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MACKINNON FINE FURNITURE

THE AGE OF WALNUT


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MACKINNON FINE FURNITURE

THE AGE OF WALNUT

Mackinnon Fine Furniture 5 Ryder Street St James's London SW1Y 6PY Telephone: +44 (0)20 7839 5671 | Mobile: +44 (0)7725 332 665 | Email: charlie@mackinnonfineart.com

www.mackinnonfineart.com


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INTRODUCTION The Age of Walnut focuses on one of the great defining eras in the history of English furniture. Effectively spanning the first few decades of the 18th century, this period represents a golden age of English craft and design in terms of quality, sophistication, and decorative appeal. Percy Macquoid, the preeminent early 20th century furniture historian, scholar, and collector, published a seminal series of references books. Each of the four volumes was dedicated to a different timber, specifically oak, walnut, mahogany, and satinwood. These studies with fine illustrations traced the evolution of English furniture throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and have been an invaluable reference for collectors and academics alike. It is fitting that we have borrowed his title, The Age of Walnut, for our catalogue. It is important to acknowledge that The Age of Walnut is defined by more than walnut alone - this period is also celebrated for furniture incorporating other extravagant materials and finishes, including japanned and lacquer work, as well as gilt gesso. We are delighted to bring together this selection of fine antiques from our collection that epitomise this era and highlight the great variety in decorative styles, techniques, and taste that appeared in the fashionable interiors of the age.

Charlie Mackinnon Mackinnon Fine Furniture

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THE AGE OF WALNUT

A Defining Era In his seminal volume The Age of Walnut, Percy Macquoid reminds us of the unprecedented nature of this period, noting, ‘The surroundings of this time were of a nature that have never been repeated in this country, luxury and pleasure predominating over everything’ (pp. 79-80). The 18th century in England represented a period of sustained creativity in the decorative arts. The country’s growing wealth and power led the elite to commission architects to build grand houses that reflected architectural, artistic, social, and economic prestige. These same patrons sought to fill these properties with the finest and most fashionable art, furniture, and decoration, including treasures from antiquity brought back from the Grand Tour in Italy and across Europe. About 150 important houses were built in England in the first half of the 18th century, including architectural masterpieces such as Houghton Hall, Blenheim Palace, and Holkham Hall. This increased patronage of the arts was matched by the rise of illustrious cabinet-makers who developed robust workshops to meet the growing demand for fine furnishings. Gerrit Jensen, James Moore, and Giles Grendey were three such cabinet-makers who were patronised by leading tastemakers of their era, and their furniture incorporated the latest fashions and finest materials. With developments in the architectural style of the country house and its interiors as well as shifting social customs, furniture forms and designs also changed. The wing chair, bachelors chest, and bureau bookcase are all staple pieces that epitomise the furnishings of country houses of the early Georgian period. Walnut: A History The walnut tree’s botanical name Juglans is taken from Roman mythology: it was believed that Jupiter fed on walnuts when he was on earth, and the tree became known as the ‘royal nut of Jupiter.’ Walnut trees are not native to England, but they were introduced by the Romans who used them for both their nuts and oil. By the Middle Ages, the trees were almost extinct and walnut was considered an exotic timber. The name walnut comes from the Anglo-Saxon term wealh-nut, meaning ‘foreign-nut.’

The earliest appearance of walnut furnishings in England occurred around 1600 in the form of panelling, and throughout the 17th century the timber became highly valued for its decorative appeal and strength. In 1613, Gervase Markham stated, ‘If you would chuse Timber for joined Tables, Cupboards, or Bedsteds, you shall then make a choise of the fairest Walnut-tree you can find, being old straight, unknotted, and of a high boale… the Walnut-tree is by many degrees the best of all other, for it is the smoothest graine, and to the eye the most beautiful.’ John Evelyn in Sylva (1664) lamented that walnut was not more widely available, noting ‘were the timber in greater plenty amongst us we should have far better utensils of all sorts for our Houses, as chairs, stools, Bedsteads, Tables, Wainscot, Cabinets etc., instead of the more vulgar beech… I say if we had more of this material we should find an incredible improvement in the most stable furniture of our houses.’ From the end of the 17th century through the middle of the 18th century, walnut was the most highly valued timber choice for furniture in England due to its exceptional variation in colour and grain. In addition to solid walnut, cabinet-makers also made good use of veneers to highlight the intricate patterns of tightly knotted burrs and figured timbers from the root or curl. As there was only a limited supply of walnut in Britain, much of the timber had to be imported from abroad. Britain’s colonial ambitions and relationships with foreign powers directly influenced what materials were available to craftsmen. France was an important source for the timber, Juglans regia, in the first two decades of the 18th century. Evelyn noted that French walnut is ‘very black in colour, and so admirably streaked, as to represent natural flowers, landsckips and other fancys.’ However, a severe winter in 1709 destroyed a great number of the trees in central Europe, which led to the French prohibition of walnut exportation in 1720. This abrupt halt in trade had serious implications for the walnut trade in England: whereas in 1719, France provided 90 percent of England’s walnut, in 1722 the number dramatically dropped to only 5 percent.

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The Naval Stores Act of 1721 eliminated duties on imported goods from colonial holdings, which led to large quantities of walnut coming from North America. This act stimulated the market for decorative timbers for the furniture trade as well as the traditional market for the shipbuilding and construction industries. ‘Virginia walnut,’ Juglans nigra, was highly prized for furniture making and several contemporary sources suggest it was superior to its European counterpart. William Boutcher noted that American walnut was better as ‘they grow faster, and become larger and loftier trees, and the wood is also said to be of a superior quality.’ By the middle of the 18th century, mahogany, also imported from the Americas, had superceded walnut and become the more fashionable timber for use on furniture and furnishings. Japanning Walnut was the dominant timber in furniture of the early 18th century, but elite patrons also commissioned cabinet-makers to create furniture in other materials, often lavish and extremely expensive. In complete contrast to the colour of walnut, two of the most popular surface decorations were japanning and gilt gesso, both prized for their striking appearance and their decorative appeal. The tradition of japanning arose from the fascination with Asian art and design, which began arriving in Europe at the end of the 16th century. The foundation of the East India Company had helped to formally open trade routes with the East. One of the most highly prized exports from the East was lacquerware. In the form of screens, chests, and cabinets, lacquer was coveted for its brilliant lustrous surfaces and exotic decoration, the like of which had never been seen in Europe before. The novelty and expense of this type of work sparked a desire to recreate these works in Europe. Ultimately, the Europeans were searching in vain for the recipe to make lacquer as the specific resin required, sap

from Rhus vernicifera, a tree found across China but not in Europe, was not available. Instead, the Europeans developed a technique by layering a series of paints and varnishes onto a surface, which created a visually similar appearance to lacquer when applied in a certain way. The English referred to their imitations of Asian lacquer as Japan work. John Stalker and George Parker’s 1688 publication, A Treatise on Japanning and Varnishing, was one of the most influential treatises on japanned furniture and decoration in England of the period. Japanned furniture was at the forefront of fashionable taste in the early 18th century. In the form of chairs, mirrors, cabinets, and tables, the japanned surface, which was brilliantly coloured in red, green, cream or black, was often embellished with gold chinoiserie highlights, further adding to the extravagant and lustrous nature of the decoration. Gilt Gesso The practice of gilding dates back to the ancient Egyptians and has been used extensively throughout almost every culture from antiquity to contemporary art. The application of finely laid gold leaf onto an exquisitely carved gesso surface appeared in England at the end of the seventeenth century with the work of Jean Pelletier, a Huguenot craftsman who received Royal patronage at Hampton Court and Kensington Palace. James Moore, a Royal cabinet-maker working in the early eighteenth century, expanded on this technique, and his name has become synonymous with some of the finest pieces of the period. Influenced by the French decorative arts of the late 17th century, these extraordinary pieces of furniture were the height of fashion, the status symbols of their day afforded by only the wealthiest individuals, and were displayed as such to emphasise the wealth and prestige of their owners. R. W. Symonds, a renowned furniture historian, pronounced that gilt gesso furniture was unparalleled: ‘It possessed a quality which no carving in wood could emulate’ (R. W. Symonds, ‘The Origin of Gesso Furniture,’ Country Life, June 12 1958, pp.1283-84).

