Page 1

JOSEF ALBERS


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JOSEF

A LB E R

S:

A

Retrospective


Albers

in his

Photo by

Bauhaus

Umbo

studio, Dessau, 1928


JOSEF ALBERS A Retrospective

Solomon

I

his exhibition

Guggenheim Museum. New York

R.

has received grants from BAS1

(

orporation and the Federal Republic of German)


Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Albers, Josef.

Josef Albers: a retrospective/Solomon R. p.

Guggenheim Museum,

New York.

cm.

Text by Nicholas Fox Weber et

Catalog of an exhibition held Bibliography:

p.

al.

at

Guggenheim Museum,

New York,

1988.

29

Paper ISBN 0-89207-067-6 Cloth ISBN 0-8109- 8761

I.

II.

Albers, Josef-Exhibitions.

Solomon

R.

I.

Weber, Nicholas Fox, 194^-

Guggenheim Museum.

N6888.A5A4 1988

709'.2'4-dci9

III.

Title.

87-36930

Published by The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation,

Copyright

Š

New York,

1988 by The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation,

1988

New York

"Josef Albers" by Jean Arp published by permission of Fondation Arp, Clamart

Cover:

cat. no. 190, Variant:

lour Reds Around Blue. 1948. Private

C

ollection


for Anni Albers


Lenders to the Exhibition

Anni Albers

Bill

Bass,

Chicago

Mark Simon, Connecticut

Hollins College, Roanoke, Virginia

Andrea and John Weil, Saskatoon

Louisiana

Museum

of

Modern

Art,

Humlebtrk, Denmark Martina and Michael Yamin

Ernst Beyeler, Basel

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Mr. and Mrs. James H.Clark,

Jr.,

New York

Dallas

Addison Gallery of American Art, Esther

M. Cole

Phillips

Academy, Andover,

Musee National dArt Moderne, Centre

Massachusetts

Georges Pompidou, Paris

The Josef Albers Foundation

The Museum

Theodore and Barbara Dreier Mr. and Mrs. Lee

V.

of

Modern

Art,

New York

Eastman Josef Albers

Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Hirschland,

Museum,

Bottrop,

San Francisco

New York

Staatliche

Maria and Conrad Janis, Beverly

Museum

of

Modern Art

W. Germany

Museen

Preussischer

Australian National Gallery-, Canberra

Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Berlin

Bauhaus-Archiv, W. Berlin

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford

Hills

Donald and Barbara Jonas

Solomon

Don

Page,

Maximilian

R.

Guggenheim Museum,

Yale University Art Gallery,

New Haven

New York

New York

Hirshhorn

Schell

Museum and

Sculpture

Ex

Libris,

New York

Garden, Smithsonian Institution,

Hannelore

B. Schulhof,

New York

Washington, D.C.

Prakapas Gallery,

New York


Table of

[uergen

F.

Strubc

Diane Waldman

Nicholas Fox Webei

Mar)

Emma

Charles

N<

il

E.

H.irris

10

i

Sponsor's Statement

Preface

i

and Acknowledgments

rhe Artist as Alchemist

14

50

Josef Albers:

Rickan

Benezra

ontents

(

\

I

ducationat Hl.uk Mountain

Structural Analysis ol

^4

New

s

t

1

An

of Albers's

Challenges Beyond the Studio:

atalogue

2.87

Chronolo

19

Selected Bibliograph)

^

Some

xhibitions and Reviews

197

Selected

?oi

Photographic

I

C

redits

I

W01

(

ollege

k

he Murals and Sculpture of [osef Albers


JOSEF ALBERS

The beautiful pictures of our ugly age should be seen and read with the eyes of a child.

The pictures of Albers are not only a

treat for the eye

but they also

convey meaning.

They grow

in

profundity as they are looked at with eyes

uncorrupted, and grasped penetratingly.

They are as

wood

like the

you are

into

which one

calls

and from which

it

echoes

called.

Like nature they are a mirror.

Each of his

pictures has a heart.

They never break

The are not They have a

castigated lashes. clear

Here

content:

I

I

do not hurry away.

I

won't have anyone harass and exasperate me.

on

earth.

/

am am

I

can wait.

I

do not drive myself from the picture

I

do not drive myself into bottomless depth.

I

of

I

and great

stand.

am resting. am m this world and

I

Many

into bits, crumble, turn into dust.

my

not a frantic machine. not faint-hearted.

friends

and

their pictures

into the incommensurate.

do no longer want

to be here.

Neither friend nor picture have any longer an existence.

They want

to

go

How one longs

to the devil.

in their

The world that Albers

presence for an Albers.

creates carries in

the inner weight of the fulfilled

To be blessed

we have

This holds also for art

its

heart

man.

to have faith.

and above

Who would have forseen to unbelief, to noise, to

all for

that our earth

the art of our time.

would he so

Ascona, 1957

Translated from the

by our brain

mechanical frenzy, to carefully recorded

raggedness, to teleguided disbelief.

jean arp,

led

German

original by

Anni Albers


Albas

at his

Photo

bj

[on

home N

in

New Haven,

[965


Sponsor's Statement

BASF first

is

pleased to be the corporate sponsor of the

major retrospective of the works of Josef Albers.

Upon

his emigration

States in 1933,

posure to

artists

had

as yet

little

ex-

the advanced trends and ideas then current in

Europe. Albers became their recognized champion in the

New World.

His achievements served as a major

fluence in the training of artists, architects In later years, Albers's theories

on

and

light,

a

company rooted

chemical synthesis,

from Germany to the United

American

As

in-

designers.

color and

the

world

in science in

in

new

European pioneering of

in

BASF

is

also

accustomed to seeing

ways. The company's innovativeness

and technology has become well established

North America.

BASF

is

therefore

proud

to sponsor this unprecedented

chronological overview of the rich and varied scope

of Albers's

work

at the

Solomon

Museum.

perception influenced computer techniques, particularly in color control

of videos.

as the noted art historian

It

can be truly

said,

Werner Spies remarked, "He

did not teach painting, but seeing: not

psychology and philosophy of art."

art,

but the

juergen

F. STRUBE, Chairman BASF Corporation

R.

Guggenheim


Preface and Ac/know ledgments

was

Josef Albers

the

sum

man)

oi

designer, teacher, theoretician. I').

ih.it

school dosed

ollege, near

C

members

mli. uis facult)

in

Ashe\

19

;.

\

he

came

North

ille,

position of professoi ol

The

come

to

Ik-

ik-

.1

Bauhaus graduate, and developed

of several

Mountain assume the

taught with his

Anni AJbers, the distinguished weaver and

revolutionized art education

in

a

herself

curriculum that

two

1414 the architect Walter Gropius consolidated in

Weimar

A

Bauhaus

As

a

number

I

in

ol

Moholy-Nag) founded

the

ird University,

soundly trained as

aszlo

new Bauhaus now the Institute of Design of the Illinois Technolog)

a\k\ Albers, as

Mountain

to Black

ierman

C

we have

ollege. Albers

noted,

in

19

;

wrote

in

;:

the Deutscher

...the student

a

to his

workshop

emphasis placed on the stuck

tor design

w

I

<>f

form

clear as

own

real inclinations

,uk\ use of materials.

As

The curriculum was based on Formlehre instruc-

problems of form) which was arranged

moving from Observation

ami

abilities. In short,

art instruction attempts first to teach the

lamilton has noted:

three degrees,

become aware

first

and thereby become

ith

student to see leard

should

in general,

craftsman. To that end, the

our

tion in

1

he nucleus of Bauhaus teaching was the

school was to be a practical

I

Bauhaus

of the figures associated with the

problems

;

threat in Europe, a

the

principle that the architect, painter or sculptor should b<

Gropius to teach the

of the school here: Gropius joined the facult)

(

Werkbund.

b)

growing Na/i

result of the

went an idea that had ahead) been put into practice

movement and

was united

b\

to stud) at the

the course.

Institute of

crafts

19-0,

who had come

preliminar) course in 1923.111 1928 he took charj

abolish the distinction between tine and applied arts,

and

Albers,

ltten. in

preliminary

its

was mitialb developed and taught

course, which

Johannes

to create

Bauhaus. Gropius was convinced of the need to

ish arts

Bauhaus teaching was

focal point of

emigrated to America and disseminated the principles

America.

separate schools of arts and crafts tlie

painter,

America after

to Black

w

In

first

to

arolina, to

<,

There

art.

parts:

in

the

m the tadest sense: to open his exes

to the

phenomena about him and. most important

of

to

all.

open

to his

own

and

doing.

work

in art

common

tasks

living, being,

In this connection ire consider class

studies necessary because of the

and mutual

criticism.'

study 0/ nature and analysis 0/ materials) through Representation

and

descriptive geometry, techniques

constructions,

of space, color

etc.

to

and design

(

.

'imposition

theories

\lbers these studies revealed:

the intuitive search for

"On

and discover)

the

one hand

of form;

on the

other hand the knowledge And application of the

1


fundamental laws of form...." And, as he also noted, "All rendering of form, in fact all creative

between

polarities: intuition

between subjectivity and

and

work, moves

intellect,

objectivity.

or possibly

Their relative

importance continually varies and they always more or

less

overlap."

'

In his

own work Albers expressed the

the

program

as visiting critics.

The dialogue

that Albers

both schools was enhanced by

encouraged

at

whose work

often differed radically from his

artists

own and

contributed to the fame of each institution. At Yale, as at Black

Mountain, he organized

and supervised courses

in

classes in basic design

drawing and

color.

concepts that he set before his students. Albers's impact Albers's continuing investigation of artistic absolutes led

him

to isolate the motif of the square

most rigorous format Square

series

in

1950.

and

create his

The Homage

allowed Albers to present color

infinite variations.

As he observed

in

to the in

its

1952:

his

on

painting, sculpture

and design both

and theoretician are undisputed.

as teacher

most renowned students, such

berg and Eva Hesse,

as

who became

Many

Robert Rauschenimportant

artists

Some

developed idioms at odds with Albers's aesthetic. students,

of

most notably Richard Anuskiewicz and

Julian Stanczak, directly adapted Albers's theories and

The painter chooses

Some of,

to articulate with or in color.

painters consider color an

and

accompaniment

therefore subordinate to,

pictorial content. To others,

increasing number, color their pictorial idiom.

is

form or other

and today again, the structural

in

an

means

of

Here color becomes au-

methods of working other

artists like

to their

own

ends.

Donald Judd, Frank

The work

Stella

and Sol

Lewitt-indeed many of the Minimalists of the 1960sâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

owes much

to Albers's theories

and the example of

painting, engraved plastics and

prints.

Many

his

differ-

ences notwithstanding, the Minimalist aesthetic, based

tonomic.

as

My

advanced materials and relationships of highly

paintings are presentative in the latter direc-

tion.

I

am

interested particularly in the psychic

it

is

on

simplified forms,

is

indebted to Albers's ideas.

today

tion

albeit in a

1949 Albers

left

became chairman of University.

Black Mountain and the

1950 he at Yale

At Black Mountain he had invited a wide

variety of artists to teach during the

he asked

in

Department of Design

many

summer;

at Yale

distinguished artists to participate in

among Taaffe.

new

form, and

it

seems evident that Albers style,

them Peter Halley, Ross Bleckner and Peter It is

true that the Utopian vision underlying the

theoretical positions artists

And

we are witnessing a revival of geometric painting,

effect-esthetic experience caused by the interac-

of colors.

the use of repetitive units, technologically

has had an impact on the young adherents of this In

of

and

and work of Albers and other

architects of his generation

relevant in today's

more

may

not be

cynical climate. Neverthe-


an remains

Albers's

less,

and

totality in

of itself,

generations ol influence thf

sum

may

.is

.1

and

valid

Indeed the

artists.

vital as ever, a

pouu

starting

for

younger

of

Albers's

effect

be growing; he ma) be more than

still

Museum who worked on

among

Curator, .\nd

who

were

Assist. nit his exhibition of Albers's lifework

I

and

nial Dt the artist's birth

is

the

marks

the centen-

xecutive

1

luesi

I

>in

ctorol

I

he [osef Albers

1

I

ox Weber,

lundation and

1

urator of this presentation, selected the

(.

shown and contributed

the

mam

essa) to the

works

accom

panying catalogue, we are extremel) grateful to him

and knowledgeable collaboration.

for his enthusiastic

Amu

Albers, the artist's widow, offered us essential

support ,\ud

,ul\ ice

Albers

1

oundation

We

project.

during

all

Thomas Padon,

(

uratorial Assistant,

Fuerstein, Editor,

ditor,

1

were responsible

catalogue and seeing

it

and Diana Murphy, tor the editing of the

through the

press.

Mam

m

works

this exhibition

shown. They shed new or

little

on previousl) unknown

understood aspects of Albers's

the lenders, both private

works, lo

we

all

career.

We

were

on the enlightened generosit)

therefore dependent

tive,

light

have never before been

and

of

institutional, of Albers's

these lenders to Josef Albers:

\

Retrospec-

express our deepest gratitude.

phases of the exhibition's

We acknowledge

organization.

central

comprehensive

first

retrospective ever devoted to him. Nicholas

(

Most

activel) involved in all aspects of the under-

taking. Carol

of his parts.

the project.

these were Susan B. Hirschfeld, Assistant

Kell)

Feene)

of the

DIAN1

for her valuable participation in the

waldman.

Deputy Director

Guggenheim Museum

-non R.

could not have realized the exhibition And

the present publication without the indispensable ration of the Albers

1

oundation, which shared

made

important archival materials and

crucial loans

available.

Our t

deepest gratitude

u >n

extended to BAS1

is

and the Federal Republic

generous support on

German)

of

orpora-

(

tor their

auspicious occasion.

this

NOTES 1

I

George Heard Hamilton,

he scope ol the catalogue has been greatl) enhanced

Neal Benezra,

by the perceptive essays written tor

it

Mar)

Rickart.

b\

\h.

1956, <

i

iiim.

1

1

1.

in

is

and

1

harles

I

.

We would ;

like to

thank the

mam

nuln iduals

at the

(

iuggenheim

^

p.

Quoted

1

m

...it..

NcÂŤ Haven,

Yale Uni\

Gallery,

;.

Hamilton,

Ibid. Ibid.,

'3


The Artist

as Alchemist

NICHOLAS FOX WEBER

To most people he

is

known

over a thousand of his ings

and

man." For

as "the square

the last twenty-five years of his

Homages

made

Josef Albers

life

to the Square, paint-

prints in four careful formats that gave color

He

an unprecedented voice.

called

them

"platters to

serve color": vehicles for the presentation of different

color climates and various color effects, above the demonstration of the

way

all

for

that solid colors change

popular

life.

to enter the

mainstream of

Simple yet poetic, they were clearly laden

with significance. They became the subject of television

magazine

specials;

as well as endless

more

specialized publications; the

basis of cartoons (see figs,

one-man at

i,

the core of the

2);

retrospective ever given to a

major

the

first

living artist

New

York.

a United States postage

stamp

The Metropolitan Museum of Art

One was reproduced on embodying

and Time,

articles in Life, Realties

in

motto of the Department of Education,

"Learning Never Ends." With their neutral format, of history or connotations, not only did the

show

free

Homages

aspects of color that had never before been seen

so clearly, but they also

modesty and

became

diligence. Rarely

a

had

symbol of

Homages

when he was

1950,

artistic

a secular painter so

is

based primarily on the

to the Square, he did not begin

them

until

sixty-two years old. His previous

in

much

the

had extolled

visual

nuance and mixed playfulness with

work was

formalism.

one of his

no. 4),

same

vein.

From

the start Albers

Life with Russian Box, ca. 1914 (cat.

Still

earliest

known oils, shares many traits

with the Homages. Ideas that would eventually be the

main point appear

according to their positions and surroundings.

The Honiages were quick

While Albers's reputation

in their incipient

form

in this early

painting. Solid colors are surrounded by solid colors.

Darker ones make

lighter

ones look brighter yet. Broad

planes have been foreshortened to intensify their impact; the shifts between them are abrupt and star-

Like the Homages, Russian

tling.

number of elements with

limited

Box

presents a

the portent of high

drama.

Here and

in the

roughly contemporaneous Masks and

Vase, 1916 (cat. no. 5), Albers

go

his

his

own

much

consistent way. In

had already learned to

Masks and

later series of linear

Vase, as in

geometric drawings

called the Structural Constellations (see cat. nos. 171176),

he

plane at right angles to the overall shape

set a

with uncanny you're not sure

effect.

Again

what you're

his later

themes prevail

seeing; blacks

and whites

completely suppressed his ego and personal psychol-

sharpen their teeth against one another; red looks one

ogy to embark on such

way

in

a rigorous

service of a single cause.

totally secular;

But

although Albers

course of repetition in fact

known

religious imagers,

color

magical and intensely spiritual.

'4

is

he was not

may not have

used

what he evoked through

in

white surrounds, another

the painting

is

in black.

unusual and haunting;

quite like anyone else's.

The

subject

it

Moreover,

doesn't look

and contortions

conjure Nolde, Ensor and Picasso's Les Demoiselles

d'Avignon; the background hints

at certain

Blaue


-

Reiter pictures; but above .1

ma) not have found

Ins

degree to the

.1

where Albers

Berlin,

unusuall)

.irt

hcuiii

feist)

and

m

1888

in

w.is the son of

When

i

Drawing by C. E.M.; I

In-

New

<!

^

spirited .mist.

Bottrop,

asked

bleak mining

.1

Ruhr River region

late

dominated

his

in

of

proud

laborer, forever

.1

of the standards of craftsmanship that

childhood.

iyi

and bold use of

reveal an independent,

highly industrialized

in the

Germany. He

the tmu- in

.it

and studied between

lived

colors, the)

was born

Albers cit)

rhese pictures

shown

[915, but in their vibrant linearit)

unmodulated

painter

Its

and he would freeh

Ins subject to reach Ins goals,

relate to

and

here.

mature voice, but he had no

l.uk of vigor or self-assurance, distort

something unique,

is

and mystical, going on

bizarre

bit

there

.ill

about

life

his

his

i

working methods

Yorkei Magazine, Inc.

Homages, he would

tor the

often

explain that he always began with the center square

because

his lather,

who, among other

houses, had instructed him as a young

you paint Drawing ["he

New

Win. Hamilton; Yorker Magazine, Inc.

b)

!

it;

door you

a

things, painted

man

that

when

middle and work

start in the

outward. "That way you catch the drips, and don't your cuffs dirty." Albers revered

and always

stressed

its

his practical

came from my [dam,

father, very

that's all

background.

education

preeminence over more esoteric

pm

influences that art historians tried to

/

much, and from

came from

/

on him.

a handicraft

My father knew the rules, the recipes,

and he taught thou electricity into

t<>

me

our house.

I

too.

le

lie

put

all

practical mind.

handlings that

I

I

the

could do the plumb-

ing, ^lass etching, ^lass painting, everything.

had a very

get

was exposed

learned to steal with

my

to

Ih

many

eyes)

Albers was proud that his mother descended from a line of

blacksmiths. "To

horseshoe,

it

u.is

That dexterity

from the tions

â&#x20AC;˘

"Hj.Ii

csnMss, A.

our nt-u

:

â&#x20AC;˘

Mberi prinu, quiihe out to be like

"

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

earl)

evident

oils

mk\ Homages tive

make

good

a

necessan to have

skill

in the entire

nail

of the

tor a

hand."

range of his

art,

through the Structural Constellato the Square.

I

he concern with

methods and proper technique remained

imperative to

1

orenz and Magdalena Albers's son not

:,

onlv in his work, but also in his teaching, an area in

'5


which he made some of

Germany

his greatest contributions. In

Bauhaus, and

at the

Mountain College and Yale

name

would be

would

Albers by this time could

woman's

down

for a

to develop the ability to

in reverse.

scales, in

success than

shape. As a printmaker Albers

learn to manipulate

modern methods;

hand so

of

skills

who could not recognize or an athlete who did not woodblocks, study the

and pursue

application of lithographic inks all

Without

musician

and was not

in

the Kaiser Friedrich

draw

knotted scarf and bun with authority and

was

mirror script, as well as upside

in

proper pitch and play exercise

in Berlin.

was no more chance of

this sort, there

there

Museum

details of her

was necessary

upside

University, he taught

Durer's

endeavor. Whatever one's

artistic bent,

write one's

in

He

all

down and

work

must have

observed

competently.

must underlie it

the effect of the sort of drawing technique he

Black

at

the imperative that

students that technical mastery artistic

America

in

as a painter he

virtually

would develop

his

from the

as to be able to apply paints straight

tube, with a painter's knife, to abut one another

and the

sequence of curves.

And

between

right as well as foreground

left

and

background-of

there

type

the

throughout the body of

The approach

is

ongoing motion here-

that

recurs

of Diirer as well as Holbein oil

of about 1915

is

(cat.

artists,

himself from the subject even

when it was his own

When

of himself, Albers

he

made

also

no.

Like these other Northern

his late

and

frequently

work.

his

evident in a self-portrait

3).

Albers distanced face.

was

in

twenties-an age when self-obsessiveness

is

this painting

often extreme-yet he approached his ity

Bottrop and con-

in

profile

freedom. The head reads as a complex and convincing

without overlapping along clean-edged boundaries. Albers had his early schooling

rendered the

own

individual-

with that same eye for generalized phenomena that

marks

His attitude at the

his late color exploration.

tinued his education in other towns in the region,

beginning was what

Nordrhein-Westfalen. In 1908 he graduated, at the age

took hold, becoming the one

in

of twenty, from the Lehrerseminar (Teacher's College)

succumbing

sway of what he was

in Biiren,

where

French, musical

had been trained

for three years he

a teacher. His grades

ranged from "sufficient"

harmony and gymnastics, and

in agricultural instruction, history

to "very fairly

good"

made

his first visits to

Munich, where he had

work of Cezanne,

Following

his

museums

his initial, crucial

Matisse, van

same

Hagen and exposure to

Gogh and Gauguin.

teaching elementary school

Westfalian towns and back in Bottrop. Then,

School).

It

himself as an tive oils

in Berlin that

artist.

a

drawings. Farm no.

16

1

),

Woman

the earliest

number of

figura-

drawing

in this

in

some remarkable

with Kerchief,

ca.

experience rather than any kind of biography, or-

worse raphy.

yet, If

from the

artist's

point of view-psychobiog-

Homages were

the

"platters to serve color,"

Albers looks like a soldier to serve

art, his steely

visage

and symmetry. The painting

is

divided into four rather pale color zones, and, even

if

a vehicle for balance

it is

not as abstract and rigorous as the

Square,

it is

as definite in

its

Homages

to the

formal organization.

and downward motion; the sloping shoulders succumb

(some of which have since disappeared)

addition to Russian Box, as well as

a formal visual

in 1913,

he began to think of

He produced

it

Like the Homages, Self-Portrait juxtaposes upward

Konigliche Kunstschule (Royal Art

was

making

small

in

he went to Berlin to study the teaching of art for two years at the

charge rather than

the image, unequivocally,

graduation from Biiren, Albers held a

scries of positions

years later; he

presenting. This self-portrait puts us face to face with

nature studies,

in

to the emotional

fifty

in

conduct, diligence and drawing-

in

would be

as

"good"

precursory of his future strong points. That

year he

the

to

it

1914 (cat.

exhibition,"

shows

to gravity, while the is

in this

way

head

a key to the

abstractions.

later

is

elevated.

With

their

Homages human body

positioned low, the earth

much

upper

as the

internal

squares

are weighted toward the

parts, they, so-to-speak,

clouds. We, too, place our feet lift

The early painting

humanoid character of those

is;

with their ascendant

have their heads

in the

on the ground, and then

ourselves upward, both mentally and physically.


["he

diagonals formed b) the upper comers of the

become arms outstretched

squares within squares

endless reaching thai seems to s.n that there here than meets the eye at

glance.

first

I

his

in

mix

of a

strong earthl) base and a transcendent spirituality kc\ to the fascination of I

all

of Albers's

an

more

is

is

a

work.

in

suggest the serenirj

1915

after a time of restless

home

of going

experimentation.

In st\ le

mk\

content, these drawings of 1915-18 are a particular

who

surprise to those

work. it,

in

In

are familiar onl\ with his later

then essence the) are totally of a piece with

spue of the different nature of the subject matter.

Visuall)

convej their themes with

articulate, the)

minimal, carefull) chosen forms. Most of them

abound

open space.

in

I

here

no

is

neither

clutter:

who

owl

nonartistic

sides at

is

At this time and ever

bay.

after,

Albers opted for a deliberate detachment: from history,

from

artistic trends,

from personal experience. This

cutting off did not pain him; to those well

was

it

clear that his

that mattered to him. alter in

I

life

who knew him

as an artist

he tenor of his

was almost

work

all

did not

response to historical events or fluctuations

m

private or professional relationships. Connections

between the character of

his art

and the

emotional lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the sort of links that lV.isso's \arious artistic phases

and

state of his

exist his

between

shed no more tions of

I

light

on Albers's

art

than on the formula-

instein.

what

the) represent.

The) are also

grace and virtuosity. While bowing slighth direction of certain historical

and contemporar)

Albers kept his sights focused on his

own

full

in

of

the

styles,

objectives.

Dexterous technique and true but economical evocation of the subject matter were of

tance.

The

cat. nos.

paramount impor-

high-spirited drawings of schoolgirls

[6-18

see

are carefree in tone but present \ital

as

ot his startling nocturnal

vital

masses.

all

ot them, white-

he trademarks ot the

I

meticulous attention to the assemblage ot elements alread) shine. So does the almost

what can be taken

What

lite.

m\

reverence tor

stical

with our eyes.

in

curious, considering the qualit)

is

drawings,

that he kept

is

them

While most ot Albers's years were

figurative

all

later

but

all

a

secret

do/en of over

and

he saved them tor posterity,

least

marked

from the

figurative prints

But

show

his

exhibited .md included

the scholars at

ot these

throughout

in

hundred

a

drawings were complete!) unknown, even

folders.

critics

with closest access to his

This exhibition

to

art.

in carefull)

public

is

their

in

Bottrop between

first

ing.

While he was

living

and teaching

1916 and [918, Albers took courses at the Kunstgewer-

beschule School tor Applied Arts

in

nearb) Essen.

He

did several series ot linoleum-cut prints and litho-

graphs

there.

somewhat

They

German

a

art historian

which Albers's

artist's total

discussion

we

denial

to art historians' exacting claims.

111. Gombrich, in

who

writes about

and

FbeSi

Art and Illusion, got to the essence ot

little bit

artists,

Expressionists and Dclaun.n."

Viewpoints range from the

most influences

in a

si

vocabulary was dependent on the work of

Albers specifica II) in

than the draw ings, and

raise the question of the degree to

others.

The

known

have been linked to the work ot main

4

including the

ot

Better

similar to them, the linoleum cuts

earl) visual

But the drawings are not cold. They suggest deep affection tor

minimal

artist-a simplification and intensification of detail,

tumultuous

no bearing. Emotional circumstances

all

force; the ultimate stock) rabbit. In

paper creates the

;,

lifeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; have

as

plump and preening; an imperious

meets us with

publications,'

is

crayonâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; almost

tew dett gestures of the

from another viewpoint, what psychology there

deliberately sought to keep his

see cat. nos. 7, S, [9-2

Albers's later arrangements ot solid planes -capture

same

who

shoe, a head

bent over a w mint; tablet -with precise articulation. In the drawings of animals

visual confusion nor personal psychology intrude. Or,

that of an artist

wooden

toot sliding out ot a

1

quintessential birds,

he draw ings Albers did after returning from Berlin to

Bottrop

details-.

recently had.

implicit!)

this qiu

"There may have been

ot Zeitgeist there," but the idea ot an often-

mentioned connection of kirchner

And othei

to Expressionism, to the artists,

is

work

"nonsense."

'"


3

Josef Albers

4 Josef Albers

In the Cathedral: Large Middle Nave. 1916

Sand Mine

Linoleum cut on paper, 9V2 x 6"

Linoleum cut on paper, 11% x yVs"

Collection

The Josef Albers Foundation

Collection

I.

1916

The Josef Albers Foundation

whose work seems

Albers inevitably used aspects of the language of his

The

time, but, whatever the slight superficial resemblance

significantly by this time

to the

work

of the Expressionists, he

controlled and far

was

far

more

more personally distanced from

his

artists

to

have affected Albers

were Cezanne and the

Cubists. In his personal chronology,

which he often

rewrote throughout his lifetime, he always

listed as the

response to his subject matter than they. His primary

pivotal event of 1908 his initial encounter with

concerns were with rendering the visual theme and

Cezanne's art

exploring the materials of art.

Gombrich addressed

this

second point as well: "You can submit to materials,

which

is

the ideology of the truth to material.

can display your mastery submit to your

will.

Albers

in

making

knew

Or you

the material 5

both." These prints

are intensely flavored by the tactile possibilities of the

linoleum

gouge-we

practically feel the tool cutting

1

9 15 he

in the

Folkwang Museum

had seen Cubist works

in

Hagen. By

in Berlin as well as

through reproduction. From then on Albers took a new

approach to the presentation of so-called

reality

and

used planes to suggest movement. The technique of a ca.

1917 self-portrait drawing preparatory to a litho-

graph

(cat.

no.

15)

distinctly

reflects

Cezanne's

works and Cubist methods. Having sketched

the right

through -as well as by the rich ink coverage. But the

profile,

means

point of his lithographic crayon, Albers then used

are always in service of the neutral rendering of

the subject matter: mine, nave or head.

[8

mouth, eyes and a few other details with the its

side to construct, very subtly, a sequence of adjacent


planes thai describe most oi the subject, ig<

\

nous planar movement and the use

to define mass. pleter) legible.

he

would be exploring a

artisi

dynamic interaction

<

portrait also

shows one

Seurat's drawings

knew them

at this

s

com-

is

illusion-

his selt-

I

the salient features oi

ol

although

spaa

years Liter in both the

fift)

and the Homages.

onstellations

is

similarly

and

ol the picture plane

ar\ three-dimensional space

Structural

oi blank

he lab) rinthine composition

I

I

["here

not

is

it

likel) thai

Albers

time, even in reproduction -the use

of the ridges ol the laid paper to enrich, and give mysterj

As

expanses.

to, the graj

was

teacher Albers

a

"maximum

effect

from

early lithographs

and

that.

large print

\

emphasize the value

to

minimum means." Some related

tor a series oi lithographs illustrating the //'(

tale

nom)

oi

Green Flute

cat. nos.

2.7-29

means, the combination

Ubers's

later,

abstract work.

see

[931-33

tig.

5).

This

concentration,

exuberance and

ol

OddK

oi the best

enough, the)

not a case oi

is

development or influence, but, rives:

have the eco

Dance Movement drawings

also anticipate Matisse's oi

just

ca. [917

hinese folk

(.

movement

restraint, a\\^\ the gentle, tlow ing oi

oi the

drawings achieve

and two stud) draw ingsol

<>t

a direet

n

I

lenn Matisse

Dance Movement. Pencil

on paper,

Private C ollecrion

rather, ot shared objec

life

oi line.

Albers's art. So

Ca.

for the

Workers' Houses lithographs oi

see cat. nos.

[917

are equall)

[I-13

tree

and

convincing. With a sure sense of what to do and, almost as important, oi deft strokes

what not

I

even one's

emerges

spit

it

a

tew

on

its

side to capture the

their

own,

tor us. Albers used to claim that

was black

lithographic crayon

become

and road. That eye

expanses

ol

itself.

make

sk\

the mdi\ idual

and

it

ot colors that matters

components,

is

a ke\ to all

of

is

subject that, like a

brown hue, through

his

showing the

is

am

sense ot

itâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; he gave to

it

his ability to flat

impart

a

charm

appealing. Perhaps

remarkable neutralityâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; he was, sort ot

until that point, yet

lite

his

a certain lightness. streets

has to

all,

we have no

connection with

Hewasexactl)

and buildings were,

^.Ui

with the

inexplicable sense of things.

It

is

faithful

yet at the

same time he transformed them. What might I

after

grim neighborhood where he had

details ot his personal

what those

to a

undifferentiated square or a dull

not necessaril)

spent most ot his

entices.

and buildings

tor context, the recognition that

the juxtaposition of tonus

more than

there; the the snot

these sweeps ot crayon are trcc-w heeling

abstractions. In contexi the)

is

made

he lower middle-class neighborhood oi a bleak

industrial city

On

to do, Albers

with the point oi his lithographic crayon

and dragged and twisted street.

;i

simultaneous articulation and

a

reductiveness, the restless

The drawings

1931

1

depress,

artist's special

as

it

and

his deliberate

distance and sturd) control oi his situationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; here as the later geometric abstractions

him

directl)

in

m

and color work-put

touch with an enchantment hidden to

others.

19


Easy- to know

39). In a loose

diamonds-are precious

that

good- to

While he was

learn

moreâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; to

drawings are the work of deeply in the mountain

6

J.A.

918,

when World War

to travel.

ended, Albers had a chance

1

He made drawings in some of the small towns

was

new

Wiirzburg, and

of

in

one case

in the Sauerland, the region

his family originated

Pine Forest in Sauerland

The

careful drawings.

the distant

and

(cat.

his

no.

grandmother

3 3

)

is

background

are

equals light;

art.

and between

leaves

on the

his

work.

And

far.

own. Here

void.

It is

would

He would play them against one on

both matter and

the basis of a living world that

is

.

.

.

threw

my old things out the

all

was

the best step I

made

my

in

life.

tree trunks

forest floor. Albers

their interaction creates

was thirty-two

window, started once more from the bottom. That

white

another, and allow each to perform in fullest force its

time

new people and a radically different form From here, he might go anywhere.

larger

respond to the different voices of black and white throughout

so, that in little

n

and white have

becomes dappled sunlight on

it

The Bottroper gone south

So much

one of his most

opened up with

near and

build-

place,

/

telling roles in distinguishing

void.

and

lived.

dense, short strokes that form

intervals in the foreground: black

mass and

feeling his power.

hills

he would have no problem giving everything up for a

of the Miinsterland (see cat. no. 32), in Cologne and

where

air

man who was breathing and who had the ability to

a

turn the free sweeps of his brush into ings, into

1

Munich, Albers made some

living in

of Mittenwald (see cat. nos. 34, 35). These exuberant

see

that pebbles-are miraculous.

In

he could articulate the

free style,

brush and ink views of the Bavarian mountain town

that rubies-have depth

hut

and

curves with total accuracy.

at

once airy

In

Munich Albers saw

describing the

the simple four-page pamphlet

new Bauhaus

pamphlet had on

school in Weimar.

The

cover a woodcut by Lyonel

its

Feininger of a Gothic cathedral that symbolized the integration of

all

the arts,

and

a statement

by Walter

Gropius, the founding director of the school, stressing proficiency in craft. Albers quickly arranged funding

and succoring.

from the regional teaching system of NordrheinIn 1919 Albers

went

to

Munich,

to study at the Konig-

Akademie der Bildenden Kunst (The

liche Bayerische

Royal Bavarian Academy of Pictorial Art).

What

Doerner.

He

gave

little

credit to his study of

painting and drawing with Franz von Stuck, with

whom Vasily

his future

Bauhaus confreres Paul Klee and

Kandinsky had worked over a decade

disliked Stuck's practice of having students

the figure,

which

they called

$7,000

draw from

me

of naked

to teach at Yale,

girls to I

draw.

saved them

drawings of nudes

He knew how to get the life and twist when to stop (see cat. nos. 37-

of the torso, and

11

in front

a year for models.") Yet his

are impressive.

He

as a teacher he eventually disavowed.

("They teach them

When

earlier.

headed

to

was

still

affiliated,

and

Weimar.

he

valued was the painting technique class he took with

Max

Westfalen, with which he

He had

been a hometown schoolteacher and

spare time a figurative

artist;

even

chance to break away to the big

in his

when he had

cities to

study

art,

the

he

had worked within the accepted mode of representation.

Suddenly he was an abstract

nothing he wouldn't

and the

possibilities

try.

He was

artist.

There was

in a different orbit,

were endless.

Albers arrived at the Bauhaus in 1920, a year after the

school had been founded.

Once

there, he

assembled

broken glass shards to extract a radical and beauty from them. in

He

sharp geometry to

juxtaposed

make

flat

startling

planes of

furniture that

was

wood boldly


and toughl) functional. !•

1

assembled .is

wot

tessau, he bent

i

could be

simple and elegant

.is

designed an alphabet as

German

works

breath

artist's

dissonance," reveals finesse

and

When

he

art

a horse

I

sandblasted

le

no reference w hatsoever to the known

ith

world, but with

power and energ)

.1

bent metal into

howls and

fruit

look new

still

and buggy.

smoothness and radiant tones,

ike

w

script as the

vcars

sixt)

[<

I

whose

tea glasses

Dessau and

Liter. In

Bauhaus moved

Berlin after the

own.

its

all

there, he taught

unprecedented approach to form and the

an

possibilities

lian. all

danced

le

1

the festivals.

at

with

over, e\entuall\

ot the century.

woman

1

some w

love

le tell in

from her childhood world

hound I

as he

he stor)

|oset

ot

Vlbers

from 1920

much

had from

ith

young

a

comfortable, tradition

own

time ot

past.

its

told repeatedly.

anyone elsein

[9

;

;.

1

low

and achievement ot

in

And how much was

realized because ot the school

itself— is impossible to determine.

What

is

dear,

how-

that as radical as his break was, he did not

is

really, as

he claims, throw even thine out the window.

Nietzsche wrote, "It his typical

a

man

has character, he has also

experience, which always recurs."

Vs

at

the

Bauhaus he continued along the same path. From rhe start

he had played

flat

planes against illusions ot three-

dimensional space; now he explored that dev

ice in

new

wavs. lie had previousl) succumbed to the enchant-

ment gated

ot the hl.uk it

further,

subject matter.

It

mav w

hite

spectrum; now he mvesti-

abandoning the encumbran< /

he Green Flute and other earh

Bauhaus years

also

himself And exalts technical

harmony.

arrived at the Bauhaus, Albers could

first

Documents

the

in

town

hall

stress

appeal to the regional teaching system to keep up his funding.

1

would

le

after just a bit

periodicall) assure the officials that

more

Bauhaus he would

training at the

return to his schoolteaching in Bottrop— a promise he

had no intention

of keeping.

he duress that

I

might have been the dominant theme ot another man's

became

Arx

source ot beauty

a

in Albers's.

pav tor paints and canvas, he went to the

not tar from the

Weimar Bauhaus, pickaxe

rucksack on his back.

He

that he assembled into

works of

balanced compositions that

and

see cat. nos. 40-

art

And

light— the

penetrates the colors

much

medium

care into

up ongoing rhythms

set

lacked

the)

when

rook on the

the) lav

onh imparting luminosity mood. Years

upbeat, positive

on the

ever dear to theartist-

in hill force.

That

light functions

draw

as rhe copious blank spaces of rhe earh

do, not

The

jewels.

interplay. Resurrected, the elements

and dynamism

lite

hand and

in

now arranged with

discards of others were

to

returned with glass shards

What had been garbage became

.

Unable

town dump

ings

but also creating An

later,

the

in

Horn

Albers would prime his panels with six to ten coats ot

white gesso to create

light ot the

and generous ground

that

same

sort, a neutral

1

draftsman Albers had alread) chosen to avoid orna-

ment and use the most economical means;

man

of the

Bottrop give voice to his extreme financial

ground.

on what was intrinsic to Albers

isual

v

work

during those earh vears. lime And again he had to

4;

closing

ot his creative evolution

those years depended

ever,

And married

there tor longer than

until the

friends from

departed as radically

Bauhaus has been

the

was

his

made

ot the artistic pioneers

who had

from Berlin

le

1

young Westfa-

ot his tat her- in- law

barel) perceptible-bel canto, without

Albers's

scarcel) afford materials.

clearly

he Bauhaus opened new worlds to the

is

of the

little

ot materials.

I

Georges Duthuit said

are, as

Henri Matisse's drawings, "mirrors on which the

new

from

Bauhaus were from

m

He

ir.ulitioii.il

glass to mi

making

Bauhaus moved

to create chairs thai

from the [unkers factor) near the Dessau

different

aircraft

ater, after the

minutes and were

in

were portable.

the)

shapes

1

id

themselves

I

I

could not

ignoring the aJ\ in the

to

told Albers he

show

had

to studv wall

At the vnd of his second semester,

le refused.

Gropius "reminded that

colors to

freely.

The Bauhaus masters painting.

would allow

me

stav ice of

several times, as

at the

nn

Bauhaus

it

was I

his duty,

persisted in

teachers to engage

first

of

all

wall-painting class." Albers, however, continued

work with

bottle shards

on

flattened tin cans

and

11


showed diem

wire screens, and tion of his felt

work

in the

end of the second semester.

at the

my show would be my swan song

that

Bauhaus.... But soon thereafter

my me to

Thus suddenly

was not long windows." for the

4

up

set

new

a

got

I

before

first,

that

could

I

Bauhaus and, secondly,

studies at the

continue

"I

at the

received a letter from

I

the Masters' Council informing me,

asking

required exhibi-

workshop

glass

my own

for them.

workshop and

glass

it

started to get orders for glass

I

Between 1922 and 1924 he did windows

Bauhaus

director's office in

Weimar, the Otte

and Sommerfeld houses-both designed by Gropius-

Museum

in Berlin, the Grassi

House

Ullstein Publishing

during World

War II,

Leipzig and the

Berlin. All destroyed

in

windows

the only records of these

today are photographs

and highly charged, vivid sense of the

in

their designs

new

Vibrant

(see cat. no. 45A,b).

must have added a

or

less

has a

for the

drawn

Albers soon organized his glass

Mounted 10

geometry. Grid

and systematization,

work with

his practical

absorption

means of making some-

effective

happen-here the creation of vigorous movement

His

results.

foray into the effects of pure,

first

unmodulated color-and

most

his

carefully

flat,

planned

composition to date- it richly anticipates the Homages that

came some

thirty years later. This

earliest assertion that he

is

Albers's

valued squares in and of

themselves.

new awareness

Albers's

of his

own preferences contrib-

utes to the quality of jubilation in the piece.

had thrown himself

The

artist

making of Grid Mounted

into the

with the eagerness of one

who had found

Having discovered

what delighted him was

breathe

life

into

the grid,

it.

full

his

way. to

an ordered, regular world his

In

imagination was boundless; those tied

to the structures they graced.

to regularity

most

through color juxtapositions-he achieved eloquent

of color are Increasingly

With

celestial radiance.

and eye thing

Mounted

than a tradesman's selling tools, Grid

down

squares

of surprises, totally free-spirited

How

without ever violating their boundaries. Albers himself, especially as he

was

later in

life:

like

the

a rigorous

ultimate law-abiding, tax-paying, good citizen, his

of 1922 (cat. no. 44)

lawn neatly mowed,

his bills

promptly paid,

who never

depends, obviously enough, on a grid. Later he would hesitated, while obeying the rules, to dare the outra-

elaborate on the grid in myriad ways, using basis for highly refined compositions.

it

as the

geous. Grid

But here

it

Mounted

is

euphoria within the confines

is

of structure. plain

and simple, with the resultant motion up and

down and

left

and

right.

Albers had incorporated a

Sommerfeld house window;

checkerboard within

his

now

sufficient

the motif

Mounted, he

was

filed

unto

itself.

For Grid

down glassmakers' samples to small,

uniform squares which he bound together with

copper wire within a heavy iron

fine

grill.

hooked

rugs.

