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MACKINNON FINE FURNITURE


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MACKINNON FINE FURNITURE

Mackinnon Fine Furniture 5 Ryder Street St James's London SW1Y 6PY Telephone: +44 (0)20 7839 5671 | Mobile: +44 (0)7725 332 665 | Email: charlie@mackinnonfineart.com

www.mackinnonfineart.com


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INTRODUCTION It is hard to believe that a year has passed since the publication of our first catalogue last autumn. We are absolutely delighted with, and very grateful for, the way it has been received. The challenge, of course, has been to try and produce this, our second catalogue, in such a short space of time. We have certainly had our work cut out for ourselves putting this new collection together. We have managed to acquire some truly wonderful icons of English furniture history including the magnificent pair of scarlet japanned side chairs by Giles Grendey from the Lazcano suite and the outstanding carved mahogany armchairs from Newhailes with their original Aubusson tapestries. Both the pair of olive green japanned bureau bookcases and the pair of side chairs attributed to William Hallett from Hanbury Hall are exceptional. Great rarities include the gilt gesso settee and the wonderful carved mahogany clock in the manner of William Kent. The incredible chairs from Warwick Castle with their silk velvet covers speak for themselves. Other pieces have been chosen for their wonderful quality, illustrious makers, beautiful colour and patina, and interesting provenances. We have noticed a significant and encouraging growth of interest this past year in fine antique furniture. We are continually expanding our programme with summer and winter exhibitions, art fairs, our gallery newsletter and online blog, our website, and social media platforms. We look forward to the coming year, which will mark the celebrations of Thomas Chippendale’s tercentenary along with exciting exhibitions for the gallery. You are more than welcome to visit the gallery at any time. In the meantime, we hope you enjoy this catalogue. Last but by no means least, I personally would like to thank May Geolot for all her incredibly hard work, as well as her unstinting patience and tolerance.

Charlie Mackinnon Mackinnon Fine Furniture

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A PAIR OF GEORGE II GREEN JAPANNED SIDE CHAIRS In the manner of Giles Grendey England, circa 1725 A rare pair of George II green japanned side chairs in the manner of Giles Grendey. Each with a shell-carved arched top rail and drop-in upholstered seat, standing on cabriole front legs joined by turned and waved stretchers, the front cabriole legs terminating in ball-and-claw feet. The whole with magnificent whimsical chinoiserie decoration throughout in the manner of Stalker & Parker.

Height: 41 in (104 cm) Width: 22 in (56 cm) Depth: 23 in (59 cm) The fashion for japanning in England coincided with the publication of John Stalker and George Parker’s seminal work, A Treatise on Japanning and Varnishing, in 1688. This guide offered a thorough description of the japanning technique as well as decorative schemes to use.

J. Stalker and G. Parker, A Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing, Oxford, 1688, pl. 18.

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A GEORGE II MAHOGANY BLANKET CHEST ON STAND In the manner of John Channon England, circa 1730 An exceptional George II mahogany blanket chest on stand in the manner of John Channon. The chest of rectangular form with outstanding engraved and inlaid brass escutcheon and back plates to the brass carrying handles, standing above a magnificent carved and moulded stand with bold cabriole legs decorated with acanthus leaves, terminating in lion paw feet with sunken castors. Height: 37½ in (95.5 cm) Width: 46 in (117 cm) Depth: 24 in (61 cm)

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A GEORGE I GILTWOOD SECRETAIRE CABINET Attributed to James Moore England, circa 1720 A highly important George I giltwood secretaire cabinet attributed to James Moore, Royal cabinet-maker to George I. The mirrored twin doors of the upper section opening to reveal a magnificent yew wood veneered fitted interior, the lower part comprising a fall front bureau similarly fitted and veneered in yew wood, with an inset silk velvet writing area and an exceptional engraved brass lockplate, above two short and two graduated long drawers with ring-pull handles and engraved decorative escutcheons, the sides with magnificent engraved carrying handles, all raised on boldly carved paw feet. The whole piece decorated with the most magnificent gilt gesso work. Height: 94 in (238 cm) Width: 47 in (120 cm) Depth: 24 in (60 cm) Provenance By repute, the collection of Her Royal Highness Dona Carlota Joaquina, wife of Dom João VI, King of Portugal (1816-1822), see additional information in text regarding the possible early provenance Soares and Mendonça, Portugal, 1960s Mr Alexandre Fernandes, Lisbon Sold Sotheby’s London, 3rd June 1977, lot 93 Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., The Grosvenor House Antiques Fair, London, 1978 Private Collection, London Literature L. Synge, Great English Furniture, London, 1991, p. 52.

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This magnificent gilt gesso cabinet is arguably one of the finest and most important surviving pieces of English furniture made in the 18th century. The cabinet was originally made as a pair and was almost certainly destined for the Portuguese Court during the reign of King Dom João V (r.1709-1750), possibly for the king himself or one of his closest courtiers. Only two pairs of these secretaire cabinets, decorated entirely in gilt gesso, have ever been recorded. One pair is known to have been commissioned by King João V for his mistress Madre Paula Teresa da Silva e Almeida. The pair are mentioned in a contemporary account of her apartment as ‘two bureaux with mirrors in the doors, ornamented with gilt reliefs.’ Tragically, one of the pair was destroyed in London during The Blitz. Renowned furniture historian R. W. Symonds lamented, ‘Its loss is to be deplored because it was one of the most outstanding examples of the craft of the English gesso worker.’ The other apparently fell into the harbor at Funchal and lost all its gilded decoration. This cabinet, now at the Dr. Anastácio Gonçalves Museum in Lisbon, has subsequently been re-decorated with red japanning. In essence, neither of Madre Paula’s gilded secretaire cabinets have survived. The second pair, including ours, is similarly decorated entirely in gilt gesso and with the same magnificent yew wood interiors. There is no confirmed documentation relating to the pair’s commission. The known provenance for our cabinet is documented above. The second cabinet was sold by Soares & Mendonça in Lisbon in 1994 before appearing at Christie’s in London in 2002. It had come, by repute, through the Portuguese Royal Family, from the Condessa de Geraz do Lima, Júlia Sofia de Almeida Brandão e Sousa (1832-1891).


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A brass engraved plaque once fixed inside the cabinet reads: According to the tradition of my family, this beautiful eighteenth century gilded lady’s bureau bookcase, of English origin, considered to be unique, belonged to Her Royal Highness Dona Carlota Joaquina, wife of Dom João VI, King of Portugal. It was later offered by Queen Maria II of Portugal, to her lady-in-waiting the 1st Duchess of Ficalho (Dona Eugenia of Almeida), and subsequently offered as a birthday present by the 2nd Marques of Ficalho and his wife, to my great grandmother the Countess of Geraz, Lima and Folgosa (Dona Júlia Sofia de Almeida Brandão e Sousa), today belonging to his grandson the 3rd Count of Folgosa (the title created by His Highness Dom Luis I, by degree on 5th December 1885) António Teodorico Ponte Horta Gavazzo do Rego Barreto da Fonesca Magalhães da Costa e Silva (son of the 1st Count of Almarjão). Carcavelos, Portugal March 1962. Note: There is a small golden crown, hidden in one of the drawers of this bureau bookcase, which belonged to the piece, when it was in the possession of Queen Carlota Joaquina, on top of which was a Portuguese coat of arms and when it was offered as a birthday gift the coat of arms was substituted with the initials G.L. (Geraz do Lima) with a crown of the Count. As these secretaire cabinets were commissioned in pairs, it is quite possible to assume, should the brass plaque be correct, that our bookcase would boast the same provenance back to the early 19th century. How the bureaux came to Portugal prior to this time is still up to conjecture, but their suggested presence in the royal family in the early 19th century could indicate they had also been commissioned by João V.

Detail of the engraved brass lockplate.

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Tessa Murdoch, of the Victoria & Albert Museum, ascribes these bureaux to James Moore. Based in St. Giles-in-the-Fields, London, Moore became one of the most celebrated cabinetmakers of the early 18th century. Renowned for his gilt gesso work, he entered into a partnership with John Gumley. Together they worked for George I and there are a number of signed pieces in the Royal Collection today. In addition, Moore received a number of notable commissions from important patrons including the Duchess of Marlborough at Blenheim Palace, the Duke of Montagu at Boughton, and the Earl of Burlington. The Duchess of Marlborough went as far to describe him as her ‘oracle, Mr. Moore.’ Murdoch notes that ‘Moore’s giltwood desk with bookcase... demonstrates the application of imported techniques to produce a unique form of English furniture, with the addition of the most sumptuous decoration... The bold design and decoration of the marriage chests and the desk with bookcases indicate Moore’s extraordinary level of confidence and invite curiosity about his background and training.’ Our secretaire cabinet is one of the finest extant examples of this gilded style, notable in particular for the use of the gilt gesso technique on such a large piece of furniture. A complete description and bibliography is available on request.


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A GEORGE II WALNUT SHEPHERDS CROOK ARMCHAIR England, circa 1730 An outstanding George II carved walnut shepherds crook armchair. The walnut of magnificent colour throughout, with outswept arms in the form of shepherds crooks, standing on exceptional front cabriole legs carved at the knees with cabochon and stylised acanthus leaves terminating in pronounced ball-andclaw feet, the rear legs outswept. The chair upholstered in superb 18th century floral needlepoint.

Height: 39 in (99 cm) Width: 27½ in (70 cm) Depth: 26½ in (67 cm) Provenance Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Literature L. Synge, Mallett Millennium, London, 1999, p. 60, fig. 58.

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A GEORGE II GILTWOOD MIRROR In the manner of William Kent England, circa 1735 An exceptional George II giltwood mirror in the manner of William Kent. The outstanding carved giltwood frame centred to the top with a female mask surmounted by a magnificent plume of feathers, with scrolling acanthus leaves to the sides, the rectangular mirror plate bordered with carved bulrushes to the sides and with a wonderful carved shell motif to the base. Height: 48 in (122 cm) Width: 33½ in (85 cm) Literature C. Edwards, British Furniture 1600-2000, London, 2005, ill. p. 65. Comparative Literature G. Wills, English Looking-Glasses, London, 1965, p. 85, fig. 56. G. Beard and J. Goodison, English Furniture 1500-1840, London, 1987, p. 107, fig 3. R. Edwards, The Shorter Dictionary of English Furniture, London, 1964, p. 365, fig. 45.

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The design of this superb mirror embodies the Palladian revival, as epitomised by the work of William Kent, John Vardy, and Benjamin Goodison. The present mirror is closely related to several known examples that have come from prominent historical collections. These include a set of three similar mirrors from Goodwood House in Sussex, a pair of mirrors from Castle Howard, presumably commissioned by Henry, 4th Earl of Carlisle, that feature female masks and carved wheatsheaves, and a further related pair of mirrors, attributed to Benjamin Goodison, that were most probably supplied to William Stanhope, Baron Harrington and later 1st Earl of Harrington, for Petersham Lodge, Richmond.


