to successfully read in English. Teachers and parents should not hesitate to use ASL with a young deaf child from an English-speaking home when teaching the child English. These research findings should relieve the trepidation among parents who are bombarded with conflicting advice from education professionals. It is okay to provide access and continuous use of two languages with deaf children. One language will not compromise or diminish the other. Spring-Summer 2017

Instead, the development and nurturing of an accessible, visual language (ASL) will concurrently reinforce the development of English. The two languages will be complementary and will lead to success in literacy and sociocultural development. Researcher and educator Dr. Marc Marschark of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf asserts that most investigations of language development in deaf children have examined the development of either ASL or spoken English, but not their possible interaction. Preliminary findings show that programs combining ASL and spoken English may prove more effective than programs that use either ASL or spoken English alone. Therefore, ASL and English should not be considered mutually exclusive alternatives, but rather The Endeavor 15


potentially complementary strategies for language development in deaf children. Deaf children can acquire two languages simultaneously when adult language models follow language allocation strategies where the amount of exposure to a written/spoken language is increased as the child acquires visual language competence. ASL can function as a first language supporting the acquisition of English as a second language. On the whole, bilingual research shows that fluency in a first language is a strong predictor of second language skill, and competence in a second language is a function of proficiency in a first language. Recommendations

ASL is an accessible and complete visual language that plays to the strength of the child, and English is important to the development of literacy in the educational arena. Deaf children should be offered a quality educational program that will prepare them to compete as an equal in the hearing world. Surely, the goal of any language program should be to give deaf children the best of all worlds.

Hey, Schools & Organizations! ASDC provides a very special membership option for schools and organizations. If your school or organization joins ASDC as an Educational Member, ASDC will provide: • A free one-year membership for all of your families • A special thank you in the next monthly email blast • A special thank you in The Endeavor • A special thank you in the news section of the ASDC website • A link to your school or organization’s website • Your contact information posted on ASDC’s Educational/ Organizational Membership webpage

To join, complete the membership form on page 52. More information: asdc@deafchildren.org or (800) 942-2732. 16 The Endeavor



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Make the Most of Your Kids’ Mobile Devices Mobile devices provide parents a way to stay in touch with children after school or while away from home. VRS providers offer mobile apps at no cost so that your child can communicate in ASL from anywhere. Sorenson Communications, LLC, has taken mobile communication for Deaf people one step further. In addition to ntouch® Mobile for iOS® and

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Android® — an app to communicate using ASL on mobile devices — Sorenson now offers BuzzStickers for iOS. BuzzStickers are animated images, similar to emoticons, of ASL signs and expressions that can be sent in a text message or alone as a picture. Children will love expressing their feelings using BuzzStickers. To learn more about this enhancement, visit www.sorensonvrs.com/ buzzapps.



American Deaf Culture Culture and language intertwine, with language reflecting characteristics of culture. Learning about the culture of Deaf people is also learning about their language. Deaf people use American Sign Language (ASL) to communicate with each other and with hearing people who know the language. ASL is a visual/ gestural language that has no vocal component. ASL is a complete, grammatically complex language. It differs from a communication code designed to represent English directly. ASL is not a universal language, however. There are signed languages in other countries (e.g., Italian Sign Language, Chinese Sign Language, Swedish Sign Language). American Deaf culture centers on the use of ASL and identification and unity with other people who are Deaf. A Deaf sociolinguist, Dr. Barbara Kannapell, developed a definition of the American Deaf culture that includes a set of learned behaviors of a group of people who are deaf and who have their own language (ASL), values, rules, and traditions. In 1913, George W. Veditz, president of the National Spring-Summer 2017

Association of the Deaf, reflected on film the sense of identity ASL gives Deaf individuals when he signed, “As long as we have deaf people on Earth, we will have signs, and as long as we have our films, we can preserve our beautiful sign language in its original purity. It is our hope that we all will love and guard our beautiful sign language as the noblest gift God has given to deaf people.” The values, behaviors, and traditions of Deaf culture include: • Promoting an environment that supports vision as the primary sense used for communication at school, in the home, and in the community, as vision offers individuals who are deaf access to The Endeavor 19



“As long as we have deaf people on Earth, we will have signs, and as long as we have our films, we can preserve our beautiful sign language in its original purity. It is our hope that we all will love and guard our beautiful sign language as the noblest gift God has given to deaf people.” George Veditz

information about the world and the independence to drive, travel, work, and participate in every aspect of society. Valuing children who are deaf as the future of deaf people and Deaf culture. Deaf culture therefore encourages the use of ASL, in addition to any other communication modalities the child may have. Support for bilingual ASL/English education of children who are deaf so they are competent in both languages. Inclusion of specific rules of communication behavior in addition to the conventional rules of turn taking. For example, consistent eye contact and visual attention during a conversation is expected. In addition, a person using sign language has the floor during a conversation until he or she provides a visual indicator (pause, facial expression, etc.) that he or 20 The Endeavor

she is finished. Perpetuation of Deaf culture through a variety of traditions, including films, folklore, literature, athletics, poetry, celebrations, clubs, organizations, theaters, and school reunions. Deaf culture also includes some of its own “music” and poetry as well as dance. Inclusion of unique strategies for gaining a person’s attention, such as: √ gently tapping a person on the shoulder if he or she is not within the line of sight, √ waving if the person is within the line of sight, or √ flicking a light switch a few times to gain the attention of a group of people in a room.