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A GEORGE I WALNUT STOOL England, circa 1720 A very fine George I walnut stool of generous proportions. The stool standing on four cabriole legs, each with fine carved detail, and standing on square moulded pad feet. The stool upholstered in 18th century floral needlepoint. The walnut of particularly good colour and patina. Height: 19¼ in (49 cm) Width: 24 in (61 cm) Depth: 19 in (48 cm)

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Provenance Private Collection, Spain


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A QUEEN ANNE GILT GESSO SIDE TABLE England, circa 1710 A very fine Queen Anne gilt gesso side table with antique Roman inlaid marble top. The table with a frieze centred by a shell framed by foliate carving above a cartouche apron with cabriole legs further carved with foliate designs and terminating in pad feet. Height: 29¾ in (76 cm) Width: 38¼ in (97 cm) Depth: 20 in (51 cm)

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Provenance The collection of Sir John Gooch, 12th Bt., Benacre Hall, Suffolk Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Private Collection, New York


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A QUEEN ANNE BURR YEW CHEST OF DRAWERS England, circa 1700 A rare Queen Anne burr yew chest of drawers of superb depth of colour and with untouched patination. The quarter-veneered top with walnut feather-banding, the drawers likewise featherbanded and with book-matched veneers to the ends. Retaining original engraved handles and escutcheons.

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Height: 35½ in (90 cm) Width: 38 in (96.5 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57 cm)


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A PAIR OF GEORGE II WALNUT SIDE CHAIRS Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 A very fine pair of George II walnut side chairs attributed to Giles Grendey. Each chair with a scrolled top rail above a vaseshaped splat flanked by serpentine stiles, with drop-in needlework seats above cabriole legs with carved shells to the knees, standing on claw and ball feet. The drop-in seats covered in superb 18th century floral needlepoint on a red ground retaining particularly vibrant colours. The chairs with journey-man stamp ‘WF.’

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Height: 39 in (99 cm) Width: 22¾ in (58 cm) Depth: 22¾ in (58 cm)


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A WILLIAM & MARY MARQUETRY MIRROR In the manner of Gerrit Jensen England, circa 1690 An exceptional large scale William & Mary walnut and fruitwood marquetry wall mirror with elaborate shaped cresting in the manner of Gerrit Jensen. The rectangular mirror plate within a cushion-moulded border elaborately inlaid with trailing flowerheads, foliage, and scrolling arabesques, with bone-inlaid floral details. Of magnificent proportions. Height: 64½ in (164 cm) Width: 41 in (104 cm) Provenance Asprey & Co., London, 1977 Private Collection, Switzerland Literature Apollo, vol. CVI, no. 189, November 1977.

This outstanding mirror bears close resemblance to one with similar floral marquetry and of virtually identical dimensions from the collection of the 1st Duke and Duchess of Lauderdale, at Ham House, Surrey. The Ham House mirror has recently been attributed to Gerrit Jensen (d. 1715), who was Dutch by birth but established his workshop in London’s St. Martin’s Lane as a ‘Cabbinet-maker and Glasse seller’ for notable patrons. In addition to the mirror, Jensen is thought to have supplied several other marquetry pieces with similar floral decoration to Ham House, including three tables and a cabinet. Jensen was one of the principal cabinet-makers for the Royal family and supplied a number of pieces for both William & Mary and subsequently Queen Anne. The accounts indicate that his mirrors were the most expensive pieces he produced, including a set of four for the ‘Painted Gardain Roome’ at Hampton Court for £320. He supplied a magnificent marquetry mirror of similar form and decoration to the present mirror that remains in the Royal Collection, which may correspond to a record in the accounts for ‘att Windsor Castle Queenes Side/In ye Gallery/For a Table, Stands a glasse Inlayd in wallnuttree the glasse 39 inches £40.’ Jensen’s output reflects the influence of both his Dutch heritage and the French styles of his contemporaries Pierre Gole, a master of marquetry, and Daniel Marot. Historian Gervase JacksonStops writes that Jensen’s marquetry work ‘is of such high quality that it deserves, like that of Thomas Chippendale, to stand for the work of a whole generation of English cabinet-makers.’

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AN IVORY JAPANNED CABINET ON STAND The cabinet European, the stand English, circa 1680 An outstanding late 17th century polychrome and gilt-japanned two door fitted cabinet on a Charles II carved giltwood stand. The cabinet decorated throughout with landscaped pagoda scenes incorporating figures, birds, and imaginary creatures, the doors mounted with finely etched hinges and escutcheons, opening to reveal an arrangement of ten drawers of various sizes. The boldly carved giltwood stand with winged cherubs hoisting a laurel wreath within foliate and acanthus leaf swags.

The cabinet’s decoration of whimsical Oriental gardens with flowering shrubs and birds relates to patterns from John Stalker and George Parker’s Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing (1688). The indented-corner tablet set within a broad frame corresponds to that of a 17th century Japanese cabinet that is similarly displayed on a stand carved with putti amongst foliage in the French arabesque manner (M. Jourdain and R. Soame Jenyns, Chinese Export Art, London, 1967, fig. 31).

Height: 56 in (142 cm) Width: 34½ in (88 cm) Depth: 25 in (61 cm)

There is a pair of similarly decorated 17th century Japanese lacquer cabinets on a white ground at Boughton House (T. Murdoch ed., Boughton House, The English Versailles, London, 1922, pl. 80), and there are also white japanned versions executed in Berlin in the late 17th century by Gerard Dagly (d. 1714) (H. Huth, Lacquer of the West, London, 1971, figs. 160-61; H. Honour, Cabinet Makers and Furniture Designers, London, 1972, p. 63).

Provenance Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London, 1957 Literature C. Jones, Colefax & Fowler - The Best in English Interior Decoration, ill. p. 116.

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A PAIR OF GEORGE II WALNUT SIDE CHAIRS Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1745 A very fine pair of George II walnut side chairs attributed to Giles Grendey. Each with an upholstered padded back and seat, the waved apron carved with a central shell and trailing acanthus, standing on foliate-carved cabriole legs ending in scrolled feet. Height: 38Ÿ in (97 cm) Width: 28 in (71 cm) Depth: 26ž in (68 cm)

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The exceptional shallow carving of foliate tendrils on the seat apron and legs recalls the influence of Chinese export furniture created in Canton in the beginning of the 18th century. Examples of such pieces can be seen at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, Wilton House, Wiltshire, and Temple Newsam House, Leeds. The Chinese incorporation of this shallow carving was itself influenced by English gilt gesso carved decoration of the late 17th and early 18th centuries.


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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT BUREAU CABINET Traditionally attributed to the Master of the Royal Portuguese Cabinets England, circa 1720 A superb George I burr walnut bureau cabinet. The cabinet veneered in the finest quality walnut throughout, the serpentine cresting and cavetto cornice enclosing a shaped inset cartouche with carved interlaced C-scrolls, above a pair of arched mirrored doors enclosing a fitted interior of pigeonholes and shelves, the bureau section enclosing a fitted interior of drawers and a cross and feather-banded writing-flat, above four short and two long drawers, on shaped bracket feet. With a label in the upper left drawer: ‘Purchased from / J.H. Gillingham South Kensington / At the / Antique Dealers’ Fair / Grosvenor House W.1. / 1936.’ Height: 91¼ in (232 cm) Width: 38¾ in (98.5 cm) Depth: 21½ in (54.5 cm)

Provenance J.H. Gillingham, The Grosvenor House Art & Antiques Fair, 1936 Either John, 2nd Baron Hothfield of Hothfield (d. 1952) or his son Henry, 3rd Baron Hothfield of Hothfield (d. 1961) Apter Fredericks Ltd., London Private Collection, UK Hotspur Ltd., London Literature Apter Fredericks, 18th Century English Furniture, 1986, cat. no. 1. Comparative Literature C. Gilbert, Marked London Furniture 1700-1840, 1996, p. 337, figs. 646-47. N.I. Guseva, ‘Fedor Martynov, Russian Master Cabinet Maker,’ Furniture History, 1994, p. 95, no. 3. A. Bowett, Geffrye Museum Symposium, January 2002. C. Gilbert, The Pictorial Dictionary of Marked London Furniture 1700-1840, Leeds, 1996, figs. 646-47. N. Snodin, ‘Thomas Bowles and Baroque Ornament: Some More Printed Sources for Engraved Brass Inlay,’ Furniture History, 1994, pp. 86-91.