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JOHN HOPPNER, R.A. (1758-1810) Portrait of Sir John Osborn, Bt. (1772-1848) A fine portrait by John Hoppner, R.A. of Sir John Osborn, Bt. of Chicksands Priory, Bedfordshire, shown half-length, wearing a blue coat with a red-lined collar and white neck cloth. Oil on canvas, held in a rococo giltwood frame. Canvas Dimensions: Height: 29¾ in (76 cm); Width: 25 in (63.5 cm) Framed Dimensions: Height: 39 in (99 cm); Width: 34 in (86 cm) Provenance By descent in the family of the sitter H.L. Smyth Esq. Howard Young Galleries, New York, by 1930 Richard Beatty Mellon (1858-1933), Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Thence by family descent Given in 1966 to The Westmoreland County Museum of Art, Greensburg, Pennsylvania Exhibited The California Palace of the Legion of Honour, San Francisco, English Painting of the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries, 6 June-9 July 1933, no. 29. Providence Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, Old and New England, 19 January-18 February 1945, no. 79. The Westmoreland County Museum of Art, Greensburg, 1966-1989, inv. no. 66.164.

Literature Apollo, March 1930, p. 218. ‘Fine English Art Exhibition Opens in San Francisco,’ American Art News, 27 May 1933, p. 3. P.A. Chew (ed.), The Permanent Collection, The Westmoreland County Museum of Art, Greensburg 1978, p. 164, cat. no. 298. John Hoppner John Hoppner was a highly regarded portrait artist working in England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Of German descent, he grew up in the Royal Court under the watchful eye of George III. It was even rumoured that Hoppner was the son of the King, a notion that Hoppner was more than happy to encourage throughout his lifetime. Having received an education from John Chamberlaine, Keeper of the Royal Drawings, he later entered the Royal Academy Schools in 1775, subsequently receiving medals from the Academy in 1778 and 1782. In 1784, he worked for Queen Charlotte, and by 1789 he had become Portrait Painter for the Prince of Wales and achieved the status of Principal Painter in 1793. Sir John Osborn The sitter of this portrait, Sir John Osborn, was the son of General Sir George Osborn, Bt., who fought in the American Revolutionary War and served as the Groom of the Bedchamber to George III. Osborn’s grandfather was Sir Danvers Osborn, 3rd Bt., who served as Governor of New York in 1753. Sir John attended Oxford University and received a Doctorate of Civil Law. He married Frederica Louisa Valentia, daughter of Sir Charles Davers, Bt. in 1809 and succeeded his father as fifth baronet in 1818. He served as Colonel of the Bedfordshire Militia as well as a member of parliament for various districts between 1807 and 1824.

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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT CHEST-ON-CHEST England, circa 1720 An exceptional George I period burr walnut and walnut cheston-chest. The upper section with moulded cornice and architecturally fluted canted corners with a row of three short drawers above three long drawers, the lower part with a concealed secretaire-drawer complete with small drawers and pigeonholes, above three further long graduated drawers, the lowest of which is fitted with a magnificent inlaid concave sunburst. The whole standing on bracket feet and retaining the original brass handles, backplates, and escutcheons. Of outstanding colour throughout.

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Height: 74 in (189 cm) Width: 39 in (101 cm) Depth: 21 in (55 cm)


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THE WARWICK CASTLE ARMCHAIRS England, circa 1745 A highly important pair of George II mahogany armchairs originally from Warwick Castle. The serpentine backs, seats, and armrests upholstered in early 18th century Genoese polychrome silk velvet, the scrolled arms carved with leaf and shell motifs, standing on superb carved cabriole legs terminating in pad feet, on castors. Height: 43 ¾ in (111 cm) Width: 28 ¾ in (73 cm) Depth: 28 ¾ in (73 cm) Provenance Probably Francis Greville, 8th Baron Brooke, 1st Earl Brooke and 1st Earl of Warwick (1719-1773) Thence by descent at Warwick Castle Private Collection, UK This magnificent pair of chairs appears to have originally formed part of a larger set of twelve armchairs, three stools, and possibly two settees that are referred to in various major inventories of the collections at Warwick Castle compiled in 1809, 1853, and 1894. The chairs are first mentioned in the 1809 inventory of the Cedar Room as: ‘12 mahogany chairs, stuff ’d back & elbows & tapestry covers’ ‘2 mahogany stools, stuff ’d and covered.’ It is most likely that they were commissioned by Francis, 8th Baron Brooke (1719-1773), who was created 1st Earl Brooke of Warwick Castle in 1746 and 1st Earl of Warwick in 1759. In 1742, he had married Elizabeth, the daughter of Lord Archibald Hamilton, younger brother of William, Duke of Hamilton. The date of the armchairs corresponds closely to this marriage which is likely to have brought about re-decoration and re-furnishing of the State Rooms at Warwick Castle. The magnificent polychrome silk velvet panels, circa 1735-1740, used to upholster these chairs, are Italian in origin. These woven velvets and silk brocades, referred to as ‘Genoese,’ were produced in narrow widths which, as can be seen with our chairs, resulted in joining panels. These panels at the time were incredibly expensive to purchase and were considered an ultimate luxury and status symbol. The ‘Genoa’ velvet on the present chairs also closely compares with that seen on the exceptional Nottingham State Bedroom suite of seat furniture.

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD ARMCHAIRS Attributed to William & John Linnell England, circa 1770 An exceptional pair of George III carved giltwood armchairs attributed to William & John Linnell. Each magnificently carved in the finest detail, with a gilt imbricated framed upholstered back surmounted by a wreathed cabochon cresting, the padded arms with foliate and ball carved giltwood terminals, the seat and back upholstered à chassis above an outstanding guilloche carved seat frame, the tapered front legs also magnificently carved with imbricated detailing, the rear legs elegantly splayed. Upholstered in damson silk damask. Height: 37¾ in (96 cm) Width: 24 in (61 cm) Depth: 27½ in (70 cm) Comparative Literature H. Hayward & P. Kirkham, William and John Linnell, 1980, vol. II, pp. 45-47, figs. 87-93. H. Hayward, ‘The Drawings of John Linnell in the Victoria & Albert Museum,’ Furniture History, 1969. The Linnell firm was one of the most prominent cabinet-makers of the second half of the 18th century, with important aristocratic commissions including the Dukes of Beaufort for Badminton House, Sir Robert Child for Osterley Park, the Dukes of Northumberland at Syon Park and Alnwick Castle, William Drake at Shardeloes, the Marquess of Lansdowne at Bowood House and Lansdowne House, the Earl of Coventry at Croome Court, Sir Nathaniel Curzon at Kedleston Hall, and the Duke of Argyll at Inverary Castle.

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A watercolour by the Linnell firm, dated circa 1770-75, now in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum, shows the design for a chair pattern that bears almost identical comparison to the present chairs. The drawing shows the carved medallions on both the top of the carved back and the centre of the front seat rail, the same imbricated tapered front legs and plain splayed back legs, as well as the magnificent guilloche carving to the seat frame and the acanthus carved back supports, and possibly even upholstery à chassis. Upholstery à chassis refers to the way that the seats, backs, and armrests can be easily removed and lifted away from the frames for re-covering, particular useful for changes in taste or even the seasons of the year: silks for spring and summer and heavier damasks and tapestries for the winter months. A brief announcement in the newspapers in 18th century Paris even informed residents of the appropriate dates to make such changes. One of the more definitive signature features of Linnell’s work is the carved ball or ‘pearl’ clasped by acanthus leaves that form the terminals of the armrests of these chairs. The same feature appears in the drawing and can clearly be seen on a number of suites of chairs known to have been supplied by the firm. Close comparisons can be made to the six giltwood chairs supplied to the Lascelles family for Harewood House, Yorkshire and the suite supplied to the Dukes of Argyll at Inverary Castle, both of which are almost identical to the present chairs. A further suite can be seen in the Turquoise Drawing Room at Castle Howard, Yorkshire. The same clasped ball or ‘pearl’ can also be seen on a suite of mahogany armchairs supplied to Robert Child for Osterley Park.


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A GEORGE II MAHOGANY BRASS-MOUNTED SECRETAIRE CABINET Attributed to John Channon England, circa 1740 An exceptional and very rare George II mahogany brassmounted secretaire cabinet attributed to John Channon. With a rectangular moulded cornice above a boldly hinged door with rounded rectangular beveled mirror plate enclosing two shelves and three mahogany-lined drawers, the lower section with folding baize-lined writing flap mounted with a hidden lock escutcheon engraved in exceptional detail with a panther mask within an acanthus-filled cartouche, enclosing a fitted interior with three drawers and pigeonholes around a door flanked by pilasters, enclosing three further drawers, above two short and three graduated long drawers, on bracket feet. Height: 78 in (198 cm) Width: 32 in (81.25 cm) Depth: 18 in (46 cm) Provenance The Freeman family, probably Fawley Court, Buckinghamshire Literature Christopher Gilbert and Tessa Murdoch, ‘Channon Revisited,’ Furniture History, vol. 30 (1994), p. 79, fig. 23. Comparative Literature J. Hayward, ‘English Brass-Inlaid Furniture,’ V&A Bulletin, vol. I, no. 1, January 1965. J. Hayward, ‘The Channon Family of Exeter and London, Chair and Cabinet-Makers,’ V&A Bulletin, vol. II, no. 2, April 1966. C. Gilbert and T. Murdoch, eds., John Channon and Brass Inlaid Furniture, 1993. ‘Abraham Roentgen ‘Englische Kabinettmacher’ and Some Further Reflections on the Work of John Channon,’ V&A Bulletin, vol. II, no. 4, October 1966.

John Channon was not known in the canon of furniture history until the second half of the 20th century. Noted furniture historians, including R. W. Symonds, identified the incredible quality of a group of brass-inlaid furniture, but attributing the group to a cabinetmaker eluded them at the time. John Hayward, the Deputy Keeper of the Department of Furniture at the Victoria & Albert Museum, can be credited with the discovery of Channon’s workshop and production as published in the Victoria & Albert Museum Bulletin in 1965-66. In his research, Hayward explored the possibility that the brass mounts could have been supplied by other craftsmen, particularly those with Continental training. This association suggests the involvement of German immigrant craftsmen, and Abraham Roentgen, famed for his brass-inlaid work, is a leading contender as he was working in London in the 1730s. The Cabinet One of the notable features of this cabinet is the scrolled cartouche-escutcheon, which is elaborately engraved with a fabulous panther mask surrounded, fountain-like, by scrolling Roman-acanthus foliage. The intricate detail recalls the engraved ‘arabesque’ ornament published by French ornamentalists such as Jean Berain and Daniel Marot. The escutcheon features a hidden keyhole cover, which can be released by a concealed spring. This feature can also be seen on some of Channon’s other sophisticated pieces. John Gilbert and Tessa Murdoch illustrate the lockplate in their 1994 article on Channon.

