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Contents

Pre and Post Tests Pre Test

• English Version • Filipino Version

4 7

Post Test

• English Version • Filipino Version

10 13

16

It all begins here An overview of The Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Curriculum Health is wealth An overview of Reproductive Health Fun with anatomy Understanding the male and female reproductive system The total you Understanding what is human sexuality Role playing Understanding the concept of gender Same attraction Understanding the nature of homosexuality Seek and you will find Sources of information about sexuality

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Ten Elements of Reproductive Health Sexuality: It’s More Than “Having Sex” Caught in the Web of Pornography The Effects of Pornography and Sexual Messages Resources to Combat the Problem of Pornography The media are playing a bigger role in young lives

60 61 65 68 70 72

Pre and Post Test Correction Key

Unit Lessons Lesson 1

Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7

Suggested Reading Materials

24 30

37 43 48 54





Pre & Post Tests




Pre Test Date:

ENGLISH VERSION Course:

Name:

A. MULTIPLE CHOICE Directions: Read the questions carefully. Select the correct answer from the given choices. Encircle the letter of your choice. 1. What type of beliefs about sexuality does pornography create among young people? a) b) c) d)

Correct False Ideal Personal

2. What do you call the traits, roles and behavior associated with and expected of males and females? a) Gender b) Sexuality c) Sex d) Reproductive Health 3. What is the part in the female reproductive system that is responsible for the production of egg cells? a) b) c) d)

Fallopian Tubes Ovary Uterus Vagina

4. What does the acronym R.H. mean? a) b) c) d)

Real Health Reproductive Health Reproducing Hormones Risky Health

5. Which of the following is not an element of sexuality? a) b) c) d)

Disease Feelings Gender Values


B. TRUE OR FALSE Directions: Read the statements carefully. Write TRUE if the statement is true or FALSE if the statement is false. _________ 1. The scrotum is the part in the male reproductive system that is responsible for the production of sperm cells. _________ 2. What you do to your reproductive health now will have an impact on your future, whether you get married or remain single. _________ 3. Homosexuals are people who are attracted sexually and emotionally to the same sex. _________ 4. Sexuality is the totality of a person being a male or female. _________ 5. Boys who cry are not real men. C. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS Directions: Study each of the situations below. Choose the ending that is best for you. Encircle the letter of your choice. 1. Marian is graduating from high school. When she was asked by her father as to what course she wanted to take in college, she said that she is interested in Engineering. Her father told her that she should take up Nursing instead because Engineering is a course only for boys. What should Marian do? a) b) c) d)

Believe what her father said and enroll in Nursing instead. Enroll in Engineering without her father knowing about it. Explain to her father that Engineering is not just for boys. Rebel against her father by not going to college anymore.

2. Joseph, 17 years old, and his male friends have the habit of watching x-rated movies in his house every week. Lately, he noticed that he is developing the urge to have sex with any girl that he thinks about and perform the acts he sees from the x-rated movies. What should Joseph do? a) b) c) d)

Continue watching x-rated movies with his friends. Find a friend who also feels what he is feeling so he will not be worried. Follow his urge and have sex with any girl he wants. Stop watching x-rated movies with his friends so that he will not be tempted to have sex.

3. Joel, 19 years old, was working on his school project one night when his five year old brother, Lito, approached him. Lito asked him what the term “penis” meant since he heard this mentioned one of the characters he was watching on TV. What should Joel do? a) b) c) d)

Ask Lito not to say the word “penis” again because it is a bad word. Explain to Lito that penis is the term used to refer to the male sex organ. Pretend like he did not hear Lito’s question. Scold Lito for bothering him with his school project by asking a silly question.




4. Badong had sexual intercourse with someone he doesn’t know very well. After two weeks, he noticed that there are some yellow stains in his underwear, and he felt pain while urinating. What should he do? a) b) c) d)

Consult a doctor immediately. Drink a lot of water. Take antibiotics. Ignore the symptoms and hope they will disappear.

5. Roel, 16 years old, has always regarded Carlo as his best friend since they grew up together. He admires Carlo’s athletic skills on the basketball court as well as his intelligence in the classroom. Roel confided to you that he feels he is falling for Carlo and is confused about his feelings. What will you tell Roel? a) b) c) d)

Ask him to consult your guidance counselor to help him sort out his feelings. Encourage him to share his feelings with Carlo because he might feel the same way. Convince him to end his friendship with Carlo to avoid getting emotionally hurt in the future. Tell him that he is a homosexual and he should keep his feelings to himself.


Pre Test Petsa:

FILIPINO VERSION Kurso:

Pangalan:

A. PAGTUTUKOY Panuto: Basahing mabuti ang mga tanong. Piliin ang tamang sagot. Bilugan ang letra ng iyong napiling sagot. 1. Anong klaseng mga paniniwala tungkol sa “sexuality” ang hinahatid ng pornograpiya sa mga kabataan? a) b) c) d)

Tama Mali Pinapangarap Personal

2. Ano ang tawag sa mga katangian, ginagampanan, at kilos na kaakibat ng at maasahan sa pagiging isang lalake o babae? a) b) c) d)

Gender Sexuality Sex Reproductive Health

3. Anong bahagi ng reproductive system ng kababaihan ang pinanggagalingan ng “egg cells”? a) b) c) d)

Anurang itlog Obaryo Matris Puwerta

4. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng mga letrang “R.H.”? a) b) c) d)

Real Health Reproductive Health Reproducing Hormones Risky Health

5. Alin sa mga sumusunod ang hindi elemento ng “sexuality”? a) b) c) d)

Disease Feelings Gender Values




B. TAMA O MALI Panuto: Basahin ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap. Isulat ang TAMA kung ang pangungusap ay totoo o isulat ang MALI kung ang pangungusap ay hindi totoo. _________ 1. Ang “scrotum” ay bahagi ng reproductive system ng kalalakihan na siyang pinanggagalingan ng “sperm cells”. _________ 2. Ang ano mang gawin mo sa iyong “reproductive health” ngayon ay makaaapekto sa iyong kinabukasan ikaw man ay mag-asawa o manatiling binata o dalaga. _________ 3. Ang mga bakla ay mga taong naaakit nang sekswal o emosyunal sa kapwa nila lalake o babae. _________ 4. Ang sexuality ay ang kabuuan ng pagiging lalake o babae ng isang tao. _________ 5. Ang lalaking umiiyak ay di tunay na lalake. C. PAGSUSURI NG SITWASYON Panuto: Pag-aralan mabuti ang mga sumusunod na sitwasyon. Piliin ang wakas na sa iyong pananaw ay tama. Bilugan ang letra ng iyong napiling sagot. 1. Si Marian ay magtatapos na sa high school. Nang tanungin siya ng kanyang tatay kung anong kurso ang kukunin niya sa kolehiyo, sinabi niya na Engineering ang kanyang gusto. Pinagsabihan siya ng kanyang tatay na dapat Nursing na lang ang kunin niya dahil ang Engineering ay kursong panlalake lamang. Ano ang dapat gawin ni Marian? a) b) c) d)

Maniwala sa kanyang tatay at kumuha na lamang ng Nursing. Mag-enroll sa Engineering na hindi alam ng kanyang tatay Ipaliwanag sa kanyang tatay na ang Engineering ay di lamang para sa mga lalake. Huwag na lamang pumasok sa kolehiyo bilang pagrebelde sa kanyang tatay.

2. Si Joseph, 17 taong gulang, ay mahilig manood ng mga x-rated na pelikula sa kanilang bahay kasama ang kanyang mga kaibigan. Minsan, napansin niya na parang gusto niyang makipagsex sa mga babaeng naiisip niya at gawin sa kanila ang mga napapanood niya sa mga x-rated na pelikula. Ano ang dapat gawin ni Joseph? a) b) c) d)

Ipagpatuloy ang panonood ng mga x-rated na pelikula. Maghanap ng kaibigan na pareho niya ang nararamdaman para hindi siya mag-alala. Sundin ang kanyang pagnanasang maka-sex ang sino mang babaeng gusto niya. Tigilan ang panonood ng mga x-rated na pelikula para hindi siya matukso makipag-sex.

3. Tinatapos ni Joel, 19 taong gulang, isang gabi ang kanyang proyekto sa klase nang lapitan siya ng kanyang limang taong gulang na kapatid na si Lito. Tinanong siya ni Lito kung ano ang ibig sabihin ng salitang “penis” dahil narinig niya ito sa telebisyon. Ano ang dapat gawin ni Joel?


a) b) c) d)

Pagsabihan si Lito na huwag nang babanggitin ang salitang “penis” dahil ito ay bastos. Ipaliwanag kay Lito na ang “penis” ay ang tawag sa ari ng lalake. Magkunwaring hindi niya narinig ang tanong ni Lito. Pagalitan si Lito sa pang-aabala at sa pagtatanong ng walang kuwentang bagay.

4. Si Badong ay nakipag-sex sa isang taong hindi gaanong. Makalipas ang dalawang linggo, napansin may dilaw na mantsa sa kanyang brief at mahapdi ang kanyang pag-ihi. Ano ang dapat niyang gawin? a) b) c) d)

Kumunsulta agad sa doktor. Uminom ng maraming tubig. Uminom ng antibiotics. Huwag pansinin ang mga sintomas at mawawala rin ang mga ito.

5. Si Roel, 16 taong gulang, ay matalik na kaibigan ni Carlo simula pa nang pagkabata. Lubos niyang hinahangaan si Carlo sa galing nito sa basketball at talino. Lumapit si Roel sa iyo at sinabi niya na mukhang nahuhulog ang loob niya kay Carlo at siya ay naguguluhan sa kanyang nararamdaman. Ano ang iyong sasabihin kay Roel? a) b) c) d)

Payuhan siyang kumonsulta sa inyong guidance counselor para matulungan siyang maintindihan ang kanyang nararamdaman. Hikayatin siyang sabihin ang nararamdaman kay Carlo dahil baka pareho sila ng nararamdaman sa isa’t isa. Payuhan siyang itigil ang pakikipagkaibigan kay Carlo upang hindi siya masaktan. Sabihan siya na siya ay isang bakla at dapat niyang itago ang kanyang nararamdaman.