Detail of the engraved lock-plate on the bureau cabinet. 22


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There is a small number of bureau cabinets of similar form and design, decorated in either walnut or japanning, that are traditionally attributed to the ‘Master of the Royal Portuguese Cabinets.’ The group is made up of: The present example A walnut bureau cabinet sold by Sir Thomas Beevor, Bt., Christie’s London, 14 June 2001, lot 150. A walnut bureau cabinet, advertised by M. Turpin in Connoisseur, June 1969. The pair of gilt-gesso bureau cabinets, one with Mackinnon in 2017, made for the Portuguese Royal court. A George I black and gilt-japanned bureau cabinet sold Christie’s London, 23 November 2006, lot 100. A red and gilt-japanned bureau cabinet formerly at Schloss Pillnitz, Dresden. A red and gilt-japanned bureau cabinet in the Gerstenfeld Collection. A red and gilt-japanned bureau cabinet sold Christies, Madrid, 1974 and with Mallett, London in 1978. Although a definitive link with a known cabinet-maker has proven inconclusive so far, one of the likely candidates is Peter Miller of St Mary-le-Savoy. Miller’s name and workshop was only discovered in 1996, when Christopher Gilbert illustrated a magnificent walnut bureau cabinet in his publication Marked London Furniture 1700-1840. This bureau cabinet features Peter Miller’s label hidden behind the small central mirror, which reads: ‘Peter Miller Cabenet Macker in the Savoy in London the 13 June Ao 1724.’ It is thought that the cabinet was made for export to Spain given additional inscriptions in Spanish as well as its provenance in Barcelona. Miller has come to be regarded as a cabinet-maker of exceptional skill and ability, however there are very few records of his activities, partially due to his workshop’s location on the west side of the Savoy, which was outside the City of London and its associated regulations. One of the few records is a notice on 28 May 1715 by Peter Miller, described as being ‘about fifty years’ in age stating his intention to marry Ann Klug (or Clark). His will, dated 17 September 1729, describes Miller as a ‘Cabinet Maker.’ He left his ‘Trade and Business of Cabinet Making’ to John Miller, who was recorded as working at Fountain Court on the west side of the Savoy. The Master of the Portuguese Royal Cabinets may also have a connection with one of Miller’s neighbours on the Strand, the renowned cabinet-maker James Moore and his partner John Gumley. Moore and Gumley, who received Royal patronage from George I, specialized in both gilt gesso furniture as well as looking glasses. Gumley’s firm advertised its wares for export in a 1714 notice for ‘the Quality, Gentry and Merchants for Exportation’ to acquire his looking glasses of the ‘Newest

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Fashions.’ It is believed that Moore and Gumley collaborated on an exceptional commission for the Portuguese Royal Court, which gives the Master of the Portuguese Royal Cabinets its name, including a pair of bureau cabinets decorated entirely in gilt gesso, mentioned previously, that share a similar form with the present cabinet. In addition to the fine burr walnut veneers used throughout, this cabinet features elaborate engraved brass lock-plates. The inspiration for this abstracted foliate decoration derives from Continental sources from the middle to the end of the 17th century. Jean Le Pautre, a French designer who published a series of ornamental engravings, is a likely source for the lock-plate’s design. Like his contemporaries Daniel Marot and François de Cuvillies, Le Pautre travelled widely in Europe where his designs would serve to influence local craftsmen. Back in England, seeing the increasing demand for these Baroque designs from the Continent, a printseller named Thomas Bowles compiled a series of these sources in 1729 into a suite of prints entitled A Compleat Book of Ornaments,… Invented and Drawn by some of the best Artists. Virtually identical lock-plates also appear on the Portuguese gilt gesso bureau cabinets, as well as the walnut bureau cabinet attributed to Peter Miller from the collection of Sir Thomas Beevor, Bt. Each cabinet’s lock-plate features similar scrolled Roman acanthus and laurel foliage and a central figure: one with wings, another blowing a conch shell, and the present cabinet with a triton accompanied by a bird. There is an interesting connection between Miller’s workshop and Russia. Peter the Great of Russia had grand ambitions to develop a new capital in St. Petersburg as one of the great European cities. He sent a group of twenty-four apprentices to London in 1717 with the goal of improving Russian knowledge of art and architecture. Nine of these apprentices were sent specifically to study under furniture-makers, including ‘joinery and decoration of houses’ and ‘cabinet work.’ One of these travelling apprentices was Feder Martynov, who set up a thriving furniture business upon his return to Russia. Three of his drawings of cabinets prepared for Empress Anna Iovannovna survive in the Russian archives. The first cabinet, which was the one ultimately selected by the Empress, features striking similarities with the present bureau. Like this piece, Martynov also created his bureau in walnut ‘of handsome burr.’ Given the similarity of Martynov’s drawing and the cabinets attributed to Miller, it is highly possible that Martynov received training from him during his time in London. As Miller’s workshop was located outside the City of London and therefore outside of the restrictions of the London Livery Companies, he was free to provide this type of training to the visiting apprentice.


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A GEORGE I SCARLET JAPANNED MULE CHEST England, circa 1720 An extremely rare and fine George I period scarlet japanned trunk. The lifting top decorated with various scenes of Oriental figures in landscapes, the front, similarly decorated, with islands, bridges, and fishing boats with an elaborate chased central escutcheon plate over two short and one long drawer similarly decorated and retaining their original brass handles and escutcheons, the sides decorated with sprigs of flowers and with original engraved lifting handles, the whole raised on four turned bun feet. Glorious japanned decoration inspired by the designs of Stalker & Parker. A wonderful and very rare piece of furniture. Height: 30 in (76 cm) Width: 43½ in (110.5 cm) Depth: 23 in (58.5 cm)

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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT BACHELORS CHEST England, circa 1720 A superb George I burr walnut bachelors chest of magnificent colour and patina. The top quarter-veneered with cross-banding and herringbone inlay, folding over to reveal a finely veneered interior surface, above two short drawers and three graduated long drawers, standing on shaped bracket feet, retaining period brass handles and escutcheons. A lovely example, of excellent proportions.

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Height: 31¾ in (80.5 cm) Width: 30½ in (77.5 cm) Depth: 15½ in (39 cm)


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A PAIR OF GEORGE I GILT GESSO TABLES Attributed to Elizabeth Gumley England, circa 1720 An exceptional and very rare matched pair of George I gilt gesso tables attributed to Elizabeth Gumley. The tops with re-entrant corners and carved with an elaborate design of acanthus leaves and strapwork, above a shaped frieze similarly decorated and centred by a shell, raised on cabriole legs with boldly scrolled acanthus leaves to the knees and particularly rare inverted scroll feet. Of identical size, one is a side table and one is a centre table, the side table having gilt gesso decoration on three sides of the frieze while the centre table is decorated on all four sides. The tops, following the same overall pattern, feature differences in their decorative carving, and the side table has carved beading to the legs. The side table stamped E.G. to the underside. Height: 30¼ in (77 cm) Width: 31¼ in (79 cm) Depth: 20¼ in (51 cm)

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The stamped ‘E.G.’ on the underside of the side table almost certainly refers to Elizabeth Gumley (1674-1751), who was part of a renowned family of cabinet-makers in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. She worked in partnership with her husband, Peter (16741702), and son, John (1691-1727), and together the family firm supplied tables, chests, japanned cabinets, and looking glasses, which was one of the firm’s specialities. The Gumleys collaborated with the cabinet-maker James Moore (1670-1726), one of the most celebrated English furniture makers of the early 18th century. It is thought that Moore would have received some of his training from Elizabeth Gumley in his early career. As partners, the Gumleys and Moore received patronage from King George I in the Royal household in 1714, carrying out a number of important commissions for Hampton Court and St. James’s Palace. Moore also received notable commissions from influential patrons including the Duchess of Marlborough at Blenheim Palace, the Duke of Montagu at Boughton, and the Earl of Burlington.


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A QUEEN ANNE WALNUT WING CHAIR England, circa 1715 A very fine Queen Anne walnut wing chair. Standing on carved cabriole legs and terminating in pad feet. Upholstered in pale blue silk damask. Of particularly pleasing proportions, this chair stands very well.

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Height: 43 in (110 cm) Width: 35 in (89 cm) Depth: 26 in (66 cm)


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A QUEEN ANNE BLACK AND GILT JAPANNED DRESSING MIRROR England, circa 1710 A fine Queen Anne black and gilt japanned dressing mirror. The shaped mirror frame with turned supports, the fall front below with a stepped interior of pigeonholes and drawers, the base drawers with a nest of compartments and comb slots. The whole decorated with fine quality chinoiseries and gilt highlights on a black japanned ground.

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Height: 31 in (79 cm) Width: 15½ in (39 cm) Depth: 9½ in (24 cm)


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A WILLIAM & MARY WALNUT CHEST ON STAND England, circa 1695 A magnificent William & Mary walnut chest on stand of good colour and excellent patination. The lid inlaid with a central oval pattern top with chevron stringing with quartering, standing on a barley twist base with cross-banded stretchers and bun feet. With original gilt brass handles and escutcheons. Height: 30 in (76 cm) Width: 37½ in (95 cm) Depth: 24 in (61 cm)

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This type of chest on stand was referred to as a ‘lace chest’ as it was used for the storage of silk and lace, which were highly expensive items that were stored in pieces of prominence. In a book published in 1899 entitled Point and Pillow Lace: A Short Account of Various Kinds Ancient and Modern, and How to Recognise Them by Mary Sharp, the lace chest is described as follows, ‘The upper part was intended to hold the lace pillow, while the drawers below were meant to take the bobbins and patterns.’