The Cubists had employed

the early teens

in

American nineteenth-century

in

and Johannes

Itten

the motif in

had used

it

as a

teaching tool in the Bauhaus Vorkurs (preliminary course) between 19 19 and 192

}.

Klee

was

to explore

it

extensively later in the decade. In any event, Albers's

checkerboard has

its

own

alchemy.

and technique, with the underlying

Up

Bauhaus moved

a master.

to be so elevated.

front in material

units nothing

more

to Dessau, Albers

He was among

the

hand

in

life.

In

in glass,

practical

workmanship

Weimar,

whom in

he was

addition to

to basic-design students.

He

these activities in Dessau. Eventually he

became head of the preliminary course and the furniture

in a

he had made furniture and taught

working

all

students

marriage of Annelise

Fleischmann, the weaving student with

continued

first

The appointment put him

position to ask for the

to share the rest of his

Checkerboards come and go as themes. They recur ancient art and

In 1925, after the

was made

director of

workshop; he also explored metalwork

and graphic design. It

was

art

in the

medium

of glass, however, that Albers's

was developing most

fully.

By 1926 he had turned

completely from assembling shards and fragments to


He invented

using Hashed glass. sandblasting layers of

Bashed— together 96, " s

.

99

He

.

opaque

in

.1

second

col<

>r:

On

in

<<^

artist's

hand

top of

hair-thin layer o( glass

.1

I

.1

aii

Mower

to

remove

After removing the

he generally added another color with paint

often a glass painter's black iron oxide

baked the

entire piece

permanent.

see tor

a

make

kiln to

would

he

the paint

example

reveal the milk-glass back-

cat. nos. -

time would dull

tor a shorter

produce

a

finally

here were variations on the process.

I

Intense sandblasting

ground

m

.

dark mas

a

>iS

;.

sandblasting

;

top layer of black to

see cat. no. 95

.

Sometimes Albers

used more than one stencil on a single work.

Much

as he

would when he painted

the \,j:un\ the artist thrived

and

the possibilities of the

ot

wa\

that stressed the links

ised for

was working on

the

between the two bodies possibilities

.ire

\er\

But the unusual color intensity, the purest

white and deepest black and the necessar) preciseness as well as the flatness of the design elements otter an

unusual and particular material and form effect." glass he

made

In

another, adding or deleting Onlj one or

two elements

m

rhythm and

movement

make

see cat. nos.

the multiple uses of the

variations

69 72

same

.

His careful probing of Stencil

elements

led to

subtle vet bold permutations. I

he sandblasting

method enabled Albers

once the school moved

in

still

there.

maximal mtensirv and sheen, lake

substances.

and

hat quality and fineness ot material

I

emphasize the elevated status of

"Instead ot using

art.

colored glass to decorate, to create atmosphere, or to

God, Albers

praise

and

light,

from the

isolated color

from

glass

exalting color,

It

>>t

was one thing

to use transparent glass tor a stained-glass

window

effects

architectural context, thus

its

man and machine.""

church

tor St. Michael's

window

to

had made such

serve the idea ot holiness- Albers in

Bottrop

a

[916-

in

but to use this even bolder sort ot multilavered glass

was

abstract art

foi

abstraction

and

radical departure.

a

confident

into

materiality.

It

fixed

It

gave

detachment he preferred and which he considered

a

par with religious

ot careful premeditation

and

marvelous and mysterious

exacting execution

in

substance generall)

used to treat miraculous events,

a

the process of light passing through glass long having

been seen as an analogue to the Immaculate

and hoi) radiance

rion

in

w

ith

off

the

milk-glass.

It is,

a striking qualit)

in tact, a light reflected

an opaque surface that gives the illusion of being

light

in

opaque

oncep-

(.

general.

Albers was able to achieve light ot

shining through a translucent medium.

mam

the

reahtv

light it

source

is

We

feel

as

behind the object, whereas

comes from

the side that

we

are

on

although back lighting can be an important secondary source pices.

.

Albers outdid nature

He

and he made from

in

these flashed-glass

used opaque glass to create an apparent

translucenc) to achieve the

were put on

solids

-deemed worth)

imager)

constructions ver) dosel) related to one

to

commercial

pristine— and at a remove from everyda) textures and

it

line or color

in a

Bauhaus was

the

cut icvvels, the glass constructions are both radiant

lines

the glass constructions

work. "The color and form

limited.

Ho

program he had de\

Homages, he reminisced about

sometimes did

heightened status to nonobjective form. Interlocking

on both the limitations

himself. In America, at the time he

in a

the

them made

when

Leipzig

ottered

than would have been possible to achieve through

evident. Albers

studio and had

The medium

a

Sandblasting enabled him to obtain sharper contours

stencil,

in his

workshop— in

in Berlin

surface that the stencil allowed to remain exposed

chemical treatment with acids.

them

Dessau, and

the areas ol the

all

nowhere

a

from blotting paper; then he sandblasted with compressed

he

is

not even execute the pieces himself. Rather, he designed

stencil cut

blowing the glass

bj

AJbers placed

it

74,

opaque, pure

ol

and form,

the painted parts ot these compositions, the

excepi

red, yellow, black, blue or gray.

from color was melted on second rime.

stun

requisite tor the optimal functioning of color

fused— or

55-60, 62-66,

sec cat. nos. started with a

white milk-glass coated with

technique tor

a

glass thai were

more powerful than reflected light

a direst sou-

actual translucency,

appear to be

light

coming


This tion

the sort of artifice he later explored in Interac-

is

book he published

of Color, the

1963 which has

in

influenced the study of art throughout the world. For centuries artists

had

capture the truth of

appearance

its

in

forms as various

painting or the fragmented impasto of Impressionism.

Albers admired the ability of these earlier artists to control the appearance of light effects

However,

illusions of luminosity.

his

and

to create

concern was not

faithfulness to nature but rather the taking of matter

into his

own hands and making something happen

art that

would not occur

results

is

in

in reality.

a deliberate

The

flat

Still

and Russian Constructivism. De

air;

Theo van Doesburg

Albers, however,

away

right

manmade,

colors

and

as distinctly

nos. 64-66) -made with identical stencils

on

glass-have textures and color

tones unlike any in nature or, for that matter, earlier art.

This

is

deliberate fiction, based

technology. Like the

Homages

so blatantly dependent

on the

the

most modern

much

as

it

latest

to the Square which are

on manufacturers' paints and

machine-made panels and were developed tory-like conditions,

in labora-

extols the unique capabilities of

artistic

Stijl

right angles.

was

It

for

ter...

we

never joined."

1-

methods. The

artist

has taken

control as possible. In the earlier glass work,

was

clearly not averse to using straight lines

much

light that passes

through

the artist has really taken the helm; nothing

alter; little

subject to chance.

is

Picasso's Cubist collages, Schwitters's

Dada group

the achievements of the

inherent vagaries of

human

life

me

just

and

right

art

other geometric abstraction with which his

Braque's and

If

Merz all

pieces

and

reflected the

and depended

to an

like

own

has been erroneously linked, limited to the point of

the time,

A

closer connection

work Albers

and

whom

is

Mondrian,

was acquainted

certainly

he came to

to Piet

know

at

personally in

America, where he invited him to exhibit at Black

Mountain

College. Mondrian's idea of "the living

rhythm" achieved by

a balance of properly propor-

tioned lines and angles pertains to the Albers's art

series of the late

Homages. So does is

range of

1940s and early 1950s and the his

notion that "abiding equilibrium

achieved through opposition and

straight line (limit of the plastic

opposition,

full

from the glass works through the Variant

expressed by the

means) 1

i.e.

is

the right angle."'

in

its

but he adhered to some of

its

principal

Albers never used

tions,

can

just

There was some resemblance

and the changing nature of the

now

on

between van Doesburg's and Albers's work-Albers

the term Neo-Plasticism in reference to his

But

in the

"We had

admirers.

variables are at play in the irregularities of found glass

it.

was

mechanical decoration. So we came apart... no, bet-

with whose

different types of layered

was not one of his

and

straight lines

arrangements of carefully ruled and premeditated shapes. His three versions of Skyscrapers of 1925 to

De

lectured at the Bauhaus.

a clash... that cruel insistence

being empty.

(cat.

manmade,

planes of the glass constructions relate to

invented and unrelated to the natural world as the

1929

possibilities of a

angles- but he found van Doesburg's paintings,

The

artificiality-.

light quality are as explicitly

and triumphant

premeditated harmony.

tried to render light accurately, to

as the mirror-like surfaces of sixteenth-century Flemish

What

the unique

own

ambi-

tenets, like the idea

that "to be concerned exclusively with relations, while

creating

them and seeking

in life, that

is

the

their equilibrium in art

good work of today, and that

prepare the future."

14

and is

to

Those who knew Albers may

question the perfection of his personal relationships

overwhelming degree on the element of chance, Albers

he did not exactly thrive on their inevitable variables-

and many of

but time and again he claimed the link between moral

his

Bauhaus confreres wished

their control over their

to assert

environment. Rather than

assemble industrial detritus, they developed industrial processes for their

own

ends.

With

the

magic of

angles and a carefully organized geometry, they

M

right

show

behavior and the attributes of his his art as representing

an

own work. He saw

ideal for the integration of

the individual in society both in

its

tone and

in the

simultaneous independence and interdependence of

its


tonus and colors.

I

Mondrian's view trasting

would have subscribed

le surel)

through

thai "Equilibrium,

t<>

diverse

economic backgrounds came from the same

con-

place. Albers's master) of the abstract

indi-

Stepping stone:

first

America where

eased his transition to a new societ)

viduals as particular personalities."

lb be neutral

making him

it

at

the Bauhaus,

rather than subjective, to voice universal truths rather

bv

than person. il experience, vvas of pivotal importance

him

to both artists.

ing ot himself from his past,

instantl) a hero,

The sandblasted

on the

glass constructions arc based

kind of planning and preparation that would mark

work from then

and where I

it

in

later led

he distanc-

mk\ subsequent turning

was

his

to

means

work, appropriately, looks

ot achieving freedom. The like

his

and then

to considerable financial well-being.

.m unprecedented vision .\nd methods,

Mlvrs's

idiom was

.1

and neutralizing opposition, annihilates

au awakening.

on. Never again did he allow

spontaneity comparable to that of his early drawings to

appear

in a

work,

finished

interpretations of this development. afraid of his emotions the allegedl) cool art

is

)ne

(

sensuality.

.\n<.\

as

two

["here are

of

tull

is

that he

he other

I

/;; ./

possible

is

was

what

is

so indispensable as the sides, the

and

the nijstr Yet they jII have such j graceful appear-

that

ance that they appear to have been invented not

as the figurative

life

ship,

hold, the hoic. the stern, the yards, the sails

only for the purpose 0/ safety hut also for the sake

pieces.

of giving pleasure. \\

hat

is

certain

is

that

from 14:0 on Albers wanted

his i<

(

work

free of reference to earthly

exception to regarded

this

this

is

it

photography, but he apparent!)

separate from the

.is

he never showed that

his

it

be included

of his art since

rest

to others, referred to in

exhibitions or

in

or suggested

it

publications.

In

even the earliest pre-Bauhaus draw ings, he had avoided the extraneous in favor of refinement tion;

now he went

further

and generalized form.

and tow aid the

It

in his

was

a

1

ro 16

The only possible

life.

and

embrace

simplifica-

of limitations

move toward

absolutes,

Albers's achievement in furniture design, typography,

architecture

machine

and metalwork

dependent on the

aesthetic as are the glass works.

the cleanly

honed edges and

flashed-glass constructions.

to

as

is

one another

in

flat

Here too are

smooth planes

of the

Geometric forms respond

precise arrangement. Aesthetic

decisions seem to have been the result of a careful studv ot the technical possibilities ot the material.

The)

derive from formal invention rather than from any

eternal.

reference to the natural world or organic structures.

The fundamental character ot Albers's

constant and invincible, but

methods from iy:oon were ric

in

appearance and

its

Geomet-

a total departure.

w

ith

the Bauhaus. lie

had come from

a

pletely,

before

he had to .is

j.n c

up

as

much

mni-

what he had been

ot

he could. By taking up the new credo, and

revealing nothing ot his personal experience, he

possible tor the

new world

ot the

Bauhaus

fh rough abstraction, people from

all

made

to be his.

over

.\n\.\

in

other disciplines it

Albers

is

less

nevertheless has

worked

in

innovative than the its

striking qualities.

the current vernacular

in

provincial it

The work

glass pieces, but Essentiall)

the leap signified bv his entire experience

working-class background; to break from

it

wavs

abstraction represented a total change for Albers,

ke< ping

of

was

art

ot

stv le in

these realms, contributing to

simplicity, purpose and

scale.

In

it

his

ow

n eve tor

view of what the

people around him were doing, his accomplishment

in

typography, furniture, metalwork and architecture

is

not startling!) original;

it

does, however, represent

considerable refinement of the contemporan idiom. There were three periods sivelv

in

which he worked exten-

with furniture: 1922-2^, 1926 and 1928-29.

In


Weimar

made

1922-23, he

in

magazine shelves and

the

shown

conference table, since destroyed, that are

photographs

this exhibition in vintage

room

The

and

table

and

furniture of the preceding

two

years.

The

voids have a

which elemental shapes embrace and

respond to one another clearly betrays the painter's eye.

And

the pieces that he designed around 1926 for

the Berlin apartment of his

and Anni's

and Anno Moellenhoff

Drs. Fritz

sitions of

The

his chair of

juxtapo-

1929

no. 76).

(cat.

It

'

into a tidy flat

box

best

is

and dismantled and

for shipping.

wood-veneers

These pieces

that

had been

molded around matrixes and glued -were

as thick as

of bent laminated

they were wide. Over the years

claims have been the ture

made

and that the way

together

was

original.

1.

it

wood

chairs.

was

in

it

furni-

Perhaps because Albers was a

and painting, people

equally pioneering as a designer of

other designers had already

laminates, and

represented

modern

However Heinz and Bodo Rasch,

mann and

grandiose

came apart and went back

true innovator in the fields of glass

believed he

fairly

for this chair: that

use of laminated bent

first

some

knock-down

chairs

Josef Hof-

worked

in

bent

had been made, and

sold through catalogues, since the mid-nineteenth century. In

form Albers's chair was very similar

to ones

made between 1924 and 1928 by Erich Dieckmann and to some of the tubular steel designs popular at that time. is

What does distinguish Albers's knock-down chair

the subtlety of

its

proportions and the perpetual flow

modulated

of

its

A

chair design of the preceding year (cat. no. 75)

gracefully

right angles.

incorporates large squares, albeit with rounded corn-

16

and dark woods

light

its

quite elegant. Sitting in

of Albers's attitudes toward

it,

we

We

life.

ready to read attentively or talk

tough or hostile-the seat

smooth -but

it

will

think of

We

The

have an

chair

cushioned, the

is

many

are held upright,

alertly.

impression of firmness, of definition.

is

not

wood

not allow us to slouch. While the

supporting elements give essential structure, a cantilever causes a slight oscillation; the result

of Albers's work, the chair

is

is

that like

most

steady yet vibrant, ground-

ed yet floating-at once earthly and In furniture as in glass, Albers

fanciful.

moved from

largely

following the dictates of the material to manipulating it

known is was made of units

which Albers

that could readily be assembled fit

in their

forms and materials.

furniture design for

could

nos. 53, 54) are

(cat.

wonderfully inventive and surprising

close friends

paid extended homage.

later

it

some degree Marcel

early affinity

relationships give the object a

makes

their sureness of form.

in

The simple forms and

shows Albers's

it

outside Gropius's office.

sculptural richness. Planes interlock in crisp rhythm.

The way

Grid Mounted

form to which he

and the contrast of

Yet Albers's designs are distinctive in both their relative airiness

for the

purity,

shelves resemble to

Bauhaus

Breuer's

46,

ers; like

some pew-like

47). Albers designed them, along with seats, for the reception

(cat. nos.

in

to suit his will. In the

furniture designs the

first

dimensions of the available lumber, bottle fragments in the

hand.

But

He

Weimar dump, had

broken

the upper

arranged, rather than transformed, them.

he bent and molded

in the later chairs

much

like the

same way

the

wood

in

that he sandblasted multilayered

glass, respecting the intrinsic properties of the material

but taking charge of

new way. The

in a

it

toward material that he had developed disciplines

work

forever after.

The Homages

honor paints

straight

listed

with the manufacturer's

panel in a

in these

two

by the end of the 1920s was to characterize

explicitly

his

attitude

way

that

to the Square

from the tube, each

name on

the back of the

shows unusual reverence

for the

tools of the trade. Yet despite this meticulous listing

and the almost paints in the ical: it

is

they

scientific

method of

application, the

Homages seem incorporeal and metaphys-

become

light,

atmosphere, mood. Ironically,

the apparently methodical application of the

medium

that facilitates the attainment of this spiritual

quality. Albers felt that to revel in impasto, to

emphasized

and

his

own

physicality

and personal

been detrimental to the expression of the

and other-worldly dimension. ture,

succumb

medium, would have

to the sensual properties of the

feelings

cosmic

Similarly, in his furni-

he polished that plain, uncarved wood, and


avoided blemishes and accidents, to create form that

same time

seems almost ethereal wink- at the

offering

considerable physical comfort.

Ubers used K)(

.1

cat. nos. 92, 9

three different

;

known attempt

Although

.

on

have

room

jchibition

in

floor of the

in

Berlin.

that

for that exhibition.

day, but with

form.

And

on the

it

its

It

I

ow

1

for cat.

Mies

m

that the letters

wall, Albers

wonders wh) I

had placed

visitors

this

is

.1

ol the

and unknown

Building

Kohe

built

typograph) and

done

in Berlin,

side ol the artist.

and has an appealing

cal

(

1

>t

were

mto which

concavities

might

wav

caretullv

lis

I

leaves,

worked out

no upward facing

snow or other elements

addition there were openings to facilitate

In

tall.

drainage.

was

goal

to

outsmart nature.

One

big cit) hotels.

in

built in rhe area

point to a fascinating

We know

\er\

little

in

nos. 4S, 49A,B

.

In

is

no record

[926,

was very similar to one

something out

known

It

text

I

and elegant than forms

m

thanks

their predecessors,

more graceful proportion.

the delicate juxtaposition ot absolute!) minimal fruit

bowl

especiall) striking.

he shop designs look,

At the Bauhaus Albers had continued his technical

he) have

explorations and further refined his eve. Eloquence and

<>t

the future.

I

is

unfortunate that

we have no

except tor the lettering tor then simis, which the alphabet Albers designed in

[926

is

from

specificall)

tor

use.

binationsschrift"

form. His tea glasses are more

citing

record ol their actual plan and the technical details,

hat alphabet,

broadened and

them other than

tor tradition, that characterized the

Berlin of then epoch.

M. Krajewski and W.

Bauhaus

the chair, Albers

b)

in

had been made three

years earlier at the

the

the adventUTOUSness .\nd imagination, as well as the total disregard

that

designed

window shoppers should be

both attracted and protected. like

ebon) handle

flat

he shops were

and an accompanying

Albers's intention that

cat.

stainless-steel

a thin glass vessel, the tea glass,

elements makes the the reproductions

tea glasses

shun

Tumpel. As with

And ol

bowl and

use of a

training element with a simple

to their use of fewer I

its

men who

sister of the

the large publishing house.

fruit

ol

restrained

daughter and

never built, And there

I

not

aesthetic unity. Albers later

outdoor use";"" he had

tor

Anni Albers's mother

)ffset .\n^\ that

Ullstein, the

outdoor

is

unusually practi-

it is

the arrangements so that there were

simplified a

1927 publication

even today,

While the design

stencil lettering-

Albers also designed a ol the cit)

about them, except that they were reproduced

owned

required.

of the

in a

could find their way.

not always

Kurfurstendamm

was an

and combinations

and thus

rhe voice ol the

map

shop designs, meant to be

llstem

was

he

complete!) uniqueâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; it relates closel) to other Bauhaus

supporting he

that

all

I

were easv to construct; ten types

of pieces-circles, rectangles

two-were

units.

that did not collect dust or water or both,

and openness

n fine proportions

is

mg

explained that "these forms were combined

der

\ .111

he room spoke

result

of underlv

included one particular!) ingenious touch:

Berlin, so that

I

minimum

designed

le

I

was assembled on the second iul\\ ig

rectangles. Here, as in his

the literature

[931 Bauausstellung

for the

house

1926

ol

Company

the artist or in an) ol his exhibitions.

the hotel I

drawing

now appeared

until

1930s,

the earlj

for the Ullstein Publishing

nos. ^1,^1

space

at

was reproduced

it

m

publications

neither this design nor Albers's

two shops

hotel living

.1

and

circles

himself to the bare

design tor

im that represented his one

planning

m

his chairs in

permutations of

chair designs and his later painting, he restricted

simplicity of his

work

also

composition are consistent!) apparent

of the period. But

immersed himself

in visual

mischief. For example,

transparent -a

he pursued the creation of illusor)

theme he would

treat in Interaction 0/

such as Flying, [931

in

around the vear 19^0 he

cat. no.

94

,

(

Him.

In

works

he gave the false

impression that forms overlapped and that one was

which Albers called cat. no.

N

,

was based

his

"Kom-

enrirel)

on

visible

through the other.

precise tone that

He

did this b) finding the

would have been created

it

these

-"


shapes were transparent and superimposed.

It

thrilled

color composition -uses three solid colors to achieve

the artist to find that art provided experiences that

the impression of

nature could not

tion

offer.

more than

shows the enormous

This glass construc-

three.

that Albers could wrest

life

Albers also developed forms with multiple, apparently

from three colors and simple forms, and the richness

contradictory readings. Two-dimensional imagery

with which he could imbue black, white and grav.

offered possibilities reality,

unknown

three-dimensional

in

and so we get the ambiguous cylinders of Rolled

Wrongly, 19

no. 98),

31 (cat.

and the complex interplay

of the flashed-glass piece Steps of the same year

(cat.

no. 96). In Steps, the larger steps to the right clearly

move upward and away smaller steps

in

appear to recede upward to the

first

upward

then

foil

and then

to the right,

one direction and

ment

to the right; however, the

reverse.

With

to

left,

go up half way

move-

their distinct

in a single direction, the large steps are

an

effective

more ambiguous course of the smaller ones.

to the

That image of the smaller

steps, related to

both Gestalt

psychology and the art of M.C. Escher, would always

remain important for Albers. Believing that the original

had been destroyed

glass construction

Germany, he re-created reproduced

it

in oil in

after

he

left

1935, and had

it

in screenprint in his retrospective portfolio

Formulation: Articulation

in

1972.

The many

possible

readings of the left-hand flight of stairs continued to

and he repeatedly republished

fascinate him,

ing about

it.

Steps

is

included in

much

his writ-

of the literature

on Albers, generally with the information that the original glass construction

has

now

tion.

21

reemerged, and

Many

Albers continued to investigate the black-gray-white

spectrum

1935

in

some of

the Treble Clef works of 1932 to

The forms

(see cat. nos. 100-105).

in

motion and direction

all

change according to the

placement of monochromatic tones. At around the

same time Klee and latter's

The

works

Picasso, in such

Workshop

Milliner's

(fig.

exploring the effects of light and dark hues

different

way

in his

this

spectrum

photographs and photo-collages Dexterous and unerring

(see cat. nos. 77-91).

another medium, he manipulated powerfully and articulately

graphs are rich

in linear

in these

ings,

which Albers revealed

drawings and

prints.

and representa-

in his earlier paint-

~~

is

included in this exhibi-

many

At the Bauhaus Albers formed

versions. For one, the chameleon-like

was

more

tion than in the other original

is

remarkable

sheen of the

jet

life

of the smaller

effective in the glass construc-

mediums.

In addition, the

in its textural variations:

the

black plays against the slightly pebbled

surface of the more matte, grayer black; that lighter black, while carefully

viewed close up, white bloom

full

is

when

his

shared an abiding faith

and

(Anni Albers became

work. Intensely moral

Hence Stepsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; like main

its

of the

The gray

is

adjacency to the

Homages a

three-

Foremost

fifty

pervasive

years the

power of

two art,

and technical proficiency

known

as

one of the major

weavers of modern times). They developed a modest

and functional way of

seen at a distance.

in the

a reverence for materials

of atmosphere and takes

011 a

of the most life.

marriage to Anni; they remained together until

the artist's death in 1976. For over

machined and constant when

altered ad-infinitum as a result of

white.

qualities,

related images

the photographs further

indicate the strength as a portraitist tional artist

and dark

light

rhythm and abstract

same time

in yet

works. The photo-

and the photo-collages juxtapose dramatically. At the

in a very

was destroyed. That original

qualities are apparent in the

is

in the black-

already intrigued both of them previously. Albers

ventured into the realm of

significant personal relationships of his

of the steps

as the

were also

6),

white spectrum on spatial motion-an issue that had

glass piece that are not clear in either of the later

flight

each of these

almost identical, but rhythm,

grisaille paintings are

yet confident, they

life

geared above

in their

were

work

like a

sect. Particularly during the

all

standards,

to their

humble

two-person religious

Bauhaus

years, their art

bore a strong mutual resemblance-a point that has led


to endless conjecture as to -

.

I

ater

diverged

it

work

of

and

reverenc

.1

who

whom

influenced

in verj different directions,

each was always marked h\

prevalent tightness and

order,

was

innovation

real

imetric abstraction. p.irt

fig.

bui the

I

he grid,

its

of their shared

creed.

Allvrs also became close to

some

ot his other fellow

students at the Bauhaus, especialh Breuer mk\ Bayer, with

whom

\

lerbert

he Liter maintained connections

in

the United States.

Mis relationship with Gropius

remained significant

tor

him

until the i9^os,

when

he

designed murals tor several ot the American buildings designed b) the

had

little

MohoK

first

director.

work

And while he

ot Itten

and Laszlo

Nagy, he deepl) respected both Klee and

Kandinsky, with

warml)

Bauhaus

taste tor the

whom

he continued to correspond

Bauhaus closed

after the

in

1933. Klee and

Kandinsky, along with Mies van der Rohe, were the

A nni A

I

hers

Untitled Wall Hanging. [915 Silk.

101

Whereabouts unknou

(>

Pablo IV //'<â&#x20AC;˘

Milliner's

Oil en

i..in\.is. <y-

lection C

eir

Workshop |anuar) 1926

1

>

\

ioo's"

Musee Nat ion. d'Ari Modeme, - Pompidou, Paris 1

1

n


people with

whom Albers carried on his most profound

exchanges about the processes of Albers

was one of

the Bauhaus.

say that

it

The

the

art.

most experimental teachers

at

students in his preliminary course

them

influenced

irrevocably. In

it

he stressed

the manipulation of materials, particularly the folding

and cutting of paper to create astounding effects.

plastic

He encouraged students to work creatively with

cardboard, wire mesh, newspaper, ribbons and other substances not formerly thought of as belonging to the

realm of

art.

The goal of

the course

was

both dexterity and imagination. Albers's

to develop

own

artistic

achievement demonstrates the extent to which he realized the directives of his teaching.

1932 the

In

city legislature of

Dessau, dominated by

the Rightist Radical party, voted to dissolve the

Bauhaus, of which Mies van der Rohe had become

The school moved

director in 1930.

to Berlin, into a

building that formerly housed a telephone company.

was, however, the

city of

Dessau that continued

faculty salaries, because the courts

the city's contract with the masters

On

nated prematurely.

June

15,

to

It

pay

had deemed that had been termi-

1933, the Oberstadt-

Paul Klee

Old Man

Figuring. 192.9

n 3/4

Etching, printed in brown-black, plate

Collection

New

The Museum

of

x yVs"

Modern An,

York. Purchase

inspektor of the Dessau City Council wrote Josef Albers a letter in which he stated: Since

you were a teacher at the Bauhaus

you have

to be regarded as

in

Dessau,

an outspoken exponent

of the Bauhaus approach. Your espousing of the causes

and your

active support of the Bauhaus,

which was a germ-cell of bolshevism, has been defined as "political activity" according to part 4 of the law concerning the reorganization of the civil service of April 7, 1933, even

involved

in

though you were not

partisan political activity. Cultural

disintegration

is

the particular political objective of

bolshevism and

is

its

most dangerous

sequently, as a former teacher of the

task.

Con-

Bauhaus you

did not and do not offer any guarantees that you will at all times

National State.

50

and without 1

reserve stand

up for the

The Oberstadtinspektor informed Albers would no longer

On July

receive a salary.

20, as a result

of increasing harassment from the National the

Bauhaus

one

faculty, at a

meeting

in

Socialists,

which Albers was

of seven participants, voted to dissolve the school.

Mies van der Rohe At age

notified the

forty-five Albers

modernist

in

Gestapo accordingly.

was without a

a Jew,

was

was tumultuous. The prints he

(see cat. nos.

a pioneer

little

hope of

he must have feared a

bleak future. Yet his art of the time life

As

job.

Nazi Germany he had

finding one. Married to

his

that he

as unruffled as

made

107)

is

193

3

106-108) bespeak the serenity Albers must

have lacked but craved. To look at The Sea

''

in

7

(cat.

no.

to feel the role of art as a source of personal


equanimity through technical absorption. AJbers applied

a soft linoplate to

incised to

wooden

.1

continuous curve into

.1

remove

wood

curve to reveal the rich

before using

it

on

strips of the linoplate

first

backing, and then chisel

.1

eithei side of thai

name

Albers.

art,

and the power

The

grain underneath.

first

mainstay thai assured AJbers'ssun

unpen

ions to

pin sua

own

.is

I

identity

well

was

crisis.

they thought

international and

increasingly

Anni to

also be an opportunity tor

it

might be

C

arolina was; at

the Philippines. Kut they

in

cabled back their acceptance, with the warning that

spoke no English. The reply from the Black

fosef

Mountain

was something

here

1

ival,

emotional. His sense oi his

as

would

here

point

art the focal

he Alberses had no idea where North

were the

ol their result,

I

make

could

mk\ he had immediately suggested

give instruction in weaving. I

processes oi

who

of a teacher

of the curriculum,

was

faculty

to

come anyway. And

the process of obtaining passports

mk\

went surprisingly smoothly.

so began

visas, all of

which

Unknown

to the

timeless about Alhers's art. The tonus were familiar to

they

main

Alberses at the time, the procedures were expedited by

German, and the epoch -both

times.

subject matter

in their

and

It

identifiabl)

first oils characteristically of

an

xpression-

I

Sea speaks less clearly of place or era. This

universality, as well as

to Rice's

(

)U Man

juxtaposes

similarly

main

ot

its

\

isual elements, link

[929

of

I

8

fig.

which

,

irregular horizontal lines

slightly

of vary ing thickness to larger

mk\ more previse undulat-

ing curves. In both prints the interplay creates a

complex

v

isual diversion, and

blendsta

ity

the

felt

C

withserenity.

ommittee

formed group

their relation-

however tenuous, to [ugendstil and

ism- The

it

m ways

linoleum prints were

the earl)

ship,

modern

cultures in ancient as well as

ilities

Anni and c

1

For both Anni and Josef Albers, tunities tor a balance

world; In ing.

to

and repose

was an antidote

it

less certain in

opporthe real

to the pressures of everyday

he emotional detachment from their locale was

I

make

transmigration to another society

easy. In the

summer

of [933 the

student Philip Johnson, .\n^\

art ottered

seen their

work

Berlin apartment.

at

relatively

American architectural

who had met Anni and

the Dessau Bauhaus,

He asked

America. Without giving

it

would

they

\

Josef

isited their

like to

go to

armed

November

arolina, in

Artists, a

\<-> j

in

Black Mountain, North

time for their

just in

j,

American Thanksgiving. They quickly and up the teaching and making of

was

a

problem. At

on one

whom

first

took

Language, however,

weeks Anni,

who

as a child

governess and therefore spoke

Irish

glish, sat in

art.

easily

Albers taught with a translator

first

at his side. After several

had .m

newly

Americans already aware of

Nazi Germany.

[osef Albers

translator,

1

of

Rescue German

to

ot affluent

had

some En-

of his classes. She noticed that the

she suspected of Nazi sympathies, was

making Josef sound

far

than he actually did

in

go unaided. Since

more Teutonic and

dictatorial

German. She com meed him

fosef

felt

to

that the essence of his

teaching depended on visual demonstration more than

words, least

this did

not pose major problems tor him. At

he knew the new tongue well enough to state his

teaching goal with succinct clarity

-"to open

eyes."

rhese words were to remain a personal credo of his

amis as an educator.

Anni took

it

upon

herself to teach the

new language

to

her husband. Sometimes the results were dubious.

a

moment's

Once, when the two were walking

consideration, they answered yes. Six weeks

later, [osel

near the college. Josef saw the word "pasture" on a

it

more than

received a telegram from Johnson asking like to teach art at a

formed ers of

new and experimental

Black Mountain. North

in

(

he would

it

college being

arolina.

I

he found-

Black Mountain had approached fohnson

office at

I

he

Museum

of

Modem

\rt in

in his

search of the

signpost and asked his wife

what

perfectly clear," she replied. "It

it

is

in

farm country

meant. "That

is

the opposite of

future." But in spite of the rough start, both Alberses

were eventually to lecture and write books

w

ith vast

m

English

succ

>'


The language

was

of art

produced a print

was

publisher in Asheville that

troublesome. Albers

Bauhaus

the

Asheville prints were

arrived in

America

very similar to one (see

power of

pure, undiluted color.

When

closed.

shown

19^4, Kandinsky wrote

in

in Berlin

the Berlin and

sheets clear

.

.

.

and forms, than

tures

They seem

and improvisational, with

their

the preceding works, but like

abstract, nonreferential shapes-that are kernels of

finally a perfect

technique."

24

effective

The work

new work reveals nothing of the uncertain-

energy. This

of the

ties

artist's life;

rather

it

makes paint and panel

a source of high spirits. In spite of the appearance of

randomness

in these paintings, their positive

embodies points that had become central to Albers's

always the

teaching and which he articulated

abstraction of ca. 1940 painted on an

Bauhaus

element must yield at

Wings

(cat.

in

1928.

least

one

sum

over and above the

in a lecture

pub-

'An element plus an

interesting relationship

Thus

of those elements. "

no. 109), there are not only the

left-

terplay between the two.

game

of opposites.

negative of the one

on the

stripes

left

Is

in

and

right-hand configurations, but also the constant

in a

in-

The viewer becomes engaged the rectangle

on the

more

the preface to the catalogue

reflect all Albers's qualities: artistic invention,

lished at the

far

rougher tex-

the earlier pieces they present solid areas of pigmentâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; in

and convincing composition, simple but

means: and

carefree

years after he

first

(see cat. nos. 112- 117) revel in the

end of

in Italy at the very

accompanied the exhibition, "These beautiful

that

paintings Albers executed during the

in) with a

106-108) he had been working on

cat. nos.

when

less

series (see cat. nos. 109-

Why

left?

on the

right the

do the horizontal

appear to be white on black and

What

those on the right black on white?

the nature

is

top

result of

mood

RCA

Victrola

no. 115) demonstrates the precise approach

(cat.

that characterizes even Albers's seemingly offhand

work. Like the forms

in so

many of Albers's

two-figure

paintings of the thirties and forties (see cat. nos. 126-

two

128, 134, 140), the

cloud-like central bodies have

been conceived with great care. Their colors accentuate their personalities.

The jaunty pink

rangey one; the green,

somehow

perfect for the stockier,

a

suits the tall

more

settled hue,

sum

which resembles the

exceed two; the tense void between the two forms

one another

to these prints as are relationships of color in the

Homages on

to the Square. "Frugality leads to

lightness.... In

any form, nothing should be

unused, " Albers also wrote

in that

economical Showcase

no.

see are

and

emphasis

(cat.

1

two rectangles-one with

a third configuration in

1

1928 essay. 1

its

)

left

In the

essentially all

we

corners flattenedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;

which

a single line

is

contorted to create two interlocked beings that appear to lean into

one another. There

physical or emotional. elevate the it

down

We

The

is

no gravity

here, either

larger rectangle appears to

whole configuration, the second one

to hold

so that everything does not float heavenward.

read the composition as chambers within cham-

bers, as

.1

stage, as

comedy.

A

few thin

lines, carefully

positioned, provide endless entertainment.

Like his earlier glass pieces and the later Homages, the

>-

is

relationship of these bodies elucidates Albers's point that the

forces exerted against

and

more compact shape. The

of the strange attraction between the two bodies,

by two magnets? Relationships of forms are as essential

is

conscious decisions. The untitled

of one plus one in art can, in fact must, is

as

interesting as the forms themselves.

Albers

was

1949. In a

he had

at

Black Mountain College from 1933 to

world

come

tranquility.

in

to a

which oppression was spreading, haven for freedom and

relative

This was his typical move. In a hierarchical,

class-conscious

Germany he had found

his

way

to the

Bauhaus, an island of intellectual and social experimentation.

Now, with

totalitarianism overcoming

homeland, he had arrived

his

free

from most of the

in a

pocket of America

restrictions of conventional

middle-class society. Albers's freedom did not just

from physical

above he

all

easily,

place,

derived from his

and with

total

however;

own

his

come

independence

character. In the 1950s

awareness of what he was

doing, distanced himself from the multiple pressures of

academia his

own

at Yale

and of the

New York

art

world

to

go

route. Luck, along with an intense determina-


don

mm.i

I

not onl)

peaked

.list)

freedom

own

his

work from

lis

I

Me took

metrj u of

nn

>

he

135-137,

and ambiguity.

sterj

I

in

and

some

all

made

le

and

Bauhaus

at the

-4 '>

Me showed

.

a

source

pre use shapes that

Me was

ottered multiple readings.

chemist who, tor inents

1

once clear and rational mk\

at

period

straight lines

geometric forms further than he had Il8-I22,

diversit)

this

surroundings and the power

of his

imagination.

see cat. nOS.

art

was Hans Hofmann),

adventurousness and

in his

isiting

\

Mountain

two major

oik- of the

the other

paintet and printmaker.

.1

reflects the

of

his years at Bl.iek

become

America

in

Black

.it

pivotal figure, the

.1

numbers of students and

for great

did he

teachers

catalogue describes

in this

where he was

members. During

faculf)

enabled him always to

an administrator mk\ teacher

.is

ollege,

t

drawing card

but he

[arris's essa)

I

Albers's role

Mountain

destiny,

and work exactl) what he wanted.

his life

Marj

.is

own

to shape his

make

like a

laboratorv

of the exactitude ol his

puritv of his elements, delighted

measure

most

1

all

it

inexplicable alchemy. >>

In a

remarkable group of drawings from [936

nos.

119-122

which

.

time, planes shift

and

look at them. The

main

take on as

surest

.

are exhibited here tor the fold in contradictor)

flat

w

a\

we

pieces of white paper begin to

was reaching

unknown. We

still,

collapse.

we

tor

he

\

lew point.

work has

volumes grow and then

feel

questioning look to

a

and

earl)

it

and

[940s see cat. nos. [33, 166

Mere geometric tonus interlock alternately

rapid!)

Museum

m

background.

their

We

location

stillness that

ambiguous ways,

from foreground to

the) coexist

w

ith

[936

[94

s.

he Staatliches

1

Volkerkunde, which Albers almost

when

visited

seems the onl)

he lived

likely place tor

m Munich him

cer-

1919-20,

in

to have seen actual

Janus heads, as opposed to reproductions of them.

190s

tig.

9

,

mask acquired by

shows remarkable

painting. Both

the

museum

A in

same

time.

I

similarities to Albers's

mask .mJ painting contain

elements that are

individual

distinctl) separate and unified at the

he mask offers two independent angular

profiles that of course

belong to the same head.

the potent

simultaneous!) appear to

jut

awav from

that

I

hev

head and

dominates the compositions. to be contained b)

JartUS,

Volkerkunde,

.

cannot quite pin the movements

down, or understand how

fur

Janus-face helmet

appear to he transparent and opaque, and

shift

fur

n;vos and early

the late

We

unites our musing. So does a sequence of pamtii the late [930s

Museum

Munich

something, mov-

enter the process with him.

constant!) change our

lose surfaces, I

and other materials,

Collection Staatliches

tainl)

gam and

leather, paint

high

2

in

Standing

Anyang or Keaka

facets as a prism. The thin, lilting lines

that Albers

nto the

Mask

Janus Helmet Nigeria,

Wood,

first

as

s

it.

cat.

no.

[46

.

exemplifies the kind of

double imager) that increasing!) preoccupied Albers

of

it,

to be linear

And jagged

vet part

something massive and round. Similar!) the

of Albers's Janus

move with power mk\

lines

ccrtamtv awav


io Josef Albers

Study for "Bent Black A" ca.

(detail).

1940

and

Pencil

Collection

oil

on paper, 24 x 19"

The Josef Albers

Foundation

from the main elements of the composition while being centered by

it

and dependent on

and inward occurs ning-like

at once,

it.

and

felt

quantity in these works.

answers; there was no right or

And

in

mask

and black

alike the contrast of white

is

as

everything depends

they

saw

in greatest

He was pleased to get different

Movement outward there are both light-

bands and large central masses.

and painting

asked people what color they

upon

wrong

response, for

individual perception.

One

person sees more black, another more white. The point

strong and deliberate as the play of mass against void

is

and edge against bulk.

properties of the white or black themselves give the

that although there are equal quantities of each, the

viewer an erroneous impression. This was what Albers

Three variations on a theme-Bent Black

Dark Gray, 1943

1940, and Bent

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; represent

A and B, both nos. 135-137)

(cat.

called "the discrepancy

between physical

fact

psychic effect," the demonstration of which

and

was an

the earliest instance of Albers's deliber-

imperative of his

art.

ate use of equal quantities of different colors in a single

composition. This intent notation on an 10).

oil

apparent

is

on paper study

for

in the pencil

A

Bent Black

strictly (fig.

Here Albers has carefully worked out the compos-

ition so that there are precisely forty

and one-half

square-centimeters of each color: the black, the dark gray, the white

and the

light

gray border. This

system serves a number of purposes. For one, forth restrictions of the sort Albers enjoyed

on

himself.

He

felt

strict it

sets

imposing

that tough rules, like the poet's

sonnet and the composer's sonata, by their very nature imparted harmony to the end

results.

He did not expect

viewers to read the system precisely, but, rather, to gain a sense of order and regularity through the use of equal

amounts of

different

it.

Additionally,

pigments dem-

54

a central

for

apportioned color. The notations

Movement

in

Gray, 1939

(cat.

in the studies

no. 133),

show

the

premium he placed on schemata, and how important it

was

for

him

to be the master of the destiny of the

picture. For Penetrating B,

both a in

full-size

which he

hand-drawn

its

grid

and smaller drawings

tested different widths

determining the in all of

1943 (cat.no. 165), he made

final

and angles before

measurements. Control-perhaps

negative as well as positive associationsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; is

at the root of all Albers's art.

Despite his careful forethought, Albers did not eschew a degree of spontaneity.

Having charted

would occasionally succumb

his course,

he

to an on-the-spot intrigue

would

with paint and surface, which might produce unusual

theme of his Variant paintings. Albers

textures that could never have been planned in ad-

onstrates an important point about color, which

become

Albers used a grid for these compositions in which he


vance.

I

he results of such spontaneity are apparent

the nature

ing H.