Post Test Date:

ENGLISH VERSION Course:

Name:

A. MULTIPLE CHOICE Directions: Read the questions carefully. Select the correct answer from the given choices. Encircle the letter of your choice. 1. What type of beliefs about sexuality does pornography create among young people? a) b) c) d)

Correct False Ideal Personal

2. What do you call the traits, roles and behavior associated with and expected of males and females? a) Gender b) Sexuality c) Sex d) Reproductive Health 3. What is the part in the female reproductive system that is responsible for the production of egg cells? a) b) c) d)

Fallopian Tubes Ovary Uterus Vagina

4. What does the acronym R.H. mean? a) b) c) d)

Real Health Reproductive Health Reproducing Hormones Risky Health

5. Which of the following is not an element of sexuality? a) b) c) d)

Disease Feelings Gender Values


B. TRUE OR FALSE Directions: Read the statements carefully. Write TRUE if the statement is true or FALSE if the statement is false. _________ 1. The scrotum is the part in the male reproductive system that is responsible for the production of sperm cells. _________ 2. What you do to your reproductive health now will have an impact on your future, whether you get married or remain single. _________ 3. Homosexuals are people who are attracted sexually and emotionally to the same sex. _________ 4. Sexuality is the totality of a person being a male or female. _________ 5. Boys who cry are not real men. C. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS Directions: Study each of the situations below. Choose the ending that is best for you. Encircle the letter of your choice. 1. Marian is graduating from high school. When she was asked by her father as to what course she wanted to take in college, she said that she is interested in Engineering. Her father told her that she should take up Nursing instead because Engineering is a course only for boys. What should Marian do? a) b) c) d)

Believe what her father said and enroll in Nursing instead. Enroll in Engineering without her father knowing about it. Explain to her father that Engineering is not just for boys. Rebel against her father by not going to college anymore.

2. Joseph, 17 years old, and his male friends have the habit of watching x-rated movies in his house every week. Lately, he noticed that he is developing the urge to have sex with any girl that he thinks about and perform the acts he sees from the x-rated movies. What should Joseph do? a) b) c) d)

Continue watching x-rated movies with his friends. Find a friend who also feels what he is feeling so he will not be worried. Follow his urge and have sex with any girl he wants. Stop watching x-rated movies with his friends so that he will not be tempted to have sex.

3. Joel, 19 years old, was working on his school project one night when his five year old brother, Lito, approached him. Lito asked him what the term “penis” meant since he heard this mentioned one of the characters he was watching on TV. What should Joel do? a) b) c) d)

Ask Lito not to say the word “penis” again because it is a bad word. Explain to Lito that penis is the term used to refer to the male sex organ. Pretend like he did not hear Lito’s question. Scold Lito for bothering him with his school project by asking a silly question.

11


4. Badong had sexual intercourse with someone he doesn’t know very well. After two weeks, he noticed that there are some yellow stains in his underwear, and he felt pain while urinating. What should he do? a) b) c) d)

Consult a doctor immediately. Drink a lot of water. Take antibiotics. Ignore the symptoms and hope they will disappear.

5. Roel, 16 years old, has always regarded Carlo as his best friend since they grew up together. He admires Carlo’s athletic skills on the basketball court as well as his intelligence in the classroom. Roel confided to you that he feels he is falling for Carlo and is confused about his feelings. What will you tell Roel? a) b) c) d)

Ask him to consult your guidance counselor to help him sort out his feelings. Encourage him to share his feelings with Carlo because he might feel the same way. Convince him to end his friendship with Carlo to avoid getting emotionally hurt in the future. Tell him that he is a homosexual and he should keep his feelings to himself.


Post Test Petsa:

FILIPINO VERSION Kurso:

Pangalan:

A. PAGTUTUKOY Panuto: Basahing mabuti ang mga tanong. Piliin ang tamang sagot. Bilugan ang letra ng iyong napiling sagot. 1. Anong klaseng mga paniniwala tungkol sa “sexuality” ang hinahatid ng pornograpiya sa mga kabataan? a) b) c) d)

Tama Mali Pinapangarap Personal

2. Ano ang tawag sa mga katangian, ginagampanan, at kilos na kaakibat ng at maasahan sa pagiging isang lalake o babae? a) b) c) d)

Gender Sexuality Sex Reproductive Health

3. Anong bahagi ng reproductive system ng kababaihan ang pinanggagalingan ng “egg cells”? a) b) c) d)

Anurang itlog Obaryo Matris Puwerta

4. Ano ang ibig sabihin ng mga letrang “R.H.”? a) b) c) d)

Real Health Reproductive Health Reproducing Hormones Risky Health

5. Alin sa mga sumusunod ang hindi elemento ng “sexuality”? a) b) c) d)

Disease Feelings Gender Values

13


B. TAMA O MALI Panuto: Basahin ang mga sumusunod na pangungusap. Isulat ang TAMA kung ang pangungusap ay totoo o isulat ang MALI kung ang pangungusap ay hindi totoo. _________ 1. Ang “scrotum” ay bahagi ng reproductive system ng kalalakihan na siyang pinanggagalingan ng “sperm cells”. _________ 2. Ang ano mang gawin mo sa iyong “reproductive health” ngayon ay makaaapekto sa iyong kinabukasan ikaw man ay mag-asawa o manatiling binata o dalaga. _________ 3. Ang mga bakla ay mga taong naaakit nang sekswal o emosyunal sa kapwa nila lalake o babae. _________ 4. Ang sexuality ay ang kabuuan ng pagiging lalake o babae ng isang tao. _________ 5. Ang lalaking umiiyak ay di tunay na lalake. C. PAGSUSURI NG SITWASYON Panuto: Pag-aralan mabuti ang mga sumusunod na sitwasyon. Piliin ang wakas na sa iyong pananaw ay tama. Bilugan ang letra ng iyong napiling sagot. 1. Si Marian ay magtatapos na sa high school. Nang tanungin siya ng kanyang tatay kung anong kurso ang kukunin niya sa kolehiyo, sinabi niya na Engineering ang kanyang gusto. Pinagsabihan siya ng kanyang tatay na dapat Nursing na lang ang kunin niya dahil ang Engineering ay kursong panlalake lamang. Ano ang dapat gawin ni Marian? a) b) c) d)

Maniwala sa kanyang tatay at kumuha na lamang ng Nursing. Mag-enroll sa Engineering na hindi alam ng kanyang tatay Ipaliwanag sa kanyang tatay na ang Engineering ay di lamang para sa mga lalake. Huwag na lamang pumasok sa kolehiyo bilang pagrebelde sa kanyang tatay.

2. Si Joseph, 17 taong gulang, ay mahilig manood ng mga x-rated na pelikula sa kanilang bahay kasama ang kanyang mga kaibigan. Minsan, napansin niya na parang gusto niyang makipagsex sa mga babaeng naiisip niya at gawin sa kanila ang mga napapanood niya sa mga x-rated na pelikula. Ano ang dapat gawin ni Joseph? a) b) c) d)

Ipagpatuloy ang panonood ng mga x-rated na pelikula. Maghanap ng kaibigan na pareho niya ang nararamdaman para hindi siya mag-alala. Sundin ang kanyang pagnanasang maka-sex ang sino mang babaeng gusto niya. Tigilan ang panonood ng mga x-rated na pelikula para hindi siya matukso makipag-sex.

3. Tinatapos ni Joel, 19 taong gulang, isang gabi ang kanyang proyekto sa klase nang lapitan siya ng kanyang limang taong gulang na kapatid na si Lito. Tinanong siya ni Lito kung ano ang ibig sabihin ng salitang “penis” dahil narinig niya ito sa telebisyon. Ano ang dapat gawin ni Joel? a) Pagsabihan si Lito na huwag nang babanggitin ang salitang “penis” dahil ito ay bastos. b) Ipaliwanag kay Lito na ang “penis” ay ang tawag sa ari ng lalake. c) Magkunwaring hindi niya narinig ang tanong ni Lito.


d) Pagalitan si Lito sa pang-aabala at sa pagtatanong ng walang kuwentang bagay. 4. Si Badong ay nakipag-sex sa isang taong hindi gaanong. Makalipas ang dalawang linggo, napansin may dilaw na mantsa sa kanyang brief at mahapdi ang kanyang pag-ihi. Ano ang dapat niyang gawin? a) b) c) d)

Kumunsulta agad sa doktor. Uminom ng maraming tubig. Uminom ng antibiotics. Huwag pansinin ang mga sintomas at mawawala rin ang mga ito.

5. Si Roel, 16 taong gulang, ay matalik na kaibigan ni Carlo simula pa nang pagkabata. Lubos niyang hinahangaan si Carlo sa galing nito sa basketball at talino. Lumapit si Roel sa iyo at sinabi niya na mukhang nahuhulog ang loob niya kay Carlo at siya ay naguguluhan sa kanyang nararamdaman. Ano ang iyong sasabihin kay Roel? a) b) c) d)

Payuhan siyang kumonsulta sa inyong guidance counselor para matulungan siyang maintindihan ang kanyang nararamdaman. Hikayatin siyang sabihin ang nararamdaman kay Carlo dahil baka pareho sila ng nararamdaman sa isa’t isa. Payuhan siyang itigil ang pakikipagkaibigan kay Carlo upang hindi siya masaktan. Sabihan siya na siya ay isang bakla at dapat niyang itago ang kanyang nararamdaman.

15


Pre & Post Test

ENGLISH & FILIPINO VERSIONS

Correction Key A. MULTIPLE CHOICE / PAGTUTUKOY 1. b 2. a 3. b 4. b 5. a B. TRUE OR FALSE / TAMA O MALI 1. False / Mali 2. True / Tama 3. True / Tama 4. True / Tama 5. False / Mali C. SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS / PAGSUSURI NG SITWASYON 1. c 2. d 3. b 4. a 5. a


UNIT LESSONS

Understanding Reproductive Health

17


Lesson

1

Objectives

It all begins here An overview of The Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Curriculum

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. Relate the importance of having a subject that deals with adolescent sexuality and reproductive health to their own set of teenage concerns. 2. Understand the factors that have led to the formation of “The Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Curriculum”. 3. State the ground rules and expectations to be followed in the course.

Key messages

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: 1. Today’s adolescents are faced with many challenges and confusing messages on how they should handle their growing up years especially on the issues of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. 2. Fortunately, there are educational institutions that provide value-laden information on adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. 3. An open and comprehensive discussion of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health issues in the classroom is an effective approach in preventing risky behaviors and crisis situations, including HIV/AIDS among the youth. 4. Acquiring the right information about adolescent sexuality and reproductive health is the first step in ensuring an individual’s successful transition from adolescence to adulthood.