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A QUEEN ANNE WALNUT KNEEHOLE DESK England, circa 1710 A fine Queen Anne walnut kneehole desk of very good colour and patina. The moulded top with cross-banding and a central panel bordered by octagonal banding, above one long drawer and two banks of three graduated drawers surrounding a recessed kneehole cupboard, the whole standing on bun feet. Retaining original handles and escutcheons with engraved detail.

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Height: 30 in (76 cm) Width: 31½ in (80 cm) Depth: 19¼ in (49 cm)


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A QUEEN ANNE BURR WALNUT BACHELORS CHEST England, circa 1715 A rare Queen Anne burr walnut bachelors chest of diminutive size and remarkable original condition. The top with featherbanding opening to a reveal a beautifully figured walnut surface, over four long graduated drawers standing on bun feet, the front of the chest with double half round mouldings. Retaining original hardware and bun feet. Height: 30¾ in (78 cm) Width: 28¾ in (73 cm) Depth: 13¾ in (35 cm)

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Provenance Private Collection, Chicago This exceptional Queen Anne burr walnut bachelors chest features interesting decoration with double lines of featherbanding running vertically in the centre of each drawer simulating individual short drawers. A related example of this desirable form is illustrated in Adam Bowett’s Early Georgian Furniture 1715-40 (p. 107). Bowett highlights the rarity of ball feet and half round mouldings.


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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT CABINET ON CHEST England, circa 1715 A magnificent George I burr walnut cabinet-on-chest of exceptional quality. The upper section with a cornice and two paneled doors inlaid with herringbone detailing, opening to reveal a series of drawers around a central cupboard, each drawer magnificently veneered in superb walnut, the central cupboard door further opening once more to reveal a series of sunken drawers behind which is a secret compartment. The lower section with two short drawers over three long graduated oaklined drawers each herringbone inlaid and with original brass handles of very rare form, the whole standing on bracket feet.

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An outstanding piece of early Georgian furniture. The walnut throughout is of the most wonderful colour and patina. Height: 79½ in (202 cm) Width: 40½ in (103 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57 cm)


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A WILLIAM & MARY EBONISED WALNUT ARMCHAIR England, circa 1690 A very fine William & Mary ebonised walnut armchair. The high back surmounted by an elaborate scrolled cresting with foliate decoration above fluted column supports, the scrolled front legs joined by an arched and pierced foliate front rail and shaped stretcher. The arms of wonderful exaggerated form with scrolled handrests. The padded back and seat upholstered with embroidered wool crewel work. Height: 55 in (140 cm) Width: 32¼ in (82 cm) Depth: 23¾ in (60 cm)

The origin of crewel work in England dates back to the 13th century, and it is thought that the technique began in ancient Egypt before spreading to Greek and Roman cultures. Crewel work is a specific type of embroidery that features wool designs on a tightly woven linen or silk. Crewel work became extremely popular in Jacobean England. Throughout the 17th century, designs became more elaborate and exuberant with the development of richer colours. In the following centuries, crewel work continued to be used in different styles, with a preference to lighter designs during the reign of Queen Anne and a resurgence of the bold, large patterns during the Georgian era. The crewel work on this chair depicts the traditional tree of life pattern in richly dyed wools with bold decoration.

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A GEORGE II WALNUT AND PARCEL GILT MIRROR England, circa 1730 A magnificent and very rare George II parcel gilt and burr walnut architectural pier mirror. The rectangular bevelled plate within a moulded burr walnut frame, the inner edge decorated with gilt gesso strap-work decoration, the gilded cornice with broken pediment, cartouche, and egg and dart moulding, the sides with gilded highlights. An unusual tall form, with wonderful burr walnut veneers of exceptional colour and detailing. Height: 64½ in (164 cm) Width: 28¾ in (73 cm) Provenance Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London The architect James Gibbs (1682-1754) designed a ‘sconce’ pattern in the 1720s that relates closely to the present mirror’s tablet frame. Gibbs was one of the most influential architects in 18th century England known for his designs that reflected both the English Baroque style and burgeoning Palladian taste. Some of his most notable commissions include St Martin-in-the-Fields in London, the Radcliffe Camera at Oxford University, and Senate House at Cambridge University.

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In addition to his architectural achievements, Gibbs published A Book of Architecture, containing designs of buildings and ornaments in 1728. According to historian John Summerson, his designs became ‘probably the most widely-used architecture book of the century, not only throughout Britain, but in the American colonies and the West Indies.’ This mirror reflects the classical architectural principles promoted by Gibbs. One of Gibbs’ only surviving interior schemes is now installed at the Victoria & Albert Museum. The Drawing Room of No. 11 Henrietta Street features an overmantel with a broken pediment that shares similarities with the present mirror. The present mirror also relates to a pair of mirrors featuring a similar serpentine apron and the Orlebar family coat-of-arms on a scrolled cartouche. The Orlebar mirrors were part of the furnishings at Hinwick House, Northamptonshire and later formed part of the celebrated collection of the renowned furniture collector Percival Griffiths at Sandridgebury, St. Albans.


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A QUEEN ANNE SCARLET JAPANNED BACHELORS CHEST England, circa 1700-10 An exceptionally rare and highly important Queen Anne japanned bachelors chest. Decorated overall with chinoiserie designs on a scarlet red ground, the rectangular hinged top with a silk velvet-lined interior and concealed compartments, above an arched apron and three central drawers, flanked by doors each enclosing five further japanned drawers, the folding top supported by hinged gate legs, the sides similarly decorated and with bold brass carrying handles, on bun feet. The japanning of outstanding quality. Height: 29½ in (74 cm) Width: 36 in (90 cm) Depth: 14½ in (37 cm) Comparative Literature A. Bowett, English Furniture from Charles II to Queen Anne 1660 1714, p. 216, pl. 7:42. C. Hussey, ‘Japanned Furniture at Trent Park’, Country Life, 18 October 1930, p. 500, fig. 9. C. Hussey, ‘Trent Park, Hertfordshire - II’, Country Life, 17 January 1931, p. 70, fig. 8. ‘Trent Park’, The Antique Collector, December 1938, p. 348. Dr D. G. Doree, Trent Park: A Short History to 1939, 1974, repr. 1990. L. Synge, Mallett Millennium, p. 73, fig. 70. Mallett & Son Antiques Ltd., Annual Catalogue, 1995, pp. 30-33 (and on the cover). Loan Exhibition of English Decorative Arts at Lansdowne House, 17 - 28 February 1928. The Age of Walnut, 25 Park Lane, 1932, fig. 44.

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This exceptional bachelors chest is extraordinarily rare with only one other example with red japanned decoration recorded, which was part of the magnificent collections of the Marquess of Cholmondeley from Houghton Hall, Norfolk (sold Christie’s, 8 December 1994, lot 114) and had previously been in the collection of Sir Philip Sassoon, Bt., Trent Park, Hertfordshire. Documented in a photograph of the Blue Room (South Drawing Room) at Trent Park in 1939, this cabinet was subsequently sold by Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd. of New Bond Street. Most recently it was offered by Apter Fredericks Ltd. and illustrated in their catalogue Important English Furniture – II. A similar walnut bachelors chest and writing table from the collection of Irwin Untermyer is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (Y. Hackenbroch, English Furniture in the Irwin Untermyer Collection, London, 1958, pl. 278, fig. 320).


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A PAIR OF GEORGE I SEAWEED MARQUETRY SIDE CHAIRS Attributed to Thomas or Richard Roberts England, circa 1715 A superb pair of George I walnut and seaweed marquetry side chairs attributed to Royal cabinet-makers Thomas or Richard Roberts. Each with an arched upholstered back and seat, on shaped cabriole legs with square hoof feet, the legs and circular panel to the front seat rail beautifully inlaid with seaweed marquetry decoration. Height: 43¼ in (110 cm) Width: 22¾ in (58 cm) Depth: 25¾ in (65.5 cm) Provenance Charles of London and New York (the pseudonym for Charles Joel Duveen), described as ‘the Hampton Court Chairs’ Gifted by Mrs Leonard A. Cohn to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1945

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Exhibited AngloMania: Tradition and Transgression in British Fashion, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 3 May – 4 September 2006. Previously on permanent view at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Literature ‘Recent Accessions of European Decorative Arts’, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol. 6, no. 8, April 1948, p. 227. Comparative Literature A. Bowett, Early Georgian Furniture 1715-1740, pl. 4.19, 4.53-54 G. Beard and J. Cross, ‘Thomas and Richard Roberts’, Apollo, September 1998, pp. 46-48 G. Beard, Upholsterers and Interior Furnishing in England 1530-1840, London 1997, p. 149, fig. 167.