John Channon & Brass-Inlaid Furniture This superlative cabinet with its richly figured veneers exhibits distinct decorative features associated with the work of John Channon. Channon established his business in London in 1737 in St Martin’s Lane and achieved great popularity during the reign of George II with prominent patrons. Channon is the attributed maker of the ‘Murray’ bureau at Temple Newsam House, Leeds and the ‘Beckford’ bureau-dressing-table, one of a pair, at the Victoria & Albert Museum.

Detail of the engraved escutcheon. 24


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A GEORGE III GILTWOOD MIRROR Attributed to William & John Linnell England, circa 1770 A very fine carved giltwood oval mirror attributed to William & John Linnell. The mirror plate surrounded by profusely carved scrolling acanthus leaves and extended C-scrolls, surmounted by a wonderful carved acanthus leaf cresting.

Height: 51¼ in (130 cm) Width: 30¾ in (78 cm) Provenance Kentshire Galleries, New York Exhibited Grosvenor House Antiques Fair, 2004.

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A GEORGE III ETRUSCAN PEMBROKE TABLE Attributed to Henry Clay England, circa 1780 A very rare George III painted Pembroke table attributed to Henry Clay, decorated in the Etruscan taste. The twin-flap rectangular top centred with a panel of classical figures on a black ground, framed by a green and black striped ground with painted leaf, berry, and flower borders, the flaps similarly decorated but with anthemion motifs on the black ground panels, above a single drawer similarly decorated. The four square tapered legs each decorated with classical vases, anthemion, and stylised harebells on a black ground terminating in brass castors. The leading edge of the top and the baseline of the drawer decorated with strings of painted pearls on an Etruscan red background.

Etruscan Style Following in the footsteps of Robert Adam and the taste for neoclassicism, Clay became one of the leading proponents of the Etruscan style, a somewhat convoluted mix of Greek and Roman designs and decorations. Sir William Hamilton, an avid collector of antiquities, published his collection in a series of prints entitled Collection of Etruscan, Greek and Roman Antiquities in four volumes between 1766 and 1776. The depictions in this publication could easily be copied and applied to a variety of interior schemes including wall coverings and on furniture. The painted central panels of the present table are clearly inspired by these prints taken from ancient vases.

Height: 27¼ in (69 cm) Width with flaps extended:  33¾ in (86 cm) Width with flaps lowered: 18 in (46 cm) Depth: 29½ (75 cm)

Very few pieces of furniture decorated in this Etruscan taste have survived. Robert Adam designed the Etruscan Room at Osterley Park and commissioned Clay to create a Pembroke table for the room, which is described in a 1782 inventory of the room as ‘A Pembroke table richly Japanned by Clay.’ The table, closely related to the present table, is rectangular in form with classical figural scenes on both the top and the two flaps framed by a border of anthemion. A corner cupboard attributed to Clay, with almost identical painted decoration to the present table, was commissioned by Sir Nathaniel Acton (d. 1795), a wealthy Suffolk landowner, now in the collection of the Victoria & Albert Museum.

Henry Clay Henry Clay is renowned for his use of innovative techniques in furniture design in the late 18th century. He took out a patent for a ‘new Improved Paper ware’ to be used on decorative objects, including trays and tea-caddies, as well as larger pieces of furniture. This new technique involved pasting sheets of paper together and hardening them in the stove so they would create a durable surface, which once applied to furniture and objects, could then be painted with decorative schemes. Thanks to his success in Birmingham, Clay moved his business to London and set up a showroom at 18 King Street in Covent Garden. He attracted a number of prominent patrons including the Dukes of Bedford and Northumberland, Robert Child of Osterley Park, and Horace Walpole of Strawberry Hill. Clay subsequently received royal patronage from King George III, Queen Charlotte, and the Prince of Wales. His trade card at the time advertised his services as ‘Japanned in Ordinairy [sic] to His Majesty and His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales.’

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THE LAZCANO SUITE A PAIR OF GEORGE II SCARLET JAPANNED SIDE CHAIRS By Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 An exceptional and highly important pair of George II scarlet japanned side chairs. Each chair profusely decorated throughout with outstanding gilded chinoiserie scenes on a scarlet japanned ground, with elaborately dressed courtly figures standing in stylized landscapes surrounded by scrolling foliage, birds, lion’s masks, acanthus leaves and strapwork. The extravagant vaseshaped splat and shaped stiles above a caned seat, standing on cabriole legs joined by shaped moulded stretchers, and on pad feet. Stamped with the craftsman’s initials. Height: 40 in (102 cm) Width: 21 ½ in (55 cm) Depth: 22 in (56 cm)

Provenance Almost certainly supplied to Don Juan Raimundo de ArteagaLazcano y Chiriboga (d. 1761), for Lazcano Castle, Spain, circa 1735-1740, and by descent at Lazcano Or, to Don Juan de Dios de Silva Mendoza y Sandival, X Duque del Infantado (1672-1737), or his daughter, Dona Maria Teresa de Silva y Mendoza, XI Duquesa del Infantado (1707-1770), and by decent at Lazcano With Adolfo Loewi, circa 1930 The Rosen Foundation, Katonah, USA Literature R.W. Symonds, ‘Giles Grendey (1693-1780) and the Export Trade of English Furniture to Spain,’ Apollo, 1935, pp. 337-342. R.W. Symonds, Masterpieces of English Furniture and Clocks, London, 1940, pp. 87-88, figs. 56-57. C. de Arteago, La casa del Infantado, Cabeza de Mendoza, vol. II, 1944 C. Gilbert, ‘Furniture by Giles Grendey for the Spanish Trade,’ The Magazine Antiques, April 1971, pp. 544-550. H. Huth, Lacquer of the West, 1971, pls. 65-66. C. Gilbert, Furniture at Temple Newsam House and Lotherton Hall, vol. I, Leeds, 1978, pp. 79-81. C. Gilbert, The Pictorial Dictionary of Marked London Furniture 1700-1840, Leeds, 1996, pp.31-32 & figs. 442-451.

Photograph of the suite at Lazcano Palace. C. de Arteago, La Casa del Infantado, Cabeza de Mendoza, vol. II, 1944. 30


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The Lazcano Suite These iconic chairs form part of the most celebrated and elaborate suite of English furniture from the 18th century. Commissioned from the esteemed cabinetmaker Giles Grendey for the Lazcano Palace, Northern Spain, the extensive suite comprised of at least 77 pieces including chairs, daybeds, tables, mirrors, tripod stands, and several desks and bookcases. The significance of this palatial commission is unprecedented, and it has been documented in numerous publications on furniture history. Furniture historian R.W. Symonds described pieces from the suite as ‘the best English cabinet-work’ in 1935, and Christopher Gilbert further emphasized the suite’s ‘outstanding importance’ in 1971. Today, many items from the suite are now represented in major museums around the globe, including the Victoria & Albert Museum, London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Temple Newsam House, Leeds, and the Museo de las Artes Decorativas, Madrid. The Palace of Lazcano was built between 1620 and 1640 in Guipúzcoa, Northern Spain. The suite is recorded in a 19th century photograph of an interior of the Palace, which was later reproduced in La Casa del Infantado cabeza de los Mendoza by Cristina de Arteaga (vol. II, Madrid, 1944).

Giles Grendey Giles Grendey (1693-1780), born in Wooton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire, became a leading London cabinet-maker. Grendey was one of only a few English cabinet-makers to sometimes affix trade labels to his furniture, a record of which now helps to provide additional information on his clients and work. A few extant pieces, including items from the Lazcano commission, still retain these labels as well as also occasionally featuring the stamped initials of workmen in Grendey’s employ. Symonds suggested Grendey is probably the only English cabinetmaker of whom definite evidence exists of his thriving export trade. One record of his exportation of goods was reported in various newspapers on August 7, 1731 after a fire started on adjacent premises to Mr Grendey ‘a Cabinet-maker and Chairmaker.’ This devastating fire caused him to lose furniture to the value of £1,000, a huge amount in 1731, including one particular piece which was described as: ‘among other rich and valuable Goods was burnt a Chair of such rich and curious Workmanship… it being intended, to be purchas’d by a person of Quality who design’d it as a Present to a German Prince,’ which he ‘had packed for Exportation against the next morning.’

In 1930, the German dealer Adolph Loewi visited Lazcano and acquired a great deal of the collection, including fifty side chairs, twelve armchairs, two daybeds, two pairs of mirrors, a pair of candlestands, a card table, and a tripod tea table. From his shops in Venice and later in America, Loewi sold the collection to clients internationally. One of his greatest patrons was the avid art collector Walter Rosen, who acquired thirty pieces for his Caramoor estate in Katonah, New York.

Trade label on seat rail of side chair by Giles Grendey, Collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 32


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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY BREAKFRONT BOOKCASE In the manner of Thomas Chippendale England, circa 1765 An exceptional George III mahogany breakfront bookcase in the manner of Thomas Chippendale, of the most magnificent colour and patina throughout. The ogee moulded cornice above a Greek key and drop pendant carved frieze, a pair of Gothic arched glazed astragal doors enclosing three adjustable shelves, flanked by two single-glazed doors enclosing adjustable shelves, the projecting base with a pair of moulded paneled doors, rosettes at each corner, enclosing a shelf, flanked by four drawers with superb gilded swan-neck handles on either side, on a moulded plinth. Height: 97¼ in (247 cm) Width: 97½ in (247 cm) Depth: 24 ¼ in (55 cm) Provenance Apter-Fredericks Ltd., London

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A PAIR OF GEORGE I GILT GESSO TORCHERES In the manner of James Moore England, circa 1725 A very fine pair of George I gilt gesso torcheres in the manner of James Moore. The circular dished tops each carved with a stylised trefoil of acanthus and strapwork, above a turned conical stem decorated with carved husks and foliage, standing on a tripartite base carved with acanthus leaves on a punched ground on oval pad feet.

Height: 36½ in (93 cm) Diameter: 12 in (31 cm) Provenance Ronald Phillips Ltd. Private Collection, USA Comparative Literature A. Bowett, Early Georgian Furniture, London, 2009, p. 208-09, plate 5:14.

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A JAPANESE LACQUER CABINET ON SILVERED STAND The cabinet Japanese and the stand English, circa 1700 A fine early 18th century Japanese black and gilt lacquer cabinet on a William & Mary silvered stand. The cabinet decorated throughout, including the top, with birds and pavilions within mountain landscapes, with a pair of doors with silvered and engraved mounts, hinges, and lockplates opening to reveal ten drawers of differing sizes similarly decorated together with a nashiji border, the sides of the cabinet decorated with floral patterns and with carrying handles. The silvered stand profusely carved with foliage and flowers, the apron centred by a putto on a floral swag, on cabriole legs with scrolled feet.