18


Activity method

Group writing

Recommended materials

• • • •

Recommended equipment

• LCD projector or overhead projector • Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) • Projection screen

Preparations

1. Review the content of “The Reproductive Health and HIV/ AIDS Curriculum”.

Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate) Manila paper Permanent markers Masking tape and a pair of scissors

2. Cut several pieces of masking tape to be used in posting the worksheets. 3. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session. 4. Expect some students who might pressure you to answer the questions they will list on their worksheets. Assure them, instead, that their questions will be answered in the next lessons you will have with them.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: You are at an important stage of your development. This stage is called “adolescence.” As an adolescent or often called “teenager,” you may have noticed several changes taking place in your body or in your way of thinking. Sometimes, these changes can be seen as well in the way you feel and interact with other people. More often than not, these adjustments can surprise you. This process of transformation in your body, mind and emotion will often force you to look for answers. You might search on your own through books, magazines, movies and television programs, and the Internet. You could compare notes with your friends and classmates. You might even go to the extent of interviewing adults but try to avoid asking the same questions to your parents for fear of being labeled as “malicious”. Not everyone becomes successful in his or her search for answers. Some teenagers may not exactly know how to

19


interpret properly the books or magazines they read on adolescent issues. Television and movies may not present the real picture of what really happens to a young person in crisis. The Internet may bombard you with a lot of different, or even twisted views on how a teenager should act out. Friends and classmates may be as confused as you are when it comes to correct information. Adults may use their own experiences as reference points in providing you advice, which might also be full of misconceptions. The need to find correct and reliable information is essential during your stage of development. This is the reason why you are here in this class today. This class, which will undergo “The Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Curriculum”, is the venue that we are providing young people, like you, who are searching for answers to their questions on growing up. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity.

Activity (15 minutes)

1. Divide the class into groups composed four (4) members each. Provide each group with a Manila paper and permanent marker. Ask each group to assign a secretary and a reporter. 2. Instruct them to come up with a list of five (5) questions or concerns they may have about growing up as a teenager, e.g. “Why is my certain body part smaller than the other teenagers?” or “How can I approach my crush without feeling embarrassed?” Encourage the class to discuss their own set of questions first before coming up with their group list. The assigned secretary will write his or her group’s answers on the Manila paper. 3. Open the floor for any question about the exercise. If there are none, proceed to the activity. Give them exactly seven minutes to perform the activity. During the last two minutes, call their attention to wrap up their discussion and be ready for their group presentation. The assigned reporter will share his or her group’s answers to the big group. 4. For the order of presentation, you may opt to draw lots to determine which group goes first or you can apply the rule wherein the group that finishes first will be the first to report and so on. 5. Have the reporters present their respective group’s list of concerns. Make sure to ask the class to give a round of applause after every presentation to show their appreciation for the group’s efforts. 6. Summarize their answers.

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Processing of activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your students the following questions: a) What are the reasons for your group’s choice of the 5 priority concerns? b) How important would these concerns be to your development as adolescents or as students taking up this particular technical course? c) In what way do you expect this course to assist you with your concerns? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize their answers. 3. Keep the worksheets as reference materials when preparing for future lessons. Assure the participants that their answers will be considered as reference points for future lessons. This introductory lesson will not also be the proper time to answer their questions.

Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Inform your students that the list of questions they raised during the activity may be the same topics that will be discussed during your class in Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS. Explain that “The Reproductive Health and HIV/ AIDS Curriculum” used in this course is a subject designed to introduce to vocational students issues that confront today’s youth, which includes the deadly threat of HIV/AIDS. 2. Clarify with the class the idea in coming up with this subject is rooted in the following facts: • The number of young Filipinos who are engaged in premarital sex is increasing, resulting in unwanted pregnancy and early marriage. • Most of those who had premarital sex (94%) said they are not prepared to become parents if their sexual activities result in pregnancy. • The growing phenomenon of casual sex among young Filipinos could lead to a high incidence of HIV/AIDS in the country. • Most teens know very little about reproductive health, including HIV/AIDS. Often, they get this information from peers who may have misconceptions about the subject.

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• Most parents and guardians have inadequate information and communication skills to give meaningful counsel to their children on adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. • The best way to inform young people about adolescent sexuality and reproductive health is through the Philippine educational system. 3. Explain to the class that this course is meant to address the challenges you have stated above by allowing an open and comprehensive discussion of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health issues in the classroom, which are accompanied by value frameworks. This strategy becomes an effective approach in preventing risky behaviors and crisis situations among the youth, including HIV/AIDS. 4. Assure your class that this subject will not be full of lecture since each lesson begins with a different activity, some of which can be very exciting. A short discussion follows each activity. However, they need to do their part in making each discussion as fruitful as possible. In order to do this, tell them that they need to follow specific ground rules. 5. Present the list of ground rules. Explain each point and make sure that your students understand the importance of each one. a) Ensure the confidentiality of information drawn out from the discussion is confidential. b) Respect other people’s ideas and values. c) Avoid making killer phrases. Be conscious not to hurt each other’s feelings. d) Disclose only information that you are willing to share or feel comfortable sharing with others. e) Exercise the right to pass on any question if one feels uncomfortable answering it. 6. Remind the group that this set of ground rules must be followed every time they meet for your class in Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS. 7. Ask the class for any question about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions and l answer them when that time comes.

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Summary of key messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • Today’s adolescents are faced with many challenges and confusing messages on how they should handle their growing up years especially on the issues of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. • Fortunately, there are educational institutions that provide value-laden information on adolescent sexuality and reproductive health. • An open and comprehensive discussion of adolescent sexuality and reproductive health issues in the classroom is an effective approach in preventing risky behaviors and crisis situations among the youth, including HIV/AIDS. • Acquiring the right information about adolescent sexuality and reproductive health is the first step in ensuring an individual’s successful transition from adolescence to adulthood.

23


Lesson

2

Objectives

Health is wealth An overview of Reproductive Health

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. Define reproductive health. 2. Explain what comprises reproductive health. 3. Understand the importance of addressing one’s reproductive health issues.

Key messages

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: 1. Reproductive health is part of one’s overall health. 2. Reproductive health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not just the absence of any disease, in all matters relating to the reproductive system, its functions and processes. 3. Anything that you do to your reproductive health today will have an impact on your future, whether you get married or remain single.

Activity method

Group art

Recommended materials

• • • • •

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Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate) Manila paper Crayons Permanent markers Masking tape and a pair of scissors


Recommended equipment

• LCD projector or overhead projector • Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) • Projection screen

Preparations

1. Prepare adequate art materials for your students. 2. Write “Reproductive Health” in the middle of the Manila paper you will use in your activity. 3. Read the suggested reading material in advance so that you can use it as reference during your lecture. 4. Cut several pieces of masking tape to be used in posting the group drawings. 5. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: It has often been said that health is wealth. A person who is healthy experiences life more fully than one who is sickly. He (or she) gets to perform his responsibilities at home or at work with ease. He does not worry about getting sick because he eats the right kinds of food and exercises regularly. To this person, his health is an investment for a future he intends to enjoy. This is exactly the point we want you to consider as you go through this class – to look at the lessons we are going to take as opportunities for you to manage your health today as effectively as you can so that you will have a future you can enjoy. However, we are going to zero-in on a specific type of health. And that is Reproductive Health. What is Reproductive Health? We will find that out in today’s lesson. So, if you are ready to discover what reproductive health is all about, then let’s get started. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity.

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Activity (15 minutes)

1. Divide the class into three (3) groups with an equal number of members. Give each group to set of crayons, permanent markers and Manila paper. Ask them to assign a reporter for their group. 2. Inform your students that the phrase “Reproductive Health” is written in the center of their Manila paper. Explain that this activity is meant to help them discover what that phrase might mean. Using the permanent markers and crayons, ask them to draw on the Manila paper any representation they believe is related to the term “Reproductive Health.” Remind them that this is not a contest to determine which group has a better group drawing. 3. Open the floor for any question about the exercise. If there are none, proceed to the activity. Give them seven minutes to perform the activity. During the last two minutes, call their attention to wrap up and be ready to present their drawing. The assigned reporter will share his or her group’s drawing to the big group. 4. For the order of presentation, you may opt to draw lots to determine which group goes first or you can apply the rule wherein the group that finishes first will be the first to report and so on. 5. Have the reporters present their respective group’s drawings. Make sure to ask the class to give a round of applause after every presentation to show their appreciation for the group’s efforts. 6. Summarize their answers.

Processing of activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your students the following questions: a) What are your reactions on the activity? b) What are your reasons for associating the items you drew with reproductive health? c) How would you define reproductive health in your own words? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize their answers.

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Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Explain to your students that reproductive health is actually part of one’s overall health the same way that cardiovascular health or mental health is. Cardiovascular health refers to the health of the heart while mental health is about the health of the mind. Reproductive health, on the other hand, pertains to the health of the reproductive system or the body parts responsible for the creation of new life. 2. Clarify that what you stated is actually a simple illustration of reproductive health. However, the real definition of reproductive health according to the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt in 1994, is the following: Reproductive health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system, its functions and processes. 3. Explain that reproductive health is not just about having a healthy and functioning set of reproductive organs but it also refers to the following: a) Not having any kind of infection, disease, or abnormality in the reproductive system. He or she does not suffer from any reproductive system-related disease such as cancer or from any kind of sexually transmitted infection such as HIV. b) Being comfortable in one’s sexual identity as being male or female. He or she is not ashamed about his or her roles even though some of these may be contrary to the accustomed roles associated with being a male or female. He or she does not allow other people to dictate his or her actions as male or female. c) Being able to control one’s sexual urge. They do not engage in casual sex and promiscuous sexual activities just because they feel the urge to have sex. d) Having relationships with other people that do not endanger one’s health or other people’s health, and do not violate one’s own or other people’s values. He or she does not use people just to prove his masculinity or her femininity. He or she also does not force people to follow his or her wants, such as the desire for non-committal sex.

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4. Explain that when young people, , do not take care of their reproductive health, they are endangering their future. Present the following statistics to reinforce your assertion. • 73.4 percent of young females and 35.7 percent of young males 15-24 years old have experienced at least one reproductive health problem. (Commission on Population, 2003) • Metro Manila ranks as the region with the highest incidence of premarital sex. (Young Adult Fertility Survey 2001) • 32.5 percent of those who had premarital sex did not plan on it happening but it happened anyway, and 23.4 percent did not want it to happen but just went along with it. One out of three admitted to having more than one sexual partner besides their first sex partner. (Young Adult Fertility Survey 2001) • Young pregnancies account for 30 percent of all births. (Young Adult Fertility Survey 2001) • 94 percent of those who already had sex said they were unwilling and unprepared to become parents. (National Demographic Survey) • There are an estimated 400,000 abortion cases in the Philippines annually with teenagers accounting for 17 percent of them. (UN, 2003) • 10 women die every 24 hours from pregnancy or childbirth-related complications. (Commission on Population, 2000) • At 49 percent, the Philippine’s contraceptive prevalence rate is low compared to other Asian countries. 70.1 percent of contraceptive users depend on the government for the supply of contraceptives. (2002 Family Planning Survey, NSO) • Reported cases of Violence Against Women (VAW) are increasing. 2.2 million women (9%) aged 18 and over are reported to have suffered violence. (UNFPA, 2004) 5. Reiterate to your student the value of taking good care of their reproductive health because what they do to their reproductive health today will have an impact on their future, whether they get married or remain single. For example, if they are in the habit of engaging in casual sex, they could acquire sexually transmitted infections that, if untreated, can cause sterility. However, there are specific sexually transmitted infections that can cause death like HIV/AIDS, which you will discuss at a later time.

