VIII Encuentros de Centros de Documentación de Arte Contemporáneo en Artium - María Poveda Villalón

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Ontologies to describe data on the Web 19th October 2016, Vitoria VIII Encounter of documentation centres of contemporary art

María Poveda Villalón mpoveda@fi.upm.es ETSI Informaticos Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Campus de Montegancedo s/n 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain

Twitter: @MariaPovedaV


Context – Ontology Engineering Group / ODI Madrid Directors: A. Gómez-Pérez, O. Corcho Position: 8th in the UPM ranking (200 groups) Founded: 1994

Ø Ø

Research Group (30 people) Experience on 1. 2. 3.

Ontologies, Semantic Web, Linked Open Data Semantic E-science Multilingualism

Ø

ODI Madrid : Madrid Node of the Open Data Institute

Ø

Projects § § §

Ø

>25 @ W3C, ISO, OASIS, etc.

https://github.com/oeg-upm

Impact of publications H-index (scholar) § §

Ø

http://www.oeg-upm.net/

Standardization activities §

Ø

27 EU projects (7 as coordinator) 54 National Projects 27 contracts with companies

Asunción Gómez-Pérez (h:50, citations 14852) Oscar Corcho García (h: 36, citations 8152)

@oeg-upm

Services to the Spanish community § § §

170+ Past Collaborators 50+ Past Visitors

esDbpedia linkeddata.es vocab.linkeddata.es

Slide from “Open Data” by A. Gómez-Pérez”

2


License

• This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial – Share Alike License • You are free: • to Share — to copy, distribute and transmit the work • to Remix — to adapt the work

• Under the following conditions • Attribution — You must attribute the work by inserting • “[source http://www.oeg-upm.net/]” at the footer of each reused slide • a credits slide stating: “Ontologies to describe data on the Web” by M. Poveda Villalón” • Non-commercial • Share-Alike 3


Ontologies and data on the web

Why? 4


Current Web

http://directoriomuseos.mcu.es/dirmuseos/realizarBusquedaSencilla.do

5


Current Web

Need of semantics for machines

維多利亞 阿拉瓦 博物館 0056 0069 0074 006F 0072 0069 0061 002D 0047 0061 0073 0074 0065 0069 007A 000A...

http://directoriomuseos.mcu.es/dirmuseos/realizarBusquedaSencilla.do

6


Current Web Which museums have Spanish artists’ exhibitions? Exhibition 1: Rubens

Exhibition 1: Dalí

Exhibition 2: Dalí

Exhibition 2: Munch

Exhibition 3: Picasso

Next…

Museum 1

Museum 2

Painters: Dalí (Figueras) 1904… Munch (Adalsbruk) 1863... Picasso (Málaga) 1881… Rubens (Siegen) 1577...

Encyclo pedia

7

Spain … Cataluña Gerona Figueras … Andalucía Málaga

Geography institute


Current Web

Need of (meaningful) links Exhibition 1: Rubens Exhibition 2: Dalí Exhibition 3: Picasso

Museum 1

Exhibition 1: Dalí

? ?

Exhibition 2: Munch

?

Painters: Dalí (Figueras) 1904… Munch (Adalsbruk) 1863... Picasso (Málaga) 1881… Rubens (Siegen) 1577...

Spain

? ?

Next…

Encyclo pedia

Museum 2

8

… Cataluña Gerona Figueras … Andalucía Málaga

Geography institute


Ontologies and data on the web

No semantics Isolated data

Why?

What? 9


Semantic Web and Linked Data

The collection of Semantic Web technologies provides an environment where application can query that data, draw inferences using vocabularies, etc. Exhibition 1: Rubens

Exhibition 1: sameAs Dalí

Exhibition 2: Dalí

Exhibition 2: Munch

aboutAuthor

Exhibition 3: Picasso aboutAuthor

Museum 1

offersExhibition

offersExhibition

aboutAuthor

wasBornIn

Painters: Dalí (Figueras) 1904… Munch (Adalsbruk) 1863... Picasso (Málaga) 1881… Rubens (Siegen) 1577... wasBornIn

Next…

sameAs

sameAs

sameAs

Museum 2

Spain … Cataluña isPartOf Gerona Figueras … Andalucía Málaga

Linked Data is the collection of interrelated datasets on the Web https://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/data 10


Ontologies and data on the web

No semantics

Semantic Web

Isolated data

Linked Data

Why?

What?