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Height: 59 in (150 cm) Width: 46½ in (118 cm) Depth 21½ in (62 cm)


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THE NEWHAILES HOUSE ARMCHAIRS Attributed to William Vile England, circa 1750-55 An exceptional and highly important pair of George II mahogany armchairs retaining their original Aubusson tapestry seat covers. Each chair with a rectangular back and seat upholstered with tapestry covers. The tapestry padded mahogany outswept arms with handrests terminating with carved flower-heads, and the moulded, sloping supports with carved ‘gothic’ panels, scrollwork, and beading. Each chair standing on outstanding pierced and fretted square-section legs carved with floral garlands and terminating in guttae feet. The legs joined by elaborate chinoiserie pierced fretwork stretchers. The outstanding Aubusson tapestry panels worked with strapwork cartouches interwoven with scrolling leaves and brightly coloured summer flowers on a claret ground, the cartouches on the backs depicting a peacock and flying stork, the seats with a leaping deer and a fox. The seat covers signed by Pierre Mage.

Height: 39¾ in (101 cm) Width: 29½ in (75 cm) Depth: 30 in (76 cm) Provenance Originally from a set of four chairs almost certainly commissioned by General the Hon. James St. Clair (1688-1762) or his wife Janet (d. 1766), youngest daughter of Sir David Dalrymple of Hailes David Dalrymple, 1st Lord Hailes (1726-92), nephew of Janet Sinclair, for Newhailes House, Midlothian, Scotland, and thence by descent at Newhailes Frank Partridge & Sons, London, 1928 Percy R. Pyne, Esq., New York Mrs. Robert G. Elbert, Long Island and South Carolina Frank Partridge, Inc., New York Walter P. Chrysler, Jr, Virginia Partridge Fine Arts, London, circa 1980s Ira and Nancy Koger, Savannah, Georgia Exhibited ‘Loan Exhibition of French and English Art Treasures of the Eighteenth Century,’ New York, 1942, no. 471. Literature: L. Weaver, ‘Newhailes, Midlothian,’ Country Life, September 8, 1917, pp. 228-232. P. Duncan, ‘Newhailes, East Lothian,’ Country Life, January 29 and February 5, 1987. J. Cornforth, ‘Newhailes, East Lothian,’ Country Life, November 21 and 28, 1996. I. Gow, Scottish Houses and Gardens, London, 1997, p. 107. John Cornforth, ‘How French Style Touched the Georgian Drawing Room,’ Country Life, January 6, 2000, pp, 52-55, fig. 9, the ‘Crane’ chair. J. Cornforth, ‘Newhailes, Midlothian,’ Country Life, 22 Aug 2002, p. 65-66.

The library at Newhailes showing two of the chairs in situ. Country Life Picture Library.

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The Chair Frames Although the maker of the chairs is unknown, possible candidates include William Bradshaw, William Vile and Thomas Chippendale. Bradshaw was a cabinet-maker with a tapestry workshop at 59 Greek Street. He was predominantly an upholsterer but is also known to have supplied furniture earlier in his career during the 1730s and 1740s, having supplied a suite of twelve armchairs and two sofas with tapestry covers to the 2nd Earl Stanhope for the Carved Room at Chevening, Kent in 1736-37.

Newhailes Sir David Dalrymple acquired the set of four chairs at the auction of the collection of Janet St. Clair, his aunt, in 1766. The set of four chairs was described as ‘4 French elbow chairs with tapestry seats & cases.’ He was the younger son of the 1st Viscount of Stair, President of the Court of Session and lived at Newhailes, near Edinburgh. Newhailes, now owned by the National Trust of Scotland, is an incredible survival of the Scottish Enlightenment.

Given the later date of these chairs, circa 1755, it is more likely that the chairs themselves were made by one of the leading cabinet-makers established on nearby St. Martin’s Lane, with possibilities including William Vile, and Thomas Chippendale himself. It is of course possible that they may have been subsequently upholstered in the Bradshaw workshops.

The library was one of the most impressive spaces in the house. The family amassed a book collection of over 7,000 volumes that was widely admired, with Dr. Samuel Johnson referring to the library ‘as the most learned room in Europe.’ The present set of chairs is shown in situ in the Country Life photographs of the library.

William Vile was almost certainly commissioned to create the related superlative set of mahogany seat furniture for the drawing room of the 4th Earl of Shaftesbury at St. Giles House in Dorset. The entwined floral garlands and guttae feet along with the carved floral terminals on the downswept arms are very similar in both the St Giles’s chairs and the Newhailes set. The exceptional carving on both suites is clearly the work of a master craftsman, and Vile is the most plausible. The Tapestries The chairs are covered in their outstanding signed crimsoncoloured Aubusson tapestries. The signature ‘M. R. D. Mage’ likely refers to Pierre Mage, who worked at the Aubusson manufactory from 1697-1747. His depiction of birds on each seat back is designed in the manner of Jean-Baptiste Oudry. It is quite possible General St. Clair brought the tapestries back from Paris himself. He was a British military envoy in Vienna and Turin in 1748 and returned home via Lyons and Paris. The other possibility is that Janet St. Clair purchased the tapestries from her neighbours in Greek Street, the Bradshaw workshops, who were known to carry Aubusson tapestries in stock.

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A GEORGE I GILTWOOD OVERMANTEL MIRROR England, circa 1720 A rare and particularly fine George I giltwood overmantel mirror with three plates. The central plate with an arched top, flanked by foliate-decorated plates on either side, all three plates framed within a beveled mirror border with gilt-clasps and a shaped giltwood frame. Height: 28¾ in (73 cm) Width: 55½ in (141 cm)

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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY BREAKFAST TABLE England, circa 1790 A very fine George III figured mahogany and satinwood crossbanded circular breakfast table of small proportions. The attractively figured mahogany top with broad satinwood crossbanding bordered by tulipwood, boxwood, and ebony stringing, standing on a turned mahogany column with four tapering and reeded splayed legs, terminating in brass castors.

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Height: 27½ in (70 cm) Diameter: 47½ in (120.5 cm)


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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY SERPENTINE CHEST-ON-CHEST England, circa 1765 An exceptional George III Chippendale period mahogany serpentine chest-on-chest. The cornice with carved moulding and a blind fretwork frieze above seven graduated long drawers, flanked by chamfered blind fretwork corners, standing on ogee bracket feet carved with flowerheads. Each drawer with its magnificent original pierced foliate and flowerhead cast gilt handles and escutcheons. Of particularly fine proportion, this chest stands extremely well.

Height: 34¼ in (187 cm) Width: 48½ in (123 cm) Depth: 26 in (66 cm) Provenance Hotspur Ltd., London, 1981 Comparative Literature C. Gilbert, Marked London Furniture 1700-1840, London, 1996, pp. 93-104. This chest-on-chest with its distinctive use of blind fretwork relates to the cabinet work of Philip Bell. Bell operated his workshop at No. 23 St Paul’s Church Yard, and his trade card read: ‘Philip Bell / at the WHITE SWAN against / The South Gate in St Pauls Church Yard / London / Makes & sells al sorts of ye finest Cabinet Goods, / all sorts of Looking Glasses, Coach Glasses & Chairs / of all sorts at Reasonable Rates./ NB. Old Glasses new Worked & made up Fashionable.’

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III MAHOGANY ARMCHAIRS In the manner of Gillows of Lancaster & London England, circa 1790 A magnificent pair of George III carved mahogany armchairs in the manner of Gillows of Lancaster & London. The pierced shield back splat carved at the top with a wheatsheaf motif, the back carved with a paterae and a leaf motif, the moulded arms on scroll supports, on square tapering legs and spade feet. One chair stamped ‘RE.’ Height: 38½ in (97.5 cm) Width: 23½ in (60 cm) Depth: 19¼ in (49 cm) Provenance Norman Adams Ltd., London, 1990s Private Collection, UK Comparative Literature L. Boynton, Gillow Furniture Designs 1760-1800, ill. pl. 272-275. Christopher Claxton Stevens, ‘A Group of Seat Furniture Stamped RE,’ The Journal of the Regional Furniture Society, Vol. XII, 1998, pp. 156-159. L. Synge, Great English Furniture, 1991, p. 126, fig. 143.

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These chairs feature a superbly fluid design and exceptional craftsmanship with excellent carved detail and fine colour throughout. They contain elements from a series of design drawings from Gillows’ Estimate Sketch Books, which suggest that they may be made by that firm. A chair from a suite of almost identical design, formerly in the collection of the Harvey family at Ickwell Bury, Bedfordshire, is known to have been stamped ‘RE.’ One possible explanation for the stamp, which provides a link with the Gillows firm, has been suggested by Claxton Stevens: it may refer to Richard or Robert Edmudsen or Edmonson. Edmonson’s was a Liverpool cabinetmaking firm which started in 1781. Richard and Robert are both recorded as freemen of Lancaster and are known to have worked for Gillows on a number of occasions.


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A GEORGE II MAHOGANY DUMBWAITER In the manner of Thomas Chippendale England, circa 1760 A particularly fine George II Chippendale period mahogany dumbwaiter of impressive scale. With three dished levels joined by a fluted gun-barrel stem raised on a fine tripod base with carved hairy paw feet, on castors. The mahogany with good patina and of a fine colour.

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Height: 45¾ in (116 cm) Diameter: 24 in (61 cm)


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A PAIR OF GEORGE II GREEN JAPANNED BUREAU BOOKCASES Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1740 A highly important and extremely rare pair of George II olive green japanned bureau bookcases attributed to Giles Grendey. Each with a broken swan neck pediment cresting surmounted by a turned golden finial, the upper section with two doors fitted with beveled mirror plates, which open to reveal, on the reverse, panels of floral chinoiserie decoration, and an interior fitted with pigeonholes and folio shelves of varying sizes, with a central door decorated with chinoiseries, standing above a fall front bureau section enclosing further drawers and pigeonholes, below is a single drawer in the frieze above two short and one long drawers, the whole standing on bracket feet. Each bureau decorated throughout with outstanding gilt chinoiseries on an incredibly rare olive green ground. Height: 96 in (244 cm) Width: 40 in (101.5 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57 cm) Provenance Private collection, Northern Spain Comparative Literature F. Davis, A Picture History of Furniture, London, 1958, ill. 217. G. Wills, English Furniture 1550-1760, London, 1971, p. 135, fig. 105. C. Gilbert, A Pictorial History of Marked London Furniture 17001840, Leeds, 1996, p. 86, ill. 68.

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The Pair It is most unusual to see pairs of bureau bookcases made in England in the 18th century, and the few that exist were known to be made for the export market, particularly for Spain and Portugal. The fashion for these pairs derives from the import of exotic lacquer cabinets from the East Indies Companies that were often made in pairs.