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6. Explain that the succeeding lessons will teach them specific points in taking care of their reproductive health. They can expect that your next sessions will touch on eight of the 10 elements of reproductive health, namely: a. Education on Sexuality b. Adolescent Reproductive Health c. Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS d. Men’s Reproductive Health e. Violence Against Women f. Family Planning g. Maternal and Child Health h. Prevention of Abortion 7. Add that the two other elements of reproductive health, namely “Breast and Reproductive Tract Cancers and other Gynecological Conditions” and “Prevention and Treatment of Infertility and Sexual Disorders” will not be part of this course. 8. Ask your students if they have any question about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions and answer them at the appropriate time.

Summary of key messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • Reproductive health is part of one’s overall health. • Reproductive health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not just the absence of any disease, in all matters relating to the reproductive system, its functions and processes. • Anything that you do to your reproductive health today will have an impact on your future, whether you get married or remain single.

Suggested Reading (for instructor’s reference)

Ten Elements of Reproductive Health

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Lesson

3

Objectives

Fun with anatomy Understanding the male and female reproductive system

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. Identify the parts of the male and female reproductive system and their functions. 2. Demonstrate ease in using words to describe the reproductive parts of the male and female anatomy. 3. Start an enabling process leading to a positive attitude towards their reproductive anatomy.

Key messages

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: 1. Each part of the reproductive system has a special purpose and function in the human body. 2. One needs to be comfortable talking about the parts of the reproductive system in order to have a better perspective of reproductive health. 3. Regular self-examination of and care for the reproductive system should be taken to avoid reproductive health problems like sexually transmitted infections.

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Activity method

Contest

Recommended materials

• Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate) • Drawings of the male and female reproductive systems in Manila paper • Meta cards • Permanent markers • Masking tape and a pair of scissors


Recommended equipment

• • •

LCD projector or overhead projector Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) Projection slide

Preparations

1. Be familiar with the parts and functions of the male and female reproductive anatomy. 2. Write the parts of the male and female reproductive anatomy in the Meta cards. Prepare two sets. 3. Cut several pieces of masking tape to be used in posting the prepared Meta cards. 4. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: Let us see how much we remember about Reproductive Health. For starters, let us review its definition. (You may opt to ask the students’ to participate.) As a review, Reproductive health is the state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system, its functions and processes. It is a big challenge to maintain a healthy reproductive health. One of the barriers we may encounter is ignorance of our very own reproductive system, whether one is male or female. This may include our inability to name the parts and their functions. Another barrier we can consider is the feeling of embarrassment when we discuss these things in public. Today, we will try to overcome these stumbling blocks by doing something fun and exciting. It will also be our opportunity to discover and learn about the reproductive anatomy and become comfortable in discussing them openly without malice as a group. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity.

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Activity (15 minutes)

1. Divide the class into two groups. Tell the groups that this will be a contest, which will determine their familiarity with their reproductive system. As a team, they are to match names with the corresponding parts of the reproductive systems drawn on the posted sheets of Manila papers. The names are written on the Meta cards that you will provide later. The contest will be composed of three rounds – 1) the male (internal and external) reproductive system, 2) the female external reproductive system, and 3) the female internal reproductive system. The team that wins two rounds is pronounced as the winner. 2. Present the Meta cards for the first round. On the count of three, unfold the sheets of Manila paper with the drawing of the male (internal and external) reproductive system and begin the contest. Without revealing the correct answers, check their accomplished worksheets and announce the winner for the round. 3. Present the Meta cards for the second round. On the count of three, unfold the sheets of Manila papers with the drawing of the female, external reproductive system and begin the contest. Without revealing the correct answers, check their accomplished worksheets and announce the winner for the round whether or not the same team wins. 4. Present the Meta cards for the final round even though there may already be a winning team. On the count of three, unfold the sheets of Manila paper with the drawing of the female internal reproductive system and begin the contest. Without revealing the correct answers, check their accomplished worksheets and announce the winner for the round and the overall winner. 5. Ask your students to return to their seats.

Processing of activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your students the following questions: a) What is your general reaction towards the activity? b) What are the reasons why your team won or lost in the contest? c) What made it easy for you to identify the body part? d) What made it difficult for you to identify the correct body part correctly? e) Have you ever encountered these reproductive systems in the past? If yes, when? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize answers provided by your students.

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Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Go back to the results of the contest. Inform the class that you will discuss the parts of the reproductive systems by telling them the correct answers. Focus on the male reproductive system first. Use the presentation slides in showing the parts of the system. 2. As you identify the parts, ask your students to read the names aloud. Ask them for counterpart names in Filipino (if there is any) and allow them to shout these names in unison. This process will serve as a desensitization exercise for your students. If you observe that the class appears embarrassed in saying the words, explain that there is nothing to be embarrassed about because these parts are just as important as the heart and the brain, without them the human body cannot function effectively.

Male Reproductive System

Bladder (pantog)

It is a hollow muscular, balloon-shaped organ located in the pelvis that stores urine until it is excreted from the body.

Vas Deferens

It is the tube that carries sperm cells from the epididymis to the seminal vesicle. It acts as passageway for sperms and urine.

Testicle (itlog)

This is the production site of sperms. It also produces hormones for secondary fertility signs.

Scrotum (bayag)

Epididymis

This is the pair of oval glands enclosed in a pouch-like structure that covers the testicles. It serves as the body thermostat, which regulates temperature compatibility – with the mobility of sperm. It tightens when the temperature is cold and loosens when warm. It is the network of tubes enclosed within the scrotum, which serves as the storage of mature sperms ready for ejaculation.

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Seminal Vesicle

This is composed of two vesicles that end in a straight narrow duct, which form the ejaculatory duct. This duct ejects the seminal vesicle fluid to the semen into the urethra during ejaculation. It also provides seminal fluid for sperm mobility.

Prostate Gland

This is the cone-shape body lying just below the bladder, which secretes alkaline fluid aiding in the mobility of the sperm cell interior.

Urethra

Penis (titi)

This is the passageway of urine and seminal fluids. This is also where discharges from sexually transmitted infections pass through. It is the fleshy, muscular, external male genitalia composed of erectile tissues; the phenomenon of erection occurs with sexual stimulation during the process: Arteries supplying blood to the penis dilate and a large quantity of blood enters the spaces of erectile tissues. As the spaces expand, they compress the veins supplying blood to the penis thus retaining all the entering blood. This causes the penis to become firm and erect and facilitates penetration into the vagina during the sexual act. After ejaculation, the arteries construct more blood than it enters the penis and the organ returns to its flaccid state. 3. After identifying all the parts of the male reproductive system, pause and ask the students for any question or clarification. Answer the questions that are relevant. If there are questions that will fall under a different lesson, write them on the board and explain that these will be touched in a separate lesson. 4. Proceed with the discussion of the female reproductive system. Make sure that you initially focus on the external system. Follow the same procedure you underwent in the discussion of the male reproductive system.

Female Reproductive System

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Ovaries (Obaryo)

They are the primary organs for the production of egg cells or ovum. The two major functions are development and expulsion of the female ovaries and development of female sex hormones, i.e. estrogen and progesterone. They are located in the upper part of the pelvic cavity on each side of the uterus.

Fallopian Tubes (Anurang Itlog)

They are two flexible, trumpet-shaped, muscular tubes extending from the upper part of the uterus on either side towards the side of the pelvis; they are made up of a three-layer wall with the tentacles which props the egg cells towards the uterus and sperms towards the egg; this is where fertilization occurs; They receive, house, protect and nourish the fertilized ovum or embryo.

Uterus/womb (Matris) Endometrium

It is an elastic, pear-like structure that is the central organ in the pelvis; it houses and protects the fetus during pregnancy. It is the inner coat of the uterine wall which builds up during ovulation; this sheds off during menstruation. If pregnancy occurs, the embryo will be implanted in the lining.

Cervix (Leeg-leegan ng Matris)

This is the neck or lower part of the uterus with a narrow opening where the cervical mucus is secreted during ovulation. Semen and sperm released by a man during intercourse are delivered at the opening.

Follicle

This is the container for the eggs at the time of ovulation. It bursts open, releasing the egg. The egg is then picked up by the fringed end of the fallopian tube and drawn inside.

Vaginal canal

This provides the passage for the menstrual flow and receives the penis during intercourse. It also provides the passage for the birth of babies.

Vagina (Puwerta)

This is the warm, moist, highly elastic passage way to the uterus. It is normally about 3 ½ inches long. It expands to allow the penis to enter during intercourse and permits the passage of a baby during delivery.

Urethra Vulva Clitoris (Kuntil) Labia (Labi) Hymen

This is where urine leaves the body. This is the woman’s external genitalia. This is the highly sensitive part of the external female genitalia. These are the “lips” that shield the vaginal opening. This is the extra protective shield for the vagina in very young girls.

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5. After identifying all the parts of the female reproductive system, pause again and ask the students for any question or clarification. Answer those that are relevant and set aside those that can be answered during a different lesson. 6. Congratulate your students for being able to overcome their embarrassment in saying the terms aloud. Explain that the embarrassment in saying the words stem from the reality that these things are not openly discussed at home. People use other terms, e.g. “bird” instead of “titi” (penis) or “flower” instead of “kiki” (vagina), because they believe that people will perceive them as promiscuous if they say the correct names. 7. Tell them that if they are to gain a better perspective of their own reproductive health, they have to be comfortable in talking about their reproductive system. Assure them that the exercise you just accomplished is a step towards that direction. 8. Aside from the point stated above, explain that they have to practice self-examination, which means they have to be comfortable regularly looking at the parts of their reproductive system. This will enable them to easily spot any change that may occur on those parts, which may be brought about by infections or diseases, such as sexually transmitted infections. State that you will discuss this in detail when you reach Unit 3. 9. Ask your students if they have for any question about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions answer them when that time comes.

Summary of key messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • Each part of the reproductive system has a special purpose and function in the human body. • One needs to be comfortable talking about the parts of the reproductive system in order to begin having a better perspective of reproductive health. • Regular self-examination of and care for one’s reproductive system should be taken to avoid reproductive health problems like sexually transmitted infections.