From “American Deaf Culture” by the Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center (www.clerccenter.gallaudet.edu). Reprinted with permission. www.deafchildren.org


Why I Designed a “Sign Union” Flag for Deaf People Everywhere By Arnuad Balard

I am Arnaud Balard, a French Deafblind artist. Yes, you read that right: Deafblind. I have Usher, so I have tunnel vision and use tactile signs, so I identify myself as Deafblind. Each time I share this with others, I always get the same question. “How can you be a Deafblind artist?” It’s simple. I graduated from fine arts school, and at that time I didn’t know that I would lose my vision. I worked with pens and drew a lot. Now I prefer digital art, which is easier for my eyes. And if, in the future, I become totally blind I will choose another media to express myself. Simple as that. I also studied graphism and publicity, so I learnt how to make a visual difference, create impact, and how to use it to change minds. I am proud to be Deaf, and I am first of all DEAF. I didn’t choose to become blind. It’s just life, and I have to deal with it. I have always dreamt of a proud visibility of Deaf people. We Spring-Summer 2017

are often called “invisible,” but we are here. We are proud, and we cherish our sign languages all around the world. But paradoxically we haven’t a clear visual identity to gather ourselves around. We have a lot of Deaf logos in our respective countries, but nothing unique and international to show our publicly our proud sign identities. I always thought that we are people of the hands, not people of the eyes, because we can’t discriminate against people who are Deafblind. Our hands are our way to be, so I felt that it’s time now to focus on that kind of symbol in a large public space. And how to occupy the space was my most important question. My biggest The Endeavor 21


dreams was to have a flag, as a lot of people identify themselves immediately with that particular strong symbol. Why a flag? Simply because when you see one, you can feel (or not) at home. When you see a flag, in a few seconds you know visually what that means, and who is there. Finding a Deaf flag in the crowd, instantly you would know that there is another person like you who will accept who you are! You instantly know that you will find sign language, or at least someone who knows to communicate with you. It’s a treasure we need to focus on. It’s time to have a Deaf flag project for our whole sign community. The colors on the Deaf flag are representative of different things. Blue is the most consensual and loved color for all the world. it’s the color of Deafhood. For one point it’s to challenge audism, and in second to celebrate Deaf Gain. It took me two years to visualize the Sign Union Flag. It was approved by the Deaf French National Federation in May 2014, and it will be discussed at the WFD assembly in July 2015. Each color on the flag has specific meaning. The yellow represents positive communication, color of the light and the life. The turquoise color is the color of all signing people around the world. It’s not a color but rather, a spectrum of colors between green and blue. The fundamental aim of having a flag is saying: with sign language WE ARE, WE CAN, and WE WILL. It’s time for us to choose an emblem and be proud of our rich Deaf communities and show it to the world. It’s time to mark our rich history for our Deaf children. It’s time to focus and implement and develop our excellence. Hands out, head on, and let’s go. It’s our time. Now. The Deaf French Federation recognized the Deaf Union Flag in 2014. The World Federation of the Deaf has this flag tentatively slated for recognition in 2019. Reprinted with permission. First published at The Limping Chicken blog on July 3, 2015. 22 The Endeavor



TIPS TO GO This resource is designed to be used as a quick reference. Tips address questions on how parents can partner with teachers working with deaf and hard of hearing students in the classroom.

clerccenter.gallaudet.edu /InsideClercCenter

Spring-Summer 2017


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Discover all our children’s products at www.dawnsign.com! Spring-Summer 2017

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Established in 1884, USD provides the highest quality direct and indirect services to Utah students, families and districts from birth to age 22. USD works directly with districts across the State as well as provides self-contained fully accredited public schools and outreach programs that serve students needing American Sign Language and Listening and Spoken Language approaches Education resources and services are delivered by highly trained and specialized staff who pride themselves on offering individualized and intensive services for deaf and hard of hearing children in a variety of settings and methodologies. Visit www.USDB.org for information!

26 The Endeavor




Established in 1885, FSDB is a fully accredited state public school and outreach center available tuition-free to eligible Pre-K and K-12 students who are deaf/hard of hearing or blind/visually impaired. Comprehensive educational services at FSDB are designed for the unique communication and accessibility needs of students.


EDUCATORS Highly qualified, certified educators and related service personnel work with Pre-K and K-12 students.

Early Learning Center Program personnel provide Montessori-based education for Pre-K students.