How? 11


Linked Data Principles • Use URIs to identify things (everything, persons, works, places, etc.) • Use HTTP protocol allowing others to retrieve information about those URIs • Provide useful information using standards as the RDF data model to describe resources

Subject

predicate

• Link to other URIs

https://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html 12

Object


Vocabularies (ontologies) Vocabularies define the concepts and relationships used to describe and represent an area of concern. Definition taken from: http://www.w3.org/standards/semanticweb/ontology

13


Ontologies: Knowledegde and Data

Knowledge level Concepts Taxonomies Relationships Attribuites Axioms

Ontology

Data level

Instances of concepts Relations between intstances

Instances

Slide taken from“Vocabularios” by A. Gómez-Pérez”

14


Knowledge and data example

Exhibition 1: Rubens

Exhibition 1: sameAs Dalí

Exhibition 2: Dalí

Exhibition 2: Munch

aboutAuthor

Exhibition 3: Picasso aboutAuthor

Museum 1

offersExhibition

offersExhibition

aboutAuthor

wasBornIn

Painters: Dalí (Figueras) 1904… Munch (Adalsbruk) 1863... Picasso (Málaga) 1881… Rubens (Siegen) 1577... wasBornIn

Next…

sameAs

sameAs

sameAs

Museum 2

15

Spain … Cataluña isPartOf Gerona Figueras … Andalucía Málaga


Knowledge and data example Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

isPartOf (T) Country

Topic

U

City Author

exhibits ArtWork

hasTopic

wasBornIn

hasAuthor

AutonomuosCommunity

<<owl:inverseOf>>

ArtWork

Province

isAuthorOf

• OWL: Web Ontology Language • Based on RDF • Standard for the web

https://www.w3.org/TR/owl-ref/ 16


Implementation

17


Evaluation

http://oops.linkeddata.es

• Ontology editors

18

+

• Reasoners: • Pellet • Fact • Hermit • etc


Documentation • Ejemplo owl y html

https://github.com/dgarijo/Widoco/ 19


Registries (share & reuse) Organizational level (OEG)

Community

http://vocab.linkeddata.es/

http://lov.okfn.org 20


Handle versions and distributed environments Evaluation reports

HTML documentation

Diagrams

Permanet ids

Content negotiation

Bundle

http://ontoology.linkeddata.es

Previsualization


Knowledge and data example Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

City

hasAuthor

hasTopic

isPartOf (T)

Author

wasBornIn

Province AutonomuosCommunity

ArtWork

isAuthorOf

museum1 m1exhi1

Figueras museum2 Gerona

m1exhi2

Dali

m1exhi3 Picasso

Spain Malaga

m2exhi1 Munch

m2exhi2

Rubens Data level

22


Knowledge and data example Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

isPartOf (T)

City

hasAuthor

hasTopic

Author

wasBornIn

Province AutonomuosCommunity

ArtWork

isAuthorOf offersExhibition offersExhibition

m1exhi1

museum1 Figueras museum2

m1exhi2

Gerona

offersExhibition

Dali

m1exhi3 Picasso

Spain Malaga

m2exhi1 Munch

m2exhi2

Rubens Data level

23


Knowledge and data example Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

isPartOf (T)

City Author

hasAuthor

hasTopic

wasBornIn

Province AutonomuosCommunity

ArtWork

isAuthorOf offersExhibition offersExhibition

m1exhi1

museum1 Figueras museum2

m1exhi2

offersExhibition

Gerona

hasExhibitionTopic

Dali

m1exhi3 Picasso

hasExhibitionTopic

Spain Malaga

m2exhi1

hasExhibitionTopic Munch

m2exhi2

Rubens

hasExhibitionTopic hasExhibitionTopic

Data level

24


Knowledge and data example Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

isPartOf (T)

City Author

hasAuthor

hasTopic

Province

wasBornIn

AutonomuosCommunity ArtWork

isAuthorOf offersExhibition offersExhibition

m1exhi1

isPartOf

museum1 Figueras museum2

m1exhi2

offersExhibition

Gerona

hasExhibitionTopic

Dali

wasBornIn isPartOf

m1exhi3 Picasso

hasExhibitionTopic

Spain

wasBornIn Malaga

m2exhi1

hasExhibitionTopic isPartOf

Munch

m2exhi2

Rubens

hasExhibitionTopic hasExhibitionTopic

Data level

25


Benefits • Provide semantics/context • Disambiguation, prevent errors • Facilitate data reuse

26


Who’s birthday is today? Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986


Who’s birthday is today? Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

5th of November 2016


Clue 1

London


Who’s birthday is today? Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986 Happy birthday Oliver!

5th of November 2016


Clue 2


Who’s birthday is today? Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

Happy birthday Linda!

5th of November 2016


Describe your data Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

U.S. date format MM/DD/YYYY

U.K date format DD/MM/YYYY

5th of November 2016


Describe your data Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

U.S. date format MM/DD/YYYY

U.K date format DD/MM/YYYY

5th of November 2016

Happy birthday Linda and Oliver!