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Lesson The total you Understanding what is human sexuality

Objectives

4

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. Define human sexuality. 2. Explain the different elements of human sexuality.

Key messages

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: 1. Human sexuality is not just about having sex. It is about who you are, how people view you, how you feel, how you view things, what you do, and how these all affect your being a male or a female. 2. The ability to control one’s sexual urge is a sign of one’s healthy attitude towards his or her sexuality.

Activity method

Sentence completion

Recommended materials

• Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate) • Whiteboard marker

Recommended equipment

• LCD projector or overhead projector • Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) • Projection screen • Whiteboard

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Preparations

1. Read the suggested reading material in advance so that you can use it as reference during your lecture. 2. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: As we go through the lessons in “The Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Curriculum”, we will be encountering many technical terms. Some of them may be familiar, while the others may be strange to you. Today’s lesson will touch on one of those terms. In our discussion about reproductive health, you may remember seeing the phrase “education and counseling on sexuality” as one of the eight elements of reproductive health that we will touch on. However, there was no mention on what sexuality meant. And perhaps, in your own dialogues with peers or even in classroom discussions, the word sexuality may have popped up on several occasions. So, what do we really mean by the word sexuality? How do we define it? We will devote today’s lesson to uncover the meaning of this concept and find out everything we need to know about sexuality. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity

Activities (15 minutes)

1. Write the phrase “Human Sexuality” on the board. Ask your students to reflect on what the phrase means to them. To do this, you will perform a sentence completion activity. 2. Explain that you will begin a sentence stem, and each one of them will provide an ending that will complete the sentence. In order to concretize what you mean, perform a practice exercise using the sentence stem, “Today, I am feeling…” (Ang nararamdaman ko ngayon ay…) Ask for a couple of responses. 3. Ask the class if they were able to understand the instruction. Open the floor for any question about the exercise. If there are none, proceed to the activity.

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4. Throw the sentence stem: “Human sexuality is all about…” (Ang human sexuality ay tungkol sa…) Ask everyone to complete the sentence. Write their answers on the board. 5. Summarize their answers.

Processing the activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your studentsthe following questions: a) What are your reactions to the activity? b) What are your reasons for associating these endings with sexuality? c) How would you now define sexuality? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize their answers.

Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Clarify with your students that more often, young people associate human sexuality with sex. This is because of the word “sex” in sexuality. Sex is actually just a small portion of what human sexuality is all about. 2. Explain that sexuality encompasses many things, some of which they have already stated in the previous activity you. To make this point clearer, tell them that you will present situations and provide an explanation to each example so that they can understand the different elements involved in sexuality. Twelve-year old Jenny wants to leave her friends because she doesn’t like the way they tease her. They make fun of her because, at her age, she’s not yet wearing a bra. 3. Inform them that the situation you presented has something to do with the physical changes happening in Jenny and her friends’ bodies, particularly the development of their breasts. Jenny is experiencing it a little later than her friends. And this late physical development is causing her pressure, and maybe even insecurity. Obviously, her relationship with her friends is getting affected. Joy wants to join her older brothers every time they play basketball at a nearby court, but they won’t let her because, according to them, she’s a girl. She ends up crying in her room feeling bad. 4. Explain that this illustration reflects the concept of gender, which is still part of human sexuality. According to this concept, there are specific activities or roles that are identified as activities or roles for men or for women only. Playing basketball is one that is still seen by others as normally “for men only”, which is very frustrating for Joy to accept. Add

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that gender is one of the future topics you will discuss with them in detail. Tonio loves to crack green jokes to his classmates. He has often been scolded for offending his girl classmates because of his green jokes. He defends himself by saying that he’s just trying to have fun. 5. Point out that the Tonio’s situation is related to his attitude and set of values. Tonio believes that the best way he can gain the attention of the girls is to shock them with his green jokes. He wants to prove that he is a typical macho guy. His attitude and values are affecting the way he relates to his girl classmates. Jerry, 13 years old, approaches you and says, “Do you think I’m gay? I like watching my friend Mike when he plays basketball. He’s impressive.” 6. Inform them that the case of Jerry has something to do with his feelings. He doubts his identity because of how he feels toward Mike who is of the same sex. His feelings of attraction and admiration for Mike are causing him confusion. Clarify though that the topic of homosexuality is something different, and you will have a separate session on this. 7. Explain that none of the situations you presented involve engaging in sex, but all are issues related to human sexuality: the physical changes that affect Jenny’s relationship with her friends, Joy’s not being able to play basketball because of her brothers’ view, Tonio’s way of having fun, and the way Jerry feels about Mike. All these elements make up human sexuality. 8. Present the different elements of human sexuality. a. Physiology It is based on your physical make-up or the parts of your body, such as the sex organ, hormones, and reproductive system, which will tell whether you are male or female. b. Gender It is also defined by the roles and activities that you have learned to perform, which culture or society has prescribed because you are either male or female. c. Values and Attitudes It is dependent, too, on your unique life experiences, as well as your own set of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs about males and females.

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d. Feelings It is comprised of the feelings and emotions that you have towards yourself and other people because you are either male or female. e. Choices and Behavior It is expressed in the way you act, the choices you take, and the relationship you make with other people because of your being a male or a female. 9. Reiterate to the class that human sexuality is not just about having sex. It is about who you are, how people view you, how you feel, how you view things, what you do, and how these all affect your being a male or a female. In short, human sexuality can be summed up as the totality of your being a male and a female. 10. Add that our sexuality as humans is different from the sexuality of other animals. When animals feel the sexual urge, they act on it immediately because it is based on instinct. It is different for humans. Emphasize that humans are gifted with an intellect that enables us to control our sexual urges, which allows us to make responsible decisions. Thus, a person can decide not to give in to his or her sexual desires when he or she knows that it is not the right time to do it. This ability to control one’s sexual urge is a sign of one’s healthy attitude towards his or her sexuality. After all, engaging in sexual activities based simply on one’s urge can result to many unfavorable consequences such as acquiring a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. 11. Ask your students if they have any question about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions and answer them when that time comes.

Summary of key messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • Human sexuality is not just about having sex. It is about who you are, how people view you, how you feel, how you view things, what you do, and how these all affect your being a male or a female.

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• The ability to control one’s sexual urge is a sign of one’s healthy attitude towards his or her sexuality.

Suggested Reading (for instructor’s reference)

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Sexuality: It’s More Than “Having Sex”


Lesson Role playing Understanding the concept of gender

Objectives

5

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. Define gender. 2. Differentiate gender role stereotype from gender bias. 3. Identify the problems caused by gender bias.

Key messages

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: 1. All persons have the same basic potential, whether male or female. 2. Gender role stereotyping can limit what males and females can do with their lives. 3. Since society or culture has ascribed these attributes, behaviors and roles about males and females, they can be changed. 4. Traditional stereotype roles can be overcome by knowing one’s strength and potential as a person.

Activity method

Film showing

Recommended materials

• Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate) • Video – Palibhasa Babae… Eh Kasi Lalake • Whiteboard markers

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Recommended equipment

• LCD projector or overhead projector • Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) • Video player • Projection screen • Whiteboard

Preparations

1. View the film “Palibhasa Babae… Eh Kasi Lalake” in advance. 2. Prepare the film and ensure that it is properly cued. It should begin from the title “Palibhasa Babae… Eh Kasi Lalake”. 3. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: In one of our earlier lessons, we studied in a fun and educational way the anatomical parts of the reproductive system of both males and females. We saw how different their structures are from each other in the physical sense. In short, we know that a person is a male because he has a penis while a female has a vagina. A man produces sperms while a woman produces eggs. A woman can conceive and deliver a baby, a man cannot. However, there are other non-physical standards that people use to differentiate men from women and vice versa. Today, we will study these standards, where they come from and the effects that they produce in the lives of individual men and women. And most importantly, we will study the kind of response you can choose in addressing these standards. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity.

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Activities (15 minutes)

1. Introduce the video, “Palibhasa Babae… Eh Kasi Lalake” by providing short and general information about it, such as the producer, director and running time. Make sure that you do not summarize the contents. The video should speak for itself, and your students should react on their own terms. Inform the class that a discussion will follow after the showing. 2. Play the video. 3. After viewing the film, allow your students a few minutes to take a pause, stretch and let their feelings settle.

Processing of activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your students the following questions: a) What can you say about the video? b) What different views about males and females did each character express in the video? (Tabulate the responses under the “MALE” or “FEMALE” heading.) c) Are there views expressed in the video that are similar to your parent’s expectation of you as a male or female? If yes, what are these views? d) What are you reactions to these views? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize their answers.

Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Return to the tabulated results that you made under the headings of “Male” and “Female”. Inform your students that the list of views you have in both columns refer to what is called as gender. Define gender. Gender refers to traits, attitudes, roles, and behavior associated with and expected of males and females. 2. Explain that gender is dependent on two factors: time and culture. The definition of one’s gender changes from one period of time to another. For example, women in the past were expected to be stay-at-home mothers while the men were the breadwinners, whereas now, you can see many career women and fathers who enjoy the responsibilities of being “househusbands”. One’s gender is also defined by the culture that the person belongs to. For example, African women are the ones who travel great distances to fetch water, and in European countries, the famous chefs and cooks are men.

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3. Clarify that since gender is time bound and culturally defined, it can be changed. Thus, it cannot be the basis of one’s definition of maleness and femaleness. What really determines one’s being a male or female is the sex that he or she has. Define sex. Sex refers to the male or female physiology. It includes the chromosomes, hormones, and anatomical parts of males or females at birth. 4. Describe that sex, in simple language, refers to the sex organ that a person has from the time of his or her birth, and even from the time of his or her conception. If you have a penis, this would make you a male, while if you have a vagina, that would make you a female. In this way, men and women are different. 5. Mention that historically, however, society has ascribed certain attributes, behaviors and roles differentiating a male and a female. These gender stereotypes are some of society’s definition of the expected roles that males and females play, which people tend to conform to consciously or unconsciously. Nurturing roles in the family are “automatically” associated to motherhood, while the role of economic provider is “automatically” identified to fatherhood. In simpler illustrations, we have the notion that boys don’t cry and that girls are naggers; toy guns are for boys, while dolls are for girls. 6. Remind the class that since gender stereotypes can be defined as general perceptions that people have about what you can or cannot do just because you are a man or woman, it can also lead to unfavorable results because a person can automatically be judged based on these standards even without the necessary time to become acquianted with the person. For example, a female driver is seen as a slow driver, while a male motorcycle rider is perceived as a reckless driver. 7. Explain that when a person is judged according to attributes expected of males or females, this is called gender role stereotyping. These perceptions and expectations are not necessarily true or correct at all times or in all cases. But most often, they lead to unfair treatment or what is called gender bias. This is clearly seen in the video that they just saw. 8. Establish with the students that gender bias can create negative consequences for males and females. Present the problems caused by gender bias: a) It limits you to what you think should be and what should not be.