21st century classrooms and an array of assistive technologies ensure students become confident and independent users.

Trained personnel advise families with infants and toddlers ages 0-5 in their homes.






207 N. San Marco Avenue • St. Augustine, FL 32084 (P) 800.344.3732 • (VP) 904.201.4527 Spring-Summer 2017

The Endeavor 27


Creating the Deaf Experience Through Art By Tami Hossler

Nancy Rourke is an artist on a mission. As she travels the country visiting Deaf schools, she is not only inspiring children of all ages to express themselves through art, but also opening their minds to look deeper inside themselves and the world in which they live. Rourke describes her background growing up and her passion for De’VIA (Deaf View Image Art). She explains De’VIA, established in 1989 by nine Deaf artists, as a vehicle to represent Deaf culture art. De’VIA artists seek to reflect the Deaf experience, literally

28 The Endeavor

and metaphorically, and perspectives reflecting Deaf culture, American Sign Language (ASL), bilingualism, Deaf education, Deaf history, and Deaf politics. Nancy’s artwork focuses on various themes related to resistance, affirmation, and liberation. Nancy recently served as an artist-in-residence for two weeks at the Indiana School for the Deaf. She worked alongside teacher Scotty Zwicker, implementing a De’VIA curriculum at all grade levels. In addition, several pieces of art were created showing Deaf culture, education, and the history of how William Willard founded ISD.



To understand Nancy is to understand her life’s history and experiences. Nancy was born in San Diego into a hearing family. She started drawing and painting at the age of six. As a deaf student, Nancy attended a strict oral education program at a public school. During that time, she found refuge in her artwork. At the age of 17, she entered the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) at the Rochester Institute of Technology and received a degree in graphic design and painting. It was during this time that she was exposed to the Deaf community and began learning ASL. In 1979, she was among 12 Deaf artists selected to show their work at the Ankrum Gallery associated with the National Gallery of Above: Rourke describes the painting she created Art in Washington, D.C. Joan at the Indiana School for the Deaf (ISD), where Ankrum, the owner, was the she served as an artist-in-residence. The painting aunt of renowned Deaf artist incorporates ISD’s history with Deaf history. Morris Broderson. Nancy “Casablanca,” “King Kong,” “Sherlock was offered a position at the gallery and began working there to Holmes,” and John Wayne films. Later expand her connections and networks she worked designing logos for Microsoft. After being laid off, she decided within the Deaf community. Later she took a job with Xerox in to return to painting. For the next San Diego as a graphic designer, where eight years, she painted cityscapes, she worked for 20 years. Her job was portraits, and still lifes. In 2008, she read the book, “Underas a palette designer working on standing Deaf Culture: In Search of classic black-and-white films such as Spring-Summer 2017

The Endeavor 29


Deafhood” by Paddy Ladd. As a person, who had found ASL and the Deaf world later in life, this book awakened her and inspired her to delve deep into her own self-identity. The catalyst for her involvement into De’VIA, she actively led the second wave of De’VIA through her paintings. De’VIA centers on experiences of audism, the notion that one is superior based on one’s ability to hear or to behave in the manner of one who hears, or that life without hearing is futile and miserable, or pathological thinking that creates a negative stigma toward anyone who is deaf. De’VIA also highlights oppression brought on by strict oralism and hearing-centric thinking and displays the beauty of a person’s Deaf identity through themes of empowerment and pride. Nancy was inspired by the work of Jean-Michel Basquiat and Jacob Lawrence, artists who studied the civil rights movement. Nancy has moved this forward into her own artwork and portrays human rights for Deaf people through a variety of symbolic meanings in her paintings. Nancy’s work continues to make a political statement and, ever so importantly, documents history. It is a wake-up call for deaf people who are not involved in the Deaf community, and it has become a vessel to educate those in the hearing society. Visit www.nancyrourke.com to learn more about Nancy’s work or to order prints and gifts. 30 The Endeavor



SYMBOLISM WITHIN ROURKE’S WORKS Blue tape: tied-down, trapped, crossedout, mask of benevolence, labels, ASL prohibition. Yellow light: the light so that Deaf people can see. Yellow: hope and light. Red/white circle: attention, target, focal point. Light gray-bluish: Deafhood. Hand: Deaf people, Deaf pride, Deaf culture, language and communication. Ear, mouth: audism, oralism, genetic engineering, eugenics, A. G. Bell. Heart: Deaf heart, Deaf mind. Strings: tied down, audism, trapped, colonialism, Deaf person as a puppet. Cracks: almost extinct, disappearing and warning. Spring-Summer 2017

Bandage: warning, safe, protection. Black/ blue/white: oralism, audism and “Mask of Benevolence.” Elephant: A. G. Bell and his associates. Yellow horse: Deaf people. Black hole/circles: invasion, attacking, second wave of oralism. Red mountain: Deaf people fighting to stay strong, to overcome oralism. The Endeavor 31