The Design John Stalker and George Parker’s 1688 publication, A Treatise on Japanning and Varnishing, was a seminal moment for the development of japanning in English cabinetry. This guide offered a thorough description of the japanning technique as well as decorative schemes to use. These bureaux draw direct inspiration from this treatise.

One of the most renowned pair is attributed to James Moore and is decorated entirely in gilt gesso. Originally two pairs of these extraordinary gilt gesso bureaux were made for the Portuguese Royal Court, and today two survive in their original gilded state, one of which is in the Mackinnon Fine Furniture collection (see pp. 8-11). In another rare instance, two pairs of the bureau bookcases were made as part of the impressive suite of furniture known to be made by Giles Grendey for the Dukes of Infantado and later destined for Lazcano Palace in magnificent scarlet japanned decoration.

There were recipes and instructions on how to make olive green japanned finishes, along with white, blue, red, chestnut, lapis lazuli, and tortoiseshell hues. The olive hue, as used on this pair of bureaux, is one of the rarest colours seen on japanned furniture today. To achieve the olive tone, the treatise instructs the artisan to use the dye ‘English Pink’ and to ‘grind it with common size, and when it has attained the consistency of butter, convey it to a pottinger, and there Lamblack and White lead mixt with it, produce the Olive-colour.’

A pair of George II white and blue japanned bureau bookcases is known to exist. These are signed by John Golding and William Rider, two journeymen presumed to be part of Giles Grendey’s workshop. Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd. had the good fortune of reuniting a pair of small scarlet japanned bureau bookcases— one in England and the other in Spain, which surfaced in 1969.

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A PAIR OF GEORGE II IRISH MAHOGANY SIDE CHAIRS Ireland, circa 1750 A rare pair of George II Irish mahogany side chairs. The yokeshaped top rail with tightly scrolled ends, above an elaborately pierced splat with punched horizontal broad C-scroll, the shaped drop-in seat above a waved apron, the slender cabriole front legs carved with acanthus leaves and C-scrolls with high scrolling at the top, similar to that of the top rail, and with ball-and-claw feet, the swept back legs chamfered on all four edges and joined by a turned stretcher.

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Height: 40Âź in (102 cm) Width: 25 in (64 cm) Depth: 20 in (50 cm)


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A GEORGE II WALNUT GAINSBOROUGH CHAIR Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1745 A very fine George II walnut Gainsborough chair attributed to Giles Grendey. The rectangular upholstered backrest flanking a pair of upholstered outswept armrests raised on supports carved with acanthus decoration, above a square seat raised on cabriole legs, headed by a rocaille-cartouche surrounding a flowerhead above carved acanthus brackets, terminating in hairy paw feet on castors. The rail with a white painted monogram ‘J.B.W.’ Height: 37¾ in (96 cm) Width: 33 in (84 cm) Depth: 32½ in (83 cm) Provenance Private Collection, USA Comparative Literature P. Macquoid, A History of English Furniture: The Age of Mahogany, vol. III, 1906, pp. 122-3, figs 104-5. H. Cescinsky, English Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, vol. II, 1910, p. 86, fig. 82. H. Cescinsky, ‘The Collection of the Hon. Sir John Ward, KCVO,’ Connoisseur, March 1921, p. 142, fig. 5. R. W. Symonds, English Furniture from Charles II to George II, 1929, p. 155, fig. 102 G. Beard and C. Gilbert, The Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, 1986, pp. 371-2. Giles Grendey was a leading London cabinet-maker, born in Wooton-under-Edge in Gloucestershire. He was an apprentice to the London joiner William Sherborne, becoming a freeman in 1716. Taking his own apprentices by 1726, Grendey was elected to the Livery of the Joiners’ Company in 1729. His first workshop was at St. Paul’s, Covent Garden, and he moved to St. John’s Square, Clerkenwell in 1772 where he developed a thriving export trade.

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There is not a great deal of extant information on Grendey’s English clients, however there is a bill from Richard Hoare of Barns Elms, Surrey, that is dated 1723 and includes a chest of drawers, a ‘Burow Table,’ dressing glasses, chimney glasses, and a ‘Wrighting Disk.’ Henry Hoare’s account book, from Stourhead, lists payments between 1746-56 for £46 for chairs. Lord Scarsdale of Kedleston Hall, perhaps the most prominent known patron, acquired ‘1 Fine Jamai. Mahog. Plank’ for £21 in 1762. Grendey also provided furniture for Sir Jacob de Bouverie at Longford Castle. This chair relates very closely to a suite of ten armchairs provided to the Hon. George Shirley (1705-1787) at Ettington Park, Warwickshire.


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A GEORGE III ROSEWOOD WRITING TABLE In the manner of John McLean England, circa 1800 A very fine George III rosewood and brass-mounted doublesided library writing table in the manner of John McLean. The rectangular gilt-tooled leather lined top with re-entrant corners above a frieze with two drawers on each side, with downswept legs ending in reeded brass caps and castors, the end supports with gilt ‘milled’ tablets. Height: 29 in (73 cm) Width: 48 in (121 cm) Depth: 26 in (66 cm) Provenance The Lords Ashcombe, by descent at Sudeley Castle, Gloucestershire John McLean John McLean, of Upper Marylebone High Street, was one of the pre-eminent cabinet-makers at the end of the 18th century. His firm secured commissions from some of the greatest patrons of their day, including the 5th Earl of Jersey for Middleton Park in Oxfordshire and his Berkeley Square residence, as well as Edward Lascelles for Harewood House. Thomas Sheraton featured one of McLean’s designs for a table in his The Cabinet-Maker and Upholsterer’s Drawing Book (1803) and noted, ‘The design on the left hand was taken from one executed by Mr. M’Lean in Mary-le-bone street, near Tottenham court road, who finishes these small articles in the neatest manner’ [sic]. Several pieces of furniture made by McLean retain the firm’s trade labels affixed to the inside of drawers. McLean’s work can be typically characterised by the use of rosewood veneers with lacquered brass mounts. The combination of the rich colour of the rosewood and the gilt mounts provided an attractive and striking contrast. The inclusion of inset tablets featuring the ‘match-striker’ or ‘milled’ design has become recognized as one of the hallmarks of McLean’s oeuvre.

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THE HANBURY HALL CHAIRS

Attributed to William Hallett England, circa 1735 An exceptional pair of George II mahogany side chairs attributed to William Hallett. The seat covers with early 18th century French needlework, worked in polychrome wools and silks in gros-point and petit-point, the seat back vertical cartouche enclosing Chinoiserie figures flanking a very unusual wine press and surrounded by accessories, and the seats with a horizontal cartouche enclosing an elaborate water cistern flanked by exotic animals, surrounded by exuberant scrolling leaves, against a cream-coloured ground, worked in gros-point. Each chair standing on magnificent mahogany cabriole legs to the front and rear terminating in ball-and-claw feet, with concealed brass and leather castors. The front and rear legs carved to the knees with shells and each of the front legs with a carved mahogany ring collar to the ankle. Height: 40¼ in (102 cm) Width: 30 in (76 cm Depth: 30 in (76 cm)

Provenance Hanbury Hall, Worcestershire, possibly acquired by Thomas Bowater Vernon (1832-1859) or Sir Harry Foley Vernon, 1st Baronet (1834-1909) Acquired circa 1927 by Walter Samuel, 2nd Viscount Bearsted, M.C. (1882-1948), for the Long Gallery, Upton House, Warwickshire Literature H. Avray Tipping, English Homes Period IV – Vol. 1 Late Stuart, 1649-1714, 1920, Hanbury Hall, pp.397-404, figs. 490 & 492. J. Haworth & G. Jackson-Stops, Hanbury Hall, The National Trust, 1994, ill. p. 7. A. Oswald, ‘Upton House, Warwickshire-I,’ Country Life, 5 September 1936, p. 251, fig. 8. G. Jackson-Stops, Upton House, The National Trust, 1980, ill. p. 12. S. Murray, ‘Upton House, Warwickshire,’ Country Life, 11 June 1992, p. 144, fig. 4. L. Wood, The Upholstered Furniture in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, Vol. I, 2008, pp. 327-28.

Interior at Hanbury Hall showing the chairs in situ. Country Life Picture Library.

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The Design & Upholstery These chairs are confidently attributed to the cabinet-maker William Hallett because of striking stylistic similarities to a documented suite of walnut seat furniture known to be by Hallett and supplied to Arthur Ingram, 6th Viscount Irwin (1689-1736). This suite incorporates almost identical carved scallop motifs and ringed ball-and-claw feet. The finely worked early 18th century French needlework attributed to the workshop of the tapissier Planqué at St. Cyr features three recurring designs within cartouches of figures and mythical creatures. The inspiration for these scenes comes from Chinese woodblock prints and porcelain ornamentation from the Kangxi period (1662-1722). Lucy Wood, in her seminal publication, The Upholstered Furniture in the Lady Lever Art Gallery, suggests that it is certainly possible that the needleworks and seat frames have always been together.

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Hanbury Hall & Upton House These exceptionally fine chairs have an interesting and illustrious history, tracing back to two distinguished houses. They are first recorded in a photograph in situ at Hanbury Hall, Worcestershire, circa 1916 along with other pieces from the original suite. Hanbury Hall had been the residence of the Vernon family since 1631. The suite of seat furniture does not appear to be mentioned in the 1840 inventory. It is probable that it was acquired by either Thomas Bowater Vernon (1832-1859), who renovated and altered the hall between 1856 and 1859, or his brother, Sir Harry Foley Vernon, 1st Baronet (1834-1920), who inherited the hall upon his brother’s death in 1859. Hanbury Hall was donated to the National Trust. Sir Harry Vernon died in 1920. The suite was sold and subsequently acquired by Walter Samuel, 2nd Viscount Bearsted (1882-1948) for Upton House, Warwickshire. Bearsted, chairman of Shell Oil, was a great philanthropist of his day and served as the Chairman of the National Gallery as well as a Trustee of both the Tate Gallery and Whitechapel Art Gallery. He amassed a superlative collection of works of art during his lifetime, including superb pieces of English furniture that included the outstanding ‘Apollo’ giltwood side tables, formerly in the collection of the Dukes of Buckingham at Stowe. He bought Upton House in 1927, and the suite of seating furniture is photographed there in situ in 1936. The house, together with a great deal of the collection went to the National Trust upon his death in 1948. The suite was, however, retained by the family.


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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY LINEN PRESS In the manner of Thomas Chippendale England, circa 1760 A fine George III mahogany and crossbanded linen press in the manner of Thomas Chippendale. The press with ebony and boxwood stringing throughout, the moulded dentil cornice above a pair of doors enclosing five sliding trays above two short and two graduated long drawers, on bracket feet. The mahogany of exceptional colour throughout.