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As shown in the video, the potentials and the options that are available for Miles are limited by how she views herself as a woman. b) It pressures you to conform. Don’s view of himself as a macho guy results in the kind of behavior that harms his relationship with women. Like Don, many men engage in dangerous activities just to prove their masculinity. Often, it results in violence, sexual promiscuity and unpleasant, aggressive behavior. It can also lead to sexual infections like HIV/AIDS. 9. Emphasize with your students that despite the real, physical differences between men and women, which we refer to as sex, males and females are born with similar capacities and potentials. They should not be limited by existing gender roles. After all, since gender roles are culturally constructed, they can be changed or unlearned. As long as you know your strengths and potentials as a person, gender role stereotypes can never hinder you into becoming the person you were meant to be. 10. Ask your students if they have any question they may have about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions and l answer them when that time comes.

Summary of key messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • All persons, whether male or female have the same basic potential. • Gender role stereotyping can limit what males and females can do with their lives. • Since society or culture has ascribed these attributes, behaviors and roles about males and females, they can be changed. • Traditional stereotype roles can be overcome by knowing one’s strength and potential as a person.

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Lesson

6

Objectives

Same sex attraction Understanding the nature of homosexuality

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Define homosexuality. Differentiate the myths from the facts about homosexuality. Understand the challenges faced by a homosexual person. Identify the positive responses to homosexuality.

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: Key messages

1. As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is the mental, emotional, and sexual attraction to persons of the same sex. 2. There is no single, conclusive, scientific explanation to the development of homosexuality in a person. 3. “Coming out” is not an easy option that a person may take in committing to a homosexual identity. 4. A homosexual’s need to achieve control over the sexual urges and be responsible in one’s sexual behavior is vital, just as it is for a heterosexual towards the opposite sex. 5. There are many positive roles one can play in response to the issue of homosexuality. Treating homosexuality with respect and dignity is one.

Activity method

Group discussion

Recommended materials

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Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate)


Recommended equipment

• LCD projector or overhead projector • Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) • Projection screen

Preparations

1. Read some reading materials on homosexuality in advance so that you can use them as reference during your lecture. 2. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: We have defined in our previous lesson that Human Sexuality is the totality of a person being a male or a female. This is based on a person’s physiology or what we call as sex, his or her gender or the roles ascribed by society, values and attitudes, feelings and, of course, choices and behavior. Another aspect of sexuality that we need to look into is of homosexuality. I am certain that this would raise different reactions from you since this is sometimes considered as a controversial topic. So, why do we need to include this in our classroom discussion? Well, by opening our minds to this reality and knowing the true nature of homosexuality, we can then slowly move from ignorance to an informed understanding of the issue. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity.

Activity (15 minutes)

1. Divide the class into groups composed five members each. Ask them to assign a leader. Instruct them to come up with answers to the following questions: a) When do you consider a person a homosexual? b) Why or how does a person develop a homosexual orientation? 2. Encourage the class to discuss their answers first before coming up with their final group answers. 3. Open the floor to any question about the exercise. Should there be none, proceed to the activity. Give them seven

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minutes to perform the activity. During the last two minutes, ask them to wrap up their discussion and be ready for their group presentation. The assigned leader will share their answers to the big group. 4. For the order of presentation, you may opt to draw lots to determine which group goes first or you may apply the rule wherein the group that finishes first will be the first to report and so on. 5. Have the leaders present their outputs. Avoid making fun of their answers or initiating gender-based jokes about homosexuals. Make sure to ask the class to give a round of applause after every presentation to show their appreciation for the group’s efforts. 6. Summarize their answers.

Processing of activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your students the following questions: a) What are your reactions to the activity? b) What were your reasons for coming up with your answers? c) How would you define homosexuality? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize their answers.

Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Clarify with the students that there is really no universal definition of homosexuality. However, most experts would define it as a sexual orientation wherein the individual’s mental, emotional and sexual preference is of the same sex. 2. Explain that in terms of how homosexuality develops in a person, there is also no single explanation. To a common person, much of the concepts about homosexuality stem from personal beliefs. These beliefs have come from different sources, such as stories heard from family and friends, depictions in television and movies, etc. Present the common beliefs of people about how homosexuality develops. • Absence of a father figure Many people claim that when the father is not present in the family or is seen as a weak figure, the male child may learn to identify himself more with the mother, especially if she possesses highly assertive or dominant characteristics.

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• Heredity Filipinos would call this as “mana-mana”. They think that homosexuality is in the genes, similar to the color of one’s hair or eyes. • Outside influence When a child is constantly ridiculed as homosexual or is in the regular company of friends of the opposite sex or homosexuals, he or she may grow up to believe that he or she is a homosexual. People also think that when parents raise a male child as a girl in order to compensate for not having a daughter, the result would be the same. • Traumatic experiences Some believe that if a person in his or her earlier years goes through unpleasant experiences, such as having a traumatic encounter with the opposite sex, he or she may hate the idea of establishing further relationships with the opposite sex. A history of molestation or sexual abuse during childhood may also lay a confused and damaged foundation in the person. 3. Clarify that these are forms of gender-based stereotyped thinking, which we have discussed in an earlier lesson. The truth is no one still knows how an individual becomes a homosexual. Emphasize that there is no conclusive, scientific evidence to show how homosexuality really develops in a person. 4. Explain that what is clear, though, about homosexuality are the following: • Homosexuality has been in existence for hundreds of years ago. • Homosexuality is neither a disease nor a psychological illness needing cure or treatment. • Homosexuals are not always after sex, and they have as much control in their sexual impulses as heterosexuals. 5. Point out that it is not easy for homosexuals to publicly admit their sexual orientation because society is still not that open about this matter because of society’s rigid norms about personhood. 6. Explain that for those who were able to go public, they had to go through the process called “coming out”, which is defined as the willful recognition and acceptance of one’s homosexual orientation. It is considered by experts as the initial wake-up call for the real process of personal liberation because by proudly admitting to one’s self that he or she is a homosexual, this contributes to the restoration of his or her self-esteem.

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7. Clarify, though, that the process, as earlier mentioned, is not easy. It involves difficulties and challenges, such as how to handle negative reactions from families and friends who are surprised to directly or indirectly discover that he or she is a homosexual. Although this can be seen positively as a way of determining whom his or her real friends are, what a homosexual person must always remember is that coming out can help him or her achieve peace of mind. He or she also needs to remember that whether homosexual or heterosexual, one needs to be responsible with his or her own behavior, especially when it comes to sexual behavior. Whether heterosexual or homosexual, he or she should bear in mind that casual sex can lead to sexually transmitted infections like HIV/AIDS. 8. Explain to your students that given all this information, they need to realize the individual role they can play in dealing with the issue of homosexuality. Present the positive roles they can play in dealing with homosexuality. • For the adolescent who is experiencing identity crisis, it is best that we refer him or her for counseling in order to help him or her sort out his or her situation. His or her confusion can be clarified whether what he or she is experiencing is just admiration for the same sex or if it is really homosexuality. If it is the latter, he or she needs to be helped in understanding his or her true homosexual nature. • When a homosexual person has difficulty coming out, he needs to be provided emotional support. This will enable him or her to finally accept his or her sexual orientation and, eventually, have the courage to openly admit it to others, thereby beginning his or her journey to personal liberation. • As non-homosexual persons, we also need to do our part in getting the correct information about homosexuality and match it with the right perspective. By doing this, little by little we can overcome the homophobic culture that still prevails in some parts of our country and the globe. • Treat homosexuals with the equal amount of respect you give to heterosexual people. Homosexuals are no different than heterosexuals. Both have dignity and worth that need to be respected. 9. Ask your students if they have any question e about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions and answer them when that time comes.

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Summary of key messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights got from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • As a sexual orientation, homosexuality is the mental, emotional, and sexual attraction to persons of the same sex. • There is no single, conclusive, scientific explanation to the development of homosexuality in a person. •

“Coming out” is not an easy option that a person may take in committing to a homosexual identity.

• A homosexual’s need to achieve control over the sexual urges and be responsible in one’s sexual behavior is vital, just as it is in a heterosexual towards the opposite sex. • There are many positive roles one can play in response to the issue of homosexuality. Treating homosexuals with respect and dignity is one.

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Lesson

7

Objectives

Seek and you will find Sources of information about sexuality

At the end of the session, the students will be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Key messages

Review the meaning of sexuality. Understand the dangers of pornography. Enumerate the steps to sexual addiction. Identify the false messages conveyed by pornography.

At the end of the session, the students will be able to realize that: 1. Prolonged exposure to pornographic materials can lead to harmful consequences, such as sexual addiction. 2. Pornography creates false beliefs and attitudes of young people towards sexuality. 3. Pornography focuses only on the excitable and physical aspect of sexuality. Sexuality is about who you are, how people view you, how you feel, how you view things, what you do, and how these all affect your being a male or a female. 4. There are professionals and institutions that can provide reliable information about sexuality, such as their guidance counselor.

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Activity method

Group Discussion

Recommended materials

• Presentation slides (in PowerPoint or acetate) • Whiteboard markers


Recommended equipment

• LCD projector or overhead projector • Laptop or desktop computer (if using PowerPoint slides and LCD projector) • Projection screen • Whiteboard

Preparations

1. Read the suggested reading materials in advance so that you can use them as references during your lecture. 2. Have your presentation slides ready and sequenced before the session.

Warm-up (5 minutes)

1. Begin the session with a short introduction of the lesson. You may use the following as guide: Human sexuality is a very broad but intriguing topic as we have seen from our previous discussion. Its scope is so wide that one reference material is not enough for one to fully understand its important concepts. A lot of research must be done. In searching for answers to our questions on sexuality, one can see that there are a lot of resource materials available everywhere that can provide useful information. There are the usual and traditional sources, and there are the so called “hitech” sources. What exactly are these sources? What kind of information do we get from these sources? And what dangers to these sources pose? These are some of the questions we will try to answer as we explore our lesson for the day. 2. Present the objectives of the lesson. 3. Proceed to the opening activity.