200 Years of Deaf Education: April 15, 1817-April 15, 2017 Laurent Clerc: Apostle to the Deaf People of the New World By Loida R. Canlas THE EARLY YEARS Louis Laurent Marie Clerc was born into an important family on Dec. 26, 1785, in La Balme-les-Grottes, in southeastern France. Since the 15th century, the males in the Clerc family had served the king through the office of Tubelion or the Royal Commissary. His father, Joseph Francois, was the royal civil attorney, justice of the peace, and was mayor of their village from 1780 to 1814. His mother’s father was a magistrate in another town. When he was about a year old, Clerc fell from his high chair into the kitchen fireplace. His right cheek was severely burned, a fever developed, and later, it was discovered that his senses of hearing and smell were damaged. It was never clear if this resulted from his accident or if he was simply born this way. His name-sign derives from the scar that remained — the middle and index fingers brushed downward across the right cheek near the mouth. His parents tried many differ32 The Endeavor

ent treatments to restore his hearing, but none succeeded. For the next 11 years he stayed at home, exploring the village and taking care of their cows, turkeys, and horses. He did not go to school and did not learn to write. Thus, as a deaf child, Clerc had neither an education nor a systematic mode of communication. YOUNG LAURENT ENTERS SCHOOL When Clerc was 12 years old, his uncle-godfather, for whom he was named, enrolled him in the Institut National des Jeune Sourds-Muets. This institution was the first public school for the deaf in the world, established by Abbe de L’Epee, known as the “father of the deaf.” It became the model for hundreds of other schools established later. The school was directed by the Abbe Roch-Ambroise Sicard. His first teacher, who later became his mentor and lifelong friend, was 25-yearold Jean Massieu, who Abee de L’Epee was also deaf. www.deafchildren.org


At the time, Abbe Sicard was in prison, expected to be put to death for sympathizing with the deposed King Louis XVI. Massieu led the school’s deaf students, including Clerc, to petition the court for Sicard’s release. Because of this action, Sicard was released. Jean Massieu

A LIFE-CHANGING EXPERIENCE Clerc excelled Laurent Clerc in his academic studies. However, an assistant teacher, Abbe Margaron tried teaching him to pronounce words. Clerc’s difficulties in pronouncing certain syllables so infuriated Margaron that he gave Clerc a violent blow under his chin. This caused Clerc to accidentally bite his tongue so badly that he swore never again to learn to speak. Later, this experience would strengthen his Spring-Summer 2017

belief that signing was the method of communication by which deaf students could best learn. Clerc learned to draw and compose in the printing office of the Institution. In 1805, just eight years later, he was chosen to become a “tutor on trial.” The following year, he was hired as a teacher. His salary was about $200. When Napoleon returned to Paris in March 1815, Sicard decided that he should leave. He visited England and brought Massieu and Clerc. In London, they lectured and demonstrated their teaching methods. One of their lectures on July 10 was attended by the Congregationalist minister, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, from Hartford, Conn. HOW GALLAUDET MET CLERC Gallaudet was a neighbor of Mason Fitch Cogswell. Cogswell had taken interest in deaf education because his daughter Alice was deaf, and there were no schools for the deaf in the United States at that time. As his neighbor and friend, Gallaudet became equally concerned for this cause. The two men gathered support from their friends, wealthy members of their community, and the city fathers. In due time, Gallaudet was sent by their supporters to travel in Europe to learn about deaf education. Earlier, Cogswell had loaned Gallaudet “Theorie des Signes,” written by Sicard. Now, in London, Gallaudet The Endeavor 33


was introduced by a member of Parliament to Sicard himself. Sicard, in turn, introduced Gallaudet to Clerc. Clerc and the Thomas H. Gallaudet others invited Gallaudet to visit and attend daily classes in their Institution in Paris. He gladly accepted the invitation. In 1816, Clerc had become Sicard’s chief assistant, and he was teaching the highest class in the Institution. In addition to his classes with Sicard, Massieu, and Clerc, Gallaudet was also given private lessons by Clerc. Gallaudet was so impressed by Clerc that he invited this “master teacher” to go to America and Abee Sicard help him establish a school for the deaf there. After much discussion, the Abbe Sicard gave permission for Clerc to leave. However, he convinced Clerc’s mother that he “could not 34 The Endeavor

spare [Clerc].” Clerc’s mother tried to dissuade him from leaving. Clerc had been offered a teaching position in Russia. However, he declined due to financial problems. Now came Gallaudet’s offer. He was 28 years old, and he knew that if he went, he might never see his family again. He also knew that the work involved would be enormous. But he was greatly motivated by his empathy for Alice and other deaf Americans who lacked language and were receiving no education. He was also adventurous and was intrigued by the prospect of living in a country that was not Catholic. In spite of his mother’s objections, Clerc decided to go. However, Gallaudet had to sign a contract with Sicard, stating that Clerc was “on loan” only for three years in the United States. CLERC HEADS TO AMERICA Clerc and Gallaudet left for America on the ship Mary Augusta on June 18, 1816. The voyage lasted 52 days, and Clerc used that time to teach Gallaudet “the method of the signs for abstract ideas.” In return, he received tutoring in the English language from Gallaudet (Clerc already had considerable skills in English, as evidenced by his journal, which was written entirely in English during this voyage). He also brought with him a French-English dictionary which was written by Massieu and published in 1808. They arrived in Hartford on August www.deafchildren.org