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A GEORGE II BURR WALNUT CARD TABLE England, circa 1730 A fine George II burr walnut concertina action card table. The shaped top lifting to reveal a velvet lined interior with candle stands and guinea wells, standing on cabriole legs carved with shells and foliage to the knees and terminating in bold carved ball and claw feet. Of good colour throughout.

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Height: 28 in (71 cm) Width: 34 in (86 cm) Depth: 16¼ in (41 cm)


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A GEORGE II GILTWOOD TABLE

In the manner of William Kent England, circa 1730 An exceptional George II carved giltwood table in the manner of William Kent. The table with a boldly gadrooned edge above a central mask flanked by scrolling acanthus leaves and trailing harebells, with swags of carved flowers, and standing on carved cabriole legs surmounted by superbly carved shells and stylised flowers and foliage which terminate in magnificent ball and claw feet, with a Portoro Nero marble top. Height: 34½ in (88 cm) Width: 43¾ in (111 cm) Depth: 24¾ in (63 cm) Provenance The Earls of Lovelace, presumably Ockham Park, Surrey and later Horsley Towers, Surrey Comparative Literature C. Gilbert, ‘The Temple Newsam Furniture Bills,’ Furniture History, Vol. 3, 1967, pp. 16-28. J. Vardy, Some Designs of Mr. Inigo Jones and Mr. William Kent, 1744, pl. 41. W. Jones, The Gentleman of Builder’s Companion, 1739, pl. 28 & 30.

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The stands for a pair of cabinets, on display at Temple Newsam, bear strong resemblance to the overall design of the present table. It is thought that the cabinet stands were installed at Temple Newsam by the Honorable Charles Ingram (1727-1778) and his bride Frances Shepherd (1733-1807) after their marriage in 1758. The 1808 Temple Newsam Inventory records the cabinets as being in the Breakfast Parlour. Although there is no record of their original invoice, there is a charge of £9 on November 7 1758 to Richard Kerby, a cabinet-maker of Sackville Street, London for ‘New Gilding 2 Rich Carv’d frames for cabinets in the Best Burnish’d Gold.’ As with the present table, the stands of these cabinets similarly date to the 1730s. The construction of the Temple Newsam stands is notably different than the present table, which has a much sturdier frame to presumably allow for the weight of a substantial marble top.


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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT CHEST ON CHEST England, circa 1720 An exceptional George I period burr walnut and walnut cheston-chest of the very finest quality. The upper section with moulded cornice and architecturally fluted canted corners with a row of three short drawers above three long graduated drawers, the lower part with a concealed secretaire-drawer complete with small drawers and pigeonholes, above three further long graduated drawers, the lowest of which is fitted with a magnificent inlaid concave sunburst, the whole standing on bracket feet. Retaining its original brass handles, back-plates and escutcheons. An outstanding example.

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Height: 74 in (189 cm) Width: 39 in (101 cm) Depth: 21 in (55 cm)


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A PAIR OF GEORGE II GREEN JAPANNED SIDE CHAIRS In the manner of Giles Grendey England, circa 1720-30 A rare pair of George II japanned side chairs in the manner of Giles Grendey. Each chair with shell-carved arched top-rail and drop-in seat, standing on cabriole front legs joined by turned and waved stretchers, the front cabriole legs terminating in claw and ball feet. With magnificent whimsical chinoiserie decoration throughout in the manner of Stalker & Parker.

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Height: 41 in (104 cm) Width: 22 in (56 cm) Depth: 23 in (59 cm)


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THE CHANDOS BUREAU Attributed to Peter Miller England, circa 1725 An exceptional and very rare George I figured walnut, crossbanded, and feather-banded bureau attributed to Peter Miller. In two parts, the top with a pair of hinged sloping doors, lined with silk velvet, which open outwards, the interior fitted with a sliding velvet-lined writing surface, and a combination of drawers and pigeonholes. The lower part fitted with a pair of projecting panelled doors flanked by gilt gesso decorated walnut Corinthian pilasters concealing hidden compartments and three short concave drawers to each side, above a shaped apron drawer with projecting plinths, standing on shaped bracket feet with castors. The sides fitted with wonderful brass carrying handles. With solid walnut lined drawers throughout. Of exceptional quality throughout. A masterpiece of 18th century walnut furniture.

Provenance Supplied to James Brydges, 1st Duke of Chandos (1673-1744) for Shaw Hall, Berkshire circa 1725 James Brydges, Duke of Chandos (1673-1744) James Brydges was the first of fourteen children by Sir James Brydges, 3rd Baronet of Wilton Castle, Sheriff of Herefordshire, 8th Lord Chandos. As Paymaster-General of Marlborough’s army he built a fortune that placed him amongst the richest men of his day. Rising through the peerage, Brydges became successively Viscount Wilton, Earl of Carnarvon, and Duke of Chandos. Having acquired great wealth and influence, Brydges commissioned work from leading artists and architects. Alongside Sir Robert Walpole and Sir Hans Sloane, he was considered one of the most important patrons of the 18th century.

Twice inscribed in ink on the inner backboards, ‘To His Grace The Duke of Chandos at Shaw Hall, near Newbury, Barks(sic).’ Height: 46½ in (119 cm) Width: 48 in (123 cm) Depth: 29½ in (75 cm)

Detail of the engraved lock-plate on the bureau.

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A 17th CENTURY EBONISED CUSHION MIRROR Dutch, circa 1670 A very fine large scale 17th century Dutch ebonised cushion mirror. The frame in pearwood with alternating bands of ripple moulding. Of exceptional scale and quality. Height: 49½ in (125.5 cm) Width: 42¼ in (107.5 cm)

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This outstanding mirror is made from pearwood, which was highly regarded as timber for furniture during the 17th century. As early as 1613, Gervase Markham suggested, ‘If you would chuse Timber for Joynt-stooles, Chaires, or Chests, you shall then chuse the oldest Peare-tree to be found, for it is both smooth, sweet and delicate.’ With the fashion for expensive imported ebony veneers on furniture in the later half of the 17th century, it became popular to stain pearwood black as a substitute. Edward Traherne’s workshop inventory of 1674 includes pear tree frames as well as ‘black’ frames, which were almost certainly pearwood frames stained black.


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A PAIR OF GEORGE II GREEN JAPANNED BUREAU BOOKCASES Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1740 An exceptional and extremely rare pair of George II green japanned bureau bookcases attributed to Giles Grendey. Each with broken swan neck pediment cresting surmounted by a finial, the upper section with two doors fitted with bevelled mirror plates which open to reveal, on the reverse, panels of floral chinoiserie decoration, and an interior fitted with pigeonholes and folio shelves of varying sizes, with a central door decorated with chinoiseries, standing above a fall front bureau section enclosing further drawers and pigeonholes, the bottom section with a single drawer in the frieze above two short and two long graduated drawers, the whole standing on bracket feet. Each decorated with wonderful gilt chinoiseries on a very rare olive green ground.

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Height: 96 in (244 cm) Width: 40 in (101.5 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57 cm) It is incredibly rare to find pairs of bureau bookcases made in England in the 18th century. Of the few that exist, almost all were known to be made for the export market, particularly for Spain and Portugal. One notable exception is a pair of scarlet japanned bureau bookcases made by John Belchier for Sir Jacob de Bouverie, 1st Viscount Folkestone.


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A QUEEN ANNE BURR WALNUT CARD TABLE England, circa 1710 A rare Queen Anne burr walnut card table of exceptional colour. The concertina-action table with shaped cross-banded top with herringbone borders lifting to reveal a lined interior with candlestands and guinea wells, raised on tapering legs with shell and foliate carved knees terminating in square hoof feet.

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Height: 29 in (73 cm) Width: 35 in (90 cm) Depth: 17 in (43 cm)


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A PAIR OF GEORGE II BURR WALNUT SIDE CHAIRS Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 A very fine pair of George II walnut side chairs attributed to Giles Grendey. Each chair with a scrolled top-rail above a vaseshaped splat flanked by serpentine stiles, standing on fine cabriole legs terminating in pad feet. The shaped drop-in seats upholstered with period floral needlepoint. The burr walnut of magnificent colour and patina. The chairs with the journey-man stamp ‘IK.’

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Height: 40 in (102 cm) Width: 20 in (51 cm) Depth: 21½ in (55 cm)


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A JAPANESE LACQUER CABINET ON SILVERED STAND The cabinet Japanese and the stand English, circa 1700 A fine early 18th century Japanese black and gilt lacquer cabinet on a William & Mary silvered stand. The cabinet decorated throughout, including the top, with birds and pavilions within mountain landscapes, with a pair of doors with silvered and engraved mounts, hinges and lock-plates opening to reveal ten drawers of differing sizes similarly decorated together with a nashiji border, the sides of the cabinet with floral decoration and with carrying handles. The stand profusely carved with foliage and flowers, the apron centred by a putti on a floral swag, standing on cabriole legs with scrolled feet.