Just one more thing

Keep describing Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

U.S. date format MM / DD / YYYY

U.K date format DD / MM / YYYY

YYYY

MM

ISO 8601

DD


Just one more thing

Keep describing Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

U.S. date format MM / DD / YYYY

U.K date format DD / MM / YYYY

YYYY

MM

ISO 8601

DD


Just one more thing

Keep describing Linda was born on the 11/05/1983

Oliver was born on the 05/11/1986

U.S. date format MM / DD / YYYY

U.K date format DD / MM / YYYY

YYYY

MM

ISO 8601

DD


Benefits • Provide semantics/context • Disambiguation, prevent errors • Facilitate data reuse • Facilitate data integration • Different formats, sources, schemas, languages..

38


Benefits • Provide semantics/context • Disambiguation, prevent errors • Facilitate data reuse • Facilitate data integration • Different formats, sources, schemas, languages..

• Facilitate dataset maintenance • Reasoning, inference

39


Inference Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

isPartOf (T)

City Author

hasAuthor

hasTopic

Province

wasBornIn

AutonomuosCommunity ArtWork

<<owl:inverseOf>> isAuthorOf

offersExhibition offersExhibition

m1exhi1

isPartOf

museum1 Figueras museum2

m1exhi2

offersExhibition

Gerona

hasExhibitionTopic

Dali

wasBornIn isPartOf

m1exhi3 Picasso

hasExhibitionTopic

wasBornIn Spain

m2exhi1

hasExhibitionTopic Munch

m2exhi2

Rubens

hasExhibitionTopic hasExhibitionTopic

Malaga

isPartOf Data level

40


Inference Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

isPartOf (T)

City Author

hasAuthor

hasTopic

Province

wasBornIn

AutonomuosCommunity ArtWork

<<owl:inverseOf>> isAuthorOf

offersExhibition offersExhibition

m1exhi1

isPartOf

museum1 Figueras museum2

m1exhi2

offersExhibition

Gerona

hasExhibitionTopic

Dali

wasBornIn isPartOf

m1exhi3 Picasso

hasExhibitionTopic

hasPart

wasBornIn Spain

m2exhi1

hasExhibitionTopic Munch

m2exhi2

Rubens

hasExhibitionTopic hasExhibitionTopic

Malaga

isPartOf Data level

41


Inference Knowledge level Exhibition

Museum

offersExhibition

startingDate:: dateTime endingDate:: dateTime

hasPart (T)

isLocatedAt

<<owl:inverseOf>>

(1..1) name:: string (F) Place

hasExhibitionTopic

Country

Topic

U exhibits ArtWork

isPartOf (T)

City Author

hasAuthor

hasTopic

Province

wasBornIn

AutonomuosCommunity ArtWork

<<owl:inverseOf>> isAuthorOf

offersExhibition offersExhibition

m1exhi1

isPartOf

isPartOf

museum1 Figueras museum2

m1exhi2

offersExhibition

Gerona

hasExhibitionTopic

Dali

wasBornIn

hasPart isPartOf

m1exhi3 Picasso

hasExhibitionTopic

hasPart m2exhi1

hasExhibitionTopic Rubens

hasExhibitionTopic hasExhibitionTopic

Spain

hasPart

Munch

m2exhi2

hasPart

wasBornIn

Malaga

isPartOf Data level

42


Benefits • Provide semantics/context • Disambiguation, prevent errors • Facilitate data reuse • Facilitate data integration • Different formats, sources, schemas, languages..

• Facilitate dataset maintenance • Reasoning, inference • Mechanism used in the Web of Data

43


Ontologies and data on the web

Ontologies No semantics

Semantic Web

Technology

Isolated data

Linked Data

Principles

Why?

What?

How? 44

Who?


datos.bne.es

is subject (OP5003)

is subject (OP1007)

has subject (OP1008)

Person

(bne:C1005)

created by (OP1005) creator of (OP5001)

Concept

(skos:Concept)

has subject (OP1006)

has subject (OP1010) realized through (OP1002)

Work

Expression

has subject (OP3008)

materialized in (OP2001)

exemplified by (OP3001)

realization of (OP2002)

Item

Manifestation (bne:C1003)

(bne:C1002)

(bne:C1001) (bne:C1001)

materialization of (OP3002)

(bne:C1004) exemplar of (OP4001)

45


Otros ejemplos

46


Otros ejemplos

47


Otros ejemplos

‌

48


Ontologies and data on the web

Ontologies No semantics

Semantic Web

Technology

Isolated data

Linked Data

Principles

Examples

Why?

What?

How?

Who?

49


1 conclusion

The vocabulary and semantics behind your records are what actually brings meaning to the data. Handle them with care.

50


Questions?

Thanks for you attention

Ontologies No semantics

Semantic Web

Technology

Isolated data

Linked Data

Principles

Examples

Why?

What?

How?

Who?

51


Ontologies to describe data on the Web 19th October 2016, Vitoria VIII Encounter of documentation centres of contemporary art

María Poveda Villalón mpoveda@fi.upm.es ETSI Informaticos Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Campus de Montegancedo s/n 28660 Boadilla del Monte, Madrid, Spain

Twitter: @MariaPovedaV


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