22., 1816. That same day, he met Alice Cogswell and communicated with her through sign associations. He found her to be a very intelligent girl who was hungry for knowledge but “virtually without a language.” Clerc became more resolved to carry out the mission that he came to do. Clerc, with Gallaudet as his interpreter, and sometimes accompanied by Dr. Cogswell, delivered many speeches and demonstrations of their teaching methods to get public, legislative, and financial support for their goals. From October 1816 to April 1817, they went to Boston, New York, Philadelphia, New Jersey, and other places. They informed the public, interviewed parents of deaf children, communicated with prospective students. They raised around $12,000 from the public. In a great show of support, the Connecticut General Assembly made history by voting an additional $5,000 for the school, the first appropriation ever for the education of handicapped people. THE FIRST SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF IN AMERICA On April 15, 1817, rented rooms comprised the school and its seven students, with Alice Cogswell being the first to enroll. It was originally called the Connecticut Asylum at Hartford for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons (now the American School for the Deaf). Gallaudet was the principal, and Clerc was the Spring-Summer 2017

Original ASD Facility

head teacher. A year later, poor and uneducated students filled the school. They ranged from 10 to 51 years of age. In January 1818, Clerc went to Washington, D.C. to gather support from Congress. He sat next to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the Hon. Henry Clay, and was well-received by the members of Congress. Later, at the White House, he was introduced to President Monroe by the French Ambassador, Mr. Hyde de Neuville. He was applauded for his work by the President, who had attended one of Sicard’s demonstrations in London with Clerc and Massieu. On May 28, 1818, through Gallaudet’s reading of his speech, Clerc addressed the Connecticut Legislature, becoming the first deaf person ever to do so. In the 1819-1820 session, with the help of Mr. Clay, the congressmen from Connecticut sponsored a bill granting the school 23,000 acres of government land in Alabama. President Monroe easily sanctioned the act, and the land was sold for The Endeavor 35


around $300,000. The August 1821 to March proceeds were used to 1822. construct school buildClerc’s students ings at the Asylum and and trained teachers start an endowment founded or taught in from which income other schools around could be drawn for the the nation, using school. Clerc’s teaching methOn May 3, 1819, Clerc ods. The first school married Eliza Crocker modeled after the HartBoardman, one of their ford school was estabearliest pupils, from The custom designed coinlished in New York; the Whiteborough, N.Y. The silver pitcher and tray second, in Philadelphia. presented to Clerc by Deaf wedding was held at the Other schools followed, people of Connecticut in house of Eliza’s uncle, including Kentucky, 1850. Benjamin Prescott, Esq. Ohio, Indiana, IlliThe Rev. Mr. Butler offinois, Tennessee, and ciated at the wedding. A year later, Virginia. In all, more than 30 residenthe first of their six children, Eliza- tial schools were established in the beth Victoria, was born. Clerc visited nation during Clerc’s lifetime. France in 1820. He went again in Clerc went on to complete 50 years 1835, taking his son, Francis, with of teaching (41 of those in the United him. His last visit to his homeland States), retiring in 1858, when he was in 1846, with his son, Charles. was 73 years old. After retirement, he continued his advocacy for deaf CLERC’S INFLUENCE education, maintaining an active While Clerc primarily taught grade- interest in the school, and appearschool students, he also trained future ing as a guest or speaker at many teachers and administrators, hearing academic functions. In June 1864, and deaf. Many of their students went with much difficulty due to his age, on to become productive deaf citizens Clerc went to Washington, D.C. as the and educated deaf leaders, spreading guest of honor at the inauguration of Clerc’s teachings and making him the National Deaf-Mute College, now the greatest influence in the estab- Gallaudet University. He had never lishment of new deaf schools in the attended college, but several honorUnited States at that time. His invi- ary degrees were bestowed upon him tations were not limited to teaching. for his pioneering work in deaf educaFor example, he was invited to be the tion. acting principal of the PennsylvaOn July 18, 1869, Clerc passed nia Institution in Philadelphia from away. He was 83 years old. Clerc and 36 The Endeavor



his wife, Elizabeth, were buried at Spring Grove Cemetery in Hartford. In 1992, a deaf man, Alan Barwiolek, visited the Clerc gravesites. He was appalled at the deteriorated and vandalized headstones and started a nationwide campaign to restore the headstones. His efforts drew great support from countless individuals and organizations, including the Laurent Clerc Cultural Fund of the Gallaudet University Alumni Association. Six years later, the Clercs were honored with the unveiling of new headstones. CLERC AND AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE Clerc’s mode of instruction was French signs. His students learned those signs for their studies. However, for their own use, they also borrowed or altered some of those signs and blended them with their own native sign language. As the Hartford students and teachers widely spread Clerc’s teachings using his original signs and in their modified signs, deaf communication acquired an identifiable form. This evolved into ASL, used in education and assimilated into the personal lives of America’s deaf population and its culture. Consequently, about two-thirds of today’s ASL signs have French origins. Examples of words that mean the same and have the same signs in American and French are: wine = vin; hundred = cent; look for = chercher. Spring-Summer 2017

A painting of Clerc, done by noted deaf artist John Carlin, Clerc’s friend.