<

works

the paini coverage in

>t

whose

shapes, b) virtue o( their internal

rid)

could get ever) thing right w ithout using

Mere

his

combination

a rigid format.

and

of thoughtful articulation

apparent insouciance reached

apogee.

its

mysterious, unfathomable sea.

textures,

encompass

a

precise

framework

yields the infinite.

\

in

like Penetrat-

At Black Mountain Albers often had his students use

Equal and Unequal, [939

work

i;^

is

,

another

which Vlbers deliberate!) pursued ambiguity.

seems no accident

1

1

in

no.

^.u.

AJbers has,

thai this

at least for the past fifteen years,

chosen

work

in

her bedroom, where she faces

tor

hours on end.

In

mam

and the

the picture

it

1

two-person relationshipsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a point supported

both i" attract and

b)

ielualit\, yet at

one another

the

and swim. Position and adjacenc)

one another. These

ver)

Anm

background that

It

to be

oddly

like a

mam

front

in

and

explicitl) represents sea

alongside the leaves so that the) appear to be

and

tilted

toward one another,

and

skv,

cat. no.

shadow box

150). Albers has painted a sort of

tunes she

is

inanimate objects become majestic presences

looks as

Albers says that the painting has

never tailed to elude her; howe\er

effect

in relief

conversing

jauntil)

tries

through the elegant void that separates them. Their

between the two tonus, she

to grasp the connections loses

float, fly

shown

its

same time seem drawn toward

b) strong, inexplicable forces.

between them.

are

Magntte, two leaves are

painting bv

highl) charged, invisible rays ofenerg) cross the void

it

been on public view, leaves appear to dance,

its

laden with possibility. In a collage that

resist

and

194

which have never before

,

floating shapes appear

freel)

similar beings remain separate, each powerful in

mdiv

leaf studies of ca.

see cat. nos. [47-151

[942

[wo independent,

own

analo-

is

gous to the Alberses marriage as well as to other close

title,

cut-paper backgrounds on

effects of

these leaves. In his

ua\s

to their relationship to other

.is

leaves,

the sole art

both the wa) that the individual

change according

leaves

importance of posi-

leaves to investigate the

tion, considering

Amu

the painting that

is

autumn

wings spread, they look as

whatever swein she

first

reads.

Space.

I

lere as in

much

if

can soar through

the)

work of

ot Albers's

the period,

the imager) ot individuals afloat in a magical universe

rhroughout the

late thirties

and

forties

earl)

Albers

used identical formats to present different color combinations, as he had

done with

constructions and the

Treble

<

several of the glass lefs.

I

he changes

of

[94

nos.

cat.

141-144

.

verv

slight

proportional variations are accompanied bv particularly subtle color

Albers's earl)

permutations,

forays into

unmodulated color appear I

he) are weightless

["hese are

making

flat

among

like tour

The appearance

frenetic.

other

In

|oset's Black

.

In the flow of their

make movement and

then-

vague reference to natural phenomena, these four pictures again recall klcc's

work.

I

hev

show Albers

ot esprit, bordering

named

tor the

1940s

Mountain

C

ollege friends

and bulge

to encapsulate the

drawing students not is

the

Anm

and

and associates !><)

toddler.

,

lines

Its

use

more than two continuous, unmodulated

lines recalls the exercise in

issue

ot

cat. no.

pudgy

on

Eh-De, [94

young son

Theodore and Barbara Dreier see

and To Mitla

58-141

full

the small drypoint etching

[58),

ot nothing

1

presence of the

ot Albers's prints of the early

case the results are

leap

forms, their use of color to

stasis in the

ranges from childlike to precisely machined. In either

paintings from 1940, Growing, Layt red, Tierra Verde cat. nos.

And work: the

life

spiritual.

cat. no.

expansi

to be intersecting planes.

and light-touched,

achievement of grace And

his

in

tional climate of the compositions. In the three versions

Open

major goal ot

a

emo-

color atteet both the internal rhythms and the

of

embodies

to

which Albers mandated lift

how muJi you can

pencil get

his

from paper. The

from how

little,

fwo


other etchings, both dated 1942, are similarly tive yet

restric-

evocative of their subjects: the etched lines of

Maternity

(cat.

of Escape

no. 157) envelop

background of sea and

way

that

suggests that Albers did not always keep his concern J

about the plight of refugees

The Graphic and

related

range

ingly calm.

his art.

itself.

animated to penetrat-

to

And

much

me

that

as that

marcel proust,

drypoint

like the

not so

.

that

should lead

it

and love of things

it

it

me

better than

might perpetuate

their

might reveal that beauty

me.

Here movement and resolution are com-

bined within single images.

.

beauty for

(see cat. nos. 160, 161) also

intensely

had asked of his painting

to the understanding

Tectonic series of zinc-plate lithographs

mood from

in

remove from

at a

drawings of 1942

sky.

and succor, while those

no. 156) dart furiously in a

(cat.

they are in front of the grain, which becomes a

discussing the paintings

The Guermantes Way

of Elstir in

19

etchings, they achieve compositional complexity

through minimal means. Their appearance, however, is

highly mechanical. But for

technique, the

ambiguous; lively.

movement

for

all

all

the exactitude of the

of their forms

completely

is

their coolness, they are recklessly

Configurations that resemble wiring diagrams

are subtly mysterious.

The Graphic Tectonics show that

In

1947 Albers began what

"other" is

the

The

series.

Adobes or

artist's

and accuracy, and of

well the merits of discipline

economy of

material

in his teaching.

The

and

labor,

series also

as

which he propounded

demonstrates the

ability

of "black lines [to] produce gray tones and, for sensitive eyes, color.""

8

For example,

it

almost

is

impossible to believe that the background color of the

paper

is

constant in the drawing Graphic Tectonic

no. 160).

(cat.

Some

areas look snowy,

some

111

ivory or

even purple, apparent tonal variations caused by Albers's manipulation of parallel lines. scientific,

A group

Once again

a

exacting approach yields the unexpected.

of prints from 1944

(cat.

evidence that a clever juxtaposition of elements

key to a transformation of

realities. In

Tlaloc

no. 168) white planes appear as hard

as

sheet

aluminum, and seem

made

of the white paper on top of which the surround-

ing

)6

wood

bent.

Although they are

grain has been printed, the planes look as

if

level.

change of colors transforms both the emotional

Two

paintings of identical format with different color

schemes can have radically alter their

different effects. Colors

appearance according to their surroundings;

a green has

one appearance

one when

in a sea

of pink, and a very

it

abuts somber browns and grays.

In the Variants Albers

demonstrated techniques he had

different

in earlier

work and which he was

bent on inculcating application of

and thin

new

character and the apparent physical action of forms.

directly

rain

his system-

driving at certain points in these paintings.

no.

god, broad-shouldered and all-powerful. In Astatic (cat.

A

was

now

of a single structure reached a

atic pursuit

Albers

which the form

in

had long taken multiple

the

on top

works

radically. Albers

is

becomes the Aztec

them

which he

only slightly but the colors

(cat.

169) a spare configuration of thin, straight lines

of a wood-grained background

for

alters

approaches to the same problem, but

used

nos. 167-T69) gives

own nomenclature

before his idea of a series of

change

They embody

known,

painted perhaps a hundred, he carried further than ever

courses at Black Mountain College: a clear head, '

to be

Variants. In the Variants, of

remains constant or

-

came

by a public more familiar with the Homages, as his

Albers himself had achieved the goals of his drawing

"seeing eyes, and obedient hands."

later

in his students.

unmixed

increasingly

These included the

colors, straight out of the tube,

on the white background but never on top of

other colors, to create the illusion of transparency. creation of this illusory transparency

an exercise

in

students' task

was

The

the goal of

Albers's color course in which the

was

to find the right

"middle" colors to

give the false impression that a veil-like

band was

on top of other forms. He had

shown

earlier

master)' of this in Flying (cat. no. 94)

lying

his

own

and would

later


u

rue-

about

it

Interaction of

in

olor.

<

I

he Variants also

demonstrate thai incompatible tonus ol motion can appear

Man)

occur simultaneously.

to

urations

ol the config-

these paintings appear to oscillate forward

in

and backward,

and

left

and awa) from

along the picture plane

right

into mysterious depths.

it

contradict realit) and induce the

learly, to

C

was

iewer's disbelief

v

part of the artist's continuing mission. "

Albers devised systems which he used to

madness, mj insanity"

'mv

call

Variant tor-

for the different

mats. Most are based on formulas of the type that underlies the Hoit Black paintings. According to these

systems there are virtually equal quantities of each color, or,

and

m

halt as

precisel)

much

true.

not the same.

more yellow than

The his

I

idea is

power

of the

possibilities

gave

,\Ui.\

impression that there

this

it

and truth it\

are

ofcolor.

of color, Albers

as effective a voice

it

had learned that color can

has qualities that enable

it

was not

gray even

that perception

is

as he could develop, lie

deceive;

It

becauseof the super lot

A devout missionar) its

of three colors

others.

Rather the\ were to think the) saw more

green than blue or

studied

two

of

however, for viewers to recognize

Vlbers's intention, his formulas.

were not

amounts

souk' cases, equal

more or

is

it

to give the

less of

than

it

1

1

Josef Albers

Variant: C

I

Laboured

ollection

Don

of reverse

detail

Page,

New

.

u;4 - -s:

iork

is

actuall) present. I

Albers's art both reflected his pedagOg)

list,

from the back

and nourished technical

it.

Some

of the

concepts

it

reveals

the purel) aesthetic decisions that

And although tar

the

more than

works make

exercises.

its

not primarily their

mixed

in.

all

ture of

us.

It

learn

about

didactic side.

its

[ere

I

lb

came

the colors. Starting with the large

cadmium

KeilK

\

(

red light

cadmium and Iray

#s and

and zinc white, zinc white,

mix-

mixture

Venetian red,

;

yellow ochre

^

1

1

1

1j4.Hr

on top

of

the Variants serve as exemplars ot Reilly's

theories, thev

["hen

Mizarin

and animation, that 4

beckon

its

pinkish area and working outward, there are

of

their enticing blend ot serenit)

we can

begin, there were four coats of white, with varnish

and dramatic color juxtapositions,

their formal grace

,

Albers, in very neat small senpt, wrote his recipe.

making.

demonstration ot fascinating principles, but above

11

of

certain points, the) are is

It

were byproducts

went into

fig.

makeup, and hence

do so

in

tonus

rich in artistic values.

frontal Stance ot their tonus,

immobile and

The

Gra) #4. The

not unique, elements.

list

has several unusual, although

Two

of the colors are mixtures -

fluid at the

because Albers tonne! that to obtain certain pinks mk\

same

time,

and

their effect as

reduced

reliefs,

which lavenders he could not use paints straight from the

recalls the

shallow bas-reliefs

<Âťt

the sandblasted glass-

tube but needed to combine a darker color with zinc

constructions, transfix us.

white. Then there c

onsider Variant: Harboured, 1947-52 eat. no. is^

.

In a studv

tor

is

the overpainting of the

tirth color.

Harboured Albers had used

onlv

the


gray in the outermost area; in the course of working

on

must have decided he wanted

the final painting he

something

to try

way;

in this

He frequently changed his mind many works, especially Homages,

else.

in

Albers painted one color on top of another. For

the

all

preparation and careful planning, he remained recep-

change, his eye always dictating his ultimate

tive to

decisions as he proceeded. the listing of colors

The painting

high, thirty wide; each measures

three.

It is

fifty

Mountain

the system for

all

before

He

exhibition.

always

i

"

and

a highly astute graphic

Anni and Josef

College, did not

felt its

know about

proportionate Tightness

without understanding the precise origins of that quality. artist

Nothing would have pleased Albers more. The

did not

interfere

want the reading of

the

method

to

with the pleasure of looking: knowledge

should not obstruct experience.

He

make

technique any more

visible the

nuances of

his

to use

it

craved light in his working situation.

want

did not

to

New Haven

in

the

Homages

The

paintings lay

eight-foot

flat

on simple work tables-four- by

plywood panels on sawhorses. Over one were arranged warm, cold,

cold; over the other they were

He wanted

cold, cold.

Presumably he did the Variants, as well as in a

comparably controlled

do

his paintings

look best

in fact

us.

premeditation are especially

Harboured.

A beacon of light shines out at

The pink and orange, played

against the darker

brown, gray and gold, radiate luminosity the

opaque

glass constructions,

where

like that of

reflected light

seems to come from behind. That resonant key to the character of Albers's in the

light

art. Scientific

is

a

research

1980s has revealed the positive effects of light on

the pysche, the perils of the long dark Scandinavian winter, the

human need

for

for brightness inside the

exposure to sunshine and

home. Light

is

a positive,

his earlier

situation. in

Although

natural daylight,

Albers would not allow his working method to victim to

its

fall

vicissitudes.

Clear light was imperative to more than Albers's It is

always present

Homages -at

crucial to his art.

warm, warm,

to see each painting under

but always highly luminous, conditions.

different,

work,

to

invariably executed

dark grays -as he did

in

so

to the Square under fluorescent lights.

table the fluorescent bulbs

warm,

He

Even when Albers worked exclusively

pungent

He was

1950-inside a studio where he was

assured of an ideal brightness.

understatement marked the means through which he

results of Albers's

essential

world (which might have

suggested the otherness, the virtually inexplicable sense

The

an

than subject himself to the

that, rather

uncertainties of the natural

process.

unknown,

as

from then on.

in his paintings

than he wished to bare his psyche. Discretion and

of depth and the

of Josef

investigated light in his glass

and he continued

it

all

move

reverse in preparation for this

its

He

central to

on dark

the years he possessed the painting,

we examined

constructions,

it is

days) he painted -at least from the time of his

studied with both

Albers at Black

He had

Albers's work.

And

forced him, like Bonnard, to forgo painting

as precise as the contents of a chemist's flask.

who had

with the sun: the source of earthly growth,

it

the parent of our world.

element

we

invigorating, in part because

twenty units

is

units each of the remaining

The owner of Harboured, designer

on

It is

two by two centime-

ters. There are seventy-five units each of colors "

"2"; one hundred and

associate

desperate for

The breakdown of units follows the reverse of the picture.

uplifting force.

least

in the finished art as well. in blacks

in several Variants

one of the grays

often the blackest of blacks

is

is

and

and many

luminous.

radiant as well.

And

To have

used darker tones entirely without luminosity would

have produced a negative feeling antithetical to Albers's

approach. The light physical nature of the forms parallels the luminosity of the tones.

Heaviness would

Murky

colors or weighty

have denoted encumbrance.

masses would have suggested internal doubt or

bowing

to external forces.

The function of

art

was

a

to

provide an alternative to uncertitude or negativism, to

surmount rather than succumb.

The luminous character of

Albers's paintings


spiritualizes them.

It

to the celestial plane,

bances

man)

movements and

artistic

probing of the

.1

self,

trends

in

Albers's

when

centurj

a

thought have

work

geared

is

tow. iid transcendence. In

his

saturation of colors, a theme he Interaction of

olot

<

.is

hues

their

equally bright

would

like lovers,

of saturation, differ-

he reason the two colors appeal

I

w lure

the) abut

bloom occurs

.it

one .mother

are almost

their junctures.

points of contact.

the boundaries

between

and brown are

distinct.

I

he\ are

more

On the other hand, some

like

sort

romantic pair of

also pointedl) demonstrated the

change according

to their surroundin

depth

in

hard to believe that the central vertical

the fact.

I

hand nearer the

he illusion occurs because the gra)

looks greener w hen

it

is

surrounded

does the hue of the gra) change neighbors, hut so does

seems closet

its

expanse, where

it

it

does

b) pink. in

Not only

relation

to

apparent spatial position:

to the picture plane

rectangles than

m

in

its it

those vertical

the broadei

horizontal

[949.

I

Vlbers

left

IU.uk Mountain

t.

ollege in

he atmosphere of the school had soured, with

intense feuding within the administration,

Uberses tendered then resignations. After

and the a year in

began the

name became School ot Art.

the Yale University

had an indelible

effect

on thousands

Whether they went on

there.

to

become

ot students

professional

architects or designers, or entered totally

artists,

unrelated

fields, the)

give repeated testimony that his

color and drawing courses And the impact of his

made an

personality

[958-once

full-time teaching in

some duress— but he remained

rest ot his life.

in

the

New

I

he most important ongoing

with the universit) was his work with Yale

link

on Interaction of Color.

Universir\ Press It

up

unparalleled educational experi-

area and retained peripheral affiliations with

Haven

was

alter his retirement

from teaching that Albers

devote himself to painting.

could

full)

more

prolific.

He designed

Me became

virtuall)

ever)

possible print

and wrote about

his Structural Constellations.

and tribulations of raphers

Henri

(.

his

own

celebrity:

I

le

Newman

And interviewers, the

stream ot exhibitions. His all

IK

time he had

the visiting photog-

artier-Bresson, Arnold

a

in

of his dealings with the

and

corre-

modus world

long handwritten letters— ever careful and

gracious— and

modating w

And

job with the pleasures

a full-time

virtuall)

in

medium. And developed

published other books and essays.

what was

tar

record covers, fireplaces

And murals. He also made numerous Homages

were

i\

core, he

its

forever after, lor almost a decade his

Snow don among them

reads as background.

at

synonymous with

operandi tor almost

fosef

as a painter,

Square on which he would work

ro the

spondence and

Anni and

would achieve more

gridded square

a careful!)

Yale tor the

perimeters of the picture are the identical color. Bur is

position as

a

Vile University.

to a city laid out in the seventeenth centur) with

for the

rectangles and the horizontal gra)

that

mo\e

mature container

is

at

lie

again under

It

where he took

laven,

major moves

years old. In the twenty-six years that

ence. Albers gave

is

ings—another concept he was to pursue Interat Hon.

ot the three

last

He was sixty-two

and brown and orange

that colors

I

the

remained to him,

how n

Harboure d Albers

way

New

hat

[Miik I

brighter colors. In

to

lite:

made

head ot the department ot design

a\k\ he

intensity,

radiant on their ow n and glow ingeven

fiercer) at all their

of serious,

in

ma) be that the) contain similar pn

the boundaries \

also explore

w hue. Because the) are the same

in nis of zinc

illegible.

are.

of his

pink and orange ol Har-

["he

boured have comparable degrees ent

|osef

teacher and writer than ever before. In the \ear ot his

and Homages Vlbers investigated the

Variants

New York

mundane

the

presence also en

iconic

["heir

othei worldl) aspect. In

theii

stressed

them from

elevates

a

clear-headed .\nd endlessl) accom-

ite.

continued to paint Variants

he onl) took up the theme on

a

until

14^,

after

which

tew rare occasions. But


the paints were

the

"Early

Odt

same

from the same batches, perhaps even

tubes.

Despite the similarity of color, the paintings produce very different effects. Early

Ode

gains

haunting

its

presence from the mysterious, luminous yellow that

seems the perfect middle tone between the cadmium

and the

gray. In a certain light, that yellow almost

disappears into the gray. Arrival has more of a look of victory to

it,

thanks largely to the two bold and weighty

colors that separate the

same cadmium and

alter the internal course, everything

J^Kt^^t: iVGZ,

Arrival the colors appear to

if

changes with

move

You

gray.

can have the same starting and end points, but

you In

it.

and out,

in

in

accordion fashion. In Early Ode, however, the second square out from the middle of the picture appears to be a tissue, which seems alternately to

under the central square. In

truth,

lie

over and

each color has been

painted directly on the white ground, in accordance 12 Josef Albers

with Albers's self-imposed rule that he must never put

IU nuage to the Square: Early

Ode

one square on top of another. (He did, however,

1962

(detail of reverse).

sometimes repaint Collection Maria and

Conrad

single squares.) Yet

thin film, held taut in space, keeps shifting

Beverly Hills

position in front of the

behind in the

Homages he maintained some

themes.

One was

Albers sometimes

of their central

made two Homages with

intervening colors

)de, 1962,

would

1

identical

make

between them. The

the identical colors look

from one another.

with Arrival, [963

If

(cat.

we compare

Early

nos. 221, 222),

scarcely surmise that the central

we

and outermost

squares of the two paintings are precisely the

it.

cadmium yellow pale

Morever forms seem

at

same

93

t

first

explored

(cat. no.

in the glass

96). Albers

construction Steps,

and wide and done countless blotting paper (see cat. nos.

always

with their manufacturers' names, on the

reverse of each panel (see

fig.

12). In

Arrival, the middle square

is

a

both Early

Cadmium

Ode

Yellow

manufactured by Blockex, the largest square a

Chapin Neutral

I

from Shiva. Since the two works

were done within a year of each other,

t"

listed all

we assume

that

studies

Yellow Light, made by Old Holland, that would achieve this perpetual motion and transformation.

Nowhere ing ones Mist,

is

the effect of a single color

more astounding than

1967

(cat.

in the

on

nently),

all

its

neighbor-

diptych Despite

no. 245). In this pair of paintings,

them

piece-like quality as well as coupling

as in the Variants, Albers

far

192, 194-199) to find the Schewingen

Homages,

Pale

a

to be

must have looked

which Albers hinged together

and

from

to a place

one moment

color, but Albers's notations prove that they are. In the

his colors,

a

translucent, at another opaque, a play of the type that

Albers

different colors in the interval

totally different

if

the mutability of color perception.

colors in the central and outermost squares and

<

looks as

it

Janis,

(giving

their altar-

them perma-

the elements except for the outermost

squares are identical. There are no variations whatsoever in

size,

format or the middle and second colors,

although under most light conditions unbelievable.

Not only do

this

seems

the tones in the interior of

the composition look entirely different in the

two


paintings, but

movement, shapes

tin.-

the degree to

which the corners appear rounded and internal prop

unions

seem

of the squares also

someone could take

Warm" and

That

to change.

Gra

paints called "Optic

solidity."

I

placing them next to either

on the

Shiva

bacher on

and

rlu-

mk\

left

right

is

which sequences

lie-.

1

,

.is

.1

faith.

in

in

does

more than

the

awa\

in

\

lewer

Not

the other.

paints appear to he very

different

The

colors solely because their position has changed. c

admium

Yellow Pale b) Rembrandt

Warm

outermost square of Naples Yellow

b)

Moreover, the

And

Silence,

the

in

Silence. Similarly, the

the middle of

in

si/es of the

squares

two

different

ver)

in

Warm

Tenacious

in

although the same, appear

the paintings have

call)

at

odds.

w huh Albersgave

w huh

to his

compared

when

are alone, another

the)

whom

human

to

and psychologically, mk\

surrounded

In

the) resemble phvsi-

another when the)

yet

Their relatives often

strangers.

dominance

the

intensify

it

are with a

the)

mitigate their distinctiveness, while foreign

\

isitors ^.\n

ot certain characteristics In

people themselves do not change, our

our perception ot colors, varies

just like

according to their surroundings. Additional!) the

work

suggests, with powerful effect,

the compatibility of contradictions.

emphatically horizontal

The Variants,

both their overall dimen-

in

sions and in the narrow, rectangular bands that

broad surfaces, are given

across their

two

the

.\n

upward

sweep lift

In

central vertical rectangles that resemble twin

doors. That

lilr.

putting a springy bounce into a

In

gentle sweep, intellects cheer into sobriety. Pensive

formsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; they suggest furrowed eyebrows and brow -are

Homages

the

as well,

because

it

is

What

is

a sense ot over-

especially

is

very light-hearted.

with solemnity.

emotional

we experience

repose that

a

a creased

Viewing the Variants and

ot laughter.

full

whelming calm,

is

climates, the essential characters of In their titles,

the center of

Blockex that tonus the border

Tenacious looks different

and Warm

in

resembles the same paint

Tenacious scarcel)

Silence.

is

this directional difference occur, but, addi-

identical

tionally,

furthest

when

group of family members

view ot them,

are painted in pre-

philosophical complexity.

color behavior can be

contrast. Even

antral square seems to be closest to the

one painting and

onl)

all

cat. nos.

simple transformation one might anticipate, which that the

ot

New York

Silence, 1971

Ins reversal yields

1

list

,\\w\

behavior. People, like colors, have one appearance

are

the order in

pair in a private

same tour yellows

reverse order.

cise!)

onl)

vary

and Warm

which hang

collection, the

Grum-

In

of identical colors have been painted.

Tenacious, 1969,

lis,

#8

Gra)

testimony not only to diligence

Sometimes two Homages

In

hapin Neutral #i by

c

Reilly's

but also to imagination and

craft,

h\

on

gave birth not onl) to fantasy, but also to

It

considerable spirituality

appearance

alter their

Albers's precise manipulation of paints

those unyielding Masonite panels was his "prosaic

#\ tool," both made bj

"Optic Gra)

Marabu, and so thoroughl)

"

thin

High

phlegmatic

effective

spirits coexist

also fiery;

is

what

somber, playful.

are coin e\ed

works

In

after they

both the Variants and the Homages, not onl)

moods but also irreconcilable motions We teel stretched across that picture plane, our

opposite were completed. coexist.

arms pulled

In

an essa\ on halo

(

alvino,

Gore Vidal quotes from

.m Italian television interview that took place shortly

before the novelist's death.

"Onl)

a

cream

it\

a

Cab mo claimed

certain prosaic solidity ;

fantas)

is

like

solid piece of bread.

thing, like jam, out of

jam; you have to spread It

not,

it

that,

can give birth to it

on

remains a shapeless

which you can't make any-

taut; at the

same time we

are pulled

upward.

We

are looking at a

single

flat

plane careful!) subdh ided m^\ decorated,

its

vet

suddenl)

we hud

two-dimensional object,

ourselves pursuing a complicated

course through a proscenium stage.

and outward .\n>.\

right.

at the

same

We move

inward

time, then simultaneously

With color too

there

is

a

left

confluence ot

opposites. Albeis might juxtapose a midnight black

with the blue ot

a

noonclav

skv, a cold, disfincth

4'


Pablo Picasso Guitar. 1912.

Charcoal on paper, 1SV2 x Collection

New York, fractional Mrs. Donald B. Marron Art,

manmade

steely

yellow. Art

was

gray with a verdant green and a sunny to accomplish

what nature could

body of

Irreconcilable elements are also joined in a

work

not.

of 1949 to 1976 which Albers called his Struc-

tural Constellations or Linear Constructions (see cat.

nos.

171-176).

These are discussed by Neal Benezra

and Charles Rickart This series

is

to the

in their essays in this catalogue.

"'

Graphic Tectonics and some of the

other earlier geometric prints and drawings as the

Homages

to the

Square are

achieve from a

While

say to

my

I

minimum

was

students,

still

'Do

in a

more

en-

subject

is

always ambivalent forms, which simultane-

ously appear to be

penetrated

flat

in a variety

and three-dimensional and

are

of incompatible ways.

Cubism. Like Picasso's 1912 drawing Guitar

in

an interview

"Though my same urge to

of effort a quantitum of

teaching in Europe,

I

used to

order to do more.'"

pursued linear

refined format than ever before.

He

devised a system based on minimal variables and

4-

made from

graved brass and large architectural commissions. The

these Structural Constellations descend directly from

In the Structural Constellations he

geometry

engravings on black Vinylite, prints

most

attitude, the

less in

drawings, embossed prints (white on

white, white on black, white on gray), white-line

artist

paintings and linear constructions are not connected,

effect.

two

in the

Paul Overy,

same

in large

diligently for over

rough working sketches,

which the

had long been grappling. As Albers said

they stem from the

and then

it

first in

of Mr. and

In offering multiple approaches to the picture space,

reductive form possible, of ideas with

critic

took form

It

gift

to the paintings that

precede them: a further development,

with the English

subsequently worked on decades.

2.4W

The Museum of Modern

(fig. 13),

they use simple, well-drawn, unmodulated lines to

make

planes that shift perpetually and forms that

appear to unfold

first

one way and then another. The

discrepancies seem both like magic and like accurate reflections of the variables in the reality,

human

grasp of

psychological and physical. Both Picasso and

Albers questioned the nature of

all

perception.

They

discarded old notions of truth and standard ideas about vision.

their

And both

artists

took a formal approach to

themes, developing a sequence of internal


pai

and echoes and

illels

thai impart unity

and

careful balance ol elements

.1

appear less.

change constantly, volumes become weight-

to

seems

fibers

lere

I

onstellations

<

have started out earthbound

to

and then moved heavenward; having Him given us

makes

implicid) weight) three-dimensional bodies, he

them

float.

I

he transformation through u hich masses

and the

are rendered weightless,

ment

were

into statu objects,

move-

interjection ol

among

Albers's constant

preoccupations. In the sandblasted glass works he had

mass

countered the heav)

the materials with the

ol

Homages

Variants mw\ the

In the

effects of light.

he

began b) methodicall) appl) ing paint grounded to the

made

panel, but subsequent!) the colors ethereal.

negation ol weight and mass

Ins

I

and

the forms buoyant

both establishes and denies such physical properties,

son

the

ment

.it

through the application ol overtl)

means.

Scientific

heads

in

square

first,

matter, the core trom intervals

two or lett

on the earth and

their feet

cosmos thanks

the

central, or

which

underneath that

right ol

and

it

above

tripled

is

and

a halt units

doubled

at lett

In

ot earthl)

elements ot

vertical

heavenly. "

1

his as)

to the

In the foul

ten units

and

wide

and one

right

The Poweroj the

Kudolt Arnhenn explores the w

normal balance

is

it.

wide underneath the

halt a unit

high above.

he

1

tour units w ide. each ot

is

middle square, one unit w ide

a)

S

enter,

this ratio shifts the

and heavenl)

horizontal

a single

(

square

in

mmetr) produces the

favor d\

ÂŤ>t

the

namics

the theme, a squeezing below, an expansion above.

promotes it

all

the are

a

depth

effect,

the squares were

same

center."

I

he

square, created b) either

Square format, for example, which

the outer squares

I

of the

ever) thing emanates.

first

and high, the middle square

then-

to their 1:2:3 formats.

like a seed: the heart

is

three larger OUtl) ing squares, are

and

1

is

ike

I

all

voice rather

true spirituality, Albers's

is

poignant, muted tones, rather than with

evangelical ardor. In

analyzing the ascendant qualit) ot the Homages,

Arnhenn points out

that

we

it

follow the tour diagonals

created b) the corners ot the squares within squares,

on

they converge

a point precise!)

wa) up the painting. lines

an

\

I"he

all

one quarter ot the

diagonals created b) drawing

through onl) the two bottom

carrying those lines

the

demarcates the rectangle that

that

corners .mc\

sets ot

wa) across the panel make the lower

is

halt ot the composition. "'A solid base

thereb)

is

provided on which the sequence ot squares can

rise

with confidence trom step to step-not so different

trom the coffin

hero's Resurrection, trom which the

in

movement toward heaven foundation ourbet;

c

s\

he as) mmetr)

waxes

similar to the

is

its

takes off."

1

in

Ibis strong

'

a

seascape b)

submission to gravity emphasizes the

gradual rather than pronounced.

I

bus the

on the

ot a cathedral

Bauhaus

original

bn 'June which beckoned Albers to Weimar,

and the attributes ings alike, there cal concerns.

I

ol steeples. In buildings

mix

a

is

1

>t

solid craft

his

Horn-

loomed

mk\

paint-

with philosophi-

hat blend ot factualit) and spiritualit)

parallels the issues ot mortalit)

large tor Albers

anti-Bohemian,

m

his later years.

persona

in

and immortality that Determinedly

was

he

the

honest

craftsman, clean shaven and well scrubbed, dressed neat, almost uniform-like clothing

grays and beiges to

New Haven

.

In

isisO,

chose

everyone

like

tor living a\k\

a small

Cape Cod

else's: a

stvle

no nonsense

working. Iwentv \ears

later,

the) were more affluent and able to enjo) the

rewards ot the

moved

drip-dr)

so that he could take his teaching

position at Yale, the)

good

mostl)

in

when he and Anm moved

house that looked

when

subtleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the squares

image

ages to the Square have massive, sanctuary-like bodies

It

mmetnealb around

is

ike the

place

w huh would be counteracted

grouped

1

>t

almost centeredâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; so consequent!) the upward

thrust

in

a soft

weightlessness above.

Homages have

he

I

contradiction essential to Albers's achieve

poetr)

ol

achieved

achieved with

is

than a loud shout.

serenirj to the disrupted subject.

use the spatial configurations in the

element

spiritual

art

boom

ot the

[960s, the)

to a slightly larger raised ranch

suburban

street a

tew

on

simpl) a quiet

miles away, convenient to a

cemetery plot the) selected so that after the

first

one

died the other could drive bv on the wav to the post

43


But the matter-of-fact Albers knew well that

office.

through

his

achievement he was guaranteed a degree

of immortality. Returning to Catholicism in his late years, he

may

well have believed that not only his art

would

but also his soul

monk; and

austerely as a

like a

monk

lived as

he thought often

The words of George Eliot- "It

of the

afterlife.

strange

how deeply

scent..

He

outlive his body.

..They look

is

colours seem to penetrate one, like

fragments of heaven"

like

?4

-might

describe his state of mind.

The world beyond our in Albers's

Homage

in

1976

when he made

(cat.

no. 246),

was

a blue green

some two months

before his eighty-eighth birthday and his death a

week

By the time he made this Homage he was working

later.

not

is

in fact a

from the tube, applied our perception

some of

the

central square.

was not and the

sea-like

being

I

Aubusson

for a

bank

in

had been

tapestry that

Sydney, Australia.

sions.

He

me

told

had found

that he

had one problem with

a combination of his chosen colors that

Homage

interacted perfectly in an

was

central square

did not

work

format when the

four (out of ten) units wide, but that

as well in the format with a larger (six-

unit wide) central square.

Showing me

of these paintings (he often worked especially

He

it.

when

explained that,

studies of halves

in half

Homages,

designing prints or tapestries), he

in the version

"downstairs" was

with the larger middle,

but not "upstairs."

fine,

He wanted

middle, the cosmos

While the

earlier

also

between two other colors takes on the appearance of both of those colors. a three-square

When

Homage,

colors properly intersect in

the color of the innermost

and the cosmos, the cosmos

was too

Homages

distant.

generally

Cezanne and Monet,

moved toward

wanted

all

Cartier-Bresson once told

inner boundary.

"The middle color plays

placement.""

4

)

'

This

is

entirely illusory.

the role of in

reversed

The second

who in their late

should be no

him

that he

made

"circular

squares," which delighted him.) To achieve these effects

he needed to find colors with the identical light intensity.

The cosmos should have

neither sharp boun-

daries nor corners.

He said that even the supreme colorist Turner had never been able to match

making

light intensities exactly. Yet

by

studies with painted blotting paper, Albers

found precisely the paint he needed for the middle

section

With Winsor Newton Cobalt Green, code 192, he could obtain both his desired inter-

and the match of

moment, however,

light intensities.

the only

At that

Winsor Newton Cobalt

Green available was from a newer batch, code number 205.

He admired

the paint

company

was

both mixture parents, presenting them

subtle,

sharp corners on the inner square. (He said that

second square out. The color of the outermost square its

more

boundaries and edges

code number to indicate a change

appear within the second square, toward

depend on sharp

hazy, atmospheric effects. In

square will appear toward the outer boundary of the

will also

with the smaller

virtually to disappear. Additionally, there

number

It is

green

he explained that

the version of this last blue green painting with the

described this intersection in Interaction of Color.

a correctly selected color lying

it,

light-dark contrasts, the later ones are

square.

which

terrestrial forest

with closely related hues. Here Albers's development

both a spatial flow and a color "intersection." Albers

the process by

it.

hand over the sky blue

In the version

larger middle, Albers

discussed the painting with Albers on several occa-

his

aqua surrounding

in the center.

work

commissioned

Moving

and then over the more

center,

parallels that of

panel

modulated, and that

third colors are visible within

Here the intersection occurred, but he

satisfied.

he focused more on printmaking-but he did

this

is

it

paint straight

Albers then pointed to the version with the small

on very few paintings-his hand was too unsteady, so

as a study for an

and

is

that at a distance

flatly. It is just

us that

tells

first

mixture, but

these colors were the earth

individual earthly existence

thoughts

square

for

changing the

in the

pigment, but

frustrated not to be able to duplicate a paint that

had been discontinued several years

earlier.

After

searching, however, he found a supplier with

tubes of 192, and he section he achieved

is

made like

the painting.

some

some old

The

inter-

magic. Looking at that


Homage ing

.ill

with me, Albers demonstrated

oi Ins fingers,

and inner squares

and praised the

abilit) of the

aries.

I

his

ah ino

i

//(

\\

painting.

liis List

M.uvov aldo:

rote of Ins character

would never miss a

j feather sefly

tupped by

on j

here rather than

and without bound-

to be immaterial

was

outer

span the middle color. Again he

to

spok( of the need of "the universe" "the cosmos"

by interlock-

it

yellowing

leaf

<Âťt

j branch,

was no

a roof-tile; their

back, no worm-hole in a

h<>r<c'<

plank, or fig-peel squashed on the sidewalk that

Vlarcovaldo didn't remark and ponder over, disring the

changes of the season, the yearnings '"

of his heart. 1

here

not see

and

.is

spirit,

mil ot latent meanii

line.

deepest nourishment. like

titude

We cannot

C

almK and

stability in a tew

used,

<.\o

14

Kazimir Male\

ich

Suprematist Composition: White mi Whit,-, 1918?

mood on

Oil on canvas,

his

Collection

;i

>

\

;

The Museum

1

â&#x20AC;˘

of

Modem

systematical!) recep-

at bottles,

he found mul-

forms.

label him. "( onstructh ist,"

much

Art,"

<>t

and nuance were

Detail

Morandi looking

.\\)<\

itive

able to exert a decisive, life-altering effect

another color or

tive,

of line that Albers did

no color tone or scrap

is

Albert

'"I

disservice.

a

ather ot

We

(.

)p

should

appl) Ins understanding of color to our understanding of him; words,

short. All that

fall

to

and the attempt

s.i\

that

is

certain

is

to pinpoint diversity,

variability.

no two people pictured

the

Albers used

same thing upon

hearing the word "red." Like the controls ot language, all

ot Albers's precise systems

a celebration of. in

It

it

is

m\

stery. lb

a

guide

to.

and

accept ambiguit) .md revel

the great message ot his

Albers did not belong to

wereonh

poem

am

of the laboratory.

group

ot artists, he was,

nevertheless, not without his artistic soulmates. In

addition to his affinities with Klee and Mondrian, he

had

links with

some Russian Suprematists. Kazimir i>

Malev

m

ich's paintings of squares,

which were

Bauhaus publications, ma) have influenced him

slightly.

The waj Malevich juxtaposed solid squares

and emphasized the beaut)

ot their

ka/imir Malevich

illustrated

Suprematist < (imposition: ReJScjiuri Black S^iuic. iv 14 or 1915 ? Oil

form b) isolating (

them max have inspired him

tigs.

14,

1^

.

Ikit

the

on

(..un.is.

ollection

New V>rk

I

he

18 \

1

Museum

ot

Modem

Art,

New York


Russian and Albers used the motif to very different purposes. For Malevich the square

reductionism; for Albers

it

was

was

a full stop, a

a tool, a device to serve

the revelation of color, a stepping stone to vast riches. In fact, the

Homages descend more from Renaissance

precedents than from revolutionary twentieth-century

movements which attempted artistic past.

The calm and balance of Albers's harmoni-

ous arrangements, and

and

frontality

to sever ties with the

combination of elegant

their

spatial progression, gives

the feeling of fifteenth-century tional base separates

them some of

Madonnas. Their

tradi-

them not only from more modern

idioms such as Suprematism but also from the

Minimalism of the 1960s and from contemporary hard-edge abstraction with which too does

its

it is

use of spare geometric form as a device

more than an end product. Today

museum

installation to

same room

in the

often linked. So

it

hang Homages

as paintings

is

a cliche of

to the

Square

from the 1960s by Frank

Ellsworth Kelly, Kenneth Noland and other

Stella,

hard-edge

artists.

For a number of reasons Albers's art

looks out of place in juxtaposition to theirs. Paul Overy

commented

that

it

was "ironic"

that Albers

with Minimalists in an American

was shown

London

festival in

in

The Homages do not belong are an individual

human

drive.

any one movement but

and unusual expression of a familiar

Gombrich

them

sees

as unique

ments of the "economy of means that driving forces of art feels that

some of

embodi-

one of the

is

works" throughout

He

history.

came

Albers's objectives only

to the

and early twentieth centuries

fore in the late nineteenth

when

the Beuronschule began to emphasize

tality

and proportion and Hodler became

monumen-

interested in

parallelism and formal organization. However, he

maintains that the driving force behind the

Square and Albers's other

to the

universal.

series

is

Homages and

timeless

These works derive from "the

interest in

producing constraints and then overpowering them.

You have

and

to concentrate

see just

how much you

can make of an element or elements." This tion that exists in both

and has

Albers to a

making "this

Mogul Emperor who

variations

is

a tradi-

music and the decorative

"parallels in poetry also."

on two

lines.

problem of how much

arts,

Gombrich compares spent his whole

Both were devoted to to get out of simple

in

order to prove them inexhaustible."

Albers

was fond of saying in

some ways

that he descended

the

Homages go

all

the

from

way

back to the cave paintings at Lascaux. There too Albers lived in America for nearly half of his long life

and taught

painters. Yet his

m

its

a whole generation of

American

work remained strongly European

"relational" qualities and, even though he

used a "centered image", the

bottom edges

way he placed

the

of the squares closer together

created effects quite different from the symmetri-

work of Stella and Judd. Albers applied paint with a palette knife and deliberately left

cal 1960s his

the edges rough, with a tooth for the interacting

colours to bite on one another.

masking tape and

*6

his

He

never used

works are not hard edged

life

elements; the making of permutations of every kind,

Adam, and

1986:

to

find only three colors: yellow, red

Homages, of

and

we

black. In the

course, Albers reduced his palette by

choice rather than necessity, selecting his three or four

hues from a reserve of thousands. Happier with some of the limitations of the early cave-dweller, he unlike those of us

who head

for

was not

mountain tops- where

only the contents of our knapsack, rather than the

abundance of supermarkets,

The

generalized

Homages

was everyman, reduced

are available.

are "everyman,"

and Albers

to essentials like the ancient

cave-artist with his oil lamp, facing the gritty reality of a coarse surface. In the cases at

Lascaux

as

on the

(except in reproduction). The largest paintings are

rough side of the Masonite panels on which Albers

about three and a half

worked, the variegated surface gives the colors richness

feet square;

small by

American standards. The values they affirm are

and variation, and lends

not American values but European. 37

the textures

a crucial irregularity to both

and the edges of forms.

In that irregularity,


Paul

i6

ezanne

c

'

Oil C

in

tin.'

sturd) application of paint

on top

rhc kernel of the humanit) of the work.

the paintings at

Square an

his abilit)

make imams.

to

of the truth underlying

ot his vision

the most pressing

is

human

th.it

is

it

and urgent

is

to the

thai suggests that the artist's

life

Albers, like

the cavemen, grasped at visual experience

power

it,

gives both

Lascaux and the Homages

intensity

depended on

It

of

.is

.1

Pan

existence.

source or the

clearly the product

ot

<>t

Modem

York, gih of Mrs. David

M

abstract, nonrepresentational form so as to create an

other-worldly realm

in

which planes constantly

position. But each artist de\ ised a space that

ened and compressed

employed planes /

.