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Height: 59 in (150 cm) Width: 46½ in (118 cm) Depth 21½ in (62 cm)


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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT BUREAU BOOKCASE Attributed to John Phillips England, circa 1720 A superb George I burr walnut bureau bookcase of rare small proportions attributed to John Phillips. The cornice with upper and lower moulded edges over a burr walnut and featheredbanded door with a bevelled mirror plate with re-entrant top corners above a candle slide, the door opens to reveal a walnut interior and an arrangement of adjustable shelves, the featherbanded fall front with bookrest opening to reveal an arrangement of drawers and pigeonholes, above two short and three long graduated, feather-banded, burr walnut veneered, oak lined drawers fitted with original ring handles and plate escutcheons, the sides of book matched figured walnut, the whole standing on its original bracket feet. Of excellent colour and patina throughout.

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Height: 76½ in (194.5 cm) Width: 24 in (62 cm) Depth: 19¾ in (50 cm) Comparative Literature A. Bowett, Early Georgian Furniture 1715-1740, Woodbridge, 2009, p. 76, pl. 2.49 There is a virtually identical bureau cabinet featuring a glazed door and bearing the trade label of renowned cabinet-maker John Phillips (fl. 1725-32) of St. Paul’s Churchyard, London (ill. Sir Ambrose Heal, The London Furniture Makers 1660-1840).


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A PAIR OF GEORGE I WALNUT HIGH BACK CHAIRS Attributed to Richard Roberts England, circa 1720 A superb and rare pair of George I high back walnut side chairs attributed to the Royal cabinet-maker Richard Roberts. The intricately carved back splat in the Berainesque style, with carving also to the cabriole legs and cross stretchers. With drop-in upholstered seats. Height: 47 in (120 cm)   Width: 21½ in (54.5 cm)  Depth: 21½ in (54.5 cm)

Richard Roberts This exceptional pair of chairs relate closely to a set of ten chairs at Hampton Court Palace, which is likely part of the original set of eighteen chairs supplied by Richard Roberts (fl. 1714-29), a Royal cabinet-maker working for Queen Anne and George I. In 1717-18 Roberts issued an invoice that read, ‘For 18 Chairs made of the best Walnuttree bended backs finely carved and pollisht and silk lace Seats for his maties [Majesty’s] Dining Room … £36.0..0.’ Both the Hampton Court set of chairs and the present pair reflect design influences from the earlier William & Mary period with the carved backs drawing inspiration from patterns by Daniel Marot, designer to the King and Queen at the turn of the 18th century.

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A GEORGE II WALNUT SETTEE England, circa 1725 A very fine George II walnut double back settee. The back with vase shaped splats and shepherd’s crook arms, standing above a shaped seat frame with three cabriole front legs headed by carved shell and husk decoration, terminating in ball and claw feet, with three splayed rear legs. The walnut of exceptional colour and patina. Height: 39¾ in (101 cm) Width: 50 in (127 cm) Depth: 24¾ in (63 cm)

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A GEORGE I GILT GESSO CARD TABLE In the manner of James Moore England, circa 1720 An exceptional and very rare George I gilt gesso concertinaaction card table in the manner of James Moore. The shaped foldover top decorated throughout with deeply carved scrolling foliage centred by a stylised sunflower on a pounced ground, the top opening to reveal a velvet lined playing surface with counter wells and candle stands, the whole standing on cabriole legs terminating in claw and ball feet. Height: 29 in (74 cm) Width: 33ž in (86 cm) Depth: 16½ in (42 cm)

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Gilt gesso card tables are incredibly rare. The few recorded examples each share similarities in design and form. Their vocabulary of strap-work, scrolling foliage, and shellwork was first promoted in around 1700 by Daniel Marot (d. 1752) in his engraved Oeuvres. Other similarly embellished pieces were created by the Pelletier family of carvers and gilders who supplied pier tables, mirrors, and candle stands to William & Mary among other notable patrons, as did their successor as Royal cabinet-maker, James Moore (c.1670-1726). There is a gilt gesso card table in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The table is said to have come from the collections of the Earls of Carnarvon at Highclere Castle, Berkshire. The table was one of the few gilded pieces acquired by the esteemed English furniture collector Irwin Untermyer before he bequeathed his collection to the museum. The likely pair to this table is in a private collection in the UK.


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A GEORGE II WALNUT SIDE CHAIR In the manner of Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 A very fine George II carved walnut side chair in the manner of Giles Grendey. The chair stands on four very fine carved legs, of cabriole form to the front and outswept to the rear, each terminating in animal paw feet. The seat and back upholstered in very fine French 18th century needlepoint in excellent condition retaining its strong colours. Beautifully carved detail and a lovely colour walnut.

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Height: 40 in (101.5 cm) Width: 27 in (68.5 cm) Depth: 30 in (76 cm)


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A GEORGE I WALNUT CHEST OF DRAWERS England, circa 1720 A very fine George I richly figured burr walnut chest of drawers of small proportions. The rectangular moulded quarterveneered top with re-entrant corners and feather and cross-banding, above a brushing slide with two short and three long graduated drawers retaining their original handles and escutcheons, on bracket feet. Height: 32 in (81 cm) Width: 27¾ in (70.5 cm) Depth: 14½ in (37 cm)

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Provenance Ronald Phillips Ltd., London Private Collection, UK


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A GEORGE I WALNUT AND PARCEL GILT BUREAU CABINET England, circa 1720 An exceptional George I walnut and parcel gilt bureau cabinet. The moulded broken arched cornice with carved giltwood finials above two mirrored doors, opening to reveal pigeonholes, niches, pilasters, and drawers, centred by a small cupboard with bevelled mirrored door, with concealed secret drawers, the slant front opening to reveal a writing surface and interior with further drawers and pigeonholes, the base with three short and three long feather-banded figured drawers and supported on bracket feet. Retaining original hardware. The walnut of particularly beautiful colour and figuring.

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Height: 97 in (246.5 cm) Width: 40½ in (103 cm) Depth: 22½ in (57 cm) Provenance The collection of Theodore and Ruth Baum, USA


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A GEORGE II WALNUT GAINSBOROUGH CHAIR Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1745 An outstanding George II walnut Gainsborough chair attributed to Giles Grendey. The rectangular upholstered backrest flanked by a pair of upholstered outswept armrests raised on supports carved with acanthus decoration, above a square seat raised on cabriole legs headed by a rocaille-cartouche surrounding a flower head above carved acanthus brackets, terminating in hairy paw feet on castors. The rail with a white painted monogram ‘J.B.W.’ Height: 37¾ in (96 cm) Width: 33 in (84 cm) Depth: 32½ in (83 cm) Provenance Private Collection, USA

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Comparative Literature P. Macquoid, A History of English Furniture: The Age of Mahogany, vol. III, 1906, pp. 122-3, figs 104-5. H. Cescinsky, English Furniture of the Eighteenth Century, vol. II, 1910, p. 86, fig. 82. H. Cescinsky, ‘The Collection of the Hon. Sir John Ward, KCVO,’ Connoisseur, March 1921, p. 142, fig. 5. R. W. Symonds, English Furniture from Charles II to George II, 1929, p. 155, fig. 102. G. Beard and C. Gilbert, The Dictionary of English Furniture Makers 1660-1840, 1986, pp. 371-2. This chair is very similar to a suite of ten armchairs provided to the Hon. George Shirley (1705-87) at Ettington Park, Warwickshire. The chairs remained at the house until the set was sold in the 1946 house sale.


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A GEORGE I GILTWOOD PIER MIRROR England, circa 1725 An exceptional and particularly rare George I gilt gesso pier mirror of impressive tall proportions. The bevelled mirror plates within a frame crested by a broken swan neck pediment and central cartouche with acanthus decoration above a carved lambrequin, with eagle heads to the sides, the mirror plates framed with a stylised Greek key pattern. The carving and composition of the decorative detailing of the finest quality.