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Height: 80½ in (204.5 cm) Width: 49 in (124.5 cm) Depth: 25 in (63.5 cm)


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A GEORGE II MAHOGANY LONGCASE CLOCK In the manner of William Kent England, circa 1735 An exceptional George II mahogany longcase clock in the manner of William Kent. The case constructed in a rich Cuban mahogany with carved adornments, rising from a breakfront plinth, carved with a running stiff leaf band, the inspection door, of truncated inverted triangulated form is released by a spring catch situated to the rear of the case. The leaf-carved hood has a scrolled broken swan neck pediment, with a central carved bust of Chronos, and encloses a brass faced arched dial, driven by an eight-day, three train quarter hour striking movement, the quarters being struck on 6 bells, and the hours on a separate bell, with figural spandrels of the Four Seasons to the angles, and showing subsidiary dials with moon phases, seconds and a date aperture. The silvered chapter ring has the seconds in Arabic, and the hours in Roman numerals, indicated by blued steel hands, flanked by spandrels of Mercury and Pan. Dial signed by the maker, ‘Henry Harrison London.’ Height: 97 in (247 cm) Width: 23 in (58 cm) Depth: 12 in (30 cm) Provenance Anthony Woodburn, Sussex Hotspur Ltd., London Private Collection, USA

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Literature R. W Symonds, English Furniture from Charles II to George II, London, 1938, p. 288. figs. 232, 237. Furniture History Society, ‘A re-appraisal of William Hallett,’ Yearbook, 2012. Hotspur, Eighty Years of Antique Dealing, pp 260-61. Antiquarian Horology, Volume 1, December 1953-1956 Brian Loomes ‘Watchmakers and Clockmakers of the World’ NAG Press 2006 R. W. Symonds April 1938, ‘The Connoisseur’ pp 83-89 William Kent ‘Designing Georgian Britain’ Yale Press 2014 One other longcase clock with a Kentian architectural case similar to ours is known to exist in a private collection. This other clock was the property of William Hogarth, Sergeant Painter to the King, satirist, and engraver. Hogarth’s Chiswick home was adjacent to Lord Burlington’s Chiswick House, which was designed by Kent. Hogarth and Kent were certain to have met there. R.W. Symonds attributed this clock to William Hallett in his 1938 publication, English Furniture from Charles II to George II.


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A PAIR OF LOUIS XVI GILTWOOD ARMCHAIRS Attributed to George Jacob France, circa 1780 A very fine pair of Louis XVI giltwood armchairs attributed to George Jacob. The square show frames carved with magnificent guilloche decoration, with curved arms carved with fluting and acanthus leaves, standing above a shaped seat rail similarly decorated with guilloche carving on fluted tapered turned legs. Height: 38½ in (98 cm) Width: 27 in (69 cm) Depth: 27 in (69 cm)

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These chairs feature the refined neoclassical shape and delicate carving associated with the workshop of George Jacob, maître in 1765. Jacob was one of the most prominent menuisiers of the Louis XVI period who supplied furniture to esteemed clients including the Comte d’Artois, the Prince de Condé, and Louis David. Jacob also had a number of prominent patrons outside France, including George IV in England, Gustavus III of Sweden, and a number of German nobles.


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A GEORGE I GILT GESSO SETTEE Attributed to James Moore England, circa 1720 An exceptional and very rare George I carved gilt gesso settee. The frame decorated throughout with outstanding carved gilt gesso detailing, the back and seat upholstered in 18th century French silk damask, the arm supports boldly outswept with curled terminals, the gilt gesso seat frieze further embellished with scrolling foliage and circular punchwork background, standing on elegant cabriole legs further decorated with acanthus leaves and surmounted by shells, terminating in pad feet similarly decorated. Height: 49 in (124.5 cm) Width: 80½ in (204.5 cm) Depth: 25 in (63.5 cm) Provenance Norman Adams, Ltd., London Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Private Collection, USA Literature C. Claxton Stevens and S. Whittingon, 18th Century English Furniture: The Norman Adams Collection, Woodbridge, 1983, ill. p. 27. L. Synge, Great English Furniture, London, 1991, pp. 83-84, fig. 87. Exhibited Grosvenor House Antiques Fair, 1951. Norman Adams noted, ‘This settee… is one of the most unusual items of gesso furniture recorded.’

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A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD CONSOLES In the manner of James Wyatt England, circa 1780 A fine and rare pair of small-scale George III period giltwood neoclassical demi-lune console tables, in the manner of James Wyatt. The demi-lune shaped tables with friezes carved with theatrical swags and beaded decoration and standing on elegant tapered and fluted legs. With Vert de Mer marble tops. Height: 31½ in (80 cm) Width: 31 in (79 cm) Depth: 14¾ in (37.5 cm) Provenance Duncombe Park, North Yorkshire

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GEORGE ROMNEY (1734-1802) Portrait of Francis Lind (1752/3-1840) An outstanding portrait by George Romney of Francis Lind, three-quarter-length, seated at a window before a music stand in a red chair, in a powdered wig, a green coat and breeches and a pink waistcoat with gold embroidery, holding a one-keyed Simpson ivory flute in his right hand. Oil on canvas, in a contemporary 18th century Maratta frame. Canvas Dimensions: Height: 49¾ in (126 cm); Width: 40 in (101.5 cm) Framed Dimensions: Height: 57½ in (146 cm) Width: 47¼ in (120 cm) Provenance Painted for the sitter’s mother, Elizabeth Lind, née Farrer, along with the portrait of Edward Lind, both paintings passing by inheritance to the sitter’s niece Elizabeth Lind, and by descent to her daughter Juliana Louisa Denys, and by descent to her son Leopold Agar Denys Montague, and by descent

Francis Lind The sitter of this portrait, Francis Lind, was the son of Captain Francis Lind, M.D., of the 14th Regiment of Foot and his wife Elizabeth, who was the daughter of Major Montague Farrer. The Lind family derived its wealth from the drapery business. The family seat was Gorgie near Edinburgh. Born on February 13, 1753, Francis Lind served in the Indian Civil Service. The portrait is dated to 1775-76 and was commissioned by Lind’s mother along with one of his younger brother, Edward George Lind. Alex Kidson suggests that the views behind both sitters likely depict scenes of the Lake District. On the fly-leaf to Romney’s diary in 1776 there is a memorandum that reads, ‘Mrs Lind, Carlisle, to be sent on Friday morning to the Castle Inn.’ This note presumably denotes the address to which the portraits of the two Lind brothers were to be sent.

Literature H. Ward & W. Roberts, Romney: A Biographical and Critical Essay with a Catalogue Raisonné of his Works, London, 1904, II, p. 95. M. Pastoureau, Green: The History of a Color, Princeton, 2013, ill. p. 169. A. Kidson, George Romney, A Complete Catalogue of His Paintings, II, New Haven and London, 2015, pp. 367-68, no. 803. George Romney George Romney is one of the most celebrated British portrait painters of his time along with his contemporaries, Sir Joshua Reynolds and Thomas Gainsborough. Romney was born in 1734 in Dalton-in-Furness and began his career learning the art of cabinet-making as his father, John Romney, was a cabinet-maker himself. Although he left this craft behind, he always maintained his skill at building things from wood, including violins. Romney became an apprentice in 1755 for the portrait painter Christopher Steele. By 1757, he had opened his own studio in Kendal in Lancaster. He achieved local acclaim for his portraiture and set off to London in 1762 to attract additional commissions. From his studio at 32 Cavendish Square, Romney produced numerous portraits that were very well received among the London society set. A rivalry between Joshua Reynolds, who founded the Royal Academy of Arts in 1768, and Romney persisted throughout both of their careers.

George Romney (1734-1802), Portrait of Edward George Lind. ©Sotheby’s

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A GEORGE III SERPENTINE MAHOGANY CHEST OF DRAWERS In the manner of Thomas Chippendale England, circa 1760 A fine George III Chippendale period serpentine mahogany chest of drawers. The moulded serpentine top above four graduated shaped drawers with gilt bronze foliate handles and escutcheons, the top drawer fully fitted with dressing compartments and a fold-away mirror under a brushing slide, standing on four exaggerated ogee bracket feet. Height: 32¼ in (82 cm) Width: 38½ in (97.5 cm) Depth: 23½ in (23.4 cm)

Mahogany serpentine chests of drawers have become synonymous with 18th century English furniture of the Chippendale period. Whilst there is no immediate design for them offered in Chippendale’s 1754 Director, there are plates which show grander variations from which this more practical form of furniture must have derived (plates LXII-LXX). By 1762 and in line with the prevailing taste, Ince & Mayhew in their Universal System of Household Furniture had produced a much closer and more recognisable design (plate XLIII). Close comparisons can be made with examples known to have been supplied by Thomas Chippendale. A rosewood example was supplied in 1768 to Sir Edward Knatchbull for Mershamle-Hatch, one in mahogany probably supplied circa 1770 to Lord Pembroke for Wilton House, and a pair supplied to Ninian Home to Paxton House, Berwick in 1774. The pronounced angular bracket feet of this chest relate closely to the Mershamle-Hatch example. The type of escutcheons and handles used also link this chest to pieces known to have been supplied by Thomas Chippendale. The gilt metal handles can be seen on the breakfront bookcase supplied to Lord Dumfries for Dumfries House in 1759, with closely related variations being shown on Lord Pembroke’s ‘Violin’ Bookcase, and a secretaire-bookcase supplied in 1764 to Sir Lawrence Dundas. The same escutcheon can be found on a chest of drawers at Dumfries House.

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A PAIR OF REGENCY CROSS-FRAME STOOLS In the manner of Thomas Hope England, circa 1815 A fine pair of Regency period parcel-gilt cross-frame stools in the manner of Thomas Hope. The armrests mounted by griffin heads with stylised gilt manes, the painted frames resembling patinated bronze and joined with carved and gilt reeded decoration centred with a central rosette motif, standing on carved and gilded lion’s paw feet. Height: 26¼ in (67 cm) Width: 31 in (79 cm) Depth: 20½ in (52 cm) These elegant cross-frame stools reflect the work of Thomas Hope, the pre-eminent early 19th century designer and tastemaker. Hope was greatly influenced by his extensive Grand Tour travels throughout Europe, Turkey, and Egypt. When he returned to London, he set out to make his Duchess Street home a showcase of antiquity across the different cultures. Hope officially opened his home in 1802 to visitors, and the Prince of Wales made an appearance at the grand opening. Duchess Street became an attraction for the discerning connoisseur and many notable figures travelled to see Hope’s interiors, including the artist Benjamin West, who proclaimed that it was ‘the finest specimen of true taste... either in England or in France.’ Hope went on to publish his designs in 1807 to share his ideas and vision of antiquity with a larger audience. This publication, Household Furniture and Interior Decoration, was notable for the manner in which it displayed the furniture designs. The designs are represented in outline only, which eliminates any sense of depth, shadow, or stylistic contrasts. Hope’s decision to depict his designs in this way reflects his fundamental allegiance to neoclassical design and recalled John Flaxman’s recent illustrations for Dante in 1793. There is a related stool with lion head terminals from the collection of Viscount Allendale at Bretton Park (M. Jourdain, Regency Furniture 1795-1820, London, 1948, fig. 85.) Another similar example with ram’s heads copied from Hope’s designs is illustrated in F. Collard, Regency Furniture (London, 1985, p. 98).