1

it

that are both frontal

everywhere,

is

and

in

foreshort-

and each

AJbersian

and outâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; the way

reall)

does. Cezanne's

focus on the technique ot painting, like Alhers's,

I

Homages descend more

he

sion

ezanne

C

works

like

\\

/.

directly

as the kej figure in his (

from Cezanne's

b\ Albers's

bateau \

.

admis-

development.

Cezanne

16

essence presented three planes of color, the picture plane,

own

all

and he used the properties

offers.

Frenchman sought so

m

his painting the green clearl)

he

worldâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; and

signifies the

in

do nor hold

The poet Rainer Maria Rilke w rote of it

these colors could heal

for

all.

I

(

forth so

much

e/anne's work,

one of indecision once

he good conscience of these reds, these

blues, their simple truthfulness,

it

educates you; and

you stand beneath them as acceptingly as possible, as

I

ground, mk\ the tan helps place the chateauâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; firmly

e/anne's rough surfaces, along with

in

and

to capture the natural

(.

as respond.

to hold each plane in space. Hut in spite of these links I

Moreover,

the artists themselves, they

"As

e/anne's and Alhers's ^n.\U were not the same.

ields

Alhers's well-worked painted planes, receive light; like

ot color

C

\

unfathomable mysteries that nature ultimate!)

In

parallel to

shirt

recessive. In

a suprisingly

moves up and back and which

is

vet suggests depth,

bateau Noir, the sk\ does

thing:

the

example than from any other:

Art.

Lev)

middleground, while Alhers's colors occupy

the

the sk\,

necessity.

WO4 -Oh

\

Museum

ollcction rhc

New

and

I

on canvas, aw

if

1 the) were doing something tor you."

visited the [9

_ (

ezanne exhibition

in Paris

it

it's

Rilke

time and

47


again-with a vehemence comparable to the ardor that Albers

when he

felt

returned daily to his square panels

and tubes of paint-and observed: You also notice, a

how

necessary

it

to

is dedicated to Anni Albers. Her public person is known; she is a pioneering abstract textile artist, designer and printmaker, and an innovative writer on aesthetics. For fifty years she was visible as an intensely devoted, though never docile, spouse,

This catalogue well

more

little

was

NOTES

clearly each time,

go beyond

love, too;

it's

a position she has retained with the

But the role

natural, after

all,

to love each

one makes

but

if

less ivell;

it:

one judges

one shows it

of these things as this,

instead of saying

labor which no longer

knew any

tested

it.

.

.

.

it

This

preferences or

on the

infinitely responsive conscience,

scales

of an

and which so

incorruptibly reduced a reality to

its

color content

resumed a new existence

in

a beyond of

that

it

Most are

without any previous memories.*

Rilke's intensity

and Cezanne's

and the resultant

from

to Albers's

my

how

own. Indeed the colors of the Homages do

have a "simple truthfulness," and do "educate you." us.

Here

is

someone who overcame normal human

ambivalence,

who

on your own behinds"-and found both

his

Sit

own

methods and course. is

an

The

art

much

it

transcends individualism.

in a

they touch

Guggenheim Museum has

Thomas M.

supportive. Susan B. Hirschfeld has not only been highly efficient

and,

when

was

it

ently delightful.

required, supremely diplomatic, but also consist-

Thomas Padon

of details with grace and

skill.

has handled an encyclopedia's worth

Carol Fuerstein has been perpetually

clear-headed and flexible at the same time.

Mimi

Poser and her

have mixed work and laughter with rare effectiveness. At the

and patient of aides-de-camp, but also unfailingly imaginative and good humored. And at home my wife Katharine has been, as always, supportive, witty and insightful, and our daughters Lucy and Charlotte

My

full

of spirited encouragement.

deep personal thanks also go to Lee Eastman, a patron

and

to his ever gracious wife

support and insight

thank Maximilian

also

I

in the

Monique. For exceptional Schell,

Jochen and

Martina Moormann, Paul and Ellen Hirschland, Charles Kingsley,

Rene and Ruth conservation

in

Errett;

and

Villalovas; for their remarkable skills

work

for countless

and diligence

Martina Yamin and Ray

Patricia S. Garland,

forms of assistance Hans Farman, Phyllis

Emma

Lewis, Diana

Murphy and Tim

about

color.

It

The

i

Unless otherwise indicated, quotations by the

my

generalized way, living beings.

great late work, they grapple with

ultimate, essential truths. craft,

must, however, single out a few

of the

hospitable a great institution can be.

Grounded

upon sublime

left in his

phrases from

my

Rencontre, 1969,

bare, they caused

minimal disruption between the

communicator and

the

z

studio. This passage also includes

Almost

all

p. 67.

of the dating of the early drawings it

in

Drawings of Josef Albers,

University Press, 1984. According to

only one

between writer and words, between painter and

ing but far less sophisticated

Homages were

one. 3

known drawing

is

mine.

I

explain

some detail in my book, The New Haven and London, Yale

conquered the gap between speaker and statement,

the

some

translation of an interview in Jean Clay,

the reasoning behind

means of communication. They

medium: Josef Albers and

come from

Visages de I'art moderne, Lausanne and Paris, Editions

solidly in their

mysteries. Stripped

artist

conversations with Albers or from unlabeled tape record-

ings that he

like

I

devoid of memories. Describing

reveals color rather than opinions

As such,

staff

Nighswander.

phenomena,

Homages become,

is less

helped put together this exhibition and book

Fitzgerald, Carroll Janis,

timeless

her

Herbert Agoos, Saul and Caroline Weber, Ulrich Schumacher, Denise

followed the advice he frequently

gave to his students-"Don't jump on bandwagons.

Here, too,

know

friend.

Messer and Diane Waldman have been unusually gracious and

truest sense,

the art of

detested term "widow."

Albers Foundation Kelly Feeney has not only been the most diligent

ways comparable

Their confidence and decisiveness penetrate

and giving

in the preface.

point of view.

just

much

have been lucky enough to

9

visual connoisseurship

distillations are in

who

of those

acknowledged

staff

color,

I

familiar: that of a true

shown

whose minutest

biases or fastidious predilections,

component has been

one makes

which

in

earlier

my

chronology, there

than Farm

work

Woman,

that Albers did

a

is

charm-

when he

was teaching in Stadtlohn. The first exhibition of the figurative prints was at the Galerie Goltz in Munich in 1918. Subsequent showings included the Art Gallery, New Haven (1956), the Landesmuseum fur Kunst und Kulturgeschichte Minister 1968), The Art Museum, Princeton University (1971), and The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (1971). Yale

University

Westfalisches (

f8


"On

\m cssa) by Margil Rowell,

4

vol. 10,

and paintings alongside work

"Why

red letters,

Munch and

b\

he authenticated

Delaui

AlKrs did

Munch

owners kindb got

after the text linking .1

"closeness

\branis. Inc., 19

in hi-%

ti>

him

came

to Delaunay.

expressionsim" and

New

Albers,

an

it

idition,

are these together here?" next to the

article,

resemblance to Delaunay

N

to the artist's .mention several

>l« >r.

his notes

Werner Spies also mentions

s

«

in large

comparison and "No!"

.1

l

AlKrs has written

annotated copies ol the

his

Albers'

January 1971, pp. 16-37, shows Albers's earliest prints

11

Ham

V>rk.

I

on the painting, so

anothei

yet

n that

unknown during

substantially

his lifetime.

'

//•,

organized and circulated

11,

me

touch with

in

with this exhibition,

'

Conversation with E.H. Gombrich, London, February

11

as a surprise-.

he photographs are

was

ii'

its s t

United States and

in the

anada

b\

accompanied

h\

phy

at

l

American federation ot Ans, pn <

"More or Less," Poems and Drai

|osef Albers,

George Wittenbom, -

Quoted

Neil

in

I.inu.in

'-4.

Quoted

in

Quoted

in

"Albers on Albers,

VCfelliver,

vol.

-,

1966, p

13

xxvii, December 19, 1951,

Eugen Gomringer,

New

trans..

This

a

Janet Flanner, "King ol the Wild Kasts," II

il.

10

work

.is

atti> e

/

"On

literature-including Rowell,

Inc.,

Wittenbom,

lyce

is><->s,

some

Painting in

Grid Mounted on the hack

where

in

it

which

the ivsos

since been

11

Quoted

in VCfelliver,

Quoted

in

s

Ibid.,

.

responsible tor

is

Mondrian:

Piet

Harn N. Abrams,

Inc., p.

I

1-

Quoted

George Heard Hamilton, Josef Albers -Paintings, \h. cat., New Haven, Yale University An i'i\'>,

omell Universit)

p.

is.

./t-r,

and Irving Leonard

1979,

75, gi\e

p.

Finkelstein,

New York

in

February

about

1941

his

quoted

in several

Press.

75-/6, and Francois Bu.

Gallery,

/

New

V>rk.

Random House.

Vidal,

"On

Italo

,1

The\ have also been analyzed Francois Bucher

this chair.

in

11,

I

vol. 1

<>t

Rememl

Scon Moncrieff and Terence Rilmarrin,

k.

Gore

Books, November

t:

series.

30

University,

Yale Univer-

\lbers wrote the passage

1961, p|

Marcel Proust. The Guermantes Way,

trans..

\IKrs.

New Haven and London.

completed the print

1

taken

is

it

publications, including

1981,

^f>.

115-126.

Calvino," The Keu 1985, p.

;.

in

depth h\ the anist and

and

nes

>

b\

me

Draw-

in

Bauhaus-Archiv, West Berlin,

at the

about the Bauhaus, date

it

;i

Quoted

in

Paul Overy,

aim Down, What Happens. Hap-

'"(.

pens Mainly Without You' -Josef Albers,

along those who make benrwood

the claim that

Bauhaus Years." e\h. It

cat.,

was

An Museum.

the

tirst

ies, in

and Graphics,

American Federation i\>s<>

of Arts in the Tinted States

to October 1988, who led

this

information

is

19/5-

by The

and work, have

Los

ot California Pi

Eliot,

Middlemarch, Harmondsworth, Middlesex.

New

iork. Penguin Books.

Haven and

;^

|osef Albers.

;<>

Yale University Pa-ss, revised pocket edition. 19-5, p Italo Calvino, Marcovaldo. William Weaver, trans S \

Farman, whose memories of the Berlin exhibition, as well as lite

George

England, and

Anni Albers's brother Hans

ither aspects of his brother-in-law's

rkeley,

ondon. University

I

146. •,4

from

me to see others

.

Angeles and

Hon Wood and

in exhibition circulated

ondon October 1967, p Rudolt Arnheim, Thi 1

;;

"The

Princeton University, 1971,

Ostergard, curator of

1

Metal Furnitui

he source of

and Hugh M. D.n

fosef Albers Paintings

The

was Derek

September

it

chair intended tor mass production are Hamilton,

Paintings, Prints, Projects, p. i*.

I

The

rhese words are from notes

wrote to himself

'ast,

1;

s.

Ken

after he

19

1926 as the date tor

as well as in various publications

p.

Wtber, Drau

Prints.

Arbor, Michigan. University Microfilms Interna-

However, documentation as

New

Ithaca,

Press, 1979, p. io.

Ph.D. dissertation,

Ann tional,

in

[Ibers, pp.

1-

x

//•<

ionni.

lose/ Albers, p. 4S.

phrase and the complete passage from which

his

I

have

sity

(.

Gomringer,

Despite Straight Lines,

h.H. Gombrich,

1

teaching ot drawing.

Ibid.

York,

in

that Albers

t66.

Quoted

-<

Ibid.

.».-..•

16

1

16

18 ife

Pi

135.

Quoted

p

in

Mil

./.-

Milan. Galleria del Milione. Translated h\ Nora

:>

man)

"Albers on Albers," p. >o.

Michel Seuphor,

V>rk, 14

removed

',•<<>.•;:

The exhibition was on view from December i;. ly ^-January

paragraph and the preceding one.

of the ideas in this

.

h.is

Silographit

it

tor

is

It

The Museum ot Modem An in New iork. Quoted in Hans M. Wingler, The Bauhaus, Woll "-,111. ed., I ambi and Basil Gilbert, trans..

cat.,

AlKrs

had made

of the frame he

14

17.

p.

of the

Albers' Color,"

Statement b\ Kcll) Feeney. Ms. Feeney

1

the artist's estate.

catalogue by |ohn Szarkowski, Hire.

Massachusetts, and London, Ihe

40. I

V>rk. George Wittenbom, identified

is

p.

Jos<

appears on the cover of the magazine— but AlKrs wrote the title

more examples from

V>rk.

.

1961.

Inc.,

Helen and

Publishers,

//;.•,

Run

•.

Wolff Book.

i>>S ;. p.

Harcoun

I

ondon.

:

1.

37

Paul Ou-rv. "Josef Albers."

)8

Rainer Maria Rilke.

{9

Rilke.

An

A

I

don

.

|un<

been extremely helpful.

io

Letter of August

2,

hj-^. to

The Museum

of

Modem

Art.

Virk. 11

I

he present owners ot the original

V>rk. International Publish St,[>< did. in tact,

bring

it

.


Josef Albers: Art Education at

Black Mountain College

MARY EMMA HARRIS

In Berlin in the spring

and summer of 193 3 the Nazis ,

every experimental college should have a

German

forced the closing of the Bauhaus, the innovative

schoolmaster such as Albers because he encouraged

school of architecture and design founded by Walter

a sense of order without dominating the school.

Gropius

1919. Simultaneously Black

in

Mountain

moderate height and slim with

a fair

Of

complexion and

College was founded near Asheville, North Carolina,

graying blond hair, Albers's physical presence was

by John Andrew Rice and a group of dissident faculty

modest.

members

at Rollins

College

who had

been

fired or

slacks

He was most

and

often seen in light-colored

a shirt or in overalls or coveralls, the attire

of a craftsperson or worker.

He and

This coincidence was ultimately to benefit Black

the distinguished weaver

writer, shared a rustic

Mountain because Josef

cottage of

had resigned

teacher,

over academic freedom.

in a dispute

Bauhaus

Albers, a former

who had received an intimidating letter from

the city of Dessau,

would come

work

to

at the

American school.

campus. The

leather

philosophy of the found-

new

college

was

the idea that the arts

Anni,

his wife

stone with Theodore and

Barbara Dreier and their children

common room was

with Breuer tubular

Critical to the educational ers of the

wood and

and

Lake Eden

at the

furnished sparsely

steel chairs, chairs

which Albers designed, using

of

wood and

a traditional

Mexican chair as a model, and Constructivist furniture by Mary (Molly) Gregory, who taught

should be at the center of the curriculum rather than

what Albers

woodworking. There were mats of natural materials later described as "their decorative

and sideplace."

'

They

realized,

however, that

if

freshly cut flowers. Albers's studio,

which was

they were in the cottage,

was

off limits to students

and

faculty

to achieve their goals, the conventional teacher of

unless they were invited.

painting and sculpture their search for a

to

would not be

new kind

The Black Mountain

years

sufficient. In

were some of

his

most productive

as an artist,

and

of teacher they were led

The Museum of Modern

Johnson recommended Albers,

the

Art,

where Philip

to the

new

demands of community

life

were such that he

did not allow interruptions in those precious hours college.

own

available for his

painting and printmaking.

Despite his warning that he could not speak English, Nevertheless, aspiring art students had a chance to

Albers was invited to join the Black Mountain observe him pursuing the professional activities of faculty. Idealistic, moralistic,

dogmatic,

brilliant,

an disciplined

and stubborn, he remained

artist,

tions,

years,

and

his personality, teaching

such as dealing with galleries and exhibi-

for sixteen

and

to learn

from

his

example the dedication

and ideas exerted

and concentration necessary a

profound impact on

all

areas of college

Albers

One summer

jo

session art teacher

for creative

work.

life.

commented

that

was

a

member

central governing

of the Board of Fellows, the

body of

the college, as well as the


committees

took care ol the practical problems

thai

phenomena about him," clearl) tor Albers

summer an

concept ot "\ ision."

I

hough separated

thousands

bj

progressive, experimental, adventurous

a

Dewe) had been

writing ol educators such as John liberating fora

Albers arrived

hampered In

differ-

Vmerican technology and architecture and the

spirit.

a

and

Bauhaus and Black Mountain

ent cultures, both the

shared

ol miles

in

in its

foi

Bauhaus

the

leaders. Yet

America, he found

young country

.1

struggle to establish

when

its

ovÂť n identit)

confusing idealization of older, more established

.1

cultures, especiall) those of the Italian Renaissance

and

lassical

c

Greece, and bj

brought the spun as

of

romantic view of the

spun

Id the progressive

.u ts.

a

of the founders, he

modernism, which he defined

attitude tow ard the present time,

.in

contemporaneousness."

An," Albers

fulness in

period

is

an essaj entitled " [ruth-

In

insisted

the art of

tli.it

valid only to the extent that

it

as spiritual creation."

a

role of

one of inhibition," he directed the

to

attention of his students ture, to bridges, ro

t,.

contemporar) architec-

photography,

to

commercial

typography and advertising, to abstract

American

crafts.

He

art

and

to

m

Mexico, Central

America and the Southwest, and the Pre-Columbian these areas had a profound impact on his art

art of

and

he discouraged the obliga-

his teaching. In fact

European stud) period and encouraged

tor)

his

students instead to travel to Mexico. I

he role of the arts

was

a

theme

that

in

a

his

was reinterpreted throughout

arn\al

at

Open

1

eyes.

"

the

Although he

he meant "to open

better stuttered later

sees art as neither a beaut)

shop nor

noted that b)

the student's

to this

eyes to the

le \\

more than embellishment and

entertainment; but as

a spiritual

lite;

and who

essential

lite

sees that real art

documentation of

is

essential

life .\nc\

art." lie objected to the neglect ot

is

the manuall) oriented student in education, to the

knowledge

acquisition of

on

the emphasis that

as

.\n

end

and

classification

in itself,

and

to

stems, insisting

s\

process and change and tar more complex

lite is

than an) system. Because action

is

m

inherent

the

that through the practice

creation of art forms, he

felt

of the arts the student

would develop independent

thinking, productiveness and a creative, inventive

approach

problem solving. "We

to

Albers wrote,

are content,"

our srudies ot form achieve an

"it

understanding, vision, clear conceptions, and

a

masses

m

pn iductive I

V,

ill."

le

1

referred to the fascist

urope as "an uncreative crew" and made

tion

between the person

who

needs followers.

I

in

reflected

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; not

and the leader who

urthermore, he wrote, "

which one

province

a distinc-

by his example gives

direction to the lives of others

onl)

finds

the

all

in

the problems of

problems

a

is

lite

form

of

proportion and balance but also spiritual problems e.g.

ot philosophy, of religion, of sociology, ot

econom) (

."

ritual to Albers's teaching

the artist as form-giver tion of

human

and

was

his

perception ot

ot art as a

"documenta-

mentality through form." In

a

ke)

statement which he began formulating soon after his

of students, Albers

and which appears

summarized

relationship between form

when asked on

Black Mountain what he hoped to

accomplish, he "uttered

"We w ant

arrival at the college

culture and in education

college's history. Albers recalled that

who

student

rote of his goal,

i

imitation of nature, as

spent both of his sabbat-

and several summers

icals

reveals the

Objecting to a position tow ard

moves tradition "from

the past that

earl)

am

time through form: "truthfulness ro art

spirit of the

facilitation

"significant

.1

a

to see,

"seeing" encompassed the broader

of dail) living. In addition, he organized the special

sessions.

him

or to allow

in

his ideas

the notes

about the

and cultural values:

ivable thing has /on;;. >>i

can he cither appearance

Hut since appearance

is

.;

result

<>>

behavior.

of behavior,

and behavior produces appearand every form has meaning.

<'


The shortest formulation of

of scientific formulas, and the untutored self-

this is:

Every thing has form,

expression encouraged by progressive educators. The

every form has meaning.

core of the visual arts curriculum, designed for both the general student

To understand the meaning of form, that is

is

conscious seeing of and feeling for form,

was

and the beginning

art student,

the courses in drawing, design Werklehre), color (

and painting which were supplemented by projects

the indispensable preliminary condition for

workshops. Ideally the college would have

in the

culture.

offered courses in painting, printmaking, sculpture

Culture

is

ability to select or to distinguish

the better, that

is

the

and other areas of the visual

more meaningful form,

and the workshops would have been

student,

the better appearance, the better behavior.

Therefore culture

is

size

Through recognition

in

and through producing The

latter direction

is

the

two ways:

of better

therefore

form

such elaborate

way

The

of art.

Its

Albers's courses in drawing, design

the fundamental laws of form"; the goal, "a sensitive

reading of form." Albers observed that though "imagination and vision," both of which are essential

study, "discovery

can only be a byproduct of

and invention" and "observation

and comparison" which "aim flexible

at

open eyes and

minds" can be taught. "The layman or

spectator," he proposed, "as well as the practicing artist its

— does

see, recognize,

compare, judge form

was "a

goal

that

is

benefit

that the general student

more from

a

course

elements of form than one

would

a

to

draw from memory

from

them aware of how poorly trained To develop an

their cigarette

before speaking"

in

disposing

it

as

make

memory flat

sheet

were folded on

if it

axis. Exercises in mirror writing

— drawing

an image

and

meander

like the

again and again in the same or different sizes — In

one

drew

exercise the students

and

in the air,

in

another

they drew "blindfolded," looking only at the model.

Quick

line

drawings were made

to capture the

in

the study of the ele-

sculpture or painting

mediocre

still-life."

ments were

left

for

advanced studies

after the college.

[is]

4

Early

in his

American experience, Albers came mores when some of the

at the college

of the Bauhaus, a professional art school, to general

reaction in the local

education. His courses offered an alternative to the

models.

predominant methods of

education: the Beaux-

sense..

Arts practice of copying the art of the past, the use

women

Though he .

community

to the use of

nude

was

non-

declared that

[and] he wasn't going to in the

into

women

became concerned about possible

At Black Mountain Albers adapted the curriculum

art

is.

— "thinking

— the student looked at a

of paper or a leaf and drew

an imaginary

visual

ability for visualization

conflict with local

J2

the motif

pack, a favorite candy bar or a soft drink to

essence of forms. Techniques such as crosshatching

because "a color correctly seen and understood

more important than

content, exact observation and pure

its

and shading and consideration of decorative in

and

representation. Beginning students were challenged

developed motor control and visualization.

form with emotional content, makes an

He argued

disciplined education of the eye

in

psychic effect. To produce form with psychic effect,

artist."

was drawing.

of the community, including faculty,

and color was "the knowledge and application of

to the creative process,

was taken by most members

basic course that

hand";

The content of

facilities.

of better form.

proof and measurement.

its

and limited financial means of the college,

however, did not allow for so large an art faculty and

Art as the acting part of culture is

well-

equipped and directed by master craftspersons. The

a concern with quality.

Culture can be manifested

advanced

arts for the

outside

it

let

a

"all lot

of old

community who were nothing


but

.1

bunch

oi crudes run the

and models wore

Albers defined basic design not "habit, dreaming,

from

ollege," he acceded

C

a carpenter's

"practicing planning,"

.is

accident

<>r

pocket

he walks on

.is

dropped

nails

.is

.1

Students explored principles of design such proportion, described In Albers

."

road

.is

the relationship

.is

one another and the whole, symmetrical

nt p.irrs to

and asymmetrical design, geometric and arithmetic progression, the Golden

Mean and

the Pythagorean

theorem. Spatial studies

in illusion,

density, intensity,

si/e

and foreshortening were investigated using

matches pasted

flat

on surfaces and straight puis

applied vertically or diagonally to supports. Streamlining in natural

and manmade forms was discussed

terms of the movement of

in

drop of water through (

entral to

.ill

whole and In

tor

and

.1

in

usually treated as

m

I

le

\\

fluids,

read as a

is

as especiall) influenced

which the

background

figure

and what

is

are of equal impor-

tance, And he challenged doubtful students to

determine whether the zebra

is

black animal with

a

white stripes or white with black stripes. Albers

initiall) called

learning through

the design course

doing— to

a

pebble

is

it

qualities the)

"Nothing can be one thing but

hundred things." Students learned

slat-back chair represent

that "visuall) a

diamond" And

as valuable as a

the Breuer tubular steel chair

and the

that both

lo^allv crafted

good design and "a

think-

examined

for

their tactile as well as their optical qualities.

B)

ing out of materials." Materials were

juxtaposition and changes

made

cold materials look

in

quantit) the students

warm,

soft materials

hard, and one material imitate another

ance.

look

appear-

111

he "swindel" or visual illusion was not

I

trickery tor

own

its

sake but An effort to educate the

between the physical

eve "to the discrepanc)

to learn

fact

new wavs

of

seeing And using materials."

Students' color notes begin with the statement,

"COLOR IN

\

R

IS

" I

.

TH

I

MOST

The themes

from the

MEDIUM

R EL ATI VI

ot interaction

and the subjective nature

and

relativ

were

in

itv

were

of one's reading

central to the color studies, as they

the design

course. Although he taught the color theories ot

Goethe, Weber-Fechner, Ostwald and others, Albers realized that the visual process,

Werklehre—

distinguish

sibilities of their use:

them

order to extend the pos-

in

.1

were the principles

which the image

meaning.

Indian designs

through

to materials to give

and the psychic effect" and

knife through solids.

of Albers's courses

theory

iestalt

air

fish

.1

do things

to

do not normall) have

shorts and halters or bathing suits.

And psychic aspects

the physical

encompassing both ot seeing as well as

the interplay of other senses such as smell and

usual course which deals primaril) with designs on

hearing,

paper rather than with materials. Studies of mate-

theory. Rather than formulating a

new color

he provided the tools tor

understanding ot

rials— both

in

of materials

appearance

(the surface

and construction

—were made

materials rial,

combination

in direct

not from a textbook or

the capacit)

contact with mate-

at the

drawing board.

Paper was folded and scored to give properties.

of

is

tar

too complex to be explained In

make

it

was placed on

one exercise

a

backgrounds

to in

different

it

tensile

another different colors were placed on different

Other materials were examined

for the

backgrounds

to

make them appear

was studied

surface qualities created In treating with tools, and,

intensity, contrast,

importance, the total surface appearance

which Albers called matiere— "how looks."

theory,

appear to be two different colors, And

single color

structural qualities that developed as the) grew, tor

ot greatest

a better

the nature ot visual perception. In

a single

The constant themes were

a

substance

relativit)

interaction: "Matiere influences nearln

and

matiere, as

color influences color." Students were encouraged

in

the same.

C

olor

terms of quantity, tone, placement,

shape And repetition.

In studies in

transparency using opaque paper, the intermediate color created by the overlapping of

was sought.

In all

colors

color studies colored papers were

used rather than paints, as

pigment

two other

it

is

to achieve a certain effect

too

e.isv

and too

to

mix

difficult


needed. The

(created to shed snow), the supports of the college

abundant colorful leaves of the Blue Ridge were also

dining hall, the structure of the Moravian star and

both the color and design classes.

the use of parallel diagonals by the Greeks, medieval

to re-create the

employed

in

same color

if

it

is

Albers's students often were captivated by the

admonished them

exercises; however, he

that "As

knowledge of acoustics does not produce musicality,

knowledge of color theory does not produce

so

which was taught

Painting,

as

art."

an advanced color

course, primarily involved the use of watercolor. this

Of

course Albers wrote, "The studies are in principle

concerned with the relationships between color, form, and space. Serious painting

Rembrandt,

study. felt

demands

at the age of thirty,

is

serious

said to have

the need of twenty years of study for a certain

color-space problem."

9

with

and chronology

identification

He

posited that

"ends too often tal likes

and

emphasis on classification,

its

to beginning students.

was unproductive and

it

in factual description

sterile

and

and sentimen-

dislikes instead of in sensitive discrimi-

nation." Yet in his classes he constantly referred to

works of

and

art

architecture.

He

teacher and artist had to have a us be

no

all-eater,

no

all-reader,

believed that the

point of view â&#x20AC;&#x201D; "let

no

all-believer, let us

be selective instead of being curious," he said â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and it

was

largely in his

ments that

as well as a

comments on

his preferences

historical

monu-

Regensburg with the George Washington Bridge

New

Albers gave "silent concerts" of slides which were projected with

showed only pitchers of

lecture

aluminum and other

pottery, glass,

Pre-Columbian sculptures was followed by ical

Greek statue and,

in

still

of treating eyes in painting and sculpture were

paintings of Goya, in art that offers "revelation" rather than "representation." Periodically he taught

Seeing of Art, a course in which styles of painting or

works of

art

mented by college In in

were analyzed. Lectures were supple-

traveling exhibitions that

an application for funds

for the college

weaving, woodworking, bookbinding, photog-

raphy and printing, Albers wrote that

Mountain

art

was not

limited to "fine arts" but

in the

opposed

it

He

favored medieval architecture,

to the tectonic structure of an insect, as

to the atectonic structure of the elephant

which shows "no bones only skin with it."

In student notes

flesh

one finds references

under to the

was

defined in the broader context of design and "con-

may

The student had an opportunity

which he observed, "the wind

Black

at

work whose

clothing was more important than [the] saint

11

workshops

structive

and of Baroque

to the

and by shows of the work of visiting artists.

basis

be any one of

basic courses to practical situations

underneath."

came

crafts."

disguised structure and

formal

in

elements, but also, as exemplified by the eyes in the

workshops

it

a Class-

another, only methods

was

textures with decorative elements

such

materials. In another a series of

sance, which he described as the "dark age of

comparing

One

or no commentary.

little

especially critical of the architecture of the Renais-

architecture," because

in

10

York.

and prejudices were

revealed. Fascinated by structures, Albers

art, a style in

comparison

of the old Stone Bridge (Steinerne Briicke) in

shown. Albers was interested not only

Albers was opposed to the teaching of conventional art history

masons and Michelangelo

many

in the

to apply the principles studied in the

and

to under-

stand the underlying rules of various crafts. In an article

on the value of the

architects, Albers

of both

new and

crafts to the training of

argued that lack of understanding traditional materials in

architecture "often discredited

the solution

ship."

He

was "to

modern

good ideas" and

that

integrate design with craftsman-

objected to the rejection of machine

products and the romantic glorification of anything

made by hand, no matter how poor

the craftsman-

Although most of the workshops had only basic

cathedral and Loggia dei Lanzi of Florence, Santa

ship.

Sophia, Moorish mosques, Russian onion domes

equipment, they served the community's needs by

54


repairing hooks and producing furniture, programs

ers

concerts and other performances, administrative

W

foi

tonus, publicit) photographs and textiles for special uses. Practical

requirements and financial limitations

and sculptors Ruth Asawa, Elizabeth Jennerjahn, Jennerjahn, Kenneth Noland,

1'.

Oh

Sihvonen,

Kenneth Snelson, Robert Rauschenhcrg. Ra\ Johnson,

Rankine. Flame Irbam, Robert de

Y.

Y.

precluded visionarj or extravagant sthenics, yet the

Niro and Susan Weil; book illustrators

An

products of the workshops demonstrate an inventive-

Margaret Williamson Peterson and Vera

B.

accommodation

ness and imaginative

to the circum-

fiber artists

ore

1

Forberg,

Williams;

indenfeld, Doroth) Ruddick,

1

1

mi

stances. Furthermore, the practical demands of the

Sihvonen and Claire Zeisler; and architects and

community gave

designers

attained

the time w

at

science departments,

with

unexplored

still

constructive value not

all, .is

.it

it

.is

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; b)

vision

craftsmanship

Albers years

his personality

m

he

.is

.1

th.u clay does not otter

felt

the

.it

Hie

material.

1940 as

buildings

.is

by the intensity of his

.is

resistance tor the beginning student

added

new handicraft

Ceramics was not taught during the

"

misused as

taught primaril) .1

a

and

is

enough

too easily

architecture curriculum,

consequence

oi the

need tor new

Lake Eden campus, included the

workshops and con-

basic courses, experience in the

struction.'"

with leaders

in the special

summer

m

.ill

areas of the visual arts

sessions. The faculty included

Jean Chariot, Lyonel Feininger,

Amedee Ozenfant,

Robert Motherwell And Willcm de Kooning painting; Barbara

Breitenbach

ture;

lione 1

in

harles Burchard

(.

Leo

summer

Morgan.

Goro And

I-

unlike his

in

Josef

alien,

in

C

Fuller in architec-

oncetta Scaravag-

sculpture; and Leo

in

typography. For the

own, and he did not

whose

dictate to

teach.

art

curriculum, more students interested

professional careers in the arts

Among

Forberg,

on

his students not to get

C

work

ssional is

Bergman,

laude Stoller, Albert

his or

'"bandwagon," and the range and

warned

anyone

else's

of the

qualit)

of students and the tact that there

no "Black Mountain School ot Art"

is

perhaps

the best testimonial to the success ot his curriculum.

Unlike faculty members

who

spent a great deal of

time socializing with the students, Albers's contact

came

primarily through his teaching.

easy teacher to get along with, and

He was

not an

man) students

He was

objected to his authoritarian manner.

dogmatic without being doctrinaire, and he expected complete the given exercises. One-

his students to

some

who

ot the students

liveliness,

because he "created

the)

became

commented

Albers's BI.Kk

came

to stud) there.

Mountain students

.ire

paint-

a

puntv orientation

antiseptic." Robert

in

retrospect, "Albers

teacher and an impossible person

later,

and

found

I

though, I'm

still

on

lacked his intensity and

on impressionable people sometimes

to a fault

And

Rauschenberg was

beautiful

.1

He w .isn't

eas)

his criticism so excruciating 1

never asked tor

learning

it.

Years

what he taught me,

because what he taught had to do with the entire

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

world

visual

teacher

one ot

I've

1

consider Albers the most important

ever had,

and I'm sure he considered me

his poorest students."

Albers was

As the college became known throughout the United its

Sillman, Hcnr\

Seidler. Albers constant!)

and so devastating that

t

them how or what they should

in

And Harr)

Si

And Buckminster

Ammo, Mar)

sessions Albers tried to unite artists

States tor

Page, li.ules

to talk to.

and Will Burtin

work was

anier

(

photography; Walter Gropius,

and Richard Lippold

1011111

I

Don

Bliss,

recalled that Albers's influence could be negative

IM44 the students had the opportunity

fining in to stud)

Robert

noting that "... the

possibilities,

photographer does not betray

much

which students

several crafts. Albers viewed

in

photography, w hich

m

.1

the typical courses in

in

dabble

merel)

the projects

.1

"teacher

who

1

gave his class

first-class

mail instead ot printed matter." And his program

bore

little

resemblance to the

sterile,

design and color curriculum that later

academic standard

in

uninspired

became

the universities. His

the

method


was "a 'pedagogy of learning'

of reaching a

your scissors.

rarher rhan

of reaching.' " Problems, nor solurions,

'pedagogy

were presenred and rhose assigned

one

in

worked on independenrly and discussed

in

Creation means seeing something

were

class

A new sensation

rhe nexr.

Simplicity

Rarher rhan constituting a solution, however, each study

was

means

the reduction of complexity.

To be simple today

the catalyst for another problem. Albers

is

a social obligation.

Good design — proportion

objecred ro rhe idea rhar rheory should precede prac-

he distinguished connotative thinking,

rice just as

One lie

told

many

Multiplied attention

Opposed

See Hitler!

ro overvaluarion of student achievements,

who

were works of

if

rhey

and encouraged them instead

arr

rhrow them out

signed rheir srudies as

in

same

rhing,

which was rhe parh "ro

Nancy Newhall described Albers in

which

4

Watch what's going on

an "electric

as

and eyes conveyed

his gesrures

as

much

information as his words, perhaps grew our of his early reaching experiences,

when he knew only

words of English. He rook

a parernalisric inreresr in

and he

his students,

All art

felt it

a

few

his responsibility to teach

and

ro

warn

against blind alleys and pitfalls. For Albers rhe

and

arr

A

were inseparable, and

life

swindel.

is

15

Black Mountain student recalled Albers pointing

rhe rrash in rhe

student notes are sprinkled with homilies and advice:

pan

Anorher menrioned

noon

broom

his raising glass

symmetry because

habit, as

it

you from

forces

an educational method

.

.

.

it

volume of tea. As

in relation to

a

community member

who wore

rheir shirttails

out (thus breaking

aspiring arrisr ro pur his rime

and money

In art the concern

Albers on rhe farm building a fence for the pigpen.

As

there

was only one hammer, Chariot sketched

is

not what

is

right or

wrong.

Harmonious working together can be dangerous. Education (if

is

not a matter of entertainment

work.

Thinking

lertuce

all

New York.

Mountain teaching was "round was no

of a man. There

meals Together, passing

meeting everywhere, a

in the hall,

man

and

American white

radishes, and, unimpressed wirh

Truly, ar Black

the

own small garden,

and cactuses flourished alongside

clock and

but

into his arr

rather rhan a fancy srudio. Jean Chariot once found

bread, he had pumpernickel shipped from

discipline.

women

rhe aesrhetic lines of the body) or ro caurion an

lilies

gives self-

cups at after-

Albers did not hesirare ro chasrise rhe

horse while they talked. In Albers's Fight

before sweeping

keep rhe dusr from fogging.

will

rea ro observe rhe variarion in intensity of color

srudenrs

values, ro give a sense of direcrion

problems of

& capture the accident.

out that a short whisk of the

His intensity and animated manner,

in class.

(!!!)

order to keep rhe process of

freedom, avoiding rhe Demagogue.'"

currenr"

effect.

Value of repetition.

to

growrh open and learn many ways of doing and seeing rhe

of effort to

times becomes truth

which produced poerry, from denorarive thinking.

he chided rhose

new way.

in a

tickles us.

rhe

escape. Three

meeting

in classes,

taught by the

way he

walked, by the sound of his voice, by every move-

in situations

is

just as

important as

Mountain was education

thinking in conclusions.

Emotionally meaningful form depends on

menr." For Josef Albers

hand. "It

is

inadequate to

art

education

at

Black

of the head, heart and call real

teaching

a job,"

re-

he wrote.

"We

like to see

it

as a kind of religion based

lationship.

on rhe

No

sol it tu

m

Great design

is

56

an end.

is

simple. Save your energy, save

belief that

grow — that

is,

of rhe highest

making ourselves and orhers

making, stronger wiser, berter — is one

human

tasks.'"

6


NOTES

olor notes of Irene

An

mcerning \ki i

vol. i

"An

|osef Albers, 1

October

2,

Mountain

n>

s,

'

V>rk. |.mu.ir\

" rruthfulness in Art," 19 \9,

llu

at

Museum

"significant"

Modern \n.

of

unpublished essaj

;

"roll " cited

New ;

I

opies of

i

.

.ire in

|osel Albers, p.

12

.

vol.

;,

"A

October iv~o,

688

^'i

p.

"documentation," "layman"

Albers, "\ki

\i

unpublished essay

;

bmc," December 1945-January

r.

"On

Mbers,

|osef

Jul)

H

xperiem

Black Mountain

1946

p.

10

at the

;

1

ibrary, 1944, pi

|oscl Albers,

as

.

Mountain

c

ollege P

arolina State Archives, Raleigh, no.

C

Press, i<><)S, p.

Museum

"Photos

A

alvin Ibmkins,

Modern

of

199

Rauschenberg

New

New

Tin

York.

.

"teacher"

Art lecture

179,

TheBridec?

;

York Times,

L.H.O November

Design notes of Jane Slater 29, 1933, p. i~ "'pedagogy'" Marquis "freedom" Interview with Nanc) Newhall, Black Mountain College Project Papers, North ( arolina St.ite Archives, Raleigh, no. ;

is

Den

1

J9, l.inu.irv

jo, 19--; C

l.iss

notes of

"Fight," "Thinking," "swindel"),

"thinking"); rheodore Dreier to John

"Harmonious"

Andrew Rice, March 1, i>»;s. rheodore Dreier Papers, private archive "nonsense" "\ki \i bm< " "practicing" Design notes of Irene ( ulhs

"Great"

I

.

ore

.

Jane Slater Marquis

Kadden

Bauer Greenwald

;

1

indenfeld

"Simplicity"

.

An Gropius Forberg Si

Sillman

"right,"

"Emotionally," "( reation"

.

Margaret Balzer

Marilyn C

antieni

"Good," "One," "Watch" John Andrew Rice, / ( .;»/. tut of the I ighteenth < entury. New York and London, Harper ^c Brothers, 1942, p. J22 "round" Museum of Modern An lecture "inadequate" .

.

Design notes of Irene

(

ulhs

"how," "Matiere," "visually"

i(-> ;

Design notes of |ane Slater Marquis "Nothing" ^'Truthfulness in Art"

I

Art." n.d., unpublished essa)

.is

leacher from Bauhaus," The

194^.

General Education and

ducation," unpublished lecture given

"habit" -

;

[osef

.

Black Mountain College catalogue tor ^36-37,

I

18, 1941,

V>rk. Philosophical

1971 "created"

s,

Viking ;

"imagination," "sensitive," "discovery,"

"observation," "aim"

\

.is

Bachelors: Five Masters of the \vant-Carde,

"<

"knowledge," "correctly"

New

Papers, North

perceivable thing has form," unpub-

Instruction"

Museum,

March

Interview with |ohn Sn\, Black

Ma)

Mbers, "I ver)

"disciplined"

I

arolina State Archives, Raleigh

c

"discredited," "integrate"

"betray" 13

"uncrearm

An

\n

Photograph) and Photos

\lkrs. "< oncerning Art Instruction,"

|osef

lished essay, n.d. mil;

.

.

North

ollege Papers,

"w ind"

antieni

;

"bones

An.

in

"revelation"

/linker, ed..

;

|osef

c

u-"

;

onversation with

1

;

j

Margaret Bal/ci

of

"lei

"d.irk

<

Vveil,

Black Mountain College Bulletin, no. 1. June i^;^ "phenomena," "content," "province" "An .is Experi Museum of Modern An ence," p. 193 "beaut) shop" lecture

Art"

in

"constructive" |oscf Albers, "The Educational Value of Manual Work and Handicraft in Relation to Architecture," in New Architecture and ity Planning: A Symposium, Paul

laven.

"uttered"

"Truthfulness

;

|osef Albers to F.P. Keppel, (

17

ibrary,

1

nous

"Truthfulness ;vi

unpublished material by Albers which

.ill

Mbers," Leonardo,

i^'*.

the |osel Albers Papers, Yale Universit)

[ohn H. Hollowa) and |ohn A. I

11

Mbers,

|osef

;

"Preseni and/or Past," Design, vol. 4-. April

is

>esign

I

1940

9,

"ends"

notes of |ane Slater Marquis

the lil.uk

.it

"

BM(

\i

ulhs.

Design notes of Lore Kadden Lindenfeld

ducation,

p

Meeting

ollege

C

;

xpcricncc,"

I

unpublished lecture given

[osel Albers,

New

.is

/'

1

Instruction."

"thinking"

.

(

;

.


A

Structural Analysis of

CHARLES

I

became acquainted with Josef Albers roughly

We

years ago at Yale University.

E.

thirty

were both Fellows

of Saybrook College and at lunch

would often

work with

discuss the possible connections of his

mathematics. Albers suspected that his graphic constructions had a significant relation to mathematics

and naturally thought that the connection derived

somehow from though

this belief

opinion, a

is

geometric figures. Al-

partially true, there

is,

in

my

much deeper and more subtle contact with

mathematics.

have

I

rather

tion

his use of

in

than

mind here

the

the conceptualiza-

his

notions appears to be very close to the perceptual

where

may

occur

in

many

other

fields,

including the

phenomena

sci-

of this kind

are normally quite irrelevant to the actual subject

matter and so are of practitioners. This

is

little

interest to

most of

its

especially true in mathematics,

although there are some notable exceptions to the 1

rule.