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Height: 76½ in (194 cm) Width: 30Ÿ in (77 cm) Provenance Private Collection, UK


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THE LAZCANO PALACE ARMCHAIRS By Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 A highly important and exceptionally rare pair of George II scarlet japanned armchairs by Giles Grendey from the Lazcano suite. Each chair with a vase-shaped back splat decorated with chinoiserie figures in landscape scenes with scrolling foliage, birds, and strapwork. The bowed seat frames similarly decorated and with original cane-work seats. Raised upon cabriole front legs and outsplayed back legs joined by a serpentine stretcher. One chair with the original trade label to the underside of the seat frame reading ‘GILES GRENDEY, St John’s Square, Clerkenwell, LONDON, Makes and Sells all Sorts of CABINET GOODS, Chairs, Tables, Glasses, &c.’ Each chair with the journey-man’s initials ‘HW’ impressed to the back of the chair frame. Height: 44 in (112 cm) Width: 30¼ in (77 cm) Depth: 24 in (61 cm)

Provenance Supplied to either Don Juan Raimundo de Arteaga-Lazcano y Chiriboga, II Marqués de Valmediano (1677-1761), for Lazcano, San Sebastián, Spain, circa 1735-1740, and by descent at Lazcano, or to Don Juan de Dios de Silva Mendoza y Sandival, X Duque del Infantado (1672-1737), or his daughter, Dona Maria Teresa de Silva y Mendoza, XI Duquesa del Infantado (1707-1770), and thence by descent at Lazcano Acquired with the majority of the suite by Adolfo Loewi, 1930 Walter Rosen for his house Caramoor, in Katonah, New York The Lazcano Suite by Giles Grendey These iconic chairs form part of the most celebrated and elaborate suite of English furniture from the eighteenth century. Commissioned from the esteemed London cabinet-maker Giles Grendey, this extensive suite comprises at least seventy-seven scarlet japanned pieces including tables, chairs, daybed, looking glasses, tripod stands, and several desks and bookcases. This suite is acknowledged as one of the most important groups of English furniture of the 18th century ever made. For a full bibliography and history, please contact us.

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THE LAZCANO PALACE SIDE CHAIRS By Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 A highly important and exceptionally rare pair of George II scarlet japanned side chairs by Giles Grendey from the Lazcano suite. Each chair with a vase-shaped back splat decorated with chinoiserie figures in landscape scenes with scrolling foliage, birds, and strap work. The bowed seat frames similarly decorated with original cane-work seats. Raised upon cabriole front legs and outplayed back legs joined by a serpentine stretcher. Stamped with journey-man’s initials, on pad feet. Height: 40 in (102 cm) Width: 21½ in (55 cm) Depth: 22 in (56 cm)

Provenance Supplied to either Don Juan Raimundo de Arteaga-Lazcano y Chiriboga, II Marqués de Valmediano (1677-1761), for Lazcano, San Sebastián, Spain, circa 1735-1740, and by descent at Lazcano, or to Don Juan de Dios de Silva Mendoza y Sandival, X Duque del Infantado (1672-1737), or his daughter, Dona Maria Teresa de Silva y Mendoza, XI Duquesa del Infantado (1707-1770), and thence by descent at Lazcano Acquired with the majority of the suite by Adolfo Loewi, 1930 Walter Rosen for his house Caramoor, in Katonah, New York The Lazcano Suite by Giles Grendey These iconic chairs form part of the most celebrated and elaborate suite of English furniture from the eighteenth century. Commissioned from the esteemed London cabinet-maker Giles Grendey, this extensive suite comprises at least seventy-seven scarlet japanned pieces including tables, chairs, daybed, looking glasses, tripod stands, and several desks and bookcases. This suite is acknowledged as one of the most important groups of English furniture of the 18th century ever made. For a full bibliography and history, please contact us.

Photograph of the suite at Lazcano Palace. C. de Arteago, La Casa del Infantado, Cabeza de Mendoza, vol. II, 1944. 94


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A GEORGE I BURR WALNUT KNEEHOLE DESK England, circa 1720 An exceptional and rare George I burr walnut kneehole desk. The front of the top drawer hinges open to reveal a veneered secretaire writing surface with pigeonholes and small drawers, above two banks of three graduated drawers each flanking a recessed central cupboard and surmounted by a small shaped drawer, the cupboard door opening to reveal a shelved interior.

Provenance The collection of Marjorie Wiggins Prescott, USA Christie’s New York, The Prescott Collection: Objects of Art, English and Continental Furniture, 31 January 1981, lot 337 Norman Adams Ltd., London Private Collection, USA

Of particularly good colour throughout.

Literature C. Claxton Stevens and Stewart Whittington, 18th Century English Furniture: The Norman Adams Collection, p. 96.

Height: 31¼ in (79 cm) Width: 30¼ in (77 cm) Depth: 18¾ in (48 cm)

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A PAIR OF GEORGE I WALNUT SIDE CHAIRS England, circa 1720 A very fine pair of George I walnut side chairs. The chairs with upholstered backs and seats raised on cabriole legs ending in pad feet.

Provenance The collection of the 8th Earl of Buckingham On loan to Culzean Castle, Scotland

The walnut of particularly good colour.

Culzean Castle, overlooking the Firth of Clyde, was designed by Robert Adam in the late 18th century for the 10th Earl of Cassilis on the site of a tower house dating to the 1400s. In addition to designing its impressive exterior, Adam designed the interiors of the castle as well, including the grand oval staircase and the furnishings. The castle has been part of the National Trust for Scotland since 1945.

Height: 37ž in (96 cm) Width: 23 in (58 cm) Depth: 18½ in (47 cm)

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A GEORGE I GILT GESSO SETTEE Attributed to James Moore England, circa 1710-20 An exceptional and very rare George I carved gilt gesso settee attributed to James Moore. The frame decorated throughout with outstanding carved gilt gesso detailing, the back and seat upholstered in 18th century silk damask, the arm supports boldly outswept with curled terminals, the gilt gesso seat frieze further embellished with scrolling foliage and circular punchwork background. Standing on elegant cabriole legs further decorated with acanthus leaves and surmounted by shells, terminating in pad feet similarly decorated. Height: 80½ in (204.5 cm) Width: 49 in (124.5 cm) Depth: 25 in (63.5 cm) Provenance Norman Adams Ltd., London Private Collection Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd., London Private Collection, USA Literature C. Claxton Stevens & S. Whittington, 18th Century English Furniture: The Norman Adams Collection, Woodbridge, 1983, pp. 26-27. L. Synge, Great English Furniture, London, 1991, pp. 83-84, fig. 87. Exhibited Grosvenor House Art & Antiques Fair, London, 1951 ‘This settee… is one of the most unusual items of gesso furniture recorded.’ –– C. Claxton Stevens & S. Whittington, 18th Century English Furniture: The Norman Adams Collection, pp. 26-27.

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A GEORGE I PARCEL GILT WALNUT SECRETAIRE CABINET In the manner of Samuel Bennet England, circa 1720 A very fine George I parcel gilt walnut secretaire cabinet in the manner of Samuel Bennet. The upper section with a giltwood swan-neck cresting centred by a foliate carved giltwood cartouche above a mirrored door flanked by fluted pilasters, one of which conceals the keyhole, the door opening to reveal two adjustable bookshelves above three short drawers, the lower bombé section fitted with a pull-out secretaire drawer above three graduated drawers, standing on bracket feet. Each drawer fitted with its original finely chased elaborate gilt-brass escutcheons and handles. Height: 96 in (244 cm) Width: 40 in (101.5 cm) Depth: 21 in (51 cm) Provenance James Lowther, 1st Viscount Ullswater (1855-1949), Campsea Ashe High House, Campsea Ashe, Suffolk Presumably sold Garrod, Turner & Son, Ipswich, The Contents of High House, 24-31 October 1949 Sir James Horlick, 4th Baronet (1886-1972), Achamore House, Isle of Gigha Thence by descent Literature L. G. G. Ramsay, ‘Chinoiserie in the Western Isles, The Collection of Sir James and Lady Horlick,’ The Connoisseur, June 1958, p. 4, fig. 6. Comparative Literature R. Edwards, The Dictionary of English Furniture, Vol. I, 1986, p. 136, fig. 30. Victoria & Albert Museum: Fifty Masterpieces of Woodwork, London, 1955, No. 36.

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The Form & Decoration This exceptional cabinet bears close resemblance to the work of Samuel Bennet (c.1700-41) in its form and decorative features. A cabinet by Bennet at the Victoria & Albert Museum features elaborate gilt decoration and a finial with a broken swan neck pediment to the top, similar to the present example. The Victoria & Albert example features fluted pilasters in the Doric order, while the present cabinet features gilded Corinthian tops. A second cabinet illustrated in R. Edwards, The Dictionary of English Furniture shares the bombé form of this cabinet (vol. I, p. 136, fig. 30). A further related cabinet is illustrated in H. Cescinsky and E. Gribble, Early English Furniture and Woodwork (London, 1992, vol. II, pp. 284-285, figs. 387 and 388). Campsea Ashe High House The Hon. William Lowther (1821-1912) acquired Campsea Ashe High House, Suffolk in the 1880s for the impressive sum of £105,000. After a fire in 1865, the house was re-built by the architect Anthony Salvin (1799-1881), who sought to retain the original Georgian features of the structure. Lowther’s son, James William Lowther, 1st Viscount Ullswater (1855-1949), inherited Campsea Ashe and revived the interiors and the garden. He took a keen interest in the arts and served as a Trustee of the British Museum and the National Portrait Gallery. The contents of the house were sold after his death in 1949. Sir James Horlick The cabinet was presumably purchased by Sir James Horlick, 4th Baronet (1886-1972) in the 1949 sale of the contents of Campsea Ashe High House. Horlick was a renowned collector and noted connoisseur who acquired a number of exceptional pieces for his home Achamore House on the Isle of Gigha in the Scottish Western Isles, including wonderful Chinese reverse painted mirror pictures and the superlative lacquer commode supplied to Harewood House by Thomas Chippendale. Horlick’s collection of English japanned furniture from the eighteenth century was particularly notable and became the subject of an article in the Connoisseur entitled, ‘Chinoiserie in the Western Isles, the Collection of Sir James and Lady Horlick’ (June 1958). In addition to the chinoiserie collection, Horlick amassed an impressive collection of eighteenth century walnut furniture, including this wonderful secretaire cabinet.