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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY PEMBROKE TABLE In the manner of Thomas Chippendale England, circa 1765 An exceptional George III guadalupe Pembroke table in the manner of Thomas Chippendale. The twin-flap rectangular top with kingwood crossbanding above a single drawer similarly banded with kingwood. The four ring-turned tapered legs with exceptional carved fluting and acanthus decoration, terminating on brass castors. Of exceptional colour and patina throughout.

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Height: 27½ in (70 cm) Width closed: 21½ in (55 cm) Width open: 41½ in (105 cm) Depth: 32½ in (82 cm) Provenance By repute, Dumfries House


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A SET OF GEORGE II CARVED MAHOGANY DINING CHAIRS Attributed to Wright & Elwick England, circa 1755 A superb set of ten George II carved mahogany dining chairs attributed to Wright & Elwick. Of the finest quality mahogany and crisply carved throughout, the shaped top rail centred by a carved pagoda cresting above incised trellis decoration and flanked by carved foliate motifs above bead and reel mouldings, the moulded and tapered uprights centred by conforming bead and reel decoration and headed by carved acanthus leaves, the ornately carved and pierced and interlaced splat with a pair of rosettes and a scallop motif carved shoe, the shaped open arms with leaf-carved terminals and carved downswept supports, the drop-in seat within scallop motif mouldings above borders of blind fret carving and egg and dart mouldings, on foliate and scroll-carved cabriole legs ending in ball-and-claw feet. The set comprises two armchairs and eight single chairs (one of a later date). One seat frame inscribed ‘PAV’ beside a naïve drawing of a house, another seat frame inscribed ‘the elbow for York.’ Side chairs: Height: 38½ in (98 cm) Width: 24 in (61 cm) Depth: 23½ in (60 cm) Armchairs: Height: 38¾ in (98.5 cm) Width: 26½ in (67.5 cm) Depth: 25 in (63.5 cm)

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Provenance Almost certainly commissioned for a house in Yorkshire With Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Private Noble European collection Private collection, UK Comparative Literature H. Cezinsky, English Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, 1911, vol. II, pp. 182-3, figs. 180-1. Moss Harris & Sons, A Catalogue and Index of Old Furniture and Works of Decorative Art, London, part II, p. 277. The ink inscription ‘the elbow for York’ found on the seat frame of one of the armchairs provides a tantalising clue as to the original commission. An attribution to the celebrated Yorkshire firm of Wright & Elwick can be made. The firm was highly influenced by the published designs of Thomas Chippendale and frequently interpreted his designs into bold and masculine creations of their own. The pagoda cresting is a welldocumented motif seen on seat furniture supplied by the firm. In particular, they supplied distinctive and highly carved mahogany furniture to the Marquess of Rockingham for Wentworth Woodhouse, Yorkshire, in the 1750s and 1760s. These chairs are distinguished by their superb quality and the rare survival of the original seat frames and webbing. They encapsulate the elegant fusion of the rococo, ‘Chinese,’ and ‘Gothick’ styles as promoted by Chippendale in his Director.


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A PAIR OF ANGLO-CHINESE PADOUK SECRETAIRE CABINETS China, circa 1770 An extremely rare pair of Anglo-Chinese solid padouk secretaire cabinets. Each with a moulded cornice above a pair of paneled doors with radiused upper corners and leaf-carved moulded borders, the interiors of the upper sections with bookshelves above pairs of drawers, the fall-front writing flat revealing pigeonholes and small drawers, standing on a base with four long graduated drawers terminating on shaped bracket feet. The cabinets retain their original paktong handles. Height: 74 in (188 cm) Width: 42½ in (108 cm) Depth: 21½ in (55 cm) The survival of this pair of secretaire cabinets from the 18th century is very unusual as only a few Anglo-Chinese furniture pieces made in Canton for British patrons remain today. Each of these pieces reflects a form inspired by an English prototype, but constructed in an entirely Chinese fashion. The presence of a pair of cabinets is particularly unusual. The overall form of these secretaire cabinets bear similarity to English designs as seen in publications such as Thomas Chippendale’s The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director (3rd ed., 1763, pls. XVII and CXXIX). However, the cabinets differ in their construction, particularly in the use of the solid timber rather than veneers. The timber itself, padouk, is a wood native to Asia. The handles and escutcheons are made of paktong, an alloy composed of copper, nickel, and zinc, which was a uniquely Chinese product until the 19th century and is highly prized by collectors.

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A QUEEN ANNE WALNUT SETTEE England, circa 1700 An exceptional Queen Anne walnut double-backed settee of rare small scale. The upholstered back and seat standing on carved cabriole legs terminating in pad feet, all joined by a wonderful turned stretcher of elaborate form, the back legs gracefully outswept. Now upholstered in vintage Fortuny. Height: 47 in (120 cm) Width: 63¾ in (162 cm) Depth: 28½ in (72.5 cm) Provenance Private Collection, UK Hotspur Ltd., London

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A GEORGE II GREEN JAPANNED PIER MIRROR Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 An exceptionally rare large George II green japanned pier mirror attributed to Giles Grendey. The bevelled mirror plates in two parts surrounded by a magnificent shaped frame profusely decorated throughout with golden chinoiseries on a deep green japanned ground, the top cresting depicting a figural scene with men on horseback. The chinoiserie decoration of outstanding quality.

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Height: 60 in (153 cm) Width: 25 in (64 cm)


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A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD DEMI-LUNE TABLES Attributed to Thomas Chippendale England, circa 1770 An outstanding pair of George III giltwood demi-lune pier tables in the neoclassical taste attributed to Thomas Chippendale. Each with a magnificent fossilized marble top with an ormolu beaded edge above a conforming frieze centred by a rectangular tablet carved with a flower-head flanked by honeysuckle, the frieze with a fish-scale ground alternating with flower heads and fluted panels, raised on acanthus-carved circular tapering fluted legs on toupee feet. Height: 36¾ in (92 cm) Width: 44¾ in (114 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57 cm) Provenance By repute, the collections of The Earls of Pembroke, Wilton House Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Private Collection, USA Literature L. Synge, Great English Furniture, London, 1991, ill. pp. 6-7. L. Synge, Mallett Millennium, London, 1999, ill. p. 21 The legs of the present tables are nearly identical in form to those on a demi-lune pier table attributed to Thomas Chippendale that was supplied to Sir Richard Worsley for the drawing room at Appuldurcombe in the late 1770s. Thomas Chippendale counted the 10th Earl of Pembroke as one of his more important clients with invoices between 1763 and 1773 totaling over £1,500. A number of documented pieces, including the celebrated ‘Violin’ bookcase, remain at Wilton to this day.

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A GEORGE I PARCEL-GILT WALNUT SECRETAIRE CABINET In the manner of Samuel Bennett England, circa 1720 A very fine George I parcel-gilt walnut secretaire cabinet in the manner of Samuel Bennett. The upper section with a giltwood swan-neck cresting centred with a foliate carved giltwood cartouche above a mirrored door flanked by fluted pilasters, one of which conceals the keyhole, the door opening to reveal two adjustable bookshelves above three short drawers, the lower bombé section fitted with a pull-out secretaire drawer above three graduated drawers, standing on bracket feet. Each drawer fitted with its original finely chased elaborate ormolu escutcheons and handles. Height: 96 in (244 cm) Width: 40 in (101.5 cm) Depth: 21 in (51 cm) Provenance James Lowther, 1st Viscount Ullswater (1855-1949), Campsea Ashe High House, Campsea Ashe, Suffolk Presumably sold Garrod, Turner & Son, Ipswich, The Contents of High House, 24-31 October 1949 Sir James Horlick, 4th Baronet (1886-1972), Achamore House, Isle of Gigha Thence by descent Literature L.G.G. Ramsay, ‘Chinoiserie in the Western Isles, The Collection of Sir James and Lady Horlick,’ The Connoisseur, June 1958, p, 4, fig. 6.

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The Form & Decoration This exceptional cabinet bears close resemblance to the work of Samuel Bennett (c.1700-1741) in its form and decorative features. A cabinet at the Victoria & Albert Museum by Bennett features elaborate gilt decoration and a finial with a broken swan neck pediment to the top. The cabinet also features fluted pilasters in the Doric order, while the present cabinet features gilded Corinthian tops. A second cabinet illustrated in R. Edwards, The Dictionary of English Furniture similarly features the bombé form of this cabinet (vol. I, p. 136, fig. 30). A further cabinet is illustrated in H. Cescinsky and E. Gribble, Early English furniture and Woodwork (London, 1992, vol. II, pp. 284-285, figs. 387 and 388). Campsea Ashe High House Campsea Ashe High House was rebuilt in the 19th century for the Hon. William Lowther, younger brother of the 3rd Earl of Lonsdale. The design by Anthony Salvin sought to retain the original Georgian features of the house. Lowther’s son, James William, served as speaker of the House of Commons between 1905 and 1921 at which point he became Viscount Ullswater. When he retired, he moved to High House and revived the interiors and the garden. The contents of the house were sold in 1949. Sir James Horlick The cabinet was presumably purchased by Sir James Horlick, 4th Baronet in 1949 after the sale of the Campsea Ashe collection. Horlick was a renowned collector and noted connoisseur who acquired a number of exceptional pieces for his home, Achamore House on the Isle of Gigha in the Scottish Western Isles, including wonderful Chinese reverse painted mirror pictures and the superlative lacquer commode supplied to Harewood House by Thomas Chippendale. Horlick’s collection of English japanned furniture from the 18th century was particularly notable and became the subject of an article in the Connoisseur by the editor L.G.G. Ramsay entitled, ‘Chinoiserie in the Western Isles, the Collection of Sir James and Lady Horlick,’ in June 1958. In addition to the chinoiserie collection, Horlick also amassed an impressive collection of 18th century walnut furniture, including this bureau bookcase.


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A PAIR OF GEORGE III GILTWOOD OPEN ARMCHAIRS Attributed to Ince & Mayhew England, circa 1770 A very fine pair of George III giltwood open armchairs attributed to Ince & Mayhew. Each chair with a shield-shaped back and serpentine seat, the outswept arms on shaped channeled supports, standing on fluted tapered legs headed by curved patera.

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Height: 38 in (96 cm) Width: 24 in (61 cm) Depth: 19 in (48 cm) These shield-shaped back ‘cabriolet’ chairs relate to a suite of sixteen chairs and two sofas supplied to Richard Myddelton for the Saloon at Chirk Castle, Wrexham, North Wales in circa 1782-83.