In

any case, one cannot work

thinking about

it,

whether or not

it

The germ

my

first

formally recognized.

is

serious examination of Albers's art, I

met him.

motion that

is

It

use

it

to exemplify certain features of the 1

The present

Although

communicated my

I

subject to Albers

many

a very definite reaction

the ideas

on

early thoughts

years ago,

I

the

never obtained

from him. Therefore, since

seemed so natural

to me,

I

concluded that

Albers probably regarded them as either obvious or naive,

and

I

did not press the matter.

have come to believe that either

my

point or

with his

own

my

I

Upon

reflection

failed to

rather prosaic ideas did not

make fit

in

very poetic explanations of his work.

also recognize that Albers

was

interested in

myriad

other visual effects along with a wide variety of techniques for producing them, so the illusion of

motion might have appeared of the whole. In any case

I

a relatively small part

believe that the issue of

how or why one experiences this illusion is important not only because his

it

bears on most of the other effects

work can produce, but

light

also because

it

casts

on the way the human mind processes

some

certain

information. Artistic creations like those of Albers,

because they are so pure and uncluttered, are

of the ideas presented here dates back to

the illusion of

8

without

so conceptualization must occur

occurred soon after

j

in a field

I

this

Structuralism and Structures,

essay grew out of those comments.

I

ences. In a science, however,

my book

mind's ability to deal with structures.

experience produced by an Albers work, and an analysis of the latter suggests that similar experiences

Work

works. There are some brief comments on

effect in

I

ical

of Albers's

RICKART

formal presentation of

mathematics. The visualization of certain mathemat-

Some

which

primarily concerns

produced by many of

especially appropriate for probing such

the mind.

And

as

I

have emphasized

mathematics, though similar role for the

less accessible,

same

reasons.

workings of in

my

book,

can play a


Since

I

am

of view

no sense an expert on

in

outlined here

noi onlj

is

point

art. the

limited but

ver)

also lacks the usual embellishments expected in a

commentary

note places where bj

expert will probabl)

have overlooked contributions

I

others or have naivel) belabored ideas perhaps

obvious to everyone

make to

An

ol this kind.

else.

hope

1

the necessar) allowances.

that the reader will 1

who

thank Nicholas Weber,

inally is

would

I

like

so familiar with

Mints, for his kind encour-

everything concerning

agement, without which

I

never would have had the

nerve to attempt this project. I

indicated,

proceeds from the point ol view ol general "struc-

approach

is

the observation

that the mind, in an attempt to deal with presented

material, will automatiealh structure, 01

in

which

and ma) develop

though

mmd

add

Some awareness

great!) to

inti-

it

is

of the process, facilitate the

our understanding

tures involved in the process

a

how

the

invoh ing

first

ol

all

is

w horn the ies a

fruit

oi

also involves the individuals

it

this activit)

is

directed.

I

he

message, and the originator must take

will

anticipation ol

be received.

how

a

w

riting.

in

Albers's

Albers's graphic constructions, which consist of highly structured arrangements of line segments a I

I

his

works

plane, are b) far the easiest of his

hough ftco-dimensional,

objects

m

made up

space

manner

amounts

its

in

to analyze.

the line arrangements are

m

to an

prospective recipient ma)

structure the information contained in the message.

of various plane sections.

becomes aware space.

in real

It

that

no such

the illusion of motion. ess.iv

to try

is

with

this setup,

is

apparentl) conflicting message, that gives

rise to

The objective of the present

to explain exactlv

how And why

this

happens, lor simplicity's sake most of the detailed analysis that follows

confined to

is

pist

one of the

graphic constructions. It

is

this sense of

who are motion. One

mav be

a limitation in

worth noting that there

unable to experience

are individuals

possible explanation tor this their ability

to visualize three-dimensional objects

as represented b)

highly structural in character,

into account, perhaps unconsciously, the it

simple

the mental structuring processes

ot the originator. Bui

work can

relativel)

point, not ver) difficult to analyze.

All creative activit)

which

ol

result, as

ma) be extremel)

complex, those considered here are

to

and

modified

deals with information. Although the struc-

and. up to

important role

subtly, pla) an especially

of

operate very

usuall)

As we

very

is

formation and improve the qualit) of the well as

good piece

which

this type,

example

such that they are perceived immediately, b) most

differently according

automatic character, ma)

its

quite different

observers, as representations of f/?ree-dimensional

actually "built-in"

so does not have to be learned,

despite

A

the careful organization of a

Controls of

objects can exist

to the individual.

an

is

viewer's attention moves from one portion

a

of a painting to another.

operate onl) on potentially "meaningful" informa-

bj experience

kind and

in

use of composition to influence the wa) in

artist's

mately connected to understanding .\nJ tends to

is

greatl)

complexity. A simple and familiar example

is

and

are often surprising!) detailed. Techniques for

the)

exercising such control \ar\

Yet the viewer quicklv

Moreover, the process

features

this structuring process,

some form

other, the information contained therein.

might expect, the structuring process

tion.

mam

product normall) contains

art.

he following discussion, as alread)

tures." Underlying this

In fact the

designed to influence

have encountered could

tell,

two-dimensional a

few

figures. In fact

students who, as tar as

were unable to

I

I

â&#x20AC;˘"see" three-dimensional

objects represented b) carefully rendered drawings

on the chalkboard. Unfortunately such persons

will

be denied the unique experience that most of us enjo) in

viewing the Albers constructions.

Now which

let

us consider the

two

figures that follow;

are reproduced in Albers's delightful

book. Despite Straight

I

ines.

x

little


It

clear

is

from

remarks that Albers's primary-

his

objective in the drawings illusion of this I

motion

lines in

He

observe

produced.

is

any way as representing a spatial

in

object, certain of

its

parts can be so interpreted, often

more than one way. Moreover,

only ambiguity

pair.

that although the complete figure

first

cannot be read

fixes

will be sufficient

It

on the top member of the

to concentrate

in

accomplished

remarkably clever ways.

next examine the actual process by which the

impression of motion

We

complex

to create a

for the viewer.

by arranging the

will

was

each case the

in

which interpretation the viewer

in

is

upon. For example when we consider the

reproductions on the facing page of three over-

we note

lapping parts of the figure,

may

that h

and

c

be obtained from a by adding symmetric

portions of the complete figure.

two three-dimensional

Part a admits the

first, in

top

left

to

interpretations:

which the middle panels extending from

bottom

right appear to slope

away from

us (z); and the second, in which they appear to slope

toward us

They are

constitute the last in a group of four pairs that

accompanied by the following poetic comments

by the

(2).

at the panels

We

and

note that

in 2

we

In the case of b there

in

are looking

down on

up

them.

which

yield b "force" an

artist:

4 Pairs of Structural Constellations Within a formal limitation of equal contours

mutual silhouette, these pairs show different

hut related plastic movements of lines, plain's,

ily

a at

unique interpretation its

base. This view

motion: from coming to going,

in

extension: from inward to outward,

in

grouping: from together to separated,

in

volume: from

full to

empty,

or reversed.

|.

A.

figure,

demanded by

in

flexibility.

This occurs primar-

is

in

which we are looking up

reinforced by plane segments

such as the one labeled Q. Similarly, c admits only

complete Thus, they change

And all this,

1.

because the U-shaped addition on the right admits

the interpretation consistent with

volumes.

60

we

only one possible reading,

is

since the additions to a

interpretation consistent with

as

1

are looking

2.

because of the conflicting readings

its

and

parts b

c,

cannot represent

order to

show extended

a

three-dimensional object. In other words, as far as

relevance to a "rear

1

information contained contradictory.

It

is

object

is

concerned, the

in the figure

sation referred to

is

definitely

interesting to recall that Albers

called these constructions "illogical" in

Therefore the

them

as

"my

and

in

conver-

nonsense."

Both the mind's persistent drive to extract meaning

from information, and

its

tendency to interpret two-


dimensional, perhaps retinal data in

.1

three-dimensional object,

.is

if

it

originated

universal auto-

.ire

allow a solution that

not fixed.

is

freedom allows the mind

I

his additional

to create an illusion of a

matic responses essential for coping with the outside

variable three-dimensional object, one that

world. However

change from

a particular

some

it,

it

the given information contains

obvious contradiction, the natural response

.in

would seem

to be to reject

the case that interests

in

it

irrelevant. Therefore

.is

lis,

we might expect an

make

observer to abandon an) attempt to

.1

three-

part ot

in

each

may

form to another, so that

state, will represent a valid

portion of the given information. Thus, attention from one part of the

i_.iv

a shift ot

en figure to another

part, instead ot resulting in frustration

and contu-

dimensional interpretation of the figure and simpl)

sion, actually provides the drive tor transforming the

accept a two-dimensional picture. That this does not

illusory object

normall) occur suggests that the drive to interpret

dimensions And

figures in three

meaning tor

is

l0-4iv_.il

We must

more

to acquire useful

basic than the intellectual

demand

consistency.

not conclude, however, that the mind

appears to abhor arise in a will

a

when

contradiction, and

dim.-

it

does

presumabl) meaningful situation, the mind

attempt to resolve

it

Resolving an

at all costs.

state to another.

This anabsis ma) be applied to the bottom element in

the illustrated pair And.

in tact, to

an) ot Albers's

graphic constructions that produce an illusion ot

motion.

blindl) accepts contradictor) information. In tact

from one

figure

It

m

even applies to parts

a,

the pair. In the case of

the ambiguity of

two

contradiction which

l>

./,

-\nd c of the

we observe

valid interpretations

may

top that

is itself

a

be resolved bv a shift of

attention from one interpretation to the other, gi\ ing the "flip-flop"

motion

common

to

main ordinary

obvious contradiction such as the one we are

optical illusions. Part h produces an effect similar

considering would seem to require

to that ot the

Indeed the result is

actuall) quite

is

a

hit

of magic.

rather magical, though the trick

simpleâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; just change

the rules of the

game. initial

impulse

interpret two-dimensional information as a fixed

is

coming

three-dimensional object. Since this

not possible, something has to yield.

I

to

he trick

is

is

to

one valid three-dimensional

interpretation, though tending to dominate, challenged locallv

As alread) suggested the mind's

from

complete figure but much weaker. This

arises because the

the contradictor)

bv j.

It

111

I

the

left

is

portion of the figure

interpretation consistent with

he same effect occurs

in

the case of part

c.

should be noted that the above analvsis addresses

onlv

a

tew

basic features of the actual experience,

...


which

is

considerably more complex than might be

by virtue of the contradictory messages they carry.

however, the messages involve certain

expected. For example, in addition to the transfor-

In this case,

mation of inside or outside corners into

subtle characteristics of color perception

their

opposite, so familiar in ordinary optical illusions,

and turn as they

the middle planes appear to twist

change

their directions.

There are also subtle

effects,

one of which

illustrated

is

of the three plane segments /;.

In

what

is

usually the

and R together constitute appears to

lie

behind

P.

Q

left,

R

sits

virtually forced to take

Q

the various colors. Moreover, these effects can occur

in the

contradic-

by starting

Q

at the

joins the

each. Thus, in the

initially

We

by

Q

and R

also discover that

we

in this experience,

an active role

in the

are

process

by orchestrating the transformations, exploring local effects after they

and trying to recover or re-create

comments on

the

illusory objects associated with the

figures in a given pair also interact with

one

another â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an effect somewhat more difficult to elicit

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; and this

The

result has a

further enriches the total experience.

dynamic quality wholly unique

to

Albers's art. All of the effects are carefully planned

by the

artist

The perception

and are brought about by means of

a

depend, of course, on

will

between different shades of the same color, even

well-known book Interaction of Color

gray. Albers's

contains illustrations and discussions of these and

many tion.''

other remarkable properties of color percep-

Yet

contrast with the line drawings, an

in

how and why

explanation of

produce

their effects

is

the color constructions

not so easily formed.

In these constructions the interaction

between the

colors of several regions produces messages concern-

ing their relative fore and aft positions. Similar

messages

Finally, as Albers suggested in his

two

effects

have disappeared.

"4 Pairs," the

will

plane segment that

However

undergoes a flexing motion.

some

in relation to the

the relative masses, intensities and arrangement of

two and forms an angle with

once we are caught up

that in a collection of colors,

is

be seen as advanced or receded others.

a

formed

concerned, the property

in

forward of P while

transitions, the plane

of interest

is

and R indicated

tory, local interpretation, obtained

upper

not very familiar or obvious to the inexperienced observer. As far as motion

interpretation of b,

P,

first

local

by the behavior

which are

may

also be conveyed geometrically or by

way the regions overlap. For example some areas may be depicted as semitransparent so that one field the

seem

will

as

if it

is

seen through another.

messages are contradictory, the stage

an

motion,

illusion of

The

different

just as in the

however, has

result,

If

such

then set for

is

previous case.

somewhat

a character

from that of the drawings. Here, perhaps

because of

a qualitative difference in the

messages,

very precise and subtle placement of line segments,

the motion tends to be smoother and less cyclic. In

sometimes appropriately emphasized, which direct

fact all of the color effects, as

compared

and control the observer's attention. Needless

graphics, are quite subtle and

more

to say,

a full appreciation requires

an extended period of

relaxed and patient viewing.

It is

Albers's

also helpful to read

own comments on some

of the individual

constructions included in Despite Straight Lines and

on

his teaching

methods described

analysis similar to the above

ubiquitous

An

Homages

of works of

to the Square.

art,

cite

produce

may

be applied to

perception. Settings for

analogous to those

Moreover, the phenomenon

Albers's color constructions. Like the graphic

fields,

and

many

other examples

such as certain sculptures, which

Search Versus

effects

difficult to

especially true for certain of Albers's

expert could no doubt

constructions, they produce an illusion of motion

62

is

in

Re-Search. 4

An

analyze. This

to the

it

is

we are discussing.

not confined to visual

are easy to identify in

many

such as physics, mathematics, music, poetry

literature.

Their

common

feature

is

that each


presents to the mind,

in

one form or another,

a

challenge to integrate into one meaningful whole

two of

<>r

more

information,

generall)

competing

conflicting or perhaps

have

product of the synthesis

["he

sets will

character quite different from the

.1

separate components.

And when

the information

authority on the subject or the simple fact that the

work

ma\

exists

constructions,

suffice as evidence, lor the Albers

it

is

But the present essay

more

However another source

abstract

works such

.is

indicated, although the

be

will

strive to

m.ike sense of presented information, that effort will

some evidence

some

\

I

In

ol

important as

any of these.

It

with the consequent assurance that the

integrity,

is

a

sense of the artist's competence

content. Although with

such assurance may be rather elusive,

normally

meaningfulness.

at least as

and

work does have

made concerning

be aborted without

the figures.

in

its

some

artists

.1

those by Albers. As already

mind

is

the three-

is

detailed analysis ol these examples.

One more comment should

part b)

subjective.

not the place to attempt

is

in

dimensional fragments contained

not visual, the results arc usually more difficult to describe and therefore appear to be

provided

potential

cases the opinion of an

ES

of

Albers

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; his

is

not true

superb technique and the resulting

meticulous constructions leave

lew observers

this

will

have

challenge to participate

am in

room

little

tor doubt,

trouble accepting the the rewarding creative

experience that Albers's graphic and color constructions

z

C

harles

E.

Riclcart, Structuralism

and

Structur,

Mathematical Perspective, forthcoming. 1

Sec |acques

Hadamard, The Psychology

Mathematical

Field,

New

*,

of Intention in the

New Haven and London,

York. Dover Publications, 1.SU4; 4

ntnti, vol.

XV, Februarj

reprinted from The Yale Review, vol. 40,

604-611

;

Halstead,

^59,

rr.ins..

New

pp. 55-59

Summer

and Henri Poincre, Foundations

x I

York, The Science Press, [91

;.

G.H.

!

h>m, pp.

Josef Albers and Francois Bucher. Despite Straight Inset Albers.

1951, pp. ice,

Yale University Press,

51, $5.

Marston Morse. "Mathematics and the Arts," Bulletin of .

Joset Albers and Francois Bucher, Despite Straight

I

Search Versus Re-Search, Hartford. Trinity

College Press, [969. ^

Joset Albers, Interaction of Color,

New Haven and London,

Yale University Press, 1963; paperbound, 1971.


New

Challenges Beyond the Studio:

The Murals and Sculpture of Josef Albers NEAL BENEZRA

October 1949 Walter Gropius invited

In

longtime

his

and former Banhaus colleague Josef Albers

friend

new graduate

to design a large brick wall in a

commons

The

building that his firm,

Architects'

forms and spaces,

in

both plan and elevation. This

formal theme was consistent with his early master-

works, the Werkbund Pavilion the

Bauhaus complex

at

Collaborative, had designed for Harvard University.

communicated

Although Albers had never worked

of the Harvard project.

in brick,

he had

in

Cologne 1914) and (

Dessau (1926), and

it

was

to Albers early in the planning stages 1

In deference to his architect,

completed a number of art-in-architecture projects

Albers produced a design of tightly interwoven and

and 1920s, and he was pleased by the

interpenetrating solids and voids, a composition

in the 1910s

new 1),

challenge.

The completed work, America

(fig.

encapsulates Albers's views on the ideal interac-

tion of art

and architecture

at that time.

It is

a brick

mural consisting of no additive elements whatsoever; instead, the composition resides

where the

artist

which responds in his

conform

conveyed exclusively

in the

the design

is,

horizontal voids

/

is

scraper" style which Albers evolved

He described America respect[ing]

in

.

.

.

arrangement of bricks,

.

.

.

making a

free

by application of

protruding and receding bricks,

keep the flatness of the front intact

decided to

I

.

.

.

/itst

as

on

the outside brick walls.' In a

its

conception and even

its

64

offers

model of Bauhaus-style collaboration, with

for the

any design organically connected

to

no matter whether

this

design

emphasize or to complete, to change or to

correct, the

appearance or function of the

building or space concerned.

architecture projects after 1950,

;

Graduate Center, Gropius sought

art

program

to establish

rhythm of sequentially ordered and interlocking

and these experi-

ences would radically alter his deferential attitude.

This largely

unknown body

of

work

range of materials and formats,

includes a wide

among them photo-

sensitive glass windows, compositions

formica and gold-leaf murals, design, America

serving at the pleasure of architecture. In his

a

of the artist to

Albers would complete twenty additional art-in-

the wall] to the last

instead of

is

1920s.

1952. as:

and preserving

degree possible.

in the

believe that

to that structure

the "sky-

in

in the responsibility

to the architect's prerogatives in such

with an architectural structure should he related

in the

wall and the resulting vertical ranges that the aligned

spaces create, a formal concept based

the mural, Albers reaffirmed his

projects:

removed bricks from the Flemish bond structure that he selected for the wall. That

statement on

strong belief

Gropius plan. Indeed,

cleverly to the

in

brick,

reliefs in stainless steel

and one extraordinary freestanding sculpture.

Although the

artist's reliance

on architects

transforming the unforgiving geometry of scale 111

work

to public sites

was

in

his small-

initially very strong,

time he would seek independence from

their


dictates.

of |osef Albers's art-in-architec-

stor)

lie

I

cure projects

that of

is

painter venturing outside

.1

and established procedures

the secure

Ins studio,

<>t

and confronting and eventuall) controlling the appearance of

work

his

public.

in

-1

was

Albers's respect tor architects and architecture

longstanding, dating to the 19x0s

experience

u

ith

the

aim

of regenerating the .uts

formative

his

Conceived

the Bauhaus.

.it

and

Gropius

In

and

the mantle of architecture, the philosoph)

Bauhaus was

under

crafts

ol the

delineated In the architect in his often-

quoted manifesto

ol 1919:

The ultimate aim of all visual arts

is

the complete

building! To embellish buildings was once

the

noblest function of the fine arts; they were the

indispensable components of great architecture.

Today the arts exist

m isolation, from which they

can be rescued only through the conscious. of

<erative effort let

all

craftsmen

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

and create

us desire, conceive,

Together

new

the

structure of the future, which will embrace

and sculpture ami painting

architecture

m

one

unity. ..."

In

man) ways Albers personified

A student from [919 at the

Bauhaus

Promoted

t<>

until

Bauhaus

ideal.

1911. he went on to teach

its

to the level of

this

forced closure

in

journeyman there

193

in

wii,

Albers did not paint, hut rather involved himself

number

a

of constructive activities

3.

in

which

predisposed him to his later art-m-arclntecture work. i

[merit

a.

iyso

\l isonr) brick,

1

n' x

8

-

Swaine Room, Harkness t ommons, Graduate ( enter, Har\.ml Universit)

.

11

example he w

of the glass

executed

a

as

charged with the reorganization

workshop and taught

number

compositions.

In

there;

and he

of stained- and single-pane glass his later years at the

Albers directed the furniture

workshop

Bauhaus. as well as

the wallpaper design program. Indeed, two of

closest friends there were Breuer,

and

it

was through

Gropius

.u^\

his

Marcel

these architects and their

students that Albers received

main

art-in-archirecture commissions.

of Ins

subsequent


Following Albers's emigration to the United States in

1955, he found another crucial source which

reinforced his profound respect for the primacy of architects

and

architecture. Beginning in 1935 Josef

and Anni Albers 6

occasions.

visited Latin

They

during these

trips,

lectured,

and

America on fourteen

worked and

in the

traveled

process they became

passionate admirers of Pre-Columbian art and architecture. Albers

was

monuments

the sculptural character of such

pyramid

at

enamored of

particularly

Tenayuca, north of Mexico

Columns

exquisite carved reliefs of the Palace of the

Pyramid, Tenayuca, Mexico,

ca.

1939

Photograph by Josef Albers Collection

The Josef Albers Foundation

at Mitla, in

as the

and the

City,

Oaxaca, and he took numerous photo-

graphs at these and other

sites (figs. 2, 3).

For him

these structures revealed an extraordinary conjunction of architecture

unknown

in

and sculpture,

a

union largely

Europe since the Middle Ages. As

a

product of the Bauhaus, Albers believed that western culture

had emphasized â&#x20AC;&#x201D; indeed abused â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the no-

tion of creative individuality at the expense of

productive collaboration, and he found his idealism

confirmed

in these magnificent,

While Albers's

travels in Latin

sun-bleached walls.

America

intensified

his belief in the collaborative ideal, the figure-ground

equivalence that prevails in Pre-Columbian sculpture

proved an important formal influence as

America. By the

late

in

works such

1930s Albers came to

characterize sculpture as "active volume," a definition

which ended the "separation of

figure

and

background and the separation of high and low."

Always

a strong believer in the humanistic implica-

tions of form, the artist also

equivalence

implied

a

felt

"very

that figure-ground

valuable

social

philosophy, namely real democracy: every part serves If

and

at the

same time

is

served."

America exemplified the collaborative process,

it

also functioned as a prototype for several future efforts in brick.

designed 5

Palace of the Columns, Mitla, Mexico, n.d.

Photograph by Joset Albers (

.ollection

66

I

he Josef Albers Foundation

five

During the 1950s and 1960s, Albers additional brick

reliefs,

foremost

among them a pair of domestic fireplaces in Connecticut homes and a large altar-wall triptych for a church in Oklahoma City. Both fireplaces were


4

Rouse

1

ireplai

Masonr) ing

lr\

louse.

I

Patrick's Altar Wall. [961

Si

j

8x5'

brick,

Rouse

[955

e.

Masonr) brick and gold

North

I

laven,

St.

Patrick's

designed for Albers's friend and colleague, the Yale architecture professor King

Ian ard's

(

ui

1

Wu. A graduate

Graduate School of Design,

\\

u

i" contribute fireplace designs to

projects, the Irving of in

[955

fig.

4

.

Woodbridge

responded

\\

Oklahoma

C it\

Rouse House

of [958-59." In

In

strong and

Albers's

I.

ibrani pattern of light

\

fig.

brillantl)

9 5

and

and creating cast

and most compelling work

truest

.

is

the

St.

shadow. in

leaf,

fort)

feet

and

the altar wall

its

predeces-

brick reliefs, with courses again projecting from the

plane of the wall with mathematical regularity. The

of brick into

tion

is

and

placement

its

shadow, therein

triptych format.

Adding

the gold leaf,

shimmering effect

is

first

interpla) ot light

w hich heightens the

\

in a religious

vertical courses

di\ iding the

to the

which

two

w hole

into

power of the composiapplied to the lengths

but not the ends ot the hrieks.

This

enhances the

and deep shadow, an

isual intensity ot Albers's

important sculpture.

md

brick

Patrick's Altar Wall

Standing eighteen b)

colored with gold

.

thus increasing

of light-reflecting surfaces

dating from tins period of [961

all,

.

beyond

from the .mist's previous

benefits

setting suggested the recess of

them numerous courses \\

it

North Haven

more sculptural designs than he had

ith

sors. In design

great si/e of the wall

both instances Albers

brick are set diagonally into the

number

in

artist

represents an extraordinary step

of his earliest

and the Benjamin DuPont House

produced previously.

the

two

of

knew and

admired America, and he commissioned the

.1

hurch,

x 40'

onnecricut

1

1

(

leaf, is

these formal advances the

Willi represents the fust

instance

in

St.

Patrick's Altai

which the

artist's

sculpture dominates an architectural space. The navels

a virtual!)

unmediated horizontal expanse, with


6

White Cross Window. 1955 Photosensitive glass,

Abbot's Chapel,

St.

5

x

11'

John's Abbey,

Minnesota

Collegeville,

only a glass wall separating the congregation from

to the architects of the church, the Tulsa firm of

an open ambulatory beyond. The altar wall

Murray-Jones-Murray. Kacmarcik's knowledge of

compelling, radiant presence, and

from

its

it

rescues the nave

complete lack of spatial focus.

dominance of the retables

a

is

In

its

a religious space, the altar wall recalls

which Albers had seen

Bavaria

in

in his

Albers's art-in-architecture projects

and longstanding,

years as consultant to the Benedictine

of

St.

John

in Collegeville,

had been the

youth, as well as those in the Colonial churches of

1950s

Cuzco and Arequipa which he had photographed

Breuer, a collaboration

while

in

Peru

in the

1950s.

10

Indeed, the breadth of

the artist's field of aesthetic interest

and reference

was

and he found

greater than

much

all

monument

The man sion

often supposed,

inspiration in these retables, transforming

them with a

is

his

admirable power of restraint into

of quiet but compelling spirituality.

responsible for the

liturgy at St. Patrick's.

proposed Albers

68

Oklahoma

City commis-

was Frank Kacmarcik, consultant on It

art

and

was Kacmarcik who

to the officials at St. Patrick's

and

was

had also served

as he

Cross

this

Window

of 1955

firsthand for

many

community

Minnesota. In the mid-

site

of Albers's

work with

which resulted

(fig.

in

White

6)."

Installed in the small abbot's chapel of St. John's

Abbey, White Cross Windoic

remarkable

efforts in

is

among Albers's most window

any medium. The

consists of thirty-one small panes of photosensitive glass joined by a

mullions. ically

framework of staggered wooden

The composition â&#x20AC;&#x201D; a complex, mathemat-

ordered arrangement

in

four shades of gray

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

is

activated by the sensitivity of the glass to light. Such

an idea became a

realistic possibility

only

in

the


Sommerfeld Window. i>c: destroyed Stained ulass

Sommerfeld House, Berlin-Dahlem

1940s,

when

photographically, .1

I

a

single

paneoi

glass

surprising range ol tones within luis

when exposed

scientists discovered that

would

yield

single hue.

.1

13

AJbers could place constrasting shades of gra)

hood, as he was trained at

home

b)

asked to design

a

beside one another w ithout the leading ol traditional

in

Alhers's primar)

made possible monochrome window whose tones

the design of

a

are not

bui instead respond to light

Because White sitive glass, its

direction

As

.1

and

I

ross

in

Windou

is

.1

variet)

made

of

of

of the

result, at night,

ways.

to the

sears,

in

Germany." dlass was

material throughout the Bauhaus

was on

the basis of

.1

bod) of

as-

promoted

journeyman

to the level of

in

[922. In this

position he w as charged with the reorganization and direction of the glass

workshop. While teaching

In-

illumination

of

light

and

light

in

areas

which complete!) trans

^..\n

church

artificial

of the

glass

it

he was

semblages composed of discarded glass that he was

window

as a

In

(

tor a

Iropius in

would he

w hich

in

now '-destroyed Sommerfeld

the

part of the

commission

whole.

be traced to his child-

which resulted

Window,

It

Mhers's interest

and

for a

completed several commissions, the most important

valueâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; dark areas become forms the composition

his native Bottrop. West

when

window

light-source.

when

effect

stained-glass

dominant

replaces daylight, the tones of the glass reverse

become dark â&#x20AC;&#x201D; an

uk

photosen

composition changes according qualit)

si.

the craft of stained glass

architecture project dates to [917-18,

stained glass. Beyond eliminating the need tor leading, this discover)

in

his father. In fact the artist's hrst art-m-

house

ion

well-known architectural in

tig.

Berlin-Dahlem completed

.

difficult to overstate the

glass held in the

development

important role

of Alhers's

work.


Geometry only became

a consistent

element of his

mid-i920s, when he perfected

art in the

process for sandblasting glass employing

would do with White Cross Window some years

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;a

later

developed

recently

new form

technique to create a

of expression

traditional craft into an expressly

hard-edged

the

he

thirty

industrial

As early as 1925 Albers had transformed the

with

new

a

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; as

in glass.

number of commissions.

increasing

much

opportunities were of a

the earlier ones. Although he

Gropius

in

main these

different order than

would work again with

new

1963, most of his

In the

collaborators were

not peers but proteges, architects

who had

Mountain or

Albers's students at Black

been

Yale, or

glazier's

associates of Gropius or Breuer. These jobs often

modern endeavor,

involved the design of murals for skyscraper lobbies,

templates

required

for

many

of which are

New

in

York, and they thus

sandblasting yielding the geometry which would

provided Albers with unparalleled opportunities to

characterize his lifelong artistic style.

place his

A

must be added

postscript

account of the

to this

St.

John's commission, since White Cross Windoiv was

much

to constitute only the first step of a project.

From

their

correspondence

clear that

is

it

larger

both Albers and Breuer considered the

window

the abbot's chapel to be experimental.

photosensi-

tive glass

also be

could be designed successfully,

was

structure,

to feature an

wall consisting of 650

By 1958 the lost

it

employed much more extensively

Abbey Church. This in 1961,

If

artist

in

had finished

it

went instead

faculty at St. John's.""

to a lay

Whether the

Breuer or with the patrons, Albers trayed. This artist

was but

the

first

architecture projects,

of these murals were particularly successful and

influential.

The

first,

in

Two

Structural Constellations

1959,

is

commissioned and completed (fig. 8),

a

midtown Manhattan. Composed of

at

series of

of the

fault lay

with

badly be-

instance in which the in his art-in-

and he would slowly come to

a striking black

Carrara glass ceiling and crisp white Vermont marble walls, Harrison

member

was victimized by circumstances

Two

in

and a now-

felt

ambition which he had long held.

on

misunderstandings, Albers was not awarded the

commission;

work, an

his small-scale

pair of linear configurations incised in gold leaf

Albers.

complex

responded by altering the materials and

artist

enhancing the scale of

one wall of the Corning Glass Building lobby

model of the windows, which he presented

the abbey in 1959. Yet through a

public settings. In most cases the

the

in

which was completed

his design

in

would

enormous north window-

windows by

work

and Abramovitz's lobby showcases

the racing lines of Albers's

most

and elegant

refined

6

mural.'

Albers was fascinated by his

commission, both because greater access to his work,

it

first

urban mural

allowed the public

and because he

the challenge of expressing the pace of City.

He was

thrilled

by the dynamism of

relished

New York New York,

and he considered the Structural Constellations,

a

series

he had begun around 1950

lines

predominate, to be equal to the compelling

in

which diagonal

reassess his former idealism regarding the value of

urban rhythm. The Structural Constellations were

collaborative endeavor. This realization

would have

conceived by plotting and then linking points on

extraordinary consequences

work.

small sheets of graph paper. By maintaining the

By the

in his later

late 1950s, Albers's art-in-architecture efforts

had become well known among

architects.

Because

of his reputation and that of Gropius and of Breuer,

America and White Cross Windoiv were published extensively, particularly in architectural journals. a

result, Albers,

birthday

-o

in

[958,

who

As

celebrated his seventieth

was now

ottered

and accepted an

same

coordinates but altering the lines that join them, the artist

could achieve endless variations on a single

compositional theme. The Constellations exist drawings, engraved plastic and

media

(see cat. nos.

Beyond

in

of graphic

171-176).

their elegance

decoration,

a variety

and effectiveness

when expanded

as

mural

greatly in size the


Structural

<

onstellations. 1959

Vermont marble and gold Lobby,

[6x61'

leaf,

orning Glass Building,

(

istellations

New

York

assumed enhanced formal valu

the artist. Ar their original scale, these

(

complex

graphic configurations were like puzzles, offering the

viewer

.1

range

o'f

contrasting linear readings.

W

hen

monumentalized the Constellations appeared more

Iropius for

tan

is,

like

men

1

Two

Roth's Pan

Pan

Am

lobb)

is

reallj a

machine

concourse,

a

pedestrians at a rapid pace between

and the surrounding I

provocative for Albers, and he would soon emploj the-

(

relief

'onstellations as the

of [96 tul

his

sculptures.

;,

is

than the b)

New York

perhaps even more d\ first

one

fig.

fifty-four feet

9

,? .

mural, Manhattan ii.uiik

Measuring twenty-

and mounted above the

bustling escalators linking the Pan

Grand Central

and success

10)â&#x20AC;&#x201D; one

terminal, this

is

Am

Building and

doubtless Albers's

most frequentl) viewed work. Commissioned

b)

Am

streets of

work evolved from

pictures

AJbers's other major

eight

predominant motifs of

he

who proposed

m

a

New

Grand

suggestion b\

that Alhers adapt

ity of

(

C

entral

York.

Gropius, o>z

y

of the artist's finest sandblasted-glass

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; to

site.

Zurich

well-lubricated

which escalators tunnel

in

seemed small and playful now suggested

enclosures or darting planes. This realization proved

compel-

a

urban environment. The

expansive and allusive; compositions which once vast spatial

Manhat-

Building,

Structural Constellations,

ling response to a vibrant

architectural

Am

the scale

And proportions of the Pan

City had been acquired by the Kunsthaus

i960 And was reproduced

journal that

same

year. Alhers

in

the

museum's

possessed numerous

offprints of the publication and. in a fascinating

reapplication of his

ow

n ideas, he used the

black And w hite photograph of the for sketches for the

mural

tig.

11

work .

published

as the basis


â&#x20AC;˘Pe-

9

Manhattan. 1963

1 1

Ink and tempera on paper, 4V2 x 7V2"

Formica, 28 x 55'

Lobby, Pan American Airlines Building,

10

City. 19 28

Sandblasted glass,

11

x

2.1

5

/s"

Collection Kunsthaus Zurich

72.

Untitled (Study for "Manhattan"). 1963

New York

Collection

The Josef Albers Foundation


In

reworking the [928 design, the

artist

retained the

unit-measure system but expanded the number of

\\

trate

white and hl.uk bars to great advantage,

red,

hereas the "skyscraper" style oi

It is

balanced but only moderately paced

arrangements, Manhattan features,

Albers's

in

words, "...constant change, overlapping and penetration

which lead us up and down, over and

back

"

l%

compelling image

ol

New York

Mbers's

fosel

.1

finest

it\.

(

Manhattan

Structural Constellations and

.minim

is

constant flux, brilliantly

capturing the unyielding pace oi

Two

Manhattan

us scale and impact,

In

large-scale works,

Manhattan would prove

and

in

which the

More uit

site

would enhance

often than not, Albers

to architecture

was

be his hist

to

important indoor mural, as n was the

final

instance

I

of

to

nothing more

minimum

delay.

would often be

predetermined h\ the architect, and the

artist

Manhattan would influence Albers's

last

work,

campus, throughout the

remainder

would to^us primarily on

sculpture, particularly the application of the

(

.oust ci-

tations in relief.

Within months tural

i

after the

completion

ol

Two

Ubers described a new

Struc-

interest,

which he termed "structural sculpture": Following the history 0/ sculpture, to see for

how

long

it

it is

has restricted

challenge he assumed lay

in

him

ottered

it

work

first

time.

the possibility

<>t

creating three-dimensional illusion through strictb

two-dimensional means. Me achieved

large scale,

and affixing the

by con-

this

structing Constellations oi stainless steel

also signaled a shift

and on

a

facades of

reliefs to the

artist

itself

to

toward sculpture combined and

few independent

from Albers's

initial

them the

lines of his

sculpture as possessing the strength to challenge the

masses and materials he

oi architecture.

occasion tor such

first

came with

a project

the

completion oi Paul Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building 1

at

When Rudolph

Vale in [963."

.n\A sculpture to the

decided

facade of his already distinctly

sculptural building, he approached Albers

although retired as chairman of the

art

Repeat ami Reverse lation

w huh w

a

196

On

work, and the â&#x20AC;˘,

,

The

(

'onstel-

1:..

\\

.

the entrance to Rudolph's building

in

and

was

above the principal

most facades such placement would be

However

artist

result

a stainless steel

as affixed directly figs.

who,

school since

[958, had continued to teach until i960.

element

onfronted today by a strong trend toward

ay

proclaimed the

emphatically

entrance to the building

amazing

aw

attitude of deference to his architect. In

predominantly voluminous sculpture are being

.1

Albers attempted

to visualize his purely linear

well back from the street

linear sculpture,

hkh

Two Structural Constella-

reliefs.

volume almost exclusively.... Centuries

constructed .... Finally

conjunction

this

precisely

three dimensions w

agreed to contribute

onstellations,

was

planar and thus sculptural terms tor the

Ilu

for

the Stanford University

he

it

outdoor

the opportunity

t(

life

two and

level

tions introduced this possibility, tor

often

columns or

pillars,

other harriers. Although the design and impact ol

ol his

dimensu

formal

in his late

I

by

;

prominent buildings. Perhaps more important, these

which aspired

work obstructed

and

traverses the separation of

it

works

large quantities ol people with

his

promise, truly new and exciting: Structural

.1

invited to contrib

he specific position ol a mural

found

a

volume and

<>/

the artist's design.

than functional clarity, with lobbies designed to

move

On

in

are

each hud important implications for Ins future efforts.

2

to cot

broad sculptural concept and promise.

Sculpture. Because

sandblasted glass compositions ol the twenties are carefully

a

line, as

and the other

ity

(

enough

\us

on the plane, the in-between

is

not

a

ideal. is

set

prominent

the overall design. In addition, the wall

above the doorway

is

Repeat and Reverse

narrow. is

chosen location. Further,

Due

to these factors.

extremely cramped it

in

its

does not enjoy adequate

73


12.

Repeat and Reverse. [963 Stainless steel

on

1

3

Repeat and Reverse

concrete, 6 '6" x 3'

Entrance, Art and Architecture Building, Yale University, New Haven

14

Two Supraportas. 1972 Stainless steel

on

granite,

s i

/'x 10-' (wall

Entrance, Westfalisches Landesmuseum fur Kunst mid Kulturgeschichte, Minister

_

4


lines ol sight, .in

unfortunate circumstance for an)

sculpture, and

the

.ill

and

Albers's long

Yet, surprisingly,

the setting. of

his

I

ise

it

inconceivable that

must vn that

I

was

.1

never

1

frequent

even after his retirement,

would not have

lie

of the sue.

and Reverse above

"Mr. Albers selected the

Vs Albers

well-placed."

visitor to the school

draw backs

selected

occurred against the better judgment recalls:

entrance— as

.1

it

is

realized the

learly his desire to see

(.

the

Repeat

contemporary

portal or pediment sculpture— outweighed

.ill

other

fibers responded similarly

when united

sculpture for the facade of the

he setting

1

in

I

to design

andesmuseum

this case

expanded museum and. more

was

.1

nave of the Minister

(

in

new city's

who had made drawings m

nearb) Bottrop,

the

athedral as a young man, m\*\

who had been the subject of important exhibitions at the Landesmuseum in [959 and [968, knew what

museum

to

do with

to discuss the project:

went immediately the

mam

the opportunity. According

Bernd Kosters, during

to architect

thinking of

made

he also a

visit

to the

"Professor

\lbers

a

to the side of the building with

entrance and said he

In addition,

mural

it

in color,

vv

anted to work there.

clear that he

was not

literall)

in

1972,

lit"

Supraportas

"two elements above

marked success

fig.

14

.

— meaning

the doors"

is

a

The two Constellations that

Albers selected are attached to the facade, which projects directly over the entrance to the I

lie\

museum.

are affixed to a series of five charcoal-gray

granite panels, which recede

left

to right in parallel

stepped planes. Although the facade steps back

approximately ten insisted

nta/ed b) either architectural

I

moved

boldly ahead and assumed control of the project himself.

had altogether happ)

Albers's determination

Sequences a

work,

tor the finished

remarkable collaborator.

of the project

throughout

immersed

kept the

its

and materials. For

himself

these

in

proved abreast

artist

manv phases, and

on numerous

solicited Albers's advice

ing to design

1c

1

as Kosters

issues pertain-

his part the artist

and

details,

his

correspondence reveals surprising insight into

— against

feet

from side to

it

expand

possible tor Albers to

his design verv

accurately, a difficult achievement given the precise

geometry of the graphic work. Albers was especially pleased with the finished sculpture and remarked that

it

appeared "unbeliev-

ably thin and light... so volumetric like three-

dimensional sculpture."

2

Two Supraportas

'

side. Albers

the will of his architect, once

is

also

tremendously successful as au expressly modern

when mounted above museum. Although tar more

public emblem, particularly

the entrance to a

successful than the Vale sculpture, both

raportas and Rcpc.it

Two Sup-

and Reverse evidence

Albers's

understanding of the traditional appearance and

meaning

and pediment sculpture. With

of portal

dynamic shapes and

their

works

sleek materials, these

modern public forms, and

are distinctly

placement grants them extraordinary

but of a sculpture."

Although not without certain problems, the work

completed

spatial divisions.

made

who had grown up

central cathedral plaza. Albers,

exactly

onstellations span these large

(

.1

newly

specifically, the

entrance to the building, which fronted the

in

the

obscure construction matters. This communication

considerations.

Minister.

— that

dictate or difficult structural problems, he

was Albers himself who

ii

location, although

thought

tragic in this >.asc given

influential tenure ai Yale.

who

Rudolph,

more

again

visihilirv

their

and

power.

When

[osel Albers died in

remained unfinished. The titled

Wrestling

tig.

[5

.

March 1976, two projects first, An enormous relief

was

all

but complete and

would be

installed within a tew

death.

onstructed of aluminum channel

(

mounted on tling

a

black

by

student of Albers

at

of the artist's

anodi/ed-alummum

measures over

commissioned

weeks

tittv

feet

high.

the architect Harry

Black Mountain

in

.\n>.\

wall,

It

was

Seidler, a i<.>4

-

longtime friend. As conceived and sited the

and

a

relief

75


plays an integral role in Seidler's

an extensive office and Australia.