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A JAPANESE BLACK AND GILT LACQUER CABINET ON STAND The cabinet Japanese, circa 1720 An exceptional Japanese Edo period black and gilt lacquer cabinet on stand. The cabinet decorated throughout, including the top, with mountainous landscape scenes, the pair of doors with copper engraved mounts, hinges, and lock-plates opening to reveal ten drawers of varying sizes similarly decorated, the interior doors decorated with birds and flowers within a nashiji border, the sides of the cabinet decorated with foliage and copper carrying handles. The cabinet now on a modern gilt stand.

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Height: 63¾ in (162 cm) Width: 40¼ in (102 cm) Depth: 21¼ in (54 cm) Provenance The Earls of Lovelace, most likely Horseley Towers, Surrey


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A PAIR OF GEORGE I GILT GESSO TORCHERES In the manner of James Moore England, circa 1725 A very fine pair of George I gilt gesso torcheres in the manner of James Moore. The circular dished tops each carved with a stylised trefoil of acanthus and strapwork, above a turned stem decorated with carved husks and foliage, standing on a tripartite base carved with acanthus leaves on a punched ground, on oval pad feet. Height: 36½ in (93 cm) Diameter: 16½ in (42 cm)

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Provenance Ronald Phillips Ltd., London Private Collection, USA Comparative Literature A. Bowett, Early Georgian Furniture, London, 2009, p. 208-09, plate 5:14. L. Synge, Mallett’s Great English Furniture, 1991, p. 43, fig. 33.


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A GEORGE I GREEN JAPANNED DRESSING MIRROR England, circa 1720 A very rare George I green japanned dressing mirror. Of grand proportions, the adjustable arched bevelled mirror plate supported by turned finial mounted pilasters, above a bombĂŠ base section with a fall front opening to reveal a suede writing-surface and a variety of drawers and pigeonholes, above a shaped deep drawer fitted with open compartments, standing on small stylised cushion feet.

Height: 35 in (89 cm) Width: 19 in (48.5 cm) Depth: 12Âź in (31 cm) Provenance Partridge Fine Arts, London

Extremely finely decorated throughout with wonderful gilt chinoiseries on a dark green ground.

J. Stalker and G. Parker, A Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing, Oxford, 1688, pl. 18.

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A QUEEN ANNE BURR WALNUT AND YEW CARD TABLE England, circa 1710 An extremely fine and rare Queen Anne burr walnut and yewwood concertina action card table. The shaped top cross-banded and with herringbone inlaid borders, opening to reveal a baize lined interior with candle stands and guinea wells, the frieze similarly banded, standing on tapered legs with lappet capitals and pad feet. Retaining its original hinges and oak card drawer on the underside. A magnificent colour and patina throughout and in remarkable condition.

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Height: 27½ in (70 cm) Width: 35¼ in (89 cm) Depth: 17½ in (45 cm) Provenance: Mallett & Son (Antiques) Ltd, London Private Collection, USA


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A GEORGE I GILT GESSO CENTRE TABLE England, circa 1720 A fine George I gilt gesso centre table with marble top. The shaped frieze decorated with stylised acanthus leaves, with further decoration to the knees, standing on cabriole legs and terminating in pad feet.

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Height: 27½ in (70 cm) Width: 29½ in (75 cm) Depth: 16¼ in (42 cm)


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A PAIR OF PADOUK SECRETAIRE CABINETS China, circa 1750 An extremely rare pair of mid-18th century padouk secretaire cabinets. Each with a moulded cornice above a pair of paneled doors with radiused upper corners and leaf-carved moulded borders, the interiors of the upper sections with shelves above pairs of drawers, the fall front writing flat revealing pigeonholes and small drawers, standing on a base with four long graduated drawers and shaped bracket feet. Retaining the original paktong handles. Height: 74 in (188 cm) Width: 42½ in (108 cm) Depth: 21½ in (55 cm)

Relatively few pieces of Anglo-Chinese furniture made in Canton for British patrons survive today. This distinctive type of furniture derives inspiration in form from English prototypes but features construction typical of Chinese workmanship. The timber itself, padouk, is a wood native to Asia and is normally presented in solid form rather than in the application of veneers. The handles and escutcheons are made of paktong, an alloy composed of copper, nickel, and zinc, which was a uniquely Chinese material until the 19th century. The overall form of these secretaire cabinets bears similarity to English designs, including early walnut bureau cabinets, which were then further promoted by publications such as Thomas Chippendale’s The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s Director (3rd ed., 1763, pl. CXXIX). This pair of 18th century Anglo-Chinese secretaire cabinets is remarkably rare.

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A GEORGE II GREEN JAPANNED PIER MIRROR Attributed to Giles Grendey England, circa 1730 An exceptionally rare large George II green japanned pier mirror attributed to Giles Grendey. The bevelled mirror plates in two parts surrounded by a magnificent shaped frame profusely decorated throughout with golden chinoiseries on a deep green japanned ground, the top cresting depicting a figural scene with men on horseback. The chinoiserie decoration of outstanding quality.

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Height: 60 in (153 cm) Width: 25 in (64 cm)


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A QUEEN ANNE STYLE GILT GESSO SOFA In the manner of Lenygon & Morant England, circa 1900 A magnificent gilt gesso upholstered sofa, almost certainly by Lenygon & Morant. Designed in the Queen Anne style, the sofa beautifully upholstered in slate grey velvet. Height: 46 in (117 cm) Width: 86½ in (220 cm) Depth: 33½ in (85 cm) Lenygon & Morant were the leading cabinetmakers of the Edwardian age who specialised in re-creating furniture that evoked the Queen Anne and William & Mary taste. In 1904, Francis H. Lenygon founded Lenygon & Co, and in 1909 he merged his business with the upholstery firm Morant & Co. and took up premises at 31 Old Burlington Street.  In the same year, The Decoration and Furniture of English Mansions during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries by Margaret Jourdain was published. Lenygon made a name for himself by acquiring complete period rooms, including a Dutch Painted Room from Groningen, Holland and others, which were described as ‘the most interesting and important complete room[s] – both historically and artistically – which has ever been exhibited (Lenygon & Morant, Description of the Painted Room in the Collection of Messrs Lenygon & Co. Ltd, 1910). The firm received commissions by a number of prominent patrons, including the Royal family, and the firm held Royal warrants under four kings: Edward VII, George I, Edward VIII, and George VI. 

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OUR SERVICES We offer a comprehensive service around all aspects of your collection of fine antique furniture. We are particularly well placed in the market to offer advice on matters including sourcing, de-acquisitioning, cataloguing, shipping, restoration, and conservation, as well as interior consultation.

SOURCING We are often asked to source specific pieces on behalf of our clients. Whether this is at auction, or from our extensive access to private collections not readily available on the market, we are ideally placed to facilitate these requirements. An 18th century Chinese Export lacquer bureau on stand sourced for a client.

RESTORATION We provide a comprehensive restoration and conservation service. Our extensive contacts with a wide range of highly skilled and specialist restorers both in the UK and the USA allow us to carry out restoration on behalf of our clients to meet their specific needs, including polishing and waxing, japanning and lacquer work, gilding, decorative painting, framing, and upholstery. Please contact us for a quote. Detail of the George II walnut shepherds crook armchair.

INTERIOR CONSULTATION We continue to work on a number of full-scale interior design projects for our clients in the UK, USA and Continental Europe. Since 2014, we have been particularly privileged to have been invited by The Blair Charitable Trust to advise on the interior schemes, layouts and the outstanding collections at Blair Castle, Perthshire, the ancient seat of the Dukes and Earls of Atholl. A view of the Tapestry Room, Blair Castle, Perthshire.

Copyright All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publishers. Terms and Conditions All business transactions are subject to our standard terms and conditions of sale, copies of which are available upon request. Trading as Mackinnon Fine Art Consultancy Limited, Registered in England & Wales, No. 5747760. 120


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THE AGE OF WALNUT  

THE AGE OF WALNUT