For a complete list of references, contact asdctami@aol.com. Photos from Gallaudet University Archives.

Did you know ASDC has a hotline that

parents of deaf children can call with questions, thoughts, or concerns?

(800) 942-2732 The Endeavor 37


What Type of Signed Music Should My Deaf Child Listen to? Lisalee D. Egbert, Ph.D., and Jody H. Cripps, Ph.D.

Exploring creative arts with Deaf children is a wonderful way for parents to bond with their children while simultaneously learning about Deaf culture and the history of a people long oppressed yet forever hopeful. Today, there are far more allies and acceptance than ever before. These alliances start with the simple but profound promise of one’s unconditional love for a child. Parents of a Deaf child are not only strongly encouraged to learn more about Deaf artists, but also to pass down this knowledge and heritage to their Deaf child. Parents can learn about Deaf artists and their contributions to theater, poetry, and even sculpture. However, little is known about music done in signed modality. More attention to this art using signed language has emerged in recent years. Yet not many are aware that signed music has been a long-standing part of Deaf history (Cripps, Rosenblum, & Small, 2016). Currently, Deaf studies scholars are generating a lot of buzz in recognition and study of this “lost” art, thanks to technological advances such as the Internet, films, and videos. 38 The Endeavor

So what exactly is signed music? A group of scholars examining signed music defined it as “wholly autonomous from the auditory experience. While it is pleasing to the eyes, just as conventional music pleases the ears, it has parameters that are completely different from musical forms hearing audiences are used to, such as audible pitch. Specifically, a high quality music performance (without words) includes handshape variations along with unique movements like circles, motioning up-and-down, back-andforth, or to-and-fro representing possible notes. Some performances also include lyrics or “words” in [American Sign Language, or ASL]” (Cripps, Rosenblum, Small, & Supalla, 2017). However, the most common misconception of signed music is that English-based, audible songs interpreted into ASL can “act out” audible music and lyrics. The success of this method is easily shattered when the community, as a whole, generally does not enjoy what should be an exhilarating experience. In music literature, music is heavily tied to culture. Far too frequently, cultural information, tied to the music being translated from one culture to another culture, becomes lost in translation (Cripps, Small, Rosenblum, Supalla, Whyte, & www.deafchildren.org


Cripps, in press). As part of Deaf culture, signed music performances originally came — and continues to come — from the Deaf community, just as other arts have originated from communities. One needs to be involved in the culture and community to appreciate the depth and perspectives of art created by Deaf people. For those outside of the Deaf community, it may be difficult to comprehend the complete cultural meanings associated with signed music pieces. Nevertheless, they can still enjoy and even be awed by the art of signed music performances for their unique and stunning aesthetics. As a practical application, signed music can and should play a valuable role for families with Deaf children as well as being part of the curricula in educational programs. The critical role of performing arts, such as signed music, should be part of a curriculum where Deaf children can learn and study about music in a signed modality. With this opportunity, a child who is exposed to signed music may become a musician one day. Spring-Summer 2017

There is a handbook on signed music created by the Canadian Cultural Society of the Deaf, “Signed Music: Rhythm of the Heart,” that can serve as a wonderful guide for teachers working with Deaf children, as well as parents of Deaf children, who wish to do some various signed music activities at home as a family. Signed music videos by Deaf artists such as Rosa Lee Timms’ “River Song” (2008) and “Tell Your Story” (2014), and Janis Cripps’ “Eyes” (2003) are a good starting point for families and their Deaf children. In addition, “The ASL Parent-Child Mother Goose Program” and “ASL Rhymes, Rhythms and Stories for You and Your Child” are good sources. After viewing these resources, families are strongly encouraged to be creative and allow their imaginations to flourish, while being culturally appropriate and enjoying family bonding time. The Endeavor 39


Signed Music Resources YOUNGER CHILDREN Dack Virnig’s Fish: www.youtube.com/ watch?v=DR4HF6S_hz0