The main element

imposing seventy-story

Mutual complex

retail

Life Centre,

Sydney,

in

of the center

office tower,

an

is

which was

nearing completion at the time Wrestling was

mounted. complex, Seidler faced a number of

In designing the

challenging dilemmas. 14

The complex stands

in the

center of Sydney, and the large side-wall of an existing building faced disagreeably on his

Beyond needing

site.

to sheathe this intrusive structure,

add

Seidler also sought to

a

form which might

mediate the scale and visual power of his tower. At seventy stories the

MLC

Tower was

the tallest

building in the southern hemisphere at the time of its

construction, and

it

was much

taller

than any of

the buildings in the area.

Knowing

of Albers's recent

work

in Minister, Seidler

invited the artist to contribute a relief to the complex.

He

did so with the knowledge that Albers's graphic

work could handle r

5

Wrestling. 1976

Aluminum channel on anodized aluminum, 56 x 40'

Mutual

architectural scale,

and he also

believed that a very large relief would assist in solving his

complicated problem. As the construction

photograph demonstrates, when mounted on

a black

Life Centre, Sydney, Australia

wall Wrestling sheathes the neighboring facade to great effect. Even

more impressive, however,

manner in which

graduates the scale of the tower.

it

which lacked only

In contrast to Wrestling,

is

the

installa-

tion at the time of Albers's death, the Stanford Wall

would not be completed after the project

until 1980, nearly ten years

was conceived. Such

a long gestation

period was necessary because of the exceedingly

complex nature of precise

the

decisions regarding a

standards.

was

work. The design required

components, unusual materials,

Not

site,

and exacting construction

least of these

complicating factors

was

the artist's only large-

Albers's death, as this

scale project not

sensitive

commissioned by an

The Stanford Wall

is

a

architect.

iS

two-sided, freestanding

planar-relief sculpture, completely independent of

architecture except that

6

it is

a wall (figs. 16, 17).

The


i

Stanford Wall brick side

.

iws.

Arkansas hn^k. African granite, stainless and gloss-plated steel, 8'8"x 54' x 1' I

1-

omita Mall, Stanford University,

Stanford Wall granite

side).

Arkansas brick, African

and gloss-plated 1

steel,

alifornia

(

1980

i^r.imtt

.

stainless

8'8" \ >4' \

omita Mall, Stanford University,

1

(

alifornia


work

is

nearly nine feet high, fifty-four feet long and

narrow one foot wide. One

a very

of black, gloss-plated

side

rods affixed

steel

composed

is

rhythmic

in

sequence to the mortar courses of a white brick wall;

cumscribed spatial relations on the the

most

on the

way

give

left

to

fleeting interaction, as the paired figures

right are joined by only a single linear element.

Although the Constellations had assumed embleMiinster and Sydney on the basis

the other consists of sheets of black African granite

matic character

to which Albers attached a series of four stainless-

of their public prominence and scale, the Stanford

steel Constellations. It

immediately evident that

is

project

was

in

the

occasion on which Albers, at

first

end of

was

the Stanford Wall encapsulates Albers's previous art-

the very

in-architecture projects: the brick murals, the

relentless passage of time

and the

"skyscraper" style tions are

But

if

all

stainless-steel Constella-

present in this work.

the Stanford Wall serves as a

summary

statement of Albers's graphic art as translated to large scale,

marks

it

several firsts in the artist's oeuvre

which are ultimately more is

significant.

Most obvious

the freestanding planar-relief format, which has

no precedent

modern

work and only

in Albers's

sculpture.

It is

this

a

few

in

format which allows his

designs to interact fully and sculpturally with natural light (the wall

when their

is

seen to best advantage at noon,

the sunlight causes the horizontal bars to defy

form and cast long

white brick

face).

vertical

shadows down

This was also the

on which Albers worked without

a

first

the

occasion

of humanity

his

life,

able to reflect on the

and the

fragile existence

in the universe.

Though not Albers's Homage to the Square

central achievement series

must be accorded

due â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the art-in-architecture work element

â&#x20AC;&#x201D; the

in the artist's portfolio.

is

its

an essential

Indeed,

signifi-

it is

cant that on only three occasions did he employ his

Homages

his public.

More important were Albers's assump-

new

tion of the

challenges which the art-in-architec-

ture projects afforded

beyond the artist

dictates

possessing

monumental

in the

work was underappreciated

belief that the graphic

by

perhaps

in architectural settings,

him

late in life,

and

growth

his

and decisions of others into an confidence

full

in his

work

at

scale.

commission, as

he donated the design to Stanford with the understanding that the university would fund, construct

and maintain the sculpture. His drawings were, fact,

in

rendered by the architect Craig Ellwood, and

following the

artist's

NOTES i

Quoted

in

New York,

death, another architect, Robert

Eleanor Bitterman, Art

Middlestadt, supervised the project for Stanford. In

were

now working

is

published

The

in

complex,

said as well

art-in-architecture

about the design. Albers's

works were always

site-specific

z

the nature and proportions of the space

â&#x20AC;&#x201D;

to design as he pleased,

was

b\

which

artists

were

as follows:

such as Josef Albers came to and we discussed very thoroughly the kind of work possible for this particular group of All along I put definite stress on getting the buildings proper space relationships, with the aim that the painter or sculptor supports the idea of the architecture and rice

The

artists in the vii inity,

.

.

.

see us, the architects,

and mate-

available to him. At Stanford Albers

Gropius described the process commissioned

they were conceived and developed in response to

rials

Architecture,

11)52, p. 148.

6 2.-7 1. In addition to Albers, Jean Arp, Joan Miro, Herbert Bayer and Anni Albers contributed works of art to the

for the artist.

A word must be

Modern

"Harvard Builds a Graduate Yard," Architectural Forum, vol. 93, December 1950, pp. Harvard project

a very real sense, the architects

m

Reinhold Publishing Company,

tree

and the complex graphic

versa.

language which he selected suggests

a

theme of

constant evolution and flux within

a

carefully

considered discipline. This

is

particularly true of the

Quoted

in

Bitterman, Art

Modern

3

Bitterman, Art in

4

This essav derives from

my

in

Modern

Architecture,

Architecture,

p.

p.

<'.

[48.

doctoral dissertation. The Murals

and Sculpture of h>sef Albers Stanford University, [983 New York and London, Garland Publishing, Inc., Outstand.

four

78

Constellations,

in

which rigorously

cir-


mg

Dissertations

the Fine Arts,

in

1985.

hanks are due

I

Nicholas Fox Weber, Anni Albers, Maria Makela and, particular, Albert s

I

;

Quoted in H.ms M. Wingler, The li.iiih.ni>. Wolfgang |abs ambridge, and li.i-.il Gilbert, tr.uis., |oseph Stein, ed., 1. Massachusetts, and London, the Mil Pass, 1969, p. In addition to sabbatical year spent in Mexico in 1947. Albers taught on various occasions in C uba, ( hile, Peru and Mexico. Based on photographs the .irust took which are today in the collection ol Ik- |osel Albers Foundation, we know he visited such Pre-( olumbian sites .is ( hichen It/.i. I. i|in. Mitl.i. Mona- Alban, Palenque, lenayuca, feopanzolco, feorihuacan, Xochicalco and Uxmal in Mexico, and Macchu Picchu, Ollantaytambo, l han ( han and Huacadel

Reisingcr

pp. j8 1

4

text

the

is

"Truthfulness

Art." typescript ol

in

Mountain included in volume

I

I

lu-

Museum

I

1

s

or the wall

of

Modern

Art.

story, illustration,

.1

treated as

i.<

It

Albers found

<>r

See Jiirgen

Building

Forum,

in

Patrick's see

St.

Progi 1

;<< -1

I

1

8

19

Bias in 1

C

a

in

Peru.

uzco and San Agostino

Kacmarcik,

in

Arequipa.

I

C

ollege\

ille,

New

Abbey, and

ol St. John's

Minnesota. M.n at St.

V>rk, Longmans, da-en and

This discover) was

made

Works, where the glass

In

tor

51,

48-52,

p.

is

in

110.

M.n

"The

in

Am

(

rank

is

Whitne)

New

1949, pp. 856-861.

orning dlass

I

Big Mirror," Architi

1959, pp. 116-121.

Makes

Am

Building include Emerson

a Point."

An bite< tur.il

195-100; James

I.

Ret ord, vol.

Burns,

|r.,

"A

Architecture, vol. 44. April

c

in

the artist's

onnecticut. in the

New

York,

m

February-

nK'O.

and Architecture Building. Yale University,"

McQuade and

Ma)

1964, pp. j2.4-33i;and

Moholy-Nagy, "A Building That an Event," Architectural Forum, vol. 110, February i\i<-4. Sibxl

Correspondence with the author, January 4, 1980. orrespondence with the author. September 1981.

C

i;

|oset Albers to

•,.

Bernd Kosters, April

n.

1972. tour;.

Bernd Kosters. i4

am indebted to Ham Seidler tor discussing Wrestling with me during m\ visit to Sydne) m March 1981. In part this I

section ol

Corning dlass

m\

ess.n

also derives from

a

lecture Seidler

delivered to the Sydne) Institute of Architects

Window was

Photographic Medium," Industrial and Engineering

Mu-

he Joset Albers Foundation, Orange,

ii

St.

manufactured. The invention ol photosensitive glass is in S. D. Stookey, "Photo Sensitive dlass: A New

1971.

For Rudolph's Art and Architecture Building see Vincent

Is

Company, 1958.

ross

Neu

\lbers: Murals tn

pp. 62-85.

1981.! he most

John's

scientists at

White

I

described

mistry, vol. 41, April

in greater detail

"Structural Sculpture" was originally published

Walter

ii

Stoddard. Adventure in Architecture: Building the lohn's.

published

is

vol.

Scully, "Art

s,m

based on the author's conversation with Reverend Baldwin

thorough history of Bauer's work

ii

10

in

of C olonial churches, including

Dworschak, former abbot

I

Albers. Nicholas Fox Weber.

Sculpture held at the Stable Gallery,

Lima in He visited and

the Institute ol Technology

number

Illinois

catalogue to the exhibition Robert Engman: K

-

i'h;, Albers traveled extensivel)

1

losef

Architectural Review, vol, 135,

photographed

reation

rom an unpublished statement on Manhattan

I

March

"Medieval Forms Transformed," XI IV. November iv<- .. pp.

Wissmann,

M.n

tiles.

59. .it

<

1963, pp. 59 <••-. and "The Problem with Pan Am," hitectural Record, vol. 133, Ma> 1963, pp. i;i-i;s.

in

chitecture, vol.

While teaching

10

Marcel

in detail in

Marcel Bauer and Associates, Reverend

[962, pp. Behemoth is Born," /'

October 1981. Both houses are King Lui Wu, "Notes on Architecture Today,"

1980 and

ol

Publications on the Pan

131,

.1

Perspecta, 1959, pp. 19-36.

lor

Amu

Phihpp Reclam Verlag,

Goble, "Pan

I

nbei

described

is

reconstruction of these events, described //< Murals and Sculptu

Stuttgart,

decorative nicety

easel paintings which can hang anywhere else and which add or subtract little to or from the structure or ip.u Quoted m Bitterman, Art m Modern Architecture, p. 14S. .1111 indebted to King ui Wu tor the time we spent together viewing these brick murals and discussing Albers's work in 1

Ann

Microfilms International,

Iniversit)

ol the |ose( Albers Papers in

landscape t" r private or political disclosures and extravagances. Too often they are enlarged

I

I

Weimar, Urbana, Universit) ol

.it

Hamilton Smith

1-

.merely present

published

PhD. microfilm,

,

Baldwin Dworschak and Frank Kacmarcik conducted

he

Orozco:

8

M) in

model in I'a-C olumbian art-in-architecture, in contemporary Mexican art tie studied .mother tradition which he rejected, lor him the murals ol Rivera, Siquieros and

.

I

1

1971, pp. 40-44.

.1

.

in lr\

tt.

Bauhaus

lecture

.1

C ollege in the late 1930s.

discussed

is

V>rk University, iw(-s

based on interviews with

ihr.ir\ ol

I

work

he

known

Fheonl)

the collection ol the

Franciscono, Walter Gropius .m.i the

Sol in Peru. in

I

in Bottrop,

in

is

he Sommerfeld commission

I

I

delivered at Black

hurch

/

New

Arbor, Mulligan.

.1

Quoted

The

Finkelstein,

I

-

Museum.

dissertation.

;

I

(

reproduction ol the w indow

(.

<>

work.

his

I

installed in St. Michael's

Ken, tor his ongoing support.

I

.

1

in

1981,

i^

which

1

on March

Publications on the Stanford Wall include Albert "\

stunning Presence'

at

Stanford,

vol.

II.

Autumi

E.

tcs,

January 1981, pp. 64-65; and Robert Middlcstadt, to the Mall."

i;.

attended. I

vol.

Ken. v.,

"Homage


(

atalogue

Unless otherwise noted,

The

.ill

works

.ire

Collection

Josef AJbers Foundation.

Titles are given in English, followed bj the artist's

original

German

rules,

it

the) exist, in parentheses.

Indicates not illustrated.


i

Farm Woman with

Kerchief, ca. 1914

Crayon and pencil on paper,

8 5/s

x

ioW

(22.1 x 27.3 cm.)

Cks~^~


If-Portrait

Pencil

I

ca.

on paper,

[914

15

1

43.3 \ J3.3 cm.

^

*^tffk^77l ip

-


3

Self-Portmit. ca. 1915

Oil

on canvas,

11

(28.5 x 23.2 cm.)

84

A

l

x 9V8"


Life with Russian Box Stilleben nut russischet Dose ca. 1^14

Still

-'

rempera on canvas, cm.)

I'm ate

c

ollection

is

1

"

iÂŤ

x

14'


5

Masks and

Vase. 1916

Tempera on canvas, 19 V2 x (49-5 x 38 cm.) Private Collection

86

15'


Sandp Ink

I

i.

[916

on paper mounted on paper, 11.3 X

i'<.i

cm.


7

Rabbit

I.

ca.

1916

8

Lithographic crayon on paper, 10V4 x 13 (26.1 x 34.6 cm.)

II.

ca.

1916

Lithographic crayon on paper, 10 'A x i3 3/8" (2.6.1 x 34 cm.)

W

3

8

NX

Rabbit

'


9

Dorsten Town Hall. I

ca.

(917

ithographic crayon on paper.

1-

\

1

43.7 x 31.5 cm.

2

J

i

11

>

»•?

10

Church

Ini

1917

Pencil aiul ink

cm.

on

p.ipcr.

1^

\

1:


Study for "Ostring I" (Workers'

Houses

12

Series), ca. 1917

Study for "Ostring IV" (Workers'

Houses

Lithographic crayon on paper, S'/if. x n7x" (20.5 x 32.7 cm.)

â&#x20AC;˘

rt>

.

90

Series), ca. 1917

Lithographic crayon on paper, 7V2 x 13V4" (19. 1 x 33.6 cm.)


i

;

Study foi "I U> I

ithographic C

Ij

mpty i

ÂŤ.r.i\

LO.I

I

net"

Workers'

14

[917

Lamppost and Houses

ca.

1917

Lithographic crayon on paper, slglll. 8 X \ i4.S cm.

on on paper, X 34.7 <m.

;

i.

91


i

5

Self-Portrait III. ca. 1917

16

Lithographic crayon on paper, 19 x 15 V2" (48.3 x 39.4 cm.)

Schoolgirl VII. ca. 1917

Ink on paper, 9 x 9 1/2" (22.9 x 24.1 cm.)

17

Schoolgirl VIII. ca. 1917

Ink on paper, 7 x 5" (17.7 x 12.7 cm.)

18

Schoolgirl VI. ca. 1917

Ink on paper, 13 V4 x (34.9 x 26.1 cm.)

x

J

i

-

92

f

i

ioW


t-

/r

k

\

f


19

Duck with Head Down.

ca. 1917

Ink on paper, io /* x i4 7/i6" ii6.i x 56.7 cm.) 1

20

Standing Bird, Front View. 5

Ink on paper, io /i6 x 6

ca. 1917

5

/x"

(26.2 x 16.8 cm.)

W^ M

94


ii

Four Ink

on paper,

15.7 \

11

Geese

I

15.7 \

/.-•

ca.

1917

Ink

{2.1

1

cm.

on paper,

;

Three

\

(

1

i^i~

bu kens.

52.1

1917

10

(15.- \ j2.i cm.

1

\

\ 25.5

cm.

'id

II

ca.

[917

lnk un reverse

x

1

is.- an.

«>t

wallpaper, x

ca.

1917

Ink on paper, 12 Vs x 10"

1

ca.

//n< Roosters, ca.

Ink on paper,

cm.

-,i.i

14

1

52.1

Ink on paper,

2;

1917

:a.

i

cm.


27

The Procession (Green Flute

Series).

ca. 1917

Lithograph on paper, 12 x 2i 15/i6" (30.5 x 55.7 cm.)

/

96

A

x


ls

Dancet

ca.

Pencil "ii paper, L4V16 16.7

x

2V

[917

15.9 cm.

x

i

/>..

Pencil

1,

IVl

-

on papei

54.9 \ 15.9 cm.


30

Man

Reading Newspaper,

Pencil

on paper,

(32.9 x 12.9 cm.)

98

ca.

1<; ii /i6 x 9"

1917-18

31

Electrical Repairmen, ca. 191! Pencil

on paper,

(28.2 x 21 cm.)

iiVfe

x 8V4"


;i

House with Pencil |5

1

Trees in Notteln

and ink on paper, K>.) Cm.

i

i

ca. x

imis

io"

•,

•>

Vim

Forest

m

Sauerland

s.iiurl.iinliiil'ti l.iiniiiiu

V

Ink on paper,

\

(2.i

\

14.''

1

-

j Li

.

ca. 1918

1x9

cm.

'

/

)

WSm '-/,"

:aWT-


^4

Bavarian Mountain Scene

I.

ca.

1919

Ink on paper, io'/k x iiVx" (25.7 x 32.1 cm.)

55

Bavarian Mountain Scene Ink on paper, 10 x i2 (25.5 x 32.1 cm.)

100

5/8"

II. ca.

1919


(6

v

lit

\

19.2

j

7

\

19.7

Dancing

1919

ca.

I

Ink on paper,

i

cm.

Pair. ca.

1919

Ink on paper, $2.3 \ is.- cm.

;s

Standing

Nude

Ink on paper, J2.1

59

\ is.'>

Standing

I.

1

ca. -

\

1919 1

cm.

Nude

Ink on paper. $2.1 x 25.6

1

1

1919

ca.

II.

1

-

\

1

cm.

101


40

Figure. 1921

Glass assemblage, Z1V2 x 15 V2" (54.6 x 39.4 cm.)

The Metropolitan Museum New York, Gift of the artist, 1972.

Collection

of Art,

":.-

102

H


4i

Rhenish Legend Rhein

ende).

1921 (.l.iss 5

assemblage, \ 444 cm.

Collection

[Tie

19

\

Metropolitan

Museum

i.Niu York, Gift of the artist, [972

10;


42

Untitled

(Window

Picture

[Fenster-Bild]). 1921

Glass assemblage, 2.3 x zi 3A x (58.9 x 55.3 x 2.1.3 em.) Collection Hirshhorn

8W

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Gift of

Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1972

104


4

;

(

a title J. ca.

i

i

>-i

(kiss assemblage, [4V4 x 57.5 \ 19.8

cm.

1


44

Grid Mounted. 1922 Glass assemblage, i2 3/4 x 11 (32.4 x 28.9 cm.)

45A,B

Photographer

Unknown

Two Views of Stair Hall, Grassi Museum, Leipzig (Destroyed 1944) Showing Stained-Glass Windows Designed by Albers

in

1923-14. n.d.

photographs, each 6V2 x 9" (16 x 22.9 cm.) 2

106


46

Bauhaus Bookshelf. 1923 Photograph, S 3A x 6V2" (22.3 x 16 cm.) Courtesy Prakapas Gallery,

47

Bauhaus

16 x 22.3

6'/2

New

York

x 8 V4"

cm.)

Courtesy Prakapas Gallery,

108

York

Table. 1923

Photograph, (

New


I

ruit

Tea Glasses u

Bowl. 1923

hrome-plated brass, painted wood and glass, z x 14 7.5 x 56.5 cm. diameter (

v.

Âť

Heat

resistant glass, nickel-plated

steel,

Bakelite and porcelain 7

B c

^in>

itt

ollection Bauhaus-Archiv, W. Berlin,

x

1

left

.

j.7 tin.

Heat resistant glass, stainless ebon) and porcelain right 7 x 13.7 cm.

steel,

.

c

. 1

r t

of the .imst,

1961 C

ollection Bauhaus-Archiv,

ditt of the artist

\V.

Berlin,


50

Baithaus Lettering Set (Kontbinations-

1926

schrift) ca.

Opaque

glass

24 x 24"

The Museum

Collection Art,

mounted on wood,

(61 x 61 cm.)

of

Modern

New York, Gift of the artist,

1957

I 1 i

J

1

J

)

^

.

Ji J( , 1:

;

J

vj

V.

1-

4U 1C j_

.

1

10

vl

)

_

j

V7

j

V 1

U L L

\

V

J

U

_

-V-

째y


Illustration

offset:

[i

1

l

Buch und Werbekunst, eipzig, Bauhaus issue, 1926, 1

jo.7 \

k 9

Illustrarion oi <>nu-r

(

Berlin In

(

(

special

7,

:

Remodeled

foi

Publishing

llstein

Entwurf fur einen Ladenumbau

Berlin

vol

Design

<>t

front

Design

Storeâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; I

I

1

foi

'llstein

ntwurf fur

I

;.

;

cm.

Remodeled

Publishing

ckladenumbau

Biah und Werbekunst, Leipzig, Bauhaus issue, 1926, x 9 7 x 23.3 cm.

)ffset:

vol. 7, spi-ci.il

[2V16 <.

ollection

1

I

\

1

ibris,

New York

1

1


53

Stacking Tables, ca. 1926

Wood and i5 3/4" (39.2

painted glass, 15 Vs x 16V2 x x 41.9 x 40 cm.); i8Vx x

i8 7/s x i5 3/4"(47.3 x 48 x

x 2i x 15

W

24V8 x 23 s/s

40 cm.); 21V4

(55.4 x 53.3 x 40 cm.); x i5 7/s" (62.6 x 60.1 x

40.3 cm.) Collection Andrea and John Weil,

Saskatoon


S4

Writing Desk. ca. \\'

iod

and painted

i>/: ( '

glass, i

|

cm.

extended, \o x 5: \ 58.9 cm. 1

ollection

1

sther

,

m

ith leaf \.z

M.

1

x

12.7.6

ole

..;


55

Fugue,

ca.

1925

Sandblasted flashed glass, 9V4 x 25^ (24.8 x 65.7 cm.)

114


j6

/

ugue

II.

isÂť.:s

Sandblasted flashed cl.iss, irregular, x 22 15.8 x 58.1 cm. i

i

ollection

Sculpture

(

Hirshhom Museum and iarden, Smithsonian Institu-

Washington, D.C Gift ol [oseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, it:

tion,

..

115


57

Factory, ca. 1925

Sandblasted flashed glass, 14 Vs x 18 '/V (35.8 x 45.8 cm.) Collection Yale University Art Gallery,

New

Haven, Gift of Anni Albers and

The Josef Albers Foundation

116


>rk. ca.

1926

Sandblasted flashed glass, \ .1 cm. x

c

11

;

ollection Hirshhorn

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, IXC ., Gift ol |oseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, iw-4

.1-


59

Upward,

ca.

1926

Sandblasted flashed glass, 17 x (43. z x 29.8 cm.)

us

iiW


60

Dominating White

ivi~

Sandblasted flashed glass, ii. j \ 19.2 cm.

8

\

m


6i

Study for "Frontal." Pencil

ca. 192.7

and ink on graph paper,

i6Vs x 23!/)" (41 x 59.1 cm.)

C=3 CZZ3 I

I

1

I

1

I

1

C=D '

I

'

1

1


Frontal

1927

Sandblasted flashed glass, 1

;

6

X

18

;

;

;

\

46.7

>.m.

111


63

Walls

and

Screens, ca. 1928

Sandblasted flashed glass, 12 x io'/s" (30.5 x 26 cm.) Collection Mr. and Mrs. James H. Clark, Jr., Dallas


<<4

Skyscrapers on Transparent Yellow. ca.

i

Sandblasted Hashed glass, i

;

K

]

;

\

;

;.;

cm.


6$

Skyscrapers A. 192.9

Sandblasted flashed glass, i3 3A x i3 3/4" (34.9 x 34.9 cm.) Collection Mr. and Mrs. James H. Clark, Jr., Dallas

124


Jfcys<

rapers H

[925-29

Sandblasted flashed glass, \6.z \ \" 2 cm. illection

14

<

\

u

â&#x20AC;˘

Hirshhom Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, 1>A ,, Gift of Joseph

H. Hirshhom Foundation, 14-4


67

Study for "Pergola." 1929 Pencil

and ink on graph paper,

12V4 x 20"

(3 1.1

x 50.8 cm.)

Ill /

tz6

â&#x20AC;˘


1 68

Pergola

i

Sandblasted flashed 10' 2

x

17

1

16.7

gl.iss.

\ 4

•;.!

cm.

1

inn

Ij-B ^=1 1

iTP'f-nH-

II-


69

Interior A. 1919

Sandblasted flashed glass, x 8'/s" (24.8 x 20.7 cm. 9 ;

1

128

70

Interior B. 1929

Sandblasted flashed glass, io-Vs x 9 /Âť" (27 x 23.2 cm. l


-l

Interior A.

[929

Interioi

Sandblasted flashed glass, \ 10" \ 25.4 cm. ; ; ; 1

C

ollection |ose( Albers

Bottrop,

W

German)

Museum,

H

1919

Sandblasted flashed glass, 1

c

;

\

1

;

;

\

1^.4

,.111.

ollection |osef Albers

Bottrop, W.

Museum,

German)

129


7S

Windows. 1929 Sandblasted flashed glass, 13V4 x 14 (33.6 x 37.5 cm.)

W

Collection Mr. and Mrs. James H.

Clark,

130

Jr.,

Dallas


~4

"

(

'

1931

Sandblasted flashed glass, rj

k 2

59.4 \

^

1.-

cm.

131


75

Armchair. 1928

Walnut and maple veneers on wood with canvas upholstery (replaced 1961), 9 29 Vs x 2.4V4 x 26 /V (74 x 61.5 x 67.4 cm. Collection Bauhaus-Archiv, W. Berlin

[32


\rmchatr. i><_w I

aminaced beechwood, tubular steel canvas upholstery, i8' it 23 x 72.4 \ 58.9 x 72.4 cm.

.uul

1

ollection

\n.

New

he Museum of Modern York, Gift of the .mist I

133


77

Oskar Schlemmer, Tut Schlemmer, Ernst Kallai and Hans Wittner. 1927-30 Collage of 1 1 photographs mounted on cardboard, ii 5/s x 16V&" (2.9.5 x 4째-9

1

(4

cm

-


-s

Paul Klee and Frau K/<r.

[Burnt:

(./ÂŤ

\^i->

ollageof photographs mounted on x 41 cm. cardboard, m c

;

5

135


79

Ann:,

Summer 28 (Sommer

28). 192S

Collage of 2 photographs mounted on cardboard, nVs x i6 5/i6" (29.5 x 41.5 cm.)

136


8o

Papal Palace, Avignon Papste-Palast

Avignon

am

19

ollageoi 1 photographs mounted on ^ m cardboard, m (

\M'

Ntf

137


81

Sand, Biarritz, ca. 1929

Photograph, 7V16 x 9 15/i6" (18 x 25.2 cm.)

[38


82

Small Beach, Biarritz ^.i [929

Kleinei Strand,

Burnt:

Photograph, 9V4 x 13.5 \ ivi cm.

S

;

Vi'd

hC)

Photograph mounted 12.1

5

V'

WW.

v

<>n

14.1

cardboard, cm.


84

Gropius, Ascona,

Summer 30 (Sommer

1930 Photograph mounted on cardboard, i6Vs x u 5/8" (41 x 29.5 cm.)

140

30).


8j

Philippo Haurer, Ascona. [930 ollageol photographs mounted on cardboard, n \ 41 cm. (

;

â&#x20AC;˘;

M'


1

6

Herbert Buyer, Porto Ronco, 1930

Italy.

Collage of 2 photographs mounted on cardboard, iiVs x i6Vs" (29.5 X41 cm.

142


Irene Bayei

and Muzi, Porto Ronco,

Italy.

ollageoi i photographs mogntcd mi cardboard, iiVb x \ 41 cm. ^ t

m;


Road

in

Paznauntal. 1930

Photograph, (15. 1 x 2.3.5

144

15

5

/i6

cm

-)

x 9V4"


i

.jiiltn

(

hairs at the Boulevard

on the Kurfiirstendamm Berlin .Early Morning Gartenstuhle, das Boulevardk. tffee, ca.

fruhmorgens Kurfurstendan

1931

Photograph, ::.:

=?'

\

-

u^.i cm.

'iitUr rZi \>:*T

^^lÂŁi -r- r> a* 1

145


90

View of Maggia-Delta (including Ascona), Early Morning, on Lake

Maggiore (Blick auf Maggia-Delta [darauf Ascona] frith am Lago Maggiore). ca. 1930 Photograph, 6V16 x 9V16" (16

146

x 23 cm.)


91

hi Front of

\in

\lv

meinem

Photograph,

Window

Fenstet • •

\

1931

\:

6

13.2 \ 15.2 cm.

14:


9

2.

Plan for Hotel Living Room in the German Building Exhibition, Berlin,

May

9-August

2,

193

Pen and ink on paper, (21 x 29.8 cm.)

8 'A

x

ii 3/Âť"

Collection Bauhaus-Archiv, W. Berlin,

Permanent loan from the Vogler family

1

1 1 1 1

-

^^

3.23

i

L

S^rf^ ICT r\'\

'

'

,

148

Ifli


Illustration of

Hotel Living Rnnin

German Building Exhibition, August i, 1931 Maj

the

in

Berlin,

>i

In

I

[enrj

Russell

1

litchcock,

International Style: Architecture Sunt- I'/zi. New York, W.W Norton,

[932, 9 (.

ollection

x 7

14.1

x 19.4 cm.

Mark Simon,

C

onnecticut

140


94

flying.

1

93

95

Steps (Stufen). 19 31

Tempera on paper, i^Va x ii'-W

Gouache and

(40 x 30 cm.)

Z3V4" (46.1 x 59.1 cm.)

Private Collection

Collection Hirshhorn

pencil

on paper, 18V4 x

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966

150


fen

1931

Sandblasted flashed glass.

k

\

^ \

nm

cm.

ollection Mr. and Mrs. Paul M. Hirschland, New York

t

151


C52


97

Study foi "Rolled Wrongly " Pencil i-

98

\

and 2

mk on

ca.

19^1

blueprint paper,

44.8 x 5 i.i cm.

99

K

Sandblasted flashed glass, J7.5 \ '.4" cm.

14

Rolled Wrongly. 1931

Sandblasted flashed glass, [6 ix I41.3 x 41.3 cm.

'S3


ioo

Treble Clef Gii. 1932-35

Gouache on

paper, n'Vi* \ 10"

58 x 15.4 cm.)

101

Treble Clef Gd. 1932-35

Gouache on

(36.2 x 20.3 cm.) Collection Martina and Michael

t54

102

paper, sight, 14 'A x 8"

Treble Clef Ge. 1932-35

Gouache on paper,

sight, 14 V4

x

8"

(36.2 x 20.3 cm.)

Yamin

Collection Martina and Michael

Yamin


i93 2 "35

Gouache on paper, m.)

14

io 4 i<

x

1

Treble Clef

Gn. 1932

Gouache on

paper,

m.

tj

Treble \

1

(

/.

Gouache on J7.5 \ 16.4

paper.

14

.

x

1

cm.

155


106

Together (Zusammen). 1933

Linoleum cut on paper, 13V4 x (33.6 x 43.2 cm.)

156

17"


io-

s..;

I

Meet

19

;

^

inoleum woodcut on paper, )S.6 \ 44. s cm,

14

\

1

157


108

Opera (Oper). 1933 Woodcut on paper, 12V4 x (32.4 x 44.8 cm.)

[58

ijVs"


icy

Wings

[934

Woodcut on pa pi16.7

\

1.

1

\

k>

41.6 cm.

159


IIO

/.

1954

Linoleum cut on paper, (35.3 x 38 cm.)

160

i3 7/s

x

15"


1

1

1

Showcase. 1

19 \j

inoleum cut on paper, 57.8 \ J5.6 cm.

14

â&#x20AC;˘

\

14

161


in

Etude: Hot-Dry. 1935

A

Oil on Masonite, iz 3 (32.4 x 40 cm.)

[62

x 1^/4"


113

Christmas

Etude: Red-Violet

i

)il

on panel, is 55.6 cm.

9 \

-

\

14"


ii4

Four Abstractions, Pencil

and

oil

(21.4 \ 30.5 cm.)

[64

en.

1935

on paper, 87ih x

12"


n>

ntit

/

ca.

1^40

1 )il on \ iÂŤ.tÂťir talking Machine "Victrola" cover, 14 x

j

6. 8 \

\

1.7

cm.

.65


n6

Evening (an improvisation). 1935 Oil on Masonite, 11 x i2 3/8"

(z8 x 31.5 cm.)

166


ii-

Almost Foui

color etude). 1936

Oil on Masonite, .

1

\

1

;

Âť

x

1

58.7 cm.

i6:


n8

in

open

Oil

air.

1936

on Masonite,

(50.5 x 45.1 cm.)

168

ly'/n

x ijVa"


II

v

(

Untied

I.

Ink on paper, (6.8 \ 18

no

n

\

14

nit! If J

(

Ink

Untitled IX.

v

i>)

.111.

112

(6

15

>

\

1

X. 1936

mi paper,

.111.

Ink <>n paper,

(40 x 19.8

111

19 $6

15 "/iÂť.

'ntitled XI.

i>);<<

Ink on paper,

is

(

1

\

1

x

1

19.2 cm.

IV. S

.111.

.

\

1

1

1


i23

Mexican Stonework,

ca.

[936

Photograph, 9'Vih x 6 15/i6" (24.9 x 17.7 cm.)

170


i24

Study for "Tenayuca."

ca.

Watercolor wash with mk and lithographs crayon i>n paper, 4.1 \ ;v.j cm.

171


us

b an d p- 1937 Oil on Masonite, 2 3 7s x 23 Va" (60.7 x 59.1 cm.)

Collecrion

Solomon

Museum, New York 48.1172 X264

[72

R.

Guggenheim


n6

"Related"

19 ;-

\

Oil on canvas, i 7 \ C

-+

S

ollection

-

I

;

t

x

17

â&#x20AC;˘

UN.

Bill

B.iss, t

hicago

.-;


127

Related

I

(red).

1938-43

Oil on Masonite, (62.3 x

'"4

47 cm.)

2.4 V2

x 18V2"


us

Variant of "Related." Oil on Masonitc, [6 41.9 \

)

;.;

a. 1940 k

i

cm.

175


iz9A,b

Two Studies for "Airy Center." ca. A. Oil

and pencil on paper,

13 x 17 Vx" (33 x 44.

cm.

B. Oil and pencil on board, 5V4 x 8Vi h " (13.4 x 20.7 cm.)

176

193!


130

Gate. 1936 Oil on Masonite, 19V16 x 20V16" (48.7 x 50.9 cm.)

Collection Yale University Art Gallery,

New

Haven, Gift of Collection of

Societe

.-X

Anonyme


Oil on Masonite, is - 1. C

\ 71.6

;

\

.

ollection Yale Universit) Art Gallery, I

I

,.

cm.

lu-

laven,

ol

(..itt

|osel Albers

I

Amu

Albcrs and

oundation

l

79


i8o


i

;

i

\.i'.

In o Studit

i

ementin

;

;

Alr/j ,>>:, -at

m

Gra

ca.

Oil on Masonite, Pencil "ii paper,

\

i

B. i

\.y \

Pencil ;.- \

is .4

â&#x20AC;˘;

91.4

;<>

\

;

^

n.

cm,

on pap< [8.4

cm.

[81


134

Equal and Unequal. 1939 Oil

on Masonite,

19 x 40"

(48.3 x 101.6 cm.)

Collection Anni Albers

182


i

;

s

Btia Bfot k

\

i .

Oil and casein 1

\ 71.2

<>n

panel, \gV4

Ciitt ÂŤit

18

Addison Gallcr) <>t American Art, Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, Mis. Frederick Donaldson

Ilection Phillips

\

cm.

I

-


136

Bent Black

(B).

1940

Oil on fiberboard, 26 x 19V4" (66 x 48.9 cm.) Collection Hirshhorn

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn, 1966

[84


Htiit

D.uk Gray,

Oil on Masonitc, \

i

i>)

\

14"

55.6 <m.

Solomon Museum, New York

Collection

48.1 \~ 1 \I<iO

R.

Guggenheim


138

Growing. 1940 Oil on Masonite, 24 x z6 3A" (61 x

67.9 cm.)

Collection San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, Gift of Charlotte Mack

[86


I'M Oil

on Masonite, -

\ 71.2

cm.

i

;

x 28


140

Tierra Verde.

1940

Oil on Masonite, 22 3/Âť x 28" (57.8 x 71.2 cm.)

:88


141

l<>

11

Mltl.l

I'M

on Masonitc

54. 6 \ ~i.4 cm.

.

11


142

Study for "Open." 1940 Oil

on paper,

i8'/s

(60 x 48.9 cm.) Private Collection

190

x 19V4"


14

;

(

)f>c>i.

ca.

1^40

Oil on paper, [6 \

19"

vin. c

ollection llollms

1

ollege,

Roanoke,

Virginia

iwi


144

Open

(B).

December 1940

Oil on Masonite, 19"/* x i^Vs" (50.7 x 49.8 cm.)

Collection

Solomon

Museum, New York 48.1172 X263

192

R.

Guggenheim


i-4 >

Concealing. Decern bci Oil on pressed 9

\

j9.i

lection

wood, 17

cm.

Solomon

Museum, New V>rk 4 S.i

i

-j.

X265

K.

Guggenheim


146

Janus. 1936-48 Oil

on Masonite, 42V2 x 37V2"

(107.9 ^ 95- 1

cm

-)

Collection Josef Albers Bottrop, W. Germany

[94

Museum,


14-

/

eaf Study

(

ollage nt leaves on paper, 9

-41

x

I

ca.

4^.- cm.

1

\

18'


148

Leaf Study

III. ca.

1940

Collage of leaves on paper, iy 3A x i8 5/s" (45.1 x 47.3 cm.)

196


i4'(

/

eat Study

C

ollage ol leaves on paper, sight,

\

I.

1^41

3

cm.

19-


150

Leaf Study

II.

ca.

1940

Collage of leaves on paper, 14 V2 x i8 3/8" (36.8 x 46.7 cm.)

198


i

s

i

/

eaf Study 1\ illagc

12

<>t

47.2

^.i

leaves \

on paper,

s-.i

cm.

18


is -

Three Postcards Framed Together top:

a

good

39. [938

Gouache on paper, (13.7 x 8.8 cm.)

5"

i<,

x 3V2"

middle:

Merry Christmas and Happy New Year. ca.

1940

Gouache on

paper, $Vi x s'/W'

(8.8 x 13.7 cm.)

bottom: with all best wishes for

'43.

1942

Inscribed: take this southern parkscape

as a good symbol in spite of its baroque

curves-

Gouache on

paper,

3

Vi 6 x 5V2"

(8.7 x 14 cm.)

<JL

* * * A

P


15

Birds, ca.

;

ig

Photograph, 14.8

\

19.7

1x7

<i

cm.

V '

,

v /

'>.

>

*

* 9.A

',

-•

y

y /

v /

-

**

*

'^

f'

ftp

\

r %i


154

Study for "Proto-Form Oil

B"

(no.

i).

193

on fiberboard, 10V2 x 9V4"

(26.7 x 24.8 cm.)

Collection Hirshhorn

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institu-

Washington, D.C., Gift of Joseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, 1974 tion,

S


i

s >

Study for" Proto-Form Oil

on fiberboard,

B"

<

i

.in.

illcction

Hirslihorn

Museum and

Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institu-

Washington, D.( ., Gift of |oseph H. Hirshhorn Foundation, i9~4 tion.

^


204


\)r\

pomt on

paper, -

-

\

io

(20 \ 16.1 an.

i^~

Maternity. 1^42

Drj point on paper, 9 \ is. 2 cm.

158

/

point on paper, 87ÂŤ x 6 \

/

-

h-De. 1940

|)i\

[59

1

27.2 cm.

ddie Dreiet ca. 1938

Photograph, 6 15.8 x 1 j. 7 cm.

x

1

1

V


160

Graphic Tectonic 1941-42

III.

ca.

Ink on paper, 23 7x x (60.7 x 45.4 cm.)

206

7 ij /s"


(6i

Seclusion

1942

(,>.i/>l'

Zinc lithograph on paper, cm.

19 x


\hi

Study for "Memento"

(I).

and pencil on paper,

1943

16 x 12"

163

Study for "Memento"

(II).

1943

(40.- \ 30.5 cm.)

Oil and pencil on paper, 12V2 x 17V2" (31.7 x 44.4 cm.)

Private Collection

Private Collection

Oil

208


164

Memento

1^4

Oil on Masonitc,

4~

\

a

\

.

J2.4 cm.

lection Solomon Museum, New York

4S.1 [72

X262

R.

Guggenheim


165

Penetrating (B). 1943 Oil, casein 2.i

3

/8

x

and tempera on Masonite,

14W

Collection

(54.3 x 63.2 cm.)

Solomon

Museum, New York 48.1172 X261

R.

Guggenheim


I

ntitled

â&#x20AC;˘

on Masonin cm. k 6 '>

.

.

"'â&#x20AC;˘

'943


167

Inscribed. 1944

Cork

relief print,

(30.5 x 39.4 cm.)

12 x 15 Vz"


UlC.

iv-44

Woodcut on 44.4 (

\

paper, i-

\

1

1

â&#x20AC;˘

18.2 cm.

ollcction

Audi AIIuts

113


169

Tlaloc. 1944

Woodcut on

paper, 14 Vi x 15"

(36.8 x 38 cm.)

214


i^o

Light

tion.

Ink and

43.2

\

1^4

s

on Masonitc, 71.7 cm. oil

17 \

215


171

Structural Constellation

II. ca.

1950

Machine-engraved Vinylire mounted on board, 17 x zzVi" (43.Z x 57.1 cm.)

216


nir.il

(

onstellation

Machine engraved board,

17x12

III. ca.

Vinylite j

,

-

1950

mounted

\ s~.i

<>n

cm.

11-


173

Structural Constellation: Transformation of a Scheme No. n. 1950

Machine-engraved Vinylite mounted on board, 17 x 22V2" (43.2 x 57.1 cm.)

2.8


i~4

Structural OJ

.1

s,

<

onstellation

Transformation

/

Machine engraved board, 17 x

2

Vinylite .

:

\

mounted 57.1

cm.

<>n


175

Structural Constellation

I.

ca.

1950

Machine-engraved Vinylite mounted on board, 17 x izVi" (43.1 x 57.1 cm.)

2.20


.

stellation

-

I

. \

Machine-engraved Vinylite mounted on board, 17x2 1 x 57.1 cm.

121


Study for a Variant

(I),

ca.

1947

Oil and pencil on paper, 9V2 x iz'/ih" (24.1 x 30.7 cm.)


i-s

Study (

oli

fo>

"Variant:

Fom

unded by

Oil i>n paper, 19 x

i

(

entralWarm Blues " ca. 1948 7

cm.