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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY SIDEBOARD In the manner of Thomas Sheraton England, circa 1790 A fine George III mahogany bow-fronted sideboard in the neoclassical taste in the manner of Thomas Sheraton. The flame veneered mahogany top, with satinwood crossbanding, of particularly good colour and patina. With a long central drawer flanked by a pair of deep drawers of similar excellent colour further crossbanded with satinwood inlay decoration. The drawer fronts with circular gilt brass handles typical of the period. The whole standing on elegant tapered square legs with boxwood inlay terminating in spade feet. Height: 36 in (91.5 cm) Width: 54 in (137 cm) Depth: 25½ in (64.5 cm)

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A PAIR OF GEORGE II WALNUT SIDE CHAIRS England, circa 1745 A rare pair of George II walnut side chairs of exceptional colour. Each with a rectangular upholstered back and square seat, the whole raised on cabriole legs carved with acanthus leaves to the knees on a punched ground and flanked by pronounced eagle-head brackets, terminating in ball-and-claw feet, the back legs outsplayed.

Height: 40 in (101 cm) Width: 25 in (63 cm) Depth: 27 in (68 cm) Provenance Ronald Phillips Ltd., London Private Collection, USA The outstanding feature of these chairs is the exceptional carved eagle-head brackets that surmount each of the front legs.

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A SET OF SIX GEORGE III PAINTED AND PARCEL-GILT ARMCHAIRS England, circa 1770 An elegant set of six George III painted and parcel-gilt armchairs in the neoclassical French taste. Each with upholstered backs, seats, and padded armrests covered in blue strié silk. The carved show frames embellished with shells, acanthus leaves and scrolling foliage, standing on elegant cabriole legs also decorated with further shells and scrolling acanthus.

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Height: 37 in (94 cm) Width: 27¼ in (69 cm) Depth: 22 in (56 cm)


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A GEORGE III MAHOGANY AND SATINWOOD CROSSBANDED SERPENTINE CARD TABLE In the manner of George Hepplewhite England, circa 1780 A very fine George III Hepplewhite period mahogany and satinwood crossbanded serpentine card table. The well figured serpentine fronted and moulded top with satinwood crossbanding, ebony line inlaid edge, and retaining excellent colour and patina, the top opens to reveal a baize covered playing surface, below with a serpentine frieze veneered with striking flame mahogany and to each front corner a carved leaf paterae, the table is supported by four turned tapering stop-fluted legs, with lower ring-turning and leaf carved bulbous foot.

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Height: 28½ in (72 cm) Width: 36½ in (93 cm) Depth: 17 in (43 cm)


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A GEORGE I GILT GESSO CENTRE TABLE In the manner of James Moore England, circa 1720 An exceptional and very rare George I gilt gesso centre table. The top with re-entrant corners and carved with an elaborate design of acanthus leaves amongst strapwork, standing above a concave frieze further decorated with acanthus leaves and centred by a shell on each side, raised on cabriole legs with boldly scrolled acanthus leaves to the knees and scroll feet.

Height: 30¼ in (77 cm) Width: 20¼ in (51 cm) Depth: 31¼ in (79 cm) Provenance Sir John Gooch Bt. Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Private Collection, USA Literature Mallett Spring Catalogue, 1997.

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A REGENCY CIRCULAR MAHOGANY CENTRE TABLE In the manner of Gillows of Lancaster & London England, circa 1820 A fine Regency mahogany centre table possibly by Gillows of Lancaster & London. The circular top of a particularly finely grained mahogany with an attractively wide mahogany crossbanded border with ebony stringing above a plain frieze, supported on a turned carved central pedestal with an ebony inlaid triform base with bold lion paw feet of particularly fine quality, with sunken brass castors.

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Height: 29 in (73.5 cm) Diameter: 53 in (135 cm)


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A PAIR OF LOUIS XV GILTWOOD BERGERES Stamped Pothier France, circa 1750 A very fine and unusually large pair of Louis XV giltwood bergères, one stamped Pothier. The frames carved with fluting and generously scrolled. Each with a horseshoe back terminating in scroll arms and a serpentine seat rail, standing on cabriole legs. Height: 40 in (103 cm) Width: 30 in (76 cm) Jean-Jacques Pothier was working in France throughout the reign of both Louis XV and Louis XVI, and his work reflects the characteristics of the rococo and neoclassical taste during each period. He became a maître-menuisier in 1750.

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A QUEEN ANNE STYLE GILTWOOD SOFA In the manner of Lenygon & Morant England, circa 1900 A magnificent giltwood upholstered sofa, almost certainly by Lenygon & Morant. In the Queen Anne style, beautifully upholstered in slate grey velvet. Height: 46 in (117 cm) Width: 86½ in (220 cm) Depth: 33½ in (85 cm) Lenygon & Morant Lenygon & Morant were the leading cabinetmakers of the Edwardian age who specialised in re-creating furniture that evoked the Queen Anne and William & Mary taste. In 1904, Francis H. Lenygon founded Lenygon & Co, and in 1909 he merged his business with the upholstery firm Morant & Co. and took up premises at 31 Old Burlington Street.  The firm received commissions by a number of prominent patrons, including the Royal family, and the firm held royal warrants under four kings: Edward VII, George V, Edward VIII, and George VI. 

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A GEORGE II JAPANNED CHINOISERIE LACQUER LONGCASE CLOCK By William Bassett of Swansea Wales, circa 1740 An exceptional and very impressive japanned longcase clock by William Bassett of Swansea. The case, surmounted by three large brass flame finials, has a large caddy top with well fretted and gilded sound frets backed with red silk, the arched glazed front door is flanked by plain brass-capped columns, with two glass apertures to the sides, the main door with a conforming arched top, the base standing on a double plinth. The bodywork superbly japanned throughout. Signed to clockface: William Bassett Swansey Height: 110 in (279 cm) Width: 21 in (53 cm) Depth: 10¼ in (26 cm)

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The dial of the clock is quite exceptional with a large silvered arch with the signature of the maker ‘William Bassett, Swansey.’ Below that it has the lunar days and the painted moon ring with engraved and silvered moonphases interspersed with dark blue or black sky and stars, also showing high tide. To the right and left of the top of the chapter ring and slightly inset into it are the date dial and the strike/silent dial. The chapter ring has fleurde-lis half hour markers, Roman hour numerals and Arabic minute numerals. It has a finely matted centre with a second hand below 12 o’clock and a large triangular cut out above 6 o’clock showing the day of the week with an engraved figure and sign of the zodiac. The eight-day bell movement has rack striking and four nicely knopped pillars. It strikes on the hour on a bell mounted above the movement, with a brass-faced pendulum and two brass-cased weights.


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A PAIR OF LOUIS XVI WHITE-PAINTED FAUTEUILS Attributed to Jean-Baptiste Séné France, circa 1785 A very fine pair of Louis XVI white-painted fauteuils attributed to Jean-Baptiste Séné. Each chair with a rectangular back and seat, the back carved with leaf tips, the arms and seat rail with beading, standing on turned taperered and fluted legs headed by rosettes and terminating in turned sabots. The whole upholstered with ‘Indienne’ silk. Height: 36¼ in (92 cm) Width: 25½ in (65 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57.5 cm) Provenance Probably commissioned by Marie Antoinette for the château de St. Cloud

Marie Antoinette and the Chateau de St. Cloud This exceptional pair of fauteuil is quite probably part of a suite of furniture supplied to Marie Antoinette for the château de St. Cloud in 1785. The château was built during the second half of the 17th century by the Duke Philippe of Orléans, King Louis XIV’s only brother. In 1784, King Louis XVI purchased the château for his wife, Marie Antoinette, for the sum of 6,000,000 livres. The Queen took up the task of decorating the château entirely to her liking with the help of Richard Mique, a neoclassical architect. This new residence was furnished through commissions at the Garde-meuble de la Couronne and with furniture from other Royal residences. The suite to which the present chairs likely belong, along with several other commissions, were all delivered to St. Cloud in time for the King’s and Queen’s arrival on August 29 of 1785. The original suite of sixteen pieces of seat furniture is recorded in the ‘journal du Garde-mueble’ on July 2 1785 as ‘Hauré fera les bois cy après pour le service de la Reine à St Cloud: 1 canapé de 7 pds de long, 12 grand fauteuils mueblans à carreau, 4 bergères à carreau […] la peinture en blanc vernis sera faite à St Cloud.’ The suite was likely a collaboration between Séné, Jean Hauré, ‘entrepreneur des meubles de la Couronne,’ and George Jacob, who was one of the leading chair-makers in the Garde-meuble in the 1780s. Jean Hauré mentioned the suite in a further mémoire describing the style of carving and the decorative motifs used on them, saying ‘feuilles d’acanthes sur la console, rais de Coeur autour du dossier et perles dans les ceintures, pieds tournés et callenés.’ The suite was destined for the Salon de Diane, one of the salons in the King’s apartments. A pair of chaises from this suite has been in the collection of the Louvre in Paris since 1944, having originally been auctioned with other furnishings from St. Cloud in 1794-95. The chairs at the Louvre retain the original label that is inscribed, ‘pour le service de la/ Reine a St Cloud/ n.299.’

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MACKINNON FINE FURNITURE

OUR SERVICES We offer a comprehensive service around all aspects of your collection of fine antique furniture. We are particularly well placed in the market to offer advice on matters including sourcing, de-acquisitioning, cataloguing, shipping, restoration, and conservation, as well as interior consultation.

SOURCING We are often asked to source specific pieces on behalf of our clients. Whether this is at auction, or from our extensive access to private collections not readily available on the market, we are ideally placed to facilitate these requirements. An 18th century Chinese Export lacquer bureau on stand sourced for a client.

RESTORATION We provide a comprehensive restoration and conservation service. Our extensive contacts with a wide range of highly skilled and specialist restorers both in the UK and the USA allow us to carry out restoration on behalf of our clients to meet their specific needs, including polishing and waxing, japanning and lacquer work, gilding, decorative painting, framing, and upholstery. Please contact us for a quote. Detail of the George II walnut shepherds crook armchair on pp. 12-13.

INTERIOR CONSULTATION We continue to work on a number of full-scale interior design projects for our clients in the UK, USA and Continental Europe. Since 2014, we have been particularly privileged to have been invited by The Blair Charitable Trust to advise on the interior schemes, layouts and the outstanding collections at Blair Castle, Perthshire, the ancient seat of the Dukes and Earls of Atholl. A view of the Tapestry Room, Blair Castle, Perthshire.

Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Terms and Conditions All business transactions are subject to our standard terms and conditions of sale, copies of which are available upon request. Trading as Mackinnon Fine Art Consultancy Limited, Registered in England & Wales, No. 5747760. 120


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MACKINNON FINE FURNITURE II