Ian Sanborn’s Rooster www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzcjvWtsKVQ Rosa Lee Timm’s River Song: The Rosa Lee Show. 100 minutes. DVD. www.rosaleetimm.com. The ASL Parent-Child Mother Goose Program: American Sign Language Rhymes, Rhythms and Stories for Parents and their Children www.deafculturecentre.ca/Public/estore/Product.aspx?ID=72&n=ViewCategory-ID02018a ASL Rhymes, Rhythms and Stories for You and Your Child www.deafculturecentre.ca/public/estore/Product.aspx?ID=211&n=ViewCategory-ID00431 OLDER CHILDREN Dack Virnig’s Fish www.youtube.com/ watch?v=DR4HF6S_hz0 Ian Sanborn’s Rooster www.youtube.com/watch?v=fzcjvWtsKVQ

40 The Endeavor

Rosa Lee Timm’s River Song The Rosa Lee Show. 100 minutes. DVD. www.rosaleetimm.com. Janis Cripps’ Eyes www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnwJsFHFebg Pamela Witcher’s Desolee•Sorry www.youtube.com/watch?v=3RVZ2ihqozA Ian Sanborn’s Caterpillar www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTgGQnxX5Uw Ian Sanborn’s Light Glove IX www.youtube.com/watch?v=X6K84goqYJg Ian Sanborn’s Prism Motif www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tXVgpvDWjY The Fenicle Brothers’ Food Chain www.youtube.com/watch?v=s2rGsl-KGPE&feature=youtu.be Rosa Lee Timm’s Tell Your Story www.youtube.com/watch?v=yfZ8fVf6Ldc For a full list of references, contact asdctami@aol.com.



Dignitaries Gather to Celebrate American School for the Deaf’s 200th Anniversary

More than 600 people, including Academy Award-winning actress Marlee Matlin, gathered at the Connecticut Convention Center on April 21 to celebrate the bicentennial of the American School for the Deaf (ASD) as part of a 16-month series of events honoring the school, its legacy, and national success. Founded in 1817 in Hartford, ASD is the birthplace of American Sign Language and Deaf education. ASD, now located in West Hartford, provides pre-kindergarten through high school academic programs to approximately 170 students, with another 210 children, youth, and adults benefiting from its various outreach services. Top photo (L-R): West Hartford Mayor Shari Cantor; Harold Smullen, president of ASD’s Board of Directors; Barbara Cassin, chair of the Bicentennial Celebration Committee and a 1975 alumna of ASD; Greg Barats, president and CEO of The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Company and General Chair of the ASD gala; Honorary Chair and Academy Award-winning actress Marlee Matlin; Jeffrey Bravin, Executive Director of ASD; and Connecticut Governor Dannel Malloy. Photo by Defining Studios Photo and Video. Lower photo: To recognize ASD’s 200th anniversary, the Laurent Clerc Association in France sent a wooden engraving of Laurent Clerc, as shown here by ASD Executive Director Jeffrey S. Bravin. Spring-Summer 2017

The Endeavor 41


Educational and Organizational Members American School f/t Deaf 139 N. Main St. West Hartford, CT 06107 860-570-2300 www.asd-1817.org Colorado School f/t Deaf and the Blind 33 N. Institute St. Colorado Springs, CO 80903 719-578-2100 www.csdb.org Delaware School f/t Deaf 630 E. Chestnut Hill Rd. Newark, DE 19713 302-454-2301 www.dsdeaf.org Edmonds School District Deaf & Hard of Hearing 9300 236th St. SW Edmonds, WA 98020 Florida School f/t Deaf & the Blind 207 N. San Marco Ave. St. Augustine, FL 32084 800-344-3732 www.fsdb.k12.fl.us Gallaudet University 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5000 www.gallaudet.edu Georgia School f/t Deaf 232 Perry Farm Rd. SW Cave Spring, GA 30124 800-497-3371 www.gsdweb.org

42 The Endeavor

Iowa School f/t Deaf 3501 Harry Langdon Blvd. Council Bluffs, IA 51503 712-366-0571 www.iowaschoolforthedeaf. org

Michigan School f/t Deaf 1235 W. Court St. Flint, MI 48503 810-257-1400 www.michiganschoolforthedeaf.org

Kansas School f/t Deaf 450 E. Park St. Olathe, KS 66061 913-791-0573 www.ksdeaf.org

Minnesota State Academy f/t Deaf 615 Olof Hanson Drive Faribault, MN 55021 507-384-6600 msad.msa.state.mn.us

Kendall Demonstration Elementary School 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5206 www.gallaudet.edu/clerc_ center

Model Secondary School f/t Deaf 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-651-5031 www.gallaudet.edu/ clerc_center

Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center 800 Florida Ave. NE Washington, DC 20002 202-541-5855 www.gallaudet.edu/clerccenter

Montana School f/t Deaf and the Blind 3911 Central Ave. Great Falls, MT 59405 800-882-6732 http://msdb.mt.gov/

Marie H. Katzenbach School f/t Deaf 320 Sullivan Way Trenton, NJ 08628 609-530-3112 www.mksd.org

National Technical Institute f/t Deaf 52 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623 585-475-6426 www.ntid.rit.edu