179

Variant. 194--5 2

Oil on Masonite, 13V1 x 2.6V2" (34.3 x 67.3 cm.)

Collection Theodore and Barbara Dreier

224


\dobe

[8

Variant):

Luminous Day.

1947 J2 Oil on Masonite, is \ ^4.6 cm. i.

n x

ollcction M.ixiimli.in

11

Si_ln.ll


i

Si

Variant:

Outer Gray/Repeated

Center. 194N

Oil on Masonite, 19V2 x zyVx" (49-5 x 74 cm.)

12.6

in


iSi

Variant: Harboured. c

<

hi

on Masonire, 15 5 x 83.5 cm.

ollection

Don

Page,

[947-52 x

New

Y01

1-


183

Van ant: Pink Orange Surrounded by 4 Grays.

Oil

1947-52

on Masonite,

(39.4 x 69.2 cm.)

11H

1

15 /:

x 27

1

4"


\>

184

Mexico

'<

Black-Pink. 1947

Mason itc,

Oil on \ (

6]

ollection

1

1

-

\

14"

cm. hill

h.iss,

l

hicago


185

Variant:

Oil

Brown, Ochre, Yellow. 1948

on Masonite, 18 x z$Vi" (45.7 x

64.7 cm.)

230


Variant: Southern

Oil on Masonite, ;i.i

\ ^-.1

cm.

lnn.itt-.

(

\

1

>

\

.

194H


Variant: Inside

and Out. 1948-53

Oil on composition board, 17V8 x

z6 9/\(," (44.8 x 67.4 cm.) Collection

Wadsworth Atheneum,

Hartford, The Ella Gallup Sumner and Mary Catlin Sumner Collection

^32.


Variant. ( )il

on Masonite, \

(

1948

59.1

i>

1x2

cm.

ol lection Josel Albers

Bottrop. W.

German)

Museum,


189

Variant. 1948-55

Oil

on Masonite,

(40.6 x 78.7 cm.)

2-34

16

x

31'


lyo

Variant:

Four Reds [round Blue. 1948

Oil on Masonite,

cm. Private

c

ollection

-1

\

1

;

54.

;

\


191

Study for a Variant Oil and pencil (2.4.1

236

(II). ca.

1947

on paper, 9V2 x

x 30.5 cm.)

12"


192

'

(itches, n.d.

Oil and pencil on cardboard, n \i.9 \ '-4.

i

cm.

137


1

9

3

Two Studies for c.\.

"Interaction of Color."

Two

194

on paper mounted on paper, 20 x 19" (50.8 x 48.3 cm.)

(Homage

to the Square

Oil and pencil on paper, 12 x

Silk screen

(30.5 x 13.4 cm.)

' .

238

Studies

Series), n.d.

[96]

5

A"

l


*

t* %


195

Two

Studies

(Homage

to the

Square

Series), n.d.

Oil and pencil on cardboard,

n 196

x 4 15/i6" (28 x 12.5 cm.)

Two

Studies

(Homage

to the Square

Series), n.d.

Oil and pencil on cardboard, 7 4 /8" (28.5

240

x 12.4 cm.)

nA l

x


M>


t97

Study (Homage to the Square Oil and pencil on paper, (30.5 \ 30.

24Z

s

cm.)

ux

Series), n.d.

iz"

198

Study (Homage to the Square Oil and pencil

on paper,

(30.4 x 30.7 cm.)

n

15

/i6

Series), n.d.

x

izW


[99

Homage

Stud)

to the

Square

Series

,

n.d.

200

WorkingStuJy s

Oil and pencil on paper, :

\

;

1.7

cm.

i

•-,'

xi

II

n.d.

Oil mi Masonite, 16 \ w> .

in.


Homage

to the Square.

1950

Oil on Masonite, 20 Vs x 2.0V2"

(52.4 x 52.1 cm.)

Collection Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Gift of Anni Albers and

The Josef Albers Foundation

244


Homage

t<>

(

61

\

<>i

i

cm.

ollection Yale Universir) ArtGallery,

New Haven, I

i*m

the s./iur,

Oil on Masonite, 14 \ 14

Anni Albers and oundarion

Gifi ol

he [osel Albers

I

--Âť<


L03

Homage

to the Square: Black Setting. 1951

Oil on Masonite, 31 V4 x 31V4" (80.7 x 80.7 cm.)

246


L04

Homage to the Square

Decided. 1951

Oil on Masonitt -

id.

-4"


205

Homage

to the Square. 1955

Oil on Masonite, 24 x 24" (61 x 61 cm.)

248


iofc

Homage to the

Square: Saturated

Oil on Masonite, ij'A x zi .

(

59.1

\

cm.

ollection Yale

I

Iniversit) Art Gallery,

New Haven, rhe Katherine Ordwaj c

ollection

â&#x20AC;˘


207

Homage Oil

to the Square. 19 51

on Masonire, 24 x 24"

(61 x 61 cm.)

250


loK

Homage

to

tl

(./<</(.â&#x20AC;˘

Island.

Oil on Masonice, ij \ 14 "i

\ 61

cm.

illection Ernst Beyelcr, Basel

151


209

Homage

to the Square:

A Rose

Rose. 1969 Oil on Masonite, 24 x 24" (61

*52-

x 61 cm.)

Is

a


no Homage

to the Square

Oil on Masonite, 16 6 \ (

K

I

x

40.6 cm.

ollection

Maximilian

Sclu-11


1

1

1

Homage to the Square: Pompeian. Oil on Masonite, 18 x 18" (45.7 x 45.7 cm.)

Collection Maximilian Schell

*54

i

<)<â&#x20AC;˘,

3


Homage Oil

on Masonitc, 4S

112 C

to the Square:

\

\

\h:

48"

izi cm.

ollccrion Inset Albers

Bottrop, W.

German)

Museum,


Homage

to the Square:

Open Outwards. 1967

Oil on Masonite, 4S x 48"

(122 x 122 cm.) Collection Staatliche

Museen

Preussischer

Kulturbesitz, Nationalgalerie, Berlin

256


H4

Homage 1

9

5

to the Squart

Oil on Masonite, (

\pparition.

9 .

iio.6 x 120.6 cm.

lection Solomon Museum, New York

R.

Guggenheim

61.i<

157


2.15

Homage

to the Square, i960

Oil on Masonite, }i x ^1" (81.3 x 81.^ cm.)

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Lee

Eastman

z58

V.


u6

Homagi Sky.

to

an

tt

I

.irlx

i';'<4

Oil on Masonitt

i:: \

m

.

.

cm.

C

ollection Australian National Gallery,

c

anberra


217

Study for "Homage to the Square: Cooling." 19 61 Oil on panel, 24 x 24" (61 x 61 cm.)

Collection

Solomon

R.

Guggenheim

Museum, New York, Gift, Anni Albers andThe Josef Albers Foundation, 1977 77.2340

260


>.i

8

Homage

to the

Squai

Oil on Masonite, 14 \ 14 \

i

<>i

cm.

Musee National

ollection

Moderne, Paris, (iitt,

1

Albers

I

d'Art

Pompidou, Albers and Hie

entre Georges

Amu

oundarion,

|> >~-i

1

r


zi9

Homage

to the Square: Saturated

II.

[967 Oil on Masonite, 4S \ 4S" (

122 x 111 cm.)

Collection Maria and Beverly Hills

162

Conrad

Janis,


lent.

Oil on

C

Mason

1

1<

olleccion M.i\imili.in s v lull

1968


22i

Homage

to the Square: Early

Ode.

1962 Oil on Masonite, 18 x c8" (45.7 x 45.7 cm.)

Collection Maria and Beverlv Hills

264

Conrad

Janis,


hi

Homagt

to the Square.

Oil on Masonite, 40 1

1.6

x

1

1.6

\

\rrii'al

1963

4

cm.

Ilection Maria and Bevcrh HilU

c

onrad

|anis,


Homage

to the Square: Light-Soft.

1968 Oil on Masonite, 40V2 x 40V2"

(102.9 x 102.9 cm.)

Collection Yale University Art Gallery,

New

Haven, Gift of Anni Albers and

The Josef Albers Foundation

266


i^4

Hoi 1969

Square:

/>.

Oil on Masonitc 101. 6 \

(

(

1

collection

11.

Yale Universit) Art Gallery,

New Haven, I

6 cm.

Gift of Anni Albers and he |osel Albers Foundation


us Homage to the Square: Tenacious. Oil on Masonite, 24 x 24" (61 x 61 cm.)

Collection Mr. and Mrs. Lee V.

Eastman

268

1969


i6

Hon.;.

Square:

Warm Silence.

1971 Oil on Masonite, 14 \ ^4 ''i

t I

x 61 >.m.

ol lection .i-.tm.in

Mr. and Mrs,

1

ee

V


Homage

to the

Square: White Nimbus. 1964

Oil on Masonite, 1

11 x

in

4.8

"Homage

x 48"

Oil

New

York

on board,

i5

13

/i6

x

15

13 /i<s"

(40.2 x 40.2 cm.)

Collection

Solomon

Museum, New York, 1969 69.1917

270

to the Square:

Closing." 1964

cm.)

Collection Hannelore B. Schulhof,

Study for

R.

Guggenheim

Gift of the artist,


\iiy

Study for

"Homage

to the

Squa

Starting." 19 l )il

Oil mi board, (40.2. x

15

iÂť

x

15

'.I

\

ftl

\

ollection

Solomon

Museum, New

York,

R.

Guggenheim

( iitt

14

V.II1

40.2 cm. C

(

on Masonite, 24

ollection |osel Albers

Bottrop, W.

Museum,

German)

of the .mist,

[969 69.I VI''

1-1


2}i

Homage

to the Square:

Lone Whites.

1963 Oil on Masonire, 24 x 24" (61

2-72-

x 61 cm.)


.

;i

Homage Reflected t >

1 1

61

t<>

the Square. lhÂťil\ ig

on Masonitc, 14 \ 61 cm.

\

14"

171


z3

3

Homage to the Square

:

Yellow Climate.

1961 Oil

on Masonite, 48 x 48"

(122 x 122 cm.) Collection Louisiana

Modern

*74

Art,

Museum

of

Humlebaek, Denmark


:

;4

Study for "Homage to the Square Oil <m Masonite, 14 \ 14 <>i

C

\ 61

cm.

ollection |osel Albers

Bottrop, W.

German)

Museum,

"

1971


235

Homage Oil (61

to the Square. 196?

on Masonite, 24 x 14" x 61 cm.)

Collection Josef Albers Bottrop, W. Germany

176

Museum,


\6

Homage Oil '.1

to the

Square

it

on Masonite, 14 \ 14" \

<Âťi

cm.

177


z; _

Homage

to the Square. 1970

Oil on Masonite, 16 x 16" (40.6 x 40.6 cm.)

z78


R

uare.

III-

1968 Oil on Masonite, ;i .

(

\

81.3

\

;

1

cm.

ollection M.i\imih.in sJu-ll

.;

<


.

^9

Homage

to the Square.

14-0

Oil on Masonite, 32 x 32" (81.3 \ 81.3 cm.)

Collection

280

Donald and Barbara Jonas

*2.40

Homage

to the Square: Contained.

1969 Oil

on Masonite,

(40.6 x 40.6 cm.)

r6 x 16"


ij\

Homage ( >il

to the Square.

on Masonite,

(40.6 x 40.6 cm.

[6 x

r969

L41

Homage to th>

16'

Oil on Masonite, 14

M

\

'.1

cm.

\

14


143

Homage to the Square -.Reticence. Oil on Masonite, 3i 3/4 x

31W'

(80.7 x 80.7 cm.)

Collection Josef Albers

Bottrop, W.

182

Germany

Museum,

1965


^44

Homage to the Square Profunda (

hi

.m Masonite,

;

i

â&#x20AC;˘

\

.

cm. c

ollcction |osef Albers

Bottrop,

\\

i

ierman)

Museum,


245

Homage

to the Square: Despite Mist.

1967 Oil on Masonite, diptych, each panel

40 x 40" (ior.6 x 101.6 cm.) Collection Maximilian Schell

2X4


146

Homage

to the Square.

1976

Oil on Masonite, 2 3 7s x 2 3 7*" (60.7 x 60.7 cm.)

'247

Interaction of Color. 1963/88

Electronic interactive videodisc of

[963 book Presented by Pratt Institute and Jerry Whiteley see p.

2.86

296


Chronolog)

I

AK

I

II

*l

\

K

painting technique. Makes man) figurative drawings there, as well as series ot brush and ink drawings ol rural Bavarian town ot Mitten

wald

s

Born March son

dt

m

[9

Ruhr

in tlu-

cit)

Bottrop,

small iiKlustn.il

.1

Germany; the oldest Albers and Magdalena

district,

men/

I

BA

I

1

1

V

1

s

Attends Bauhaus

Schumacher Albers. 1902-os

Attends Praparanden Schule, Langenhorst.

Attends Lehrerseminar

Peacher's

C

ollege

.

museums in Munich and Folkwang Museum, Hagen, where he sees tirst paintings

regional teaching s\stem.

W1.stt.1l1.1n

tow iwi

;

1

â&#x20AC;˘;

1921 22

and then

lis

in

Exempted from

.irt

1922-23

galleries in Berlin.

mostl)

boldl)

I

xecutes

colored

reminiscent of Dtirer

still

first

figurative oils.

and drawings

see cat. nos.

s

with Jan

in I

public schools

horn-Prikker,

in

ol

journeyman. Reorganizes

Berlin designed b)

in

of the

Walter Gropius,

Bauhaus, and

tor

room ot Gropius's office in Weimar. hese are complex abstract compositions

I

single-pane glass. Also

makes wooden

furniture

tor Gropius's office. 1

Imited course

Attends Kunstgewerbeschule, Essen, while

teaching

which sei

juxtaposing multiple pieces of clear and colored

Receives certificate as art teacher.

[916 in

in

Weimar

reception

1923 191

in

.

founding director

museums and

lifes

;

dump

Designs and executes stained glass windows tor

houses

service because of

teaching affiliation. Visits state

his pi

glass

under Philipp Franck.

milirarj

<>t

ontinues making glass assemblages,

Promoted to level workshop.

1922

Attends Konigliche Kunstschule, Berlin, where he studies teaching ol

point on

this

tor tuiutioii.il objects, will

he uses detritus from

small

Bottrop.

in

l

nos. 40-4

Peaches public school, primar) grades, tor

1908-13

assemblage. From

ot his art, with the exception

graphs and designs

ezanne and Matisse.

(

Weimar, where he takes

be abstract.

Visits

by

in glass

Stud)

Biiren; receives teacher's certificate.

190S

in

preliminary course and begins independent

all

iyos-oS

see cat. nos

bowl of

still

Bottrop. Studies

[923-24

a stained-glass artisan

and drawing instructor. Begins independent work in stained glass. xecutes first lithographs and blbckprints, including Workers' Houses and Rabbits series see cat. nos. 111;; 7, S

Gropius

bv in

to

conduct preliminar)

material and design. Designs fruit

glass,

metal and

wood

no

cat.

Executes stained-glass window for Cirassi

Museum. 45

\.i.

1

eip/ig

destroyed

1444

no.

cat.

.

I

1914

hrst

ess.iv.

"Historisch oder jetzig?,"

lished in special

Bauhaus

issue ot

is

pub-

Hamburg

;

these are exhibited in

[918 at (i.ilcnc dolt/,

Munich. Makes more figurative drawings, including portraits and self-portraits nos.

15-18,

3

.

see cat.

other subjects include farm

animals and main aspects of local scenerj cat. nos.

[9

see

Mbers's st\le. while reflecting

16

awareness of contemporar) European movements, begins to emerge, with an emphasis on precise articulation and visual his

artistic

spareness

1917-18

I

xecutes Rosa mystica is

1

[919-2

see cat. nos. 6, 9, to,

\i

<>r.i

pro

window commissioned

hurch, Bottrop

destroyed

14,

52,

>i<i!>i<.

stained

tor St. Michael's

.

Konigliche Bayerische Akademie der Bilden-

deii

kunst, Munich, attends Iran/ von Stick's

drawing

J.iss

and

Max

Doerner's course

in

Albers

third

from

right

and

friends, Berlin, ca.

1^14


periodical Junge Menschen. Executes stained-

glass

windows

for Ullstein Publishing Co.,

Berlin-Tempelhof. These windows, installed

in

1926, were later destroyed, probably at the time

of the occupation of the building by the

Army in 1945. Here, as windows, the design

in the

t92-5

in the earlier

glass

Italy.

Develops sandblasted flashed-

paintings with increasingly refined

geometric compositions (see 62-66, 68-74). in

He

will

cat. nos. 55,

58-60,

continue making these-

what becomes known

style -for the

as his

"thermometer"

next four years.

Designs tea glasses of glass, metal, wood, plastic

and porcelain

working

in

49A,

(see cat. no.

typography

Designs furniture, primarily for Berlin

b)

and begins

(see cat. no.

50).

wood and

glass,

in

apartment of Drs.

Moellenhoff 1926-3:

work.

Moves with Bauhaus to Dessau. Appointed Bauhaus master. Marries Annelise Fleischmann, a weaving student at the Bauhaus. Travels to

1926

Red

Museum

more simplified

a

is

geometric abstraction than

Grassi

Fritz

and Anno

(see cat. nos. 46, 47, 53, 54).

Takes numerous black and white photographs, including portraits of fellow Bauhauslers,

many

Albers

in his

Photo by

Bauhaus

studio, Dessau, 1928

Umbo

of which he mounts as photo-collages (see cat. nos. 77-91).

1928

Gropius leaves Bauhaus;

is

replaced by

Hannes

Meyer. Albers takes charge of preliminary course and lectures at International Congress

Albers teaching at the Bauhaus, Dessau, 1928

Photo by

288

Umbo

Albers with Herbert and Mutzi Bayer,

Ascona, 1929


tor

An

1

ducation, Prague. Designs upholstered

uo.nl chair

[928

...n.

no.

7

Following Breuer's departure

;

ucs, Albers

in

assumes directorship o( furniture workshop, position Breuer had held since im>. Heads wallpaper design program.

shows rwcnrj glass paintings in exhibition oi Bauhaus masters in Zurich and Basel; others featured include Vasil) Kandinsk) and Paul

1929

Klee. Designs

s.

mass production

hair tor

cat.

no. 76

[929

12

t<> make sandblasted glass construcnow using illusionistic, volumetric tonus, most ot which combine straight lines and curves t

ontinues

tions,

see cat. nos. 96, 98, wv,

iy?o

1

.

udwig Mies van der Rohe replaces Meyer as becomes assistant

director ot Bauhaus; Albers director.

Moves with Bauhaus

14;:

show j

at

Bauhaus,

a

to Berlin.

works from [920

ass

Has

lettering. Begins Treble

(

lef series

glass constructions, his

form repeated with

a single

see cat. nos.

tirst

100-

drawing and ot gouaches major use ot

ver\ slight

main

sitional variations in

schemes

solo

to [932. In addition

to Basic design, teaches freehand

and

tirst

comprehensive exhibition

1

compo-

linoleum-cut prints

in

Berlin

and

their arrival in the United States.

York,

November

Albers aboard the

Europa

S.S.

New

15, 1933

Associated Press photo

different color •;

With other remaining tacultv members, doses Bauhaus. Executes series of woodcut and

[933

Anm

|osel

upon

[936-40

see cat. nos. 106-

At invitation ot Gropius, holds seminars and lectures at

University,

Graduate School of Design, Harvard C ambridge, Massachusetts. Paints

various small series ot geometric abstractions of highlv I'.l

\t

K

MCM N AIN

On recommendation of Philip Johnson at The Museum oi Modern Art. New York. |osef and Anm Albers united to teach at newly founded Black Mountain C ollege, North C arolina, where they arrive November is. Albers is based

41

1935

}8-i46, [54,

1

is.

[24-131,

1

;-

;

oil 1

;<>.

oil

paintings and other works

m

twenty solo shows

[937

Included

in

exhibition

at Lyceum Havana, C uba. Executes woodcuts and linoleum cuts in Ashev illt-. North C arolma, citv nearest to Black Mountain see cat. nos. ici- 111.

-

[5

Exhibits glass paintings from Bauhaus period,

new

here tor the next sixteen \ears.

[934

11-.

1^.

1

I

1

[933

gouache and

diverse imagery in

see cat. nos.

at

American

in

over

galleries.

tirs:

[rtists

Squibb Galleries,

New

iork, April

dives lecture series

Makes I

atin

tions I

tirst

ot fourteen visits to

America. Paints see cat. nos.

m,

tirst

11;.

free-form abstrac-

tiQ 111

a

United States citizen.

Makes autumn-leal

collages

and small drypoint

etchings ot meandering linear compositions see cat. nos.

Mexico and [94

1

14-

-

i

N

1

;

ls<y

lakes sabbatical vear, painting

in

New Mexico

and teaching basic design and color

tl6).

xccutes series ot spare geometric draw ings see

cat. nos.

Becomes iy4°~4-

[941-42

at

Harvard.

drawings Executes Graphh and zinc-plate lithographs featuring geometric I


1942-46

Academy and

York, where he teaches color and leads faculty

161).

workshop. Begins Structural Constellations, also called Transformations of a Scheme, a series of linear, geometric drawings whose deliberately ambiguous imagery offers multiple readings (see cat. nos. 171 -176). Over the next twenty-five years Albers will execute the Con-

Plays increasingly active role in administration at

Black Mountain, writing on educational

theory and lecturing on behalf of the school.

194}

Begins Biconjugate and Kinetic (see cat. nos. 166, 170) series of two-figure geometric abstrac-

1944

194"

stellations as drawings, white line engravings

on black

Makes series of prints in Asheville, many of which superimpose geometric figures on grounds with wood grain and cork-relief

brass, inkless intaglio prints, printed

sings

patterns (see cat. nos. 167-169).

incised marble with gold leaf.

Spends sabbatical year painting in Mexico. Begins Variant series, largest group of paintings to date, in which similar geometric compositions are executed in various color schemes (see cat. nos. 177-191 ). These paintings demonstrate many of the points about color effects and mutability with which Albers is becoming

Serves as rector of Black Mountain.

1949

New

and large

made from engraved

wall-reliefs

made

in

embosvarious

YALE 1950

Begins

Homage

nos. 201-246), in

to the Square series (see cat.

which Albers uses four

closely

related formats of asymmetrical nested squares

and color Over the next twenty-five years he will render these as oil paintings on Masonite, lithographs, screenprints, Aubusson and other tapestries and large interior walls made in

to present different color climates activity.

Makes

various media. Serves as visiting

Elected member, Advisory Council of the Arts,

Yale University,

Vinylite, prints

materials including stainless-steel tubes and

Multiples woodcuts in Asheville.

1948-50

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn,

tions.

increasingly preoccupied.

1948

New

imagery that emphasizes the use of drafting tools in the creative process (see cat. nos. 160,

critic,

Yale

University School of Art, and visiting professor,

Haven.

Graduate School of Design, Harvard. Ap-

Leaves Black Mountain. Travels to Mexico.

pointed chairman of Department of Design at

Appointed

Yale and establishes residence in

visiting professor, Cincinnati Art

New

Haven.

Executes America, rear wall of brick fireplace, for

Swaine Room, Harkness Commons, Har-

vard University Graduate Center. 195:

Appointed Fellow of Saybrook College, Yale University.

195 3-54

Lectures in Department of Architecture, Univer-

sidad Catolica, Santiago, and at Escuela

Na-

cional de Ingenieros del Peru, Lima. Takes position as visiting professor at Hochschule fur

Gestaltung, Ulm, West Germany.

955

Returns as visting professor, Hochschule fur Gestaltung, Ulm. Executes White Cross Win-

dow, photosensitive Chapel,

St.

glass

window,

for

Abbot's

John's Abbey, Collegeville, Min-

nesota.

1956

Has

first

retrospective exhibition at Yale

University Art Gallery.

Named

Professor of Art

Emeritus, Yale.

1957

Receives Officer's Cross, Order of Merit, Fust

German Federal Republic, and made Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts, University

Albers teaching color course at Black Mountain College,

Class, of the

August 1948 Photo by Rudolph Burckhardt

of Hartford.

290


[96]

I

//<<â&#x20AC;˘

Portals, glass

Hme

and

Life Building lobby,

and

St.

Peaches

New

York,

\ltar Wall, brick wall, tor St.

I

Patrick's

1962

and bronze mural,

xecutes

tor

Oklahoma

hurch,

C

.it

Universit)

it\.

(

Oregon, Eugene.

ol

Awarded Graham Foundation Fellowship.

Made Honorar) Doctor

Fine Arts. Yale

ol

University,

and receives Dean's Citation,

Philadelphia

Museum

C

ollege ol

Receives fellowship from raph) Workshop,

tamarind Lithog-

iÂť Angeles. Interaction of

I

Color published. Executes Manhattan, formica

Am

mural, tor Pan

New

Building lobby,

and Repeat and Reverse,

and Architecture Building entrance, [964

lectures

.it

York.

steel sculpture, tor

Art

Yale.

Smith College, Northampton,

Massachusetts, and Universit) ol Miami. Awarded second fellowship b) Tamarind Lithograph) Workshop. Made Honorar) l>"c tor of Fine Arts. ( alifornia C ollege ol Arts and C r.itts, Oakland, and receives medal tor "I v traordinary .irts,"

work

American

the field ol the graphic

in

Graphic Arts. New

Institute ol

York. Albers

detail

[965

1948

Delivers lecture series

.it

Trinitx

College.

Hartford, published as Search Versus ReSearch. Featured in The Responsive Eye, an important traveling exhibition organized b) William ( Seitz for he Museum of Modern Art. New York, .is result of which he comes

Newman

Arnold

!

.

I

.

.1

^

Peaches

New

Syracuse University,

at

Appointed

\

isiting professor,

C

to be regarded

York.

arnegie Institute,

[966

Pittsburgh.

chairman

Retires as

[958

Lectures it)

.it

\n

I

\

I

I

[959

H

\

K

ol

C

ol

until i960.

\rt Institute ol

C

hicago and

ol Architecture, Princeton Univer-

I

Soest Prize tor

andesverband Westfalen-I ippe,

1

of Bridgeport.

,D., Universit)

Receives

C

arnegie Institute

Awarded Ford Foundation Fellowship. Ex< Two Structural Constellations, gold-leal lobby, d

Societ)

Attends

in

marble, tor

New

York, and

c

orning Glass Building

Manuscript Wall,

mortar composition, Building, New Haven. (

ulrural

Award

tor painting,

Pittsburgh International Exhibition. Executes

Rl

Loggia Wall, brick wall, tor Science Growth, painted murals, tor Administration Building lobby, Rochester I

Building, and

Institute of Technology,

Doctor ot Philosophy, Bochum, West Germany.

s

engra\ ing

onnecticut.

C

New

Made

iork.

Honorar) Doctor of Fine Arts. Universit) of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and Honorar)

lermany.

cutes

1960

iw>-

Art.

Appointed visiting professor. Universit) <>t South Florida, lampa. Receives honorar) 1

Design

Minnesota, Kansas

Awarded Conrad von

painting b)

West

Universit)

Institute,

Department sity.

Department

remains as visiting professor

at Yale;

l

of

Op

the father of

.is

C

tor

re-

Manuscript

ongress, Munich.

Ruhr-Universitat,

Wins Grand Prize, III Bienal Ann ricana Ac Grabado, Santiago, and Grand Prize tor paint/

Irhcin Westtalcn. West C.er

ing. Stai

main. Receives Merit ot the

C

ommander's

German

member. National

New

.1

C

ross.

Order

ot

Federal Republic. Fleeted

Institute ot Arts

and

I

etters.

iork.

191


i

969

Made Honorary Doctor of Fine Arts, University

Institute,

Champaign-Urbana, Minneapolis School of Art and Kenyon College, Gambier,

Medal

of Illinois,

Ohio.

1970

to

Society of the Arts, London.

The Metropolitan Museum of

first

Art,

museum

retrospective devoted by the

New to a

Wins First Medal for graphic arts, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, Maine. Made Honorary Doctor of major

1976

Designs

Two

Supraportas,

Westfalisches

St.

1

97 6_ 77

fiir

1977-82

National Bank lobby, City, Missouri; tile

Crown

Louis.

Grand Avenue

Arts;

Center, Kansas

New

seum

Museum of Modern Art; Humlebaek,

Denmark; Los Angeles County Museum of Art; and Dallas 1978

Museum

of Art.

Permanent exhibition space devoted

to Albers's

at Yale University Art Gallery,

featuring

from Anni Albers and The Josef

standing brick, granite and

Albers Foundation of sixty-four paintings and

steel relief-wall, for

(installed

1980

Kiinste, Berlin.

Made Honorary Doctor

of Fine Arts, Pratt

to the

issued bearing

Square design and U.S. Depart-

ment of Education motto "Learning Never Ends."

1983

Member, Akademie der

Commemorative postage-stamp

Homage

Downsview, Ontario. Elected member, American Academy of Arts and Letters, Boston. Elected Extraordinary

gift

forty-nine prints.

and Honorary LL.D., York University,

292

Kroller-Miiller, Otterlo,The Netherlands;

Louisiana

work opens

posthumously in 1980). Receives Distinguished Teaching of Art Award, College Art Association,

1975

Milwaukee Art Center; Museo

Josef Albers, Formulation: Articulation published. Designs Stanford Wall, two-sided, free-

Lomita Mall, Stanford University

974

of Fine Arts, Houston; Berlin

de Arte Contemporaneo, Caracas; Rijksmu-

of Fine Arts,

Maryland Institute and College of Art, Baltimore. Awarded Gold Medal, First Graphic Biennial, Norway.

Museum

Nationalgalerie;

and Reclining Figure, mosaic-

Made Honorary Doctor

Groups of Albers's paintings given by Anni Guggenheim Museum, New York; Tate Gallery, London; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; Detroit Institute of

Kunst und

mural, for Celanese Building lobby,

York.

Albers's figurative drawings and Bauhaus-

Albers and The Josef Albers Foundation to

Kulturgeschichte entrance, Miinster; Gemini, stainless-steel relief mural, for

of Fine Arts, Philadel-

period photographs rediscovered.

steel sculpture, for

Landesmuseum

Made Honorary Doctor phia College of Art.

living artist.

Fine Arts, Washington University,

1

Designs Wrestling, aluminum relief-mural, for

POSTHUMOUS

York, following his solo exhibition there, the

1973

Institute of

York Chapter.

Gives thirteen paintings and fifty-eight prints to

1972

New

York, and awarded

American

Made honorary

citizen of Bottrop.

9-

New

Mutual Life Centre, Sydney, Australia. Dies March 25 in New Haven; is buried in Orange.

Orange, Connect-

Elected Benjamin Franklin Fellow, Royal

icut.

1

Architects,

[976

Moves from New Haven

Brooklyn,

of Fine Arts,

Museum opens in Bottrop, housing from Anni Albers and The Josef Albers Foundation of ninety-one paintings and 2^4

Josef Albers gift

prints.


Selected Bibliography

cs

Bauhaus 1919-1928, New V>rk, V\ [938, pp. 4l.4l.4~. 55, 114

I

I

11

Gropius,

Ise

Museum

Ik-

of

e«.ls.,

Modern

[27, 135, 14 V. 1>M.

S.

ondon, University

of

alifornia

l

I

us

Hink Mountain ollege, Ik- Mil Press.

Harris. The Arts at

<

ambridge, Massachusetts, and London,

C

eley,

Pi

[987, pp. 96, [8

\l,

\.

4.

114.

I

I

ss.

..

-

II

II

,

126 131,

.

141.

14

l"\.

I63

iSS

;.

S

rnesi

Vol.

<

I

[arms, "Short-term St) -

I9S

l\.

I

Modern

les in

Art." Studio,

pp. I32-I33, ISM

.

B\

Marcel Brion, "Qu'est ce que Part abstrait?," lardin des no.

jo,

1962, vol.

td.,

1.

1

K

\

1

I

I

ucerne,

1

t

Bucher,

|.

.

1^14.

"/nr Okonomie

New 49,

Rickey,

onstructivism: Origins and Evolution,

(

York, George Braziller,

65, 81, 85 86, 9

5 1,

111.

1,

der Schriftform," Offset-Buch

1

•,<>,

Dessau

tuni:

141- 14

151,

;,

179 [8

>."

Bauhaus

|anuar\

1,

Zeitschrift

1931,

fiit

Gestal-

pp

"Gestaltungsunterricht," Bottchersi 1928, pp. ifi-i

terricht, I

Ik-

1

xpanded

I

.

il.

edition, "Werklichcr

Bauhaus: Zeitschrift

fur Gestaltung

1, June Formun-

Dessau

.

no.

[928, pp. j-7

\,

"Produktive Erziehung /ur Werkform," Deutsche Goldschmiede Zeitung Leipzig), no. is. [929, pp. 259-

pp. 46

[ean

no.

.

New York Graphic Socien and The Pasadena \n Museum, 1968, oplans, Serial Imagery, exh. cat.,

C

.

und

Revised edition,

ii/i<>.

pp. \, 7, 4;, 4S-4~,

\<->(>~,

ioy, 114

|ohn

Special

171.

p.

Leipzig), no. 7,

"Kombinationsschrift irge

Menschen Hamburg), Bauhaus issue

"Historisch oder jetzig?," lunge

$8-41

pp.

s

November

\hi USA \<>u.

ed.,

1

I

14s 558

1958, pp.

Nordness,

1

I

I

Man Emma

K \l

Herbert Bayer, Walter Gropius and

II

and

'4*

P-

M

(,l

/'

Rudolf Arnheim, The

Visages de Vart moderne,

lay,

t

ausanne and

I

I'.uis,

rranscript of a lecture given b) Albers to the Societ)

i<ii.

Editions Rencontre, 1969, pp. 63-78

ol

Eberhard Roters, Painters of the Bauhaus, Anna Rose per, trans., New York and Washington, Frederick A.

"/u meinen Glas-wandbildern," A

.

183-195

pp-

Goldsmiths, Leipzig, 1929

Gruppe 193

progressive! Kiinstler

p.

;.

/>/>

/

Cologne), no.

Organ der $,

Februar)

11

Hans M. Wingler, The Bauhaus, Wolfgang Jabs and Basil Mas (.-J., t ambridge, Press, o><";. passim Ik- Mil sachusetts, and London,

"Concerning Art Instruction." Black Mountain College

Anni Albers, Pre-(Zolumbian Mexican Miniatures: The .uni Anni Albers Collection, New York and Washington, Praeger Publishers, 19^0

October i935i PP-

Gilbert, trans., Joseph Stein, I

Martin Duberman, Black Mountain tion in

Community, New York.

1972, pp. 523

11,

is-

;i4. J39,

u->,

I

<

ollege:

.1'.

An Explora-

Dutton, Co.,

$70,426-427,465

Ph.D. dissertation,

microfilm,

Ann

"The Educational Value in

Vrbor, Michigan, Universit)

1

Microfilms

II.

Gombrich,

>rder,

/

[979, pp.

s

;.

114.

ibrary,

Oxford, Phaidon

14m

[6- 1-.

"Black Mountain so-

1

Paul Zucker, ed.,

in

New

York. Philosophical

C

olumbus, Ohio

(

.

vol. 4-.

27

ollege," lunior Bazaar,

M.n

1946, pp.

;

"Abstract-Presentational,"

New

Sammlungs-Katalog: Bauhaus-Archiv Museum, introducHans M. Wingler, Berlin, Bauhaus Archiv, 1981,

11,

1944. pp. 688-694

April 1946, pp.

1

I

vol.

Manual Work and Handicraft

tecture .unl City Planning,

International, 1979

Press, Ltd.,

of

Relation to Architecture,"

"Present and or Past." Design

oj

University,

Education,

'*'><

"\ Note on the Arts m Education," The American Magazine of Art, vol. 29, April 1936, p. 233

I

New York

June 1934, pp. 2-7

"Art as Experience," Progressivi

85, yo, 10?, 11S, i-i, 231, ,oo-;o;,

Leonard Finkelstein, The Life and Art

Irving

Albers

Inc.,

Bulletin, no. 2,

Virk.

Ram

Press,

"Letter to the Editor,"

in

An

[946, pp. 63-64

Ma)

\

194?

tion b)

k>.

[8-20, 23,

pp.

13,

in

[23, 152, 162, 21

190,

4>)

58, 89, >h. >>;.

1

4.

in. ii>.

,218 220, 11s. iid. 231, 232,

"The

Origin of Art."

Rt\il::

lies,

no. 6, August

[952, pp

"Modular Bnek Wall

Partition."

m

I

leanor Uittennan. Art


in

Modem Architecture, New York,

Rheinhold Publishing

Company, 1952,

1979. Swedish pocket edition, Fdrglara

om

fiirgers

pp. [48-149. Statement on the Harvard Graduate Center wall

inverkan pa varandra, Stockholm, Forum, 1982. Italian

"Josef Albers," Spirale (Bern and Zurich), no.

"Fugue," The Structurist (Saskatoon, Canada), no.

5, Fall

1955,

paperback, Parma, Pratiche Editrice, forthcoming in 1988

November

pp. 1-11

"Josef Albers,"

Nueva

Vision (Buenos Aires), no.

1955,

8,

"Op

1964,

Art and/or Perceptual Effects," Yale Scientific

Magazine, November 1965, pp.

PP- 5-9

"The Teaching

of Art,"

The Carteret Digest,

4,

22

p.

1-6

vol. 2, April

with Henry Hopkins and Kenneth E. Tyler, Josef Albers: White Line Squares, exh. cat., Los Angeles County

[957, pp. 6-8

"Art and General Education," Yale Alumni Magazine, April 1958, pp. 6-7, 16

"Dimensions of Design," Dimensions of Design, New York, American Craftsmen's Council, 1958, pp. 13-18

New Haven, The Readymade Press, 1958. Second edition, New York, George Wittenborn, Inc.,

Poems and Drawings,

Museum

"My

of Art and Gemini G.E.L., 1966

Courses

at the

Hochschule fur Gestaltung

Lorm (Cambridge, England),

(1954),

at

Ulm"

no. 4, April 1967,

pp. 8-10

"Selected Writings," Origin (Kyoto), no.

January 1968,

8,

pp. 21 -}2

[96]

"On

Art and Expression,"

"On

"On

Articulation,"

Enunciation," "Seeing Art," Yale Literary Magazine,

CXXIX, May

vol.

Search \ersus Re-Search: Three Lectures by Josef Albers at Trinity College, April 7965, Hartford, Trinity College Press,

1969

i960, pp. 49-54

"Thirteen Years at the Bauhaus,"

"When

Paint and Construct...," Daedalus, vol. 89,

I

Winter i960, Today"

105. Special issue,

p.

"The Visual

Arts

in

Eckhard Neumann,

Bauhaus and Bauhaus People, New York, Van Rostand and Reinhold, 1970, pp. 169-172. German edition, 1971

New York, Harry New Haven, Ives-Sillman, Inc., 1972

Josef Albers, Formulation: Articulation, "Structural Sculpture," Robert

exh.

cat.,

New

Engman: Recent Sculpture,

N. Abrams,

Inc.,

and

York, Stable Gallery, i960, unpaginated

"In Behalf of Structured Sculpture, Art in America, vol. 49,

March

ON THE ARTIST

1961, p. 75

"Das Drei-S-Werk auf der Leipziger Schaufensterschau," with Francois Bucher, Despite Straight Lines,

and London, Yale University

German

edition, Trotz der

1961. Revised edition,

London, The

"The

MIT

Press,

5

10- 11.

1961, pp.

Cambridge, Massachusetts, and

Press,

1977

New

vol.

62,

March

1348

p.

"Jubilaumsvortrage des Bauhauses: Vortrag Josef Albers, 'Werklehre des Bauhauses,' " Volksblatt Dessau, January

Arthur Korn, Glas im Ban und

als

Gebrauchsgegenstand,

Berlin-Charlottenburg, Ernst Pollak Verlag, 1930

Haven, Yale University

Press,

[963; pocket edition, 1971; revised pocket edition, 1975. (The 196 3 publication was a boxed set with 80 color folios

and a commentary. Subsequent editions, except for the complete German and Finnish volumes, were published either in paperback or pocket size with selected plates and an abridged text.) German paperback, Grundlegung einer Didaktik des Sehens, Cologne, Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, 1970; complete German edition, Starnherg, Josef Keller Verlag, 1972. Japanese paperback, Tokyo, David Sha Ltd., 1972. French paperback, LTnteraction des couleurs, Paris, Librairie Hachette, 1974. Spanish paper-

back, La interaccion del color, Madrid, Alianza Forma, [975. Complete Finnish edition, Varieu vuorovaikutus, Helsinki, Vapaa Taidekoulu, 1978; Finnish paperback.

294

1928,

29, 1930

News,

6 -59

Interaction of Color,

Musik-lnstrumenten Zeitung (Leipzig), November 20,

Geraden, Bern, Benteli-Verlag,

Interaction of Color," Art

1963, pp. 53'35)

New Haven

L.

Sandusky, "The Bauhaus Tradition and the

Typography," PAL

New

June/July [938, pp. -34. (For Albers's response see "Letter to the Editor," PM, vol. 4, vol. 4,

August/September 1938,

Maude

Riley,

1

p. 49.)

"The Digest Interviews Josef Albers," Art

Digest, vol. 19, January 15, 1945, pp.

is,

30

Mickey Fechheimer, "Albers Outlines Plans for Yale Department of Design," The Summer Crimson (Cambridge, Massachusetts), July 2-, 1950, p. 4

Elaine de Kooning, "Albers Paints a Picture," Art News, vol. 49,

November

1950, pp. 40-4^, 57-58

Erhard Gopel, "Der Bauhaus-Meister Josef Albers," Siiddeutsche Zeitung (Munich), no. 12, January 1954


"Optical

1

1

1

March [ean

k

..

harlot,

c

Yale

Ir.uii

s

\rtists."

tzine,

New Y>rk

vol.

.

[osef Albers,"

of

Spring

i\.

Gomringer,

\\

Grohmann, "Zum

ill

19,

Bill,

70. Geburtstag,"

March

n>,

Ma)

he Albers

1

[958,

letter to the editor

ririque"

c

(Stuttgart

Richard

i^ss, pp,

Lohse, "Josel Albers

B.

14- 1>

191s." Zurchei

'<-it\'

Katharine Kuh, "Josel Albers." The

with Seventeen Artists,

New

Artist's

Voice: Talks

Y>rk. Harper and Row. 1962,

1-

I.

Koji

in

|apanese with

"\shton, "Allurs

Studio, June

1

v<>

;.

I

lay,

(

I'aris

(

olor

(

ouncil Newsletter, no.

a

o.its ol

<-

Man)

c

olours,"

pp. 64-69. English edition. August

"Albers, Irois

tapes d'une logique," RH(>li()

I

Eugen Gomringer, losef Albers, |oyce Wirtcnborn, trans.. York, George Wittenborn, Inc., [968. German C

1971, with

Keller Verlag,

|osel

Diament de Sujo, Will

lara

Grohmann, Norbert Lynton, Michel Seuphor and

the

artist

1-',,

1

'"

review

1

ugenia Robbins, "Josef Albers: Art

Us," Studio International,

(.

vol.

Geburtstag:

S

Hannover,

cat.,

Josef Albers:

ed.,

bill.