Activities (15 minutes)

1. Draw a circle on the board. Divide the circle into six parts. Inform the class that you will be asking them a simple question and that their answers will be written inside the divided circle. 2. Ask the class this question, “Where do you often acquire information when you want to know more about sexuality?” (Saan n’yo kadalasan nakukuha ang mga nais ninyong impormasyon ukol sa sekswalidad?)

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3. Write their answers on the divided circle. You may expect the following responses: a) b) c) d) e) f)

Friends Television/movies/VCDs/DVDs Cellphones Internet/Magazines/tabloids Music/radio Adults

4. Ask them to expound on their answers and have them provide examples, e.g. titles of the magazines, tabloids or sites. 5. Summarize their answers.

Processing of activity (15 minutes)

1. Ask your students the following questions: a) What are your reactions to the activity? b) Which of these sources are you very familiar with? c) What types of information on sexuality do you get from these sources? d) Would you consider these materials pornographic? 2. Expect varied responses. Summarize their answers.

Lecturette (20 minutes)

1. Explain to your students that there are a lot of materials and references available out there that they can use in getting information about sexuality. However, there are also many, which are pornographic in nature. 2. Emphasize that although it is a common scene nowadays for young people to be exposed to pornographic materials, they have to be watchful because this kind of behavior can lead to harmful consequences. 3. Explain that pornography, according to scientific studies, can lead to addiction. According to an expert on sexual addiction, Dr. Victor Cline, a person who exposes himself or herself to pornography often can be expected to undergo the following progressive stages. a) Addiction Pornography provides a powerful sexual stimulant or aphrodisiac effect, followed by sexual release, most often through masturbation.

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b) Escalation Over time, addicts require more explicit and deviant materials to meet their sexual “needs.” c) Desensitization What was first perceived as gross, shocking and disturbing, in time, becomes common and acceptable. d) Acting out sexually There is an increasing tendency to act out behaviors viewed in pornography. 4. Clarify with your students that perhaps some of them are going through the different pornography stages. What started out as a one-time curiosity about sex is now becoming a habit that they do regularly, such as checking out the daily pictures published in tabloids. Some of the boys in class may no longer be contented looking at pictures of nude women and instead prefer seeing actual sex scenes. 5. If they are experiencing these, tell them this is an indication that they need to willfully control their urge. Otherwise, their sexual urges may control them. And if that happens, it could lead to risky sexual behaviors, like casual sex and multiple partners, and dangerous consequences such as acquiring a sexually transmitted infection like HIV. 6. Explain that pornography does not only lead to sexual addiction but it also sends out false messages to people, especially the youth who can be highly influenced. Present the false messages of pornography. • Sex with anyone, under any circumstance, any way it is desired, is beneficial and does not have negative consequences. • Women have one value - to meet the sexual demands of men. • Marriage and children are obstacles to sexual fulfillment. • Everyone is involved in promiscuous sexual activity, infidelity and premarital sex. 7. Point out that such messages are contrary to what real sexuality education should be. Pornography focuses only on the excitable physical aspect of sexuality, which is mostly centered on sexual intercourse. Remind the class that sexuality is not just about sex; it is about who you are, how people view you, how you feel, how you view things, what you do, and how these all affect your being a male or a female.

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8. Emphasize that if they are interested about the real nature of sexuality, there are professionals and institutions that offer reliable information about sexuality. Encourage them to ask their questions to you being their instructor/facilitator in the RH and HIV/AIDS Curriculum or they can approach their guidance counselor in school. 9. Stress that by allowing themselves to talk about sexuality freely with a mature and trained adult who is knowledgeable about the subject can satisfy their curiosity, plus teach them the proper facts and attitudes not just about sex but sexuality as a whole. This can help them make responsible, sexualityrelated decisions in the future. 10. Ask your students if they have any question they may have about the lecture. If there are relevant questions, answer them briefly. If their questions are connected to a future lesson, tell them you will take note of their questions and answer them when that time comes.

Summary of messages (5 minutes)

1. Elicit from your students their learning and insights from today’s lesson. 2. Summarize the points raised and provide the following key messages that are drawn out from the lesson. • Prolonged exposure to pornographic materials can lead to harmful consequences, such as sexual addiction. • Pornography creates false beliefs and attitudes of young people towards sexuality. • Pornography focuses only on the excitable and physical aspect of sexuality. Sexuality is about who you are, how people view you, how you feel, how you view things, what you do, and how these all affect your being a male or a female. • There are professionals and institutions that can provide reliable information about sexuality, such as their guidance counselor.

Suggested readings (for instructor’s reference)

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• • • •

Caught in the Web of Pornography The Effects of Pornography and Sexual Messages Resources to Combat the Problem of Pornography The media are playing a bigger role in young people’s lives


Suggested Readings

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Ten Elements of Reproductive Health

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1. Maternal and Child Health and Nutrition

Covers safety and health during pregnancy and the care of and support to pregnant women during and after delivery. It also covers the health of the newborn and emphasizes breastfeeding as a major care to be given starting at birth.

2. Family Planning

Covers both natural and modern methods of preventing pregnancy within the bounds of marriage, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, their mode of action and efficacy.

3. Prevention and Control of Reproductive Tract Infections and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) and HIV/ AIDS

Covers the different forms of infections, their causes, effects and ways of prevention. It also includes proper diagnosis, management and treatment and referral.

4. Prevention of Abortion and Management of Complications

Covers appropriate steps to deter women from abortion-seeking behaviors by conducting education programs on preventing unintended pregnancies and ensuring access to quality family planning methods. Also includes discussion of abortion complications and the proper management and treatment of cases arising from abortion.

5. Education and Counseling on Sexuality

Covers education and information regarding sexuality, its components and how individuals and couples differ in orientation.

6. Adolescent Reproductive Health

It caters not only to the different changes that happen during adolescence, but also the needs, challenges and risks young people are faced with. It is about addressing these needs and concerns by providing not only health care services but also access to correct and complete information that will help prevent and solve their RH-related concerns.

7. Violence Against Women and Children

Deals with information and education on assisting women and children who are victims of rape, sexual harassment, and domestic violence. It describes the different forms of violence. It also enumerates measures on what the victims can do in these cases.

8. Men’s Reproductive Health

Addresses the unique reproductive health needs of men and previous ways to involve them to support women’s RH decisions.

9. Breast and Reproductive Tract Cancers and other Gynecological Conditions

Provides in-depth understanding of the different reproductive health and gynecological diseases, their causes and ways on how to be protected from these diseases.

10. Prevention and Treatment of Infertility and Sexual Disorders

Highlights discussion on fertility and assists married couples who have difficulty in achieving pregnancy.


Sexuality: It’s More Than “Having Sex” Sexuality is a natural, integral part of every human being, but its definition is a subject of continuing intellectual debate. Sexuality is based in the physical body, and its expression is influenced by personal and social forces. It encompasses all parts of life that are related to or associated with sexual behavior or with one’s sex. For educational purposes, it can be described as having five overlapping aspects: human development, emotions and relationship, sexual health, sexual behavior, and sexual violence. Learning about sexuality is a lifelong process and an essential part of every person’s socialization. Messages about sexuality are communicated directly or indirectly through everyday interactions and experiences and exposure to a wide variety of influences. Sources and places of sexual learning include parents and other relatives, close friends and peer groups, schools, the mass media, religious institutions, workplaces, and other gathering places, health care service providers, social institutions, and the arts. Sexuality education, thus, is something that happens whether or not we undertake it consciously or formally. Comprehensive sexuality education is a consciously planned, usually formal process for teaching about the biological, psychological, socio-cultural, and spiritual aspects of human sexuality, and for developing the skills and attitudes necessary for a positive healthy sexual life. Sexuality education approaches sexuality as a natural, positive, and healthy part of human life and addresses the pleasures and the joys of human sexuality as well as its undesirable aspects, such as sexual violence or sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

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Caught in the Web of Pornography How an “innocent” interest can build into intense addiction.

by Carol McGalliard

Pornography. Just the harmless pastime of curious boys and sexdeprived men -- or so I thought. My perception of pornography changed dramatically when a friend e-mailed me about a personal crisis: She had just discovered her husband’s addiction to Internet porn. He confessed that his first look had hooked him. Thus, I no longer see porn as harmless but as dangerous, capable of catching unsuspecting victims in its web. Nearly 2,000 years ago, Jesus Christ warned about what happens when the eye looks at what it shouldn’t: “The eye is the lamp of the body. . . . if your eyes are bad, your whole body will be full of darkness” (Matthew 6:22, 23, NIV). What an apt description of pornography: darkness. A person’s first exposure to it often triggers a powerful combination of biological, psychological, and spiritual factors that leads to addiction. Pornography eventually becomes as enslaving as alcohol or cocaine. With a rush of adrenaline, a seemingly harmless glimpse at sensual material consumes one’s whole being.

Easy access

The increased availability of porn on the Internet has escalated the problem of sexual addiction. A study released by MSNBC/ Stanford/Duquesne estimates that 200,000 Internet users are hooked on porn sites or on other online sexual materials. Online adult entertainment has become a $56 billion-a-year industry. And that’s just Internet porn. The organization N2H2 provides filtering software to millions of online users worldwide. According to their database, commercial pornographic Web pages have increased by 1,800 percent since 1998. They have identified over 260 million pages containing indecent content. The horrifying truth is that any child, adolescent, teenager, or adult with Internet access can fall deeply into this perverted sin. Statistics bear this out: • Teens are the biggest purchasers of hard-core porn. • Sexually explicit material is one of the major sources that young males seek to learn about sexuality. • The average age for first-time contact with pornography among sex addicts is 11.

Progressive addiction

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Unlike sniffing cocaine, looking at pornographic material imprints the mind with images that don’t just go away. “It’s almost like it branded my brain,” said one man. A female addict reported, “I would be able to replay the images I had seen for years.”


It’s no surprise, then, that such effects are not easily negated. Overcoming addiction to porn takes years and affects a person and everyone around him or her for the rest of his or her life. The reason breaking free takes so long is that addiction to pornography is progressive. With the first exposure, a person is hooked. He then needs more stimuli to get the high, develops to more and more deviant behaviors, and takes greater risks. The results of those risks can be devastating: legal problems, sexually transmitted diseases, lost relationships, destroyed families, loss of employment -- even bankruptcy. Eventually, the person loses his ability to think and reason. High cost

In “An Affair of the Mind,” Laurie Hall writes of the devastating results of her husband’s addiction to pornography. Her husband once served in the military honor guard and helped entertain foreign diplomats at the White House. For that position, he had White House security clearance. He later worked for a national company where he managed a team of several men. This husband’s journey into pornography began with one film and progressed to more deviant acts that were both dangerous and degrading to him and his wife. The addiction continued for years until it crippled his mind so that he can no longer function in his manager position. Today, this man stuffs small chocolates into boxes at a factory and scrapes chocolate off the factory floor. He still leaves for work every morning with his briefcase, however, just to remind himself how much pornography cost him and his family.