Maryland School f/t Deaf P.O. Box 250 Frederick, MD 21705 301-360-2000 www.msd.edu

NC School f/t Deaf 517 W. Fleming Drive Morganton, NC 28655 828-432-5200 www.ncsd.net



Ohio School f/t Deaf 500 Morse Rd. Columbus, OH 43214 614-728-4030 www.ohioschoolforthedeaf. org

Salish Sea Deaf School 715 Seafarers Way, Suite #102 Anacortes, WA 98221 360-419-5992 www.salishseadeafschool.org

Pennsylvania School f/t Deaf 100 W. School House Lane Philadelphia, PA 19144 215-951-4700 www.psd.org

South Dakota School f/t Deaf 2001 E. Eighth St. Sioux Falls, SD 57103 605-367-5200 www.sdsd.sdbor.edu

Phoenix Day School f/t Deaf 7654 N. 19th Ave. Phoenix, AZ 85021 602-771-5400 http://asdb.az.gov/pdsd/ Rhode Island School f/t Deaf One Corliss Park Providence, RI 02908 401-222-3525 www.Rideaf.ri.gov Rochester School f/t Deaf 1545 St. Paul St. Rochester, NY 14821 585-544-1240 www.rsdeaf.org Rocky Mountain Deaf School 10300 W. Nassau Ave. Denver, CO 80235 303-984-5749 www.rmds.co Saint Joseph School f/t Deaf 1000 Hutchinson River Pky. Bronx, NY 14065 718-828-9000 www.sjsdny.org

Spring-Summer Winter 2017 2017

Texas School f/t Deaf 1102 S. Congress Ave. Austin, TX 78704 512-462-5353 www.tsd.state.tx.us Washington School f/t Deaf 611 Grand Blvd. Vancouver, WA 98661 360-696-6525 www.wsd.wa.gov ORGANIZATIONS Communique Interpreting 330 College Ave. Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-6869 www.communiqueinterpreting.com

DawnSignPress 6130 Nancy Ridge Drive San Diego, CA 92121 858-625-0600 www.dawnsign.com Deaf Cultural Ctr. Fdn. 455 E. Park St. Olathe, KS 66061 913-782-5808 www.deafculturalcenter.org Described and Captioned Media Program 1447 E. Main St. Spartanburg, SC 29307 800-327-6213 www.dcmp.org Talking Hands Incorporated P.O. Box 7599 Largo, MD 20792 301-306-1606 www.talkinghands incorporated.org Veditz 448 Ignacio Blvd. #343 Novato, CA 94949 www.veditz.org

Conference of Educational Administrators of Schools & Programs for the Deaf P.O. Box 1778 St. Augustine, FL 32085 904-810-5200 www.ceasd.org

The Endeavor 43

asdc@deafchildren.org Parent Information and Referral Line: (800) 942-ASDC (2732)

MEMBERSHIP FORM Name:__________________________

Email: ___________________________

Address: __________________________________________________________ City: ___________________________



Phone: Voice/TTY/Videophone Membership Type Individual memberships _______$40 per year: Individual/Family Membership _______$100 per year: Three-year Individual/Family Membership _______$5,000 one-time fee: Lifetime Membership _______First-Year Free Membership (Families with Deaf children are eligible for a FREE one-year membership. Just fill out this form and mail, email or fax it back to us.) Deaf Child’s Name: ________________________________________________ Date of Birth: _____________________________________________________ Group memberships _______$250 per year: Parent Affiliate Group ( ____ Number of Parent Members) _______$125 per year: Library Membership _______$250 per year: Educational Membership _______$250 per year: Organizational Membership I would like to send more than my membership dues. Enclosed is a tax-deductible donation: $10 $25 $50 $100 _______Other Total Enclosed: $__________ Make checks payable to American Society for Deaf Children. Please charge my Visa or MasterCard: Card Number:__________________________ Expiration Date:______________ Please return to: American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE, Washington, DC 20002-3695 Fax: (410) 795-0965 • Phone: (800) 942-2732 • Email: asdc@deafchildren.org 44 The Endeavor



ASDC #2047 800 Florida Ave., NE Washington, D.C. 20002

Non-Profit Org. U.S. Postage PAID Pittsburgh, PA Permit No. 993

With ASL and English, your child CAN... LEARN! THRIVE! SUCCEED! Mission ASDC is committed to empowering diverse families with deaf* children and youth by embracing full access to language-rich environments through mentoring, advocacy, resources, and collaborative networks. Vision All deaf children and youth shall have the opportunity to thrive in every aspect of their lives through the empowerment of their families. *ASDC uses the term “deaf” to be inclusive of various hearing levels, including those who are seen as, or identify as Deaf, deaf, or hard of hearing.

American Society for Deaf Children #2047 800 Florida Ave. NE • Washington, D.C. 20002-3695 (800) 942-2732 • asdc@deafchildren.org • www.deafchildren.org

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