Sam

Buckminster

Graphic Tectonic,

1968, with statements b\

Fuller, karl Gerstner,

Mahlow, Margit Staber and

Max

Imdahl.

the artist

Hunter, "Josef Albers: Prophet and Presiding Genius

Op Art,'M

tober 15, 1970, pp. 70-73,

Arts

.

K ooking I

167, no. 850, 1964, pp.

John H. Hollow ay and John A. Weil, "A C onversation with |osef Albers," Leonardo Oxford vol. ;. October 197 pp. 459-464 .

Werner

S4"57

Spies,

Albas.

Meridian Modern

New

Artists,

.

York, Harrv N. Abrams,

Inc.,

19-0

Iilhm, "Optical Art. Pending or Ending?"

Sidne)

Magazine, |anuar) 1965, pp. 16-23

John

seinem

exh.

ologne, Galerie der Spiegel.

*

Magazine, November 1963, pp. 67, 73-75 Daniel and

ztt

rafien,

Kestnergesellschaft, 1968

Dietrich

Sep-

Josef Albers

Lithografien,

of American 116-12-

laid Judd, " interaction of Color'

anaday, "Art

(

Hew

York

I

hat Pulses, Quivers and Fascinates,"

Imns Magazine,

February

21,

1965, pp.

David Shapiro. "Homage November [971, pp Jiirgen

Wissmann,

to

Albers."

|

losef Albers, Recklinghausen,

Bongers

Verlag, 1971 i

1

Zum

\rt

New

Max

•,

tember-December 1963, pp. 17-19

111

"Vlbcrs,"

Spring 1968, pp. 10-14

,

Margit Staber,

and the Indispensable Precision," a^

p.

summan

nglish

lannes Beckmann, "Josel fibers' interaction of Color,

Inter-Society

,u

lean

Wieland Schmied, Shutaro,

.

1

|osef's

March 1968,

additional texts bv

and k. \kio, "The World ol |osel Albers," (n.iphu Design Tokyo no. ti, April [963, pp. -

"Albers:

lay,

(

|osel

)ctober 1967, pp.

1-

1

M

no. 4, April 1967

196-?

edition, Starnberg,

Kunstgesellschaft jahresbericht, i960, pp. 53-56

pp.

a

h>si!

,

Albers," Glaswelt

|osel

November

1-,

vol.

,

,

ol

p. 7

Die Glasbilder von

(il.iv

(

.

Realites,

ugen Gomringer, "Abstrakte Kompositionen aul opakem

\

ondon

lean

Neil Welliver,

An

"'Calm Down, What Happens, Happens

Paul Overy,

I

from

tectonics,

Hildebrandt, "Josel Albers," Das Kunstwerk,

l.uis

I

"Josef Albers," Werk, vol. 4s, April 1958, pp.

•"

•.</>/.;/,

ambridgc,! ngland

(

Mainl) Without You'

i<

[38

[35

"hum

August-September

19

70. Geburtstag von Josel Albers,"

frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung,

Max

zum

Vlbers,

stu

pp. 16-23

Dissertation on 'The Life and

>r.il

Albers,'

Neue Ziircher-Zeitung, March

"Scandale de

i'»<>s.

Irving Finkelstein, "Albers' Graphic

i^s'', pp.

190- 196 n

Ma)

vol. 9,

"Nature and the Art

College Art Journal

ge Rickey,

vol.

k>, 1956, pp. 71

Staber, "Farbe

Werk von

und Linie— Kunst und Erziehung:

[osef Albers,"

Neue

February 1965, pp. 54-69, [40-142

in

(>.;//£. no.

i

18,

English, French and

German

Jiirgen

Wissmann.

Stuttgart, Phillip it

Januar)

Rowell,

Josef

Albers.

Reclam Verlag,

"On

Albers'

1972, pp. 1^

C

Murals

in

Neu

1971

olor."

n,

vol.

10.

•,-

4

k.irl

Gerstner, "Josel '.'.

1965

Albers' interaction ol (olor,'

Internationale Revue

Opladen

,

vol.

29,

March

\" Miller, Josef

\lbers

Prints 1915-19-

.New

York.

Brooklyn Museum, American Graphic Artists Iwiiitieth

C

enturv, no.

s.

1.

I

he

ol the


Jiirgen

Wissmann, Josef Albers im Westfdlischen Landes-

museum

Miinster, Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe,

1977

Publishers, New York, and directed by Paul Falkenberg and Hans Namuth, 1969

Man

Nicholas Fox Weber, The Drawings of Josef Albers,

Haven and London, Yale

New

University Press, 1984

at the Center, film produced by Terry Filgate

Lister Sinclair,

Neal D. Benezra, The Murals and Sculpture of Josef Albers, New York and London, Garland Publishing, Inc., Out-

1972

Interaction of Color, electronic interactive videodisc presented by Pratt Institute and Jerry Whiteley, New York, 1988. Executive coproducers, Jerry Whiteley and

standing Dissertations in the Fine Arts, 1985

and the

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation and directed by

Andrew

Phelan; art direction, Sonya Haferkorn; color palette, Jodi Slater; Pratt faculty leader, Isaac

Films

and Videos

Mark

Distinguished Living Artists: Josef Albers, interview conducted by Brian O'Doherty, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, for the television series Invitation to Art, produced

by wgbh-tv, Boston, i960

Open Eyes, film produced and directed by Carl Howard, SUNY-Albany, and distributed by The Josef To

Albers Foundation,

Josef Albers:

Inc.,

Homage

1969

to the Square, film

produced by

University-at-Large Programs, Inc., Chelsea

296

House

Kerlow; voice narration,

Strand, Kelly Feeney and Natalie

Institute of

Technology and Pratt

Charkow;

original

facilities.

New York

Institute;

computer

music, Robert Fair; computer graphic

programmers, John Pane and Jim Ryan; project manager, Apple Computer, Inc., Barbara Bowen; technical manager, Apple Computer, Inc., Tony Masterson. Additional support and assistance provided by The Josef Albers Foundation, Apple Computer, Inc., Center for Art and Technology at Carnegie Mellon University, Yale University, Yale University Press, New York Institute of Technology and Phillips and DuPont Optical Co.


Selected Exhibitions and Re\

\c\\ s

Review

New shows with one or two other artists. Group exhibitions are not included. Mosi ot the shows listed featured paintings or paintings and prints; the hundreds ol shows ot Interaction of Color, I

his

consists nt solo exhibitions or

list

Art

ivembet

VI

,

irele,

I

Neumann, New

IV

I

New

Artists' Gallery,

.

Dccembei

V>rk.

been induced.

I

ane

I

.

/

December

;i

News, December 14. 1938,

\>t

.

p.

$6

.mJ W

Philadelphia Art Alliance, Prints

1918

.

ames

review

oates

(

14. 19 58, p. I

Balcomb Greene,

atalogue with statements In k Morris et al.

C

Roben M.

Munich lithographs and woodcuts

t

March

Formulation: Articulation and other print groups have not

Galerie Goltz,

V>(

|anuan 24-Februan 12. 1939. [raveled to |.B. Speed Memorial Museum. ouisville, Februar) 28-March

Albers,

Bauhaus, Berlin, Josef Albers, Glasbilder, Ma) Brochure with statements h\ the artist

12,

1

1932.

I

IV

Kunstverein

Leipzig

glass

with Maria

paintings

San

Salvona

Januar)

.

[933 o>

glass paintings], |ul\

Albers's studio, Berlin

;

Mint

Bruhn

Brattislava and

review

lungen," Forum, Zeitschrift richtung, vol.

19

;.

\

Museum

rancisco

I

p.

j,

ot Art.

1

9

Newcomb

New

College School ot Art.

Albers, June

,0,

-

1

Hans Hildebrandt,

Kandinsky, Alberto Sartoris and Xanti Schawinsk) 29,

[934-January

Valdes-Rodriguez, "Josel Albers

1

Havana), [anuar)

James

nueva

la

\

1935, pp.

2,

-1

New

Art

Albers,

irele, |.B.

C

Neumann, New

York,

Work

Josef

by

March 9-30, 1936

ane], Art

I

Februar)

March

Tribune,

Edward Alden "t the Left,"

lames W. lico

I

I

i

is.

Herald

[936

I

review

S

New

York Times,

ot

\n

Black Mountain

C

Mexico

ollege,

C

North

nv. C

March

1936

i>.

August

arolina,

Glass and Oils by Josef Albers, October

News, Februar) [5-28,1941^.11

Museum

/

is

25, 1936

xhibition 0/

C. alien,

?o, 1937

Kuh

Chicago, Albert

New

The

.

PM's Weekly, Februar)

.

I

York

16,

Times,

1941. p. 56

os Angeles. Josef Albers,

March

1

ot Fine Arts School, Boston, Abstract Paintings i-',o.

Museum,

Art

1941

Universit)

New Mexico,

ot

Albuquerque, Paintings by JosefAlbers, April ot

New Mexico,

Santa

he. Paintings

Ma)

Museum

Baltimore

1.

[5

|une

ot Art. Abstractions

1942-Januar)

;.

1.

1

by

;

I

ram

1942

by Josef Albers,

1943

Pierson Hall Art Ciallerv, Universit) ot North Carolina.

Chapel

Hill.

Paintings .nnl Watercolors by Josef Albers,

nber [94

•>

1

New

Art

.;;;,/

Gallery, Septembi

/)<•

Monda ictober

C

irele,

|.B.

Januar) 2-17, 194 Hollins

the Katharine

review

Jewell

b\ Josef Albert. June

December

Germanic Museum. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Josef Albers and Hubert Landau, Katharine Kuh

York, Josef Albers, Februai

Academism

ane. Parnassus, April 1936, p. 28

Nacional,

I94

l~ -!<).

Museum

"The Realm

|ewell,

The

New

\<>ik

Orleans.

1941. p. 9X

16,

Universit)

Carlyle Burrows, "Decorations,"

and

New

Stendahl Art Galleries,

Asheville Art Guild, North Carolina. Works by Albers, October-November iv;>

.in

1940

1941

1,

Edward Alden \l

yonel Feininger

4,

; s

|ose

I

194

Nierendorl Gallery,

March

b\

tits

arolina. A// .uui

C

11.

iy;>. Catalogue with tc\ts In

arquitectura," Ahora

North

Frank London, Februar) 27 March

iii

Lyceum Club, Havana, December

harlotte.

Kunst-Bau-und Ein-

Albers e Ji Luigi Veronesi, December 13, iw;^ |anuary

Vasil)

and Woodt

194c

"tut: Paintings by Josef Albers,

Galleria del Milione, Milan, Silographie recenti di Josef

10,

C

)ils

(

is.

"Berliner Ausstel-

.

fiit

Museum

ol Art,

16-March

Albers, Februar)

C

Februar)

ollege.

Neumann. New

York, Josef Albers.

s

Roanoke. Virginia,

<

>//.<

\lbers,

I

iv4'->

Memphis Academ)

ol Arts,

Pennessee, is 28, 1^4-

Paintings by Josef Albers, januar)

/.-.


California Palace of rhe Legion of Honor, San Francisco,

November

4-22, 1953

Albas: Oils, Lithography, Woodcuts, August 24September 24, 194 -

Alfred Frankenstein, "Josef Albers

Cranbrook Academy, Bloomfield

Chronicle,

Josef

Michigan, Josef

Hills,

Albers: Paintings, February [948 Galerie Herbert

Arp,

Max

Max

Bill

Bill,

Herrmann,

Do

ing and Planning Will

November

Shows What Think-

for Art,"

Academy

Stuttgart, josef Albers,

Hans

of Art, Honolulu, Josef and Anni Albers: and Weaving, July 1 -August 2, 1954

Painting

July-August 1948. Catalogue with texts by

Jean Chariot, "Albers"

and Hans Hildebrandt

Selfless Explicit Paintings

Viewers," Honolulu Advertiser, July

Egan

Caller\',

New York,

[Review], Time, January 31, 1949,

p.

1,

31

E[laine de] K[ooning], "Albers," Art

News,

vol.

4-,

February 1949, pp. 18-19 Galerie Rosen, Berlin, Josef Albers

und Max

Bill,

March

1949

Gallery, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Josef Albers, March 6-27, 1955

Haven, Josef Albers â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 5 -June 18, 1956. by George Heard Hamilton

Albers, October 27-

Catalogue with text

R. McGiffert [review], Easton Express,

Michael Loew, "Albers: Impersonalization in Perfect Form," Art News, vol. 55, April 1956, pp. 2.7-29 "Think," Time, June

7,

November

Josef Albers, January 20-February [Review],

29,

New Haven,

Paintings by Josef

1949-January 30, 1950

with text by Creighton Gilbert

Sidney Jams Gallery,

New

York, Albers:

Homage

Square-Transformation of a Scheme, January 7-26, 1952 Arts Club of Chicago, Albers

Ruhr Nachrichten, January 25 and February

Das Kunstwerk, January-February 1957,

Staatliche

Albers,

und

and Gabo, January 29-

Fe binary 28, 1952

p.

Zeit, no. 2, 1957, pp.

2.-3

Werkkunstschule/Kunstsammlung Kassel, Josef

May

28-June

8,

1957

der Stadt, Ulm, West Germany, Josef Albers,

September 8-October to the

1957

54

Museum

Society, Sydney, Australia, 1951

17,

1957

[Review], Werk

Allen R. Hite Art Institute, University of Louisville, Josef Albers: 1931-1948, April 17-May 27, 1950. Catalogue

Contemporary Art

1956, pp. 80-8}

P- 2-05

[Review],

December

18,

McHale, "Josef Albers," Architectural Design, June

1956,

16,

l6

Yale University Art Gallery, Albers,

2.

Karl-Ernst-Osthaus-Museum, Hagen, West Germany,

22, 1949

The Northeon, Easton, Pennsylvania, Josef Albers, November 1-30, 1949

P-

New

Paintings, Prints, Projects, April

J.

Museum, Josef

York, Acting Colors: Albers,

-February 26, 1955

Nation, February 19, 1949, pp. 221-222

1949,

New

Sidney Janis Gallery,

January

Yale University Art Gallery,

1949

Clement Greenberg, "Albers Exhibition...," The

Cincinnati Art

Grip

1954

Hayden

37

Margaret Lowengrund, "Variations on Albers," Art Digest, February

6,

Albers: Paintings in Black, Grey,

White, and Sidney Jams Caller)', New York, Albers: Paintings Titled 'Variants,' January 24-February 12, 1949

November

San Francisco

22, 1953

1957

6,

"Zeichnungen," Werk,

vol. 44,

September [957, p.

171

Galerie Denise Rene, Pans, Albers, October-November 1957- Catalogue with texts by Jean Arp, Will

Franz Roh and the

Grohmann,

artist

University Fine Arts Caller)', Albuquerque, Josef Albers,

Kunstverein Freiburg im Breisgau, Josef Albers, March 16-

February 195^

April 13, 1958

Essex Art Association, Connecticut, Josef Albers, June 12-

Ursula Binder-Hagelstange, "Farben machen Raume,"

2-S,

Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, March 15, [958, p. 7

[953

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Josef and Amu Albers: Paintings, Tapestries and Woven Textiles, July 8-August 2, [953. Catalogue with text by Charles Buckley Stuart Preston [review], 19s

;,

p.

New

York Times, July

New York, Albers,

March 24-Apnl

19^8

19,

Gallery," Arts, vol. 5:, April [958, pp. 52-s

Bernard Chaet, "Color

Museum

70th Anniversary,

Hilton Kramer, "Recent Paintings at the Sidney Jams 9,

H-7

San Francisco

298

The

Sidney Janis Gallery,

of Art, Paintings by Josef Albers,

Albers," Arts, vol. }2,

Is

;

Magic: Interview with Josef

May

1958, pp. 66-67


Celebrated with Show

Seventieth Birthda) Gallery,"

News,

\rt

vol.

57,

Ma) linV

Ma)

19

Landesmuseum

kuiist

tur

und Kulturgeonrad

schichte Minister, Josef Albers: Zui Verleihung des

von Soest

Preises, |anuar) lo-Februar) 7, 1959.

with texts b) Anton Henze and the

(

atalogue

(

.trust

Westfalische Nachrichten, January

Preis,"

bruar)

Margu

Staber and the

New York, Albers, March

Westfalenspiegel, vol.

.

1

Paintings by Ji

Via) i". o*<<;. [raveled

Museum

San Francisco

Galerie Hybler,

ot Art, Juiu

openhagen,

C

o><>

1959, pp.

Folke Edwards, "Dei

[7

Museum am

Sidne)

|une

12

[959

11,

4''.

October

119

p.

International

New

|anis Gallery,

Novembei

Albers, Februar)

York,

Homage

to the Square,

ames S[chuylei "Exhibition at the Janis vol. j8, December 1959, p. 16

C

ouncil,

organizer

Soesi Westfalen, West

March I

5,

Germany,

iv'<4

Museum ot Modern Art, New Homage to the Square,

he

losef Albers:

,

Galleria Mendoza, Caracas, March 8-29, 1964; Centra deArtes) Letras, Montevideo, April 20-Ma) 17; Instituto Ibrcuato di lella. Buenos Aires, June 9-Jul) s; Instituto de Arte C ontemporanea, una. September 14-October

Jecember 26, hh')

1

V>rk

is

Elementara," Stockholms1964

1,

Wilhelm-Morgner-Haus,

fibers- Ausstellung," Werk, vol.

"I ocarnes<

1959,

Tidningen, Februar)

Ostwall, Dortmund, West Germany,

Maj

Albers,

ebruar)

I

1964

Februar)

8,

artist

Tht Intel

Galerie Buren, Stockholm, losef Albers, |anuar)

Review

Gallery,

News,

1

"1 xhibition

the

.it

mber 1959,

Jams Gallery,"

Arts, vol.

,4.

j6

p.

Galerie Suzanne Bollag, Zurich, losef \lbers, |anuar) 6

1

1

;

Novembei Museo de Arte C ontemporanea. Sao Paulo, December 7-23; C asa de( ultura Ecuadoreana, Guayaquil, Januar) :;:s. 1965; ui.uloiean American C ultural C enter. Quito, Februar) 2 14; Bi National C enter, Bogota, Februar) 23-March is Museo de Arte C ontemporaneo, Santiago, April 4-20; Instituto Brasil-Estados Unidos,

5

.

1

1

i960

?o,

6-

Francois

[8,

1959

I

18,

Essen,

Museum of Fine Arts,

Dallas

the Art World,"

atalogue with statements b)

c

Sidne) |anis Gallery,

to

Klaus Gruna, "Josel Albers erhielt den Conrad von xt

1963.

..

in

S'ovcmbci

Bucher, |iirgen Morschel,

Kunstverein Miinsrer-Wesrfalen, 1958 Westfalisches

"I his Week

|r.,

Museum Folkwang, March

1

Driscoll,

|.

Boston Vc

//'(â&#x20AC;˘

Verkehrsverein, Bottrop, West Germany, Albers, 27,

Edgar

|anis

at

12

p,

;

Margil Staber,

Ulm

Zeitung

* * [

c* > -. 1

|anuar)

,

Schmidt review

(.

Albers," Schwabische

,

14.

w5?r)fe,

Donau-

Museo

\~->(->o

vol. 47,

March i960, p. 50

Universitario de

Museum, Amsterdam,

Albers, June-Jul)

1961.

iencias

5

Arte. Universidad C

n\,

8-

|ul)

Dulm Galler) of Art, Knoxville, Tennessee, ber is November 7; Huntington Galleries, W s; Virginia, November 19-December 12; he Rochester Memorial Art Gallery, New lork. |anuar\ - lehruarv 4. 1966; State Universit) College, Oswego, New York,

August Stedelijk

C

Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico 1;

t

Gimpel Ills, London, July-August; fbninelli Arte Moderna, Milan, October-November; Galerie [raveled to

C

harles

1

ienhard, Zurich, Januar)

1962

ut Sjoberg, "I ragen an |osel Albers," Kunstwerk, vol.

I

New

Sidne) [anis Gallery,

York. Recent Paintings

l>\

Hunter Galler)

c

)'Doherty, "Dialectic of the

Times, Octobei I

lniiii.lv

Nude,

North

c

Februar)

B.

,

'

I

ess

News,

arolina ;

II

.

"Homage

vol. 60,

Museum

March

ye,"

I

/

he

New

\<>>k

11,

ot

N. ivember 5-24, 1962

to the Square, the

October 1961, pp. 26-27 \n, Raleigh, losef

\lbers,

[962. Catalogue with texts b) Will the .mist

Gallery, Boston, losef Albers

Madison

Museum

1961, p. 44

;.

Grohmann, Ben Williams and I'.ki

Walker Art

.it

C

sociation,

14; Atlai

25-April 14;

Art Institute, San Antonio,

Albers, October 1 28, 1961

Brian

Februar) 21 -March

Museum, March

April 1961, pp. 55

14,

I

M

ge ITiomas

9-Jun(

Chattanooga, |unc 24-Jul) 14 September

of Art,

enter,

Ma)

Th<

Marion Kooglei

Minneapolis, August

Art Center, Wisconsin. October

;

(,.///<-;v.

;

24: Virginia

Richmond, November --December 4; Wichita \it Museum, lanu.m 2-22, 1967. C atalogue with texts b) Kynaston McShine and the artist ot Fine Arts,

I

V C

.

Otero, "Josel Albers en aracas

.

vol. 2>>. April

is.

la

Sala

Mendoza,"

1964

|uan Acha "II Homenajealcuadrado' de |osef Alb. the Pace

i

18;

Cultura Peruana, October-December 1964, unp nated


M. Nero, "Josef Albers or Homage ro Purity," Journal November 8, 1964

de Commercio (Rio de Janeiro), Sidney Janis Gallery,

New

York, Albers:

Homage

to the

Emily Genauer, "'Cleansed Perceptions' of Hopper and

New

York Herald Tribune, October 4, 1964,

Hannes Peuckert,

New

Stuart Preston, "A Square World," The

October

4,

1964,

Galerie Gimpel

Homage

X-21

p.

&

York Tunes,

June 23-August

7,

with texts by Margit Staber and the Fils Gallery,

1965. Catalogue

artist.

Traveled to

London, September i-October

2,

1965

Washington, D.C., Josef Albers: The American Years, October 30December 31, 1965. Catalogue with text by Gerald Nordland. Traveled to Isaac Delgado Museum of Art, New Art,

Orleans, January 23-February 27, 1966; San Francisco

Museum

of Art, June 2-26; Art Gallery, University of

California, Santa Barbara, July 8-September 7; Rose Art

Museum, Brandeis

Univeristy,

Lober, "Null Punkt

Nacbrichten, August 22, 1968

A.M., "Huldungen an

December

News,

"Homage to May 3r, 1966, Mexico

p.

City,

Homenaje a Josef

Catalogue with texts by Jean Clay and Galeries rendent

Albers, April

Westfalisches

schichte

Max

hommage

Imdahl au

'carre,'

1968, p. 25

Sidney Janis Gallery,

10-May

New 4,

York,

New

Paintings by Josef

4-October

4,

Buckminster Robert

fiir

Kunst und Kulturge-

28-June 2, 1968. atalogue with texts by Will Grohmann, Jiirgen Wissmann and the artist. Traveled to Kunsthalle Basel, June 22-July 28; Overbeck Gesellschaft, Liibeck, West Germany, August 18-September 15; Badischer Kunstverein, Karlsruhe, September 29-October 2.5; Rheinisches Landesmuseum, Bonn, November 5 -December 3; Villa Stuck, Munich; Kunstverein Berlin, January 15-February S, 19^9; / Biennale, Niirnberg; Sonja Henie-Niels Onstad (

300

March 1970

Max Bill, Max Imdahl,

1970. Catalogue with texts by Fuller,

Ricolais,

le

October

October

Eugen Gomringer,

Werner Spies and

Shown 1,

5-31,

to Art,"

Jiirgen

Wissmann

at Diisseldorf,"

Albers, April

The German Tribune,

1970

New York,

Paintings by Josef Albers,

1970

The New York Times, October

18,

1970,

p.

D23

Princeton University Art

Museum, Josef Albers Paintings

and Graphics, 1915-1970, January 5-2.6, 1971. Catalogue with texts by Neil A. Chassman, Hugh M. Davies, Mary Laura Gibbs and Sam Hunter

week, January

"Man 18,

of a

Thousand Squares," News-

1971, pp. 77-78

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Josef A'bers at The Metropolitan Museum of Art, November 1971January 11, 1972. Catalogue with text by Henry Geldzahler

Werner

[968

Landesmuseum

Minister,

Look at Albers, October 1969

Stadtische Kunsthalle Diisseldorf, Josef Albers, September

Douglas Davis,

Galerie Denise Rene, Paris, Albers, March-April r968.

Elle, April 4,

11

53

March-April 1967

"Deux

p.

Hilton Kramer, "Taeuber-Arp and Albers: Loyal Only the Square," San

Galerie Wilbrand, Minister, Albers at Galerie Wilbrand,

Selz,

Quadrat," Miinchner Kultur-

1968,

Artestudio Macerata, Milan, Albers,

January 1966, pp. 48-51, 68-69

Albers, August 9-September 7, 1966

Guy

ein

16,

Galerie Thomas, Munich,

Sidney Janis Gallery, Neil Welliver, "Albers on Albers" (interview), Art

Galeria de Arte Mexicano,

p. 8

Barbara Catoir, "Josef Albers' Works of Colour and

"Washington: Albers and the Current Generation," Arts, December 1965, pp. 34-35

Francisco Chronicle,

"Der Alte Mann und das

Karl Strube, "Ein endloses meditatives Spiel," Liibecker

Vexation

Alfred Frankenstein,

neue Ordnungen,"

Waltham, Massachusetts,

September 23 -October 29

vol. 64,

fiir

Quadrat," Stuttgarter Nacbrichten, July 26, 1968,

berichte,

The Washington Gallery of Modern

Form und

Miinstersche Zeitung, April 27, 1968 Ulrich Seelmann-Eggebert,

Hannover, Zurich, Josef Albers:

to the Square,

"Vergeistigtes Spiel mit

Farbe," Westfalen-Blatt, April 4, 1968

Hermann

p. 2.7

Gimpel

Munich

Kunstverein

Square, September 28-October 24, [964

Albers,"

Foundation, Oslo; Kunsthalle Hamburg, January 29March 1, 1970 (catalogue with texts by Kurd Asleben, Dietrich Helms, Werner Hofmann and Jiirgen Wissmann);

Spies,

"Nach einem Wimpernschlag: Neues,

fremdes," Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, December j i,

[971, p. 22

Barbara Rose, "The Return of the Image," Vogue. January

Mark

17,

1972

Strand, "Principles of Paradox, Josef Albers:

Master

Illusionist at the

Metropolitan," Saturday

Review, January 29, 1972, pp. 52-53 Pollock Gallery, Toronto, Josef Albers, September 28-

October 20, 1972


Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hannover,

Februar) u, 1973.

Schmied and the

lanuarv

W

|iirgen

Gallery,

ils

I

Ma)

Square,

.utist

I

|une

B

text

issmann

Sidne)

In

March-April 1973

\lbers,

Vivien Raynor

28, 1986, p. III-21

November

C

Satani

Max

atalogue with texts b)

C

8,

Imdahl, Karl Ruhrberg

and Werner Spies

New

York, lose)

\lbers,

April 50, 19

14

I

New Haven,

(.

hristel,

1

eonid Burman, Mark

March 16, 1978 atalogue with Fronia Wissmann and the artist :2

(

lySo

Moderne

Galerie, Bottrop, West

etters,

"i

I

March

i

.

\lbers: His Art

[ersey, Josef

_

is, [981-January 1982. Nicholas D>\ Weber and Alan

atalogue with texts In

i

.

Shirey, "

.

(

I

he

Main

1

York Times, January

Goethe House, New York, Painting Maj |une 1, 1

1

10,

1982,

"Hommage

of

I

p.

Ill

losef Albert:

Graphics and

lanuarv

Museum

The

27 April S;

I

s;

I

he Montreal

>,

1989;

11.

(

of

organizer

.

Selection from the

The

Man

and

Modern Art, New iork. |anuary Museum, Jul) 24-September

Museum

of Fine Arts, lanuarv

The Milwaukee Art

I

8-March

Museum, March 26-Ma)

atalogue with text In John Szarkowski

sections of this

catalogue were compiled b) Kellv leenev and Nicholas ox Weber ot he |osef Albers Foundation. The) acknowlI

I

Albers, text

In

in particular:

|osef Albers, dene Baro and Fronia Wissmann, Al exh.cat.,New Haven, Yale Universit) Art Gallery,

.

New

//•<

)o>k Times, October

os Angeles, losef Albers, lanuarv

review I\

.

//

Los

\ngel<

Inc.,

N

i..rk University,

Ann Arbor. Michigan,

International.

Albi

Th

New

Ph.D. dissertation, microfilm,

p.

\

he Denver Art

1

Universit) Microfilms

i>.

D. Benezra,

[985,

ou

m>s-. pp.

Illinois, June [5-August >). 1987; Des Moines \rt C enter. August 23-October [8; Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College, Ohio, November S. [987-Januar) ;.

9,

is.

carre: Albers

ollection of The losef Albers Foundation,

(

edge the following sources

1

Suzanne Muchnic

1987

iberation,

1

review

eavin Gallery,

8-Februarj

/

Summer

New York

\rts,

losef Albers

Irving Leonard Finkelstein,

1984,

.111

fuel.

The bibliographical and biographical

p. \l-2<s

Jams (,aller\. New York, Paintings by October 4-November ;. 1984. Catalogue with Nicholas l<>x Weber

19,

14-Jul) is.

egacies ol Josef Albers."

Sidne)

Vivien Raynor

Ma)

ih

imai

Photographs

//'c

1

Kent Bloomer, Robert Engman, Irwin Hauer, Richard Lytle, Stephanie Scuris, Robert Slut/k\, Julian Stanczak and Neil Welliver I

19-

99 100

several of Albers's former

students, including Richard Anuskiewicz, William Bailey,

New

p.

Annick Pely-Audan,

.

shest.uk, and statements In

id

Februar)

Leigh Block Gallery, Northwestern University, Evanston,

Museum, New and His Influence, November

The

Homage

••

28, 19?

I'ambiguite,"

\lbers: -

of

:1.11c

I /

Strelow, Diisseldorf, h

June 26, imS-,

Gene Baro,

Germany,

Room

i'

Mans

Galerie

Albers, Februar)

tests In

Si

Montclair Art

Da\

Iokvo, losef Albers:

Ci.illerv,

The American Federation of

6,

the Engine

In

Galerie Denise Rene, Paris, Albers,

I

Werke aus Jem Besitz dei Stadt Bottrop. December

c

Neu

//<

Art,"

April 4-26,

Stockholm, Albers-Paintings, January-

February

1980-FebrUar)

Uruarv

I

Daniel Dobbels, "Albers carrement bon,"

Yale University Art Gallery,

Galerie

.

to the Square, Bildei aus Jen: Nachlass,

Hie American Academ) and Institute ol Arts and

March

review

PP- >4-4'

atalogue with

November 13-December

Galerie Melki, Pans. Albers, ;.

1973.

16,

with text

Gibson, "Josef Albers.

Modern

to losef

Michael Greenwood

text b)

197

Homage

Won

V>rk,

Mai

1

October 15, 1973. ( atalogue with texts in English and German b) Ham Hess and Wieland Schmied V>rk University, Downsview, Ontario,

|une

leenev

Kellv

:

New

|anis Gallery,

Galerie Gmurzynska, Cologne, losef Albers, September

Albers, October 26

1

.

Albers, Februar)

Galcrie Beyeler, Basel,

1

ondon, 1.

Paul Over.

Rathaus der Stadt Bottrop, West Germany, Albi Bottrop, March is April is, 1973, Catalogue with b)

(•impel

12

atalogue wirh statements bj Wieland

(

The Kin

iork and

1

ondon. Garland Publishing,

Outstanding Dissertations

in

the

I

me

Arts.


Ralf Cohen:

Photographic Credits

Ray

Lynton Gardiner:

WORKS

IN

David Heald:

THE EXHIBITION

67,

Color Courtesy Australian National Gallery, Canberra: Courtesy Ernst Beyeler, Basel:

cat. no.

cat. no.

216

208

Courtesy Mr. and Mrs. James H. Clark,

cat. nos. 11-14, l6 ,

Dallas: cat. no.

Jr.,

188, 2.30, 2,4, 255, 24},

Herman

244

Mates:

Courtesy The

cat. no.

Museum

Ray

Tim Nighswander:

68

Errett: cat. nos. 44, 55, 57, 59, 60, 62,

Carmelo Guadagno:

137

Modern

of

New York:

147

6, 8-10, 15, 28, 29, 32, 36, 37,

1,

125, 144, 145, 164, [65, 214,

David Heald:

Photo Communications:

cat. nos. 53, 54, 64, 215,

45A,

225-227, 239

Pelverts: cat. nos. 31, 121, 122 cat. nos. 52,

Courtesy Musee National dArt Moderne, Centre Georges

Courtesy Prakapas Gallery,

Pompidou,

Sarah Wells:

218

Courtesy Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: cat. nos.

cat. nos.

New

78, 84, 88-90, 93

York:

cat. nos.

Museum

Modern

of

Art,

Humlebaek,

FIGURES IN NEAL BENEZRAS TEXT 12,

Museum

of Art,

New York:

cat.

figs.

1-3, 7, 8,

it,

14

Neal Benezra:

cat. no. 2.33

46, 47

102

101,

Courtesy The Josef Albers Foundation:

42, 56, 58, 154, 155

Courtesy The Metropolitan

cat. nos.

79-83, 85-87, 91, IOO, 103-III, 123, I32A,B, 133, 152, 156-161, 167-176, 189

John

Denmark:

Art,

76

2.17

Courtesy Louisiana

33-35, 38, 39, 61,

B, 77,

cat. nos.

Paris: cat. no.

8, 2 7,

Kiessling: cat. no. 75

E.

50,

cat. no.

j

Courtesy Joseph H. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.: cat. nos.

Albert Dundler: cat. nos. 180, 210, 211, 220, 2^8, 245

Lynton Gardiner:

99

19-24, }o

97

>)(>,

Robert cat. nos.

cat. nos. 7, 17,

66, 95, 136

63 Ralf Cohen:

146, 212

cat. nos.

Errett: cat. nos. 71, 72, 74, 98,

figs.

4-6

Courtesy Kunsthaus Zurich:

fig.

10

Courtesy Pan American Airlines and Metropolitan Realty:

nos. 40, 41

Tim Nighswander:

cat. nos. 3,

43, 51, 112- 118, 124, [27-129

fig-

9

A,B, 139-142, 148-151, 162, 163, 166, I77-I79, l8l, 183, 185,

Reproduced from Vincent

l86, 191 -I93, I95-2OO, 203-205, 207, 219, 221, 222, 2^1,

Building, Yale University," Architectural Review, vol. 135,

232, 236, 237, 24I, 246

May

Jeffrey Nintzel: cover, cat. no. 190

Courtesy Harry Seidler:

Quality Color Laboratory:

Courtesy San Francisco

cat. no.

Museum of Modern Art: cat.no.

1

}8

Sulkin: cat. no. 143 cat. nos. i^o,

Michael Tropea:

13 fig.

15

FIGURES IN CHARLES

E.

figs.

16, 17

RICKART'S TEXT

Courtesy The Josef Albers Foundation: pp. 60, 61

Nationalgalerie, Berlin: cat. no. 213

Bob

fig.

Courtesy Stanford University:

182

Courtesy Staatliche Museen Preussischer Kulturbesitz,

Joseph Szaszfai:

1964, p. 329:

and Architecture

Scully, "Art

FIGURES IN NICHOLAS FOX WEBER'S TEXT 1

31,

cat. nos. 126,

201, 202, 206, 22^,

224

184

Courtesy Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford:

cat. no.

187

Courtesy Anni Albers:

fig.

Courtesy Flammarion,

Paris:

7 fig.

5

Courtesy Maria and Conrad Janis, Beverly

Hills: fig.

1

Black and white

Courtesy Musee National d'Art Moderne, Centre Georges

Courtesy Addison Gallery of American Art, Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts: cat. no. } 5

Pompidou,

1

Courtesy Josef Albers nos. 71,

Museum,

Bottrop, W. Germany: cat.

cat. nos. 48,

New

of

cat. no.

Courtesy Staatliches

fig.

Jr.,

Dallas: cat. nos.

Art,

New

York:

figs. 8,

fig.

figs.

fig.

Museum

9

Joseph Szaszfai:

3,

Inc.: figs.

1,

2

10

Quality Color Laboratory:

92

Modern

Yorker Magazine,

Tim Nighswander:

Courtesy Mr. and Mrs. James H. Clark,

302

Museum

13-16

49A,b

Peter Burton: cat. no. 25

Courtesy Bauhaus-Archiv, W. Berlin:

65, 73

Courtesy The

Courtesy The

72

Hans-Joachim Bartsch:

Paris: fig. 6

4

1

fur

Volkerkunde, Munich:


The Solomon

Guggenheim Foundation

K.

\m rRUSTEESiN ri rpi nin Solomon K Guggenheim, |ustin k. rhannhauser, Pegg\ Guggenheim i

presideni

\u

iKisn

i

s

Peter

I

presidi six

i

awson-Johnston Ilu-

Right Honorable

Elaine Dannheisser, Michel David Weill, M. Gardiner, |ohn S. Hilson, Harold W.

Bonnie Ward Simon, Seymour Slive, Peter Donald M. Wilson, William I. Ylvisaker

\dvisoki ho\ki>

diki

i

|r..

i

1

-

McNeil

1

Rohm

rhomas M. Messcr, Denisc

W Siroh. Stephen

iki \si ki k

Wend)

astle Stewart,

Benedetti, Joseph W. Donner,

i

.

Swid, Rawleigh Warner,

inda

I

1

C

handler Duke. Robert

Saul, William A. Schreyer, |r..

Michael

F.

Wettach,

eRo> Janklow, Seymour M. Klein,

rheodore G. Dunker

Thomas M. Messer

roR

Guggenheim Museum

K.

dot ii i

\n

Vi\ I

C I

l.iu

ndicon Barnett,

I

ditor; Sonja Bay,

1

William M. Jackson

urator; Lisa Dennison, Susan B. Hirschfeld, Assistant ( urators; c .irol Fuerstcin, ibrarian; Ward [ackson, Archivist; Diana Murphy, Assistant Editor; Suv.in Hapgood,

oordinator; ouise Averill Svendsen, uratorial

Diane Waldman

dire< roR

vdministrator s

arl

arlo

Donald M. Blinken, Barrie M. Damson, Donald M. Feuerstein, Roben Meltzer, Rudolph IV Schulhol

Man \ki Solomon

I

De McGraw, t

t

c

Thomas Padon, Nm.i Nathan c

\kc

Schroeder, Denise Sarah

olgan,

C

uratorial Assistants

urator Emeritus

Jane Rubin, Kathleen M. Hill. Associate Registrars; Saul Fuerstcin, Preparator; David M. Veater, Assistant Preparator; VC illiam Smith. Launa Beuhler, Preparation Assistants; Hubbard Toombs, Technical Services

Schwartzbaum, ( onservator; Gillian McMillan, Kan Rosston, Assistant t onservators; Scott Manager; Dennis Schoelerman, Assistant Operations Manager; Takayuki Amano, Head C arpenter; Timothy Ross, technical Specialist; David M. Heald. Photographer; M\les Aronowitz, Assistant Photographer; Regm.i O'Brien, Photography C oordinator irdinator; Paul

\

ixon, Operations

\\

Minn

Development and Public Att.urs; ( arolyn Porcelli, John I. Landi, Development awson, Membership Associate; Holl\ c Evans, Public Att.urs Associate; Stacy Fields, vents Associate; Mildred Wolkow, Development C oordinator; Beth Rosenberg. Public Att.urs Assistant;

Poser, Officer tor

Associates; Elizabeth K.

Special

I

Mallor)

I

ee

1

.

Friedman, Denise Bouche, Membership Assistants

Marsha Hahn,

C ontroller; Thomas Flaherty, Accounting Analyst; Martha G. Moser, Accounting Assistant; evinson, Saks Manager; John Phillips, Assistant Sales Manager; Marguerite Vigliante, Trade Saks \ssistaiit; Maria Masciotti, Manager ot C ate and C atering; Stephen Dietenderter, Assistant Manager ol and Catering; Aim Paul. Mail C lerk; Irene Mulligan. Switchboard Operator; Mvro Ri/n\k, Building Manager;

Stetanie

Robert

Ann

I

s.

Hot/.

C

luet ot Security; Elbio

kratt. Executive Associate;

|>ll

Almiron,

Mane

Bradley,

C

arlos Rosado, Assistant Security Supervisors

Snyder, Administrative Coordinator;

C Lire

Pauline Bell, Administrative

Assistant; Michele Rubin, Assistant to the Administrator; Julie Roth, Administrative Secretary i

lit

MEMBI

ks

Jean k. Benjamin, Irving Blum, Mr. and Mrs. B. Gerald C amor. Eleanor, C ountess C astle Stewart. Mr. and Mrs. Barne M. Damson. Mr. and Mrs. Werner Dannheisser. Jacqueline Dryfoos, Donald M. Feuerstein, Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Fuller. Agnes Gund, Susan Morse Hilles, Mr. and Mrs. Morton L. Janklow, Mr. and Mrs. Donald L. Jonas. Mr. and Mrs. Seymour M. Klein, Mr. and Mrs. Peter Lawson-Johnston, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Liberman, Rook Mc< ulloch, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas M. Messer, Mr. and Mrs. Robert F. Mnuchin, Mr. and Mrs. Irvmg Moskovitz, Elizabeth Hastings Peterfreund, Mrs. Samuel I. Rosenman, C htlord Ross. Mr. and Mrs. Andrew M. Saul, Mr. and Mrs. Rudolph B. Schulhof, Mrs. Evelyn Sharp. Mrs. eo Simon, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen ion. Sidney Singer, |r.. Mr. and Mrs. Stephen c Swid. Mrs. Hilde Thannhauser, Mr. and Mrs. Stephen S. Weisglass, Mr. and Mrs. Philip Zierler I'.

1

.

ins

1

1

ii

riONAl

I'M

kons

Alcoa Foundation, Atlantic Richfield Foundation. Bankers Trust ompany, Ilu- Owen v heatham Foundation. Exxon t orporation, Ford Motor c ompany, Robert Wood |ohnson Jr. C haritable Trust, knoll International. The kresge Foundation, Robert ehman Foundation. The Andrew Mellon Foundation. Mobil I orporation. (.

1

Montedison Oroup, Funds Institute ot

New York

Museum state

(

Philip

Morns

Incorporated, Regione Veneto, United Technologies

Services, National

ouncil on the Arts

Endowment

tor the Arts.

National

Endowment

(.

orporation. Wall

tor the

Humanitii


EXHIBITION 4,000 copies of designed by

88/1 this catalogue,

Malcolm Grear Designers and

typeset by Schooley Graphics/Craftsman Type,

have been printed by Eastern Press in

February 1988 for the

Trustees of

The Solomon

R.

Guggenheim Foundation

on the occasion of the exhibition Josef Albers:

A

Retrospective.

4,000 hardcover copies have been printed for

104

Harry N. Abrams,

Inc., Publishers,

New

York


Josef Albers  

Josef Albers

Josef Albers  

Josef Albers

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