Disturbing studies

This man certainly isn’t alone. Patrick Carnes is one of the leading authorities on porn and sex addiction. In “Don’t Call It Love,” Carnes cites a study of 932 sex addicts. Ninety percent of the men and 77 percent of the women questioned said pornography played a significant role in their addictions. Evidence from another study suggests that when men are exposed to repeated presentations of hard-core, nonviolent adult pornography, they • develop distorted perceptions about sexuality • develop an increased callousness toward women and no longer consider rape a crime • view non-monogamous relationships as normal behavior • develop an escalating appetite for more abnormal or violent types of pornography; normal sex no longer satisfies The 1970 Presidential Commission on Obscenity and Pornography concluded that “exposure to pornography is the strongest predictor of sexual deviance.” Serial killer Ted Bundy proved this. Before his death, he confessed that as a teen, he began using pornography and that violent porn had been a major factor in leading him to act out his crimes.

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Hope for porn addicts

Fortunately, there is hope for porn addicts. But it isn’t where most of them expect to find it. Kim Whitehurst is a licensed professional counselor who specializes in treating sexual addiction. He has counseled many men who wrongly concluded that being in a spiritual environment like a church or seminary would cure the problem. These men found it necessary to openly confront the problem by seeking professional help and/or submitting to the accountability in a 12-step program for sex addicts. They discovered that overcoming addiction requires a community of friends with whom they could share their deepest struggles and still be accepted. Kim, a recovering addict himself, advises, “My warning to any teen or adult who is considering looking at pornography out of curiosity: Don’t do it! You can become addicted.” “We’re afraid to talk about sex,” he continues. “But if there’s someone you know who has a problem with pornography, the best thing to do is confront them and tell them it’s destructive and it’s wrong. There are places they can go to get help and be freed from its bondage.” While counselors and support groups provide invaluable help on the road to freedom, Christ is the only real hope for overcoming addiction to pornography. He wants to cleanse the addict’s heart of sin. He wants to be the friend that the addict turns to for courage and strength in his or her struggle. When an addict approaches Him with a heart willing to turn from sin, Christ will never reject him or her, no matter what his or her behavior has been. No one can truly free himself or herself from the web of pornography. He or she needs others. And he or she needs the companionship of a suffering Christ on the long and difficult road to recovery.

Source: http://nowwhat.cog7.org/Articles/Pornography/WebOfPornography.html

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The Effects of Pornography and Sexual Messages Many people think that pornography is just harmless fun and that it has no detrimental effects. However, it is virtually impossible not to be affected by pornography, legal or not, and the sexual messages that saturate our society today. Shaping Attitudes and Relationships

Research has shown that pornography and its messages are involved in shaping attitudes and encouraging behavior that can harm individual users and their families. Pornography is often viewed in secret, which creates deception within marriages that can lead to divorce in some cases. In addition, pornography promotes the allure of adultery, prostitution and unreal expectations that can result in dangerous promiscuous behavior. Young people growing up in our already overly sexualized culture are being exposed to sexually explicit material on a daily basis through network television, movies, music, and the Internet. Children are being subjected to sexual material and messages before they are mentally prepared to understand or evaluate what they are viewing. In addition, the majority of sex education is taking place in the media, not in the home, church or school. Below are some of the common, but false messages, sent by our sexualized culture. • Sex with anyone, under any circumstances, any way it is desired, is beneficial and does not have negative consequences. • Women have one value - to meet the sexual demands of men. • Marriage and children are obstacles to sexual fulfillment. • Everyone is involved in promiscuous sexual activity, infidelity and premarital sex.

Pornography & Addiction

Not only is the pornography industry, as well as the mainstream media, filling consumers’ heads with these false beliefs and attitudes, but studies have found that pornography can be highly addictive. In fact, Dr. Victor Cline, an expert on sexual addiction, found that there is a four-step progression among many who consume pornography. • Addiction: Pornography provides a powerful sexual stimulant or aphrodisiac effect, followed by sexual release, most often through masturbation. • Escalation: Over time addicts require more explicit and deviant material to meet their sexual “needs.” • Desensitization: What was first perceived as gross, shocking and disturbing, in time, becomes common and acceptable. • Acting out sexually: There is an increasing tendency to act out behaviors viewed in pornography.

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The National Council on Sexual Addiction Compulsivity estimates that 6 percent to 8 percent of Americans are sexual addicts. Pornography and the Community

Sexually oriented businesses, such as strip clubs and massage parlors, attract crime to communities. In addition, the general content of pornography supports abuse and the rape myth (that women enjoy forceful sex) and serves as a how-to for sex crimes, primarily the molestation of children. Land Use studies by the National Law Center for Children & Families show evidence of the correlation of adult businesses and crime. For example, in Phoenix neighborhoods where adult businesses were located, the number of sex offenses was 506 percent greater than in areas without such businesses. The number of property crimes was 43 percent greater, and the number of violent crimes, 4 percent greater. Dr. Mary Anne Layden, director of education, University of Pennsylvania Health System, points out, “I have been treating sexual violence victims and perpetrators for 13 years. I have not treated a single case of sexual violence that did not involve pornography.” Source: Gow, Haven Bradford. “Child Sex Abuse: America’s Dirty Little Secret.” MS Voices for Children. 3/2000

Child Pornography

Most will agree on the amount of harm caused by child pornography, which consists of photographs, videos, magazines, books, and films that show children engaged in sexual acts, all of which are illegal. All production of these materials is an illegal and permanent record of the abuse or exploitation of children. Material digitally-doctored to look like child pornography was also illegal, until a Supreme Court decision in April 2002 that found the “virtual” child porn law unconstitutional. Currently, Congress is working on a new “virtual” child pornography law that will stand up to constitutional muster. Child and adult pornography is frequently used by pedophiles to lure children. The typical child molester befriends the child, often through Internet chat rooms, and, after building “trust,” exposes the child to pornography. This is done in an attempt to make the child think that this behavior is acceptable and to lure him or her to participate. The experience of exploitation and abuse becomes a lifelong struggle for the victim and leaves him or her with the fear that his or her photos are still out there.

Source: http://www.nationalcoalition.org/pornharm.html

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Resources to Combat the Problem of Pornography Recognizing the tragedy occurring in our society, many groups of concerned citizens from churches, government organizations, non-government organizations, the academe, business, and media such as the Philippine Alliance against Pornography (PAAP), Stop Trafficking of Pilipinos Foundation, Inc, (STOP) and Pro-Life Philippines have banded to inform the public on the dangers of pornography and its damage to society, as well as empower citizens to fight pornography in their homes. It calls for increased government law enforcement efforts because at present, prosecution is a low government priority, and pornography offenses are falsely perceived as “victimless crimes”. Pro-Life Philippines, a non-government agency aimed at upholding the dignity of human life, and the PAAP suggest the following: • Strictly regulate and censor movies, MTVs, television programs, and advertisements must. A big share of the blame for the deterioration of the moral values of this generation should be placed on advertising and the current trends of movies and TV shows.

Whatever message an advertisement puts across greatly influences the consumers. To a great extent, the viewers pattern their lifestyle after the one modeled in the ad. Most advertisements have purveyed decadent values, which have brought about dissipation of life in countless instances. The moral epidemic which we are experiencing now is caused by consumerism which treats women (sometimes men), sex and pleasure as consumer goods.

• Empower the Optical Media Board to penalize bus companies whose drivers show pornographic films during trips any time of the day, regardless of who are on board. While these drivers cater to a few indecent passengers, they cause the chagrin and discomfort of many, especially women and men, whose sense of decency is unimpaired, and moral abrasion to minors who, even if exposed to obscenity only once, will suffer moral and intellectual development setback. • Strengthen the law that would incriminate theater owners showing X-rated films, tabloid and magazine vendors selling pornographic literature and beer joints or night clubs which present bold dancers to attract customers. This also includes applying punitive measures to Internet service providers that present violence and pornography in the information network.

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• Ban beauty contests in noontime and primetime shows. These contests give young people the idea that in order to survive in this highly competitive world, all they need are good looks and a beautiful physique. Thousands of Filipino students do not intend to finish schooling because they think that they would earn more money and help their parents if they bare more skin, dance and pirouette before foreign audiences in high-class nightclubs here and abroad. It was noted that most beauty contests, contestants are treated less than a potter’s flower vase or a couturier’s creation displayed on a rack for everybody to scrutinize and to purchase. The product that has the most pleasing features is often chosen. Persons are persons. They are not objects of pleasure. • Write a resolution to implement a dress code for TV performers; it has been noted that many of them appear on TV scantily clad; very often, they wear body hugging suggestive attires. • Ban the implementation of the Sex Education Modules in both public and private schools because many of the items/lessons are tendentious and may lead to students’ desensitization about sex and lose of respect for it. Parents should also play significant roles in censoring the reading and viewing materials of their children by setting standards that focus on human dignity and the sacredness of human sexuality.

Source: http://www.prolife.org.ph/page/pornography3

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The media are playing a bigger role in young lives “Got taste?” The message on a huge billboard showing a trendy young couple, one of them holding a cigarette stick, said it straight. So did a TV commercial that featured a boy who boldly ordered beer, impressing a girl at the bar, “Kaya mo na ‘tol!” Cool? Each day, media bombard young people with teasers and calls to try something or to be someone. “Are you one of us?” asked a cellular phone ad. Be it the news media, entertainment, film, advertising or any other form, the mass media are now the new surrogate parents, according to the 2003 State of the Philippine Population Report, as they are fast becoming the main information guide of young people on what is right and what is wrong, or to put it in today’s language – “what’s hot, what’s not.” Coupled with the fast turnover of new technology, media are increasingly getting more space in the lives of the young. Some carry good ideas from which the youth can pick up, but sadly, more time and effort are given to less substantial and less wholesome concepts. The SPPR2, the second of a series of reports on the conditions of life of Filipinos that is published by the Commission on Population and the United Nations Population Fund, consider the media as powerful social forces to reckon with, especially because they are read, viewed, used, consumed, and patronized by the youth. A result is an outburst of varying messages that actually give a false and fleeting dichotomy of only two things – the “cool and the not cool” – with utter disregard for what must be relevant, and what should matter. The fast changing social environment has given young people greater freedom and access to information that influence the way they think and act, reinforced by their peers who are also patrons of media and are therefore into a similar behavior and mindset. For the young who are reached by all kinds of media, the world is a miscellany of television, magazines, movies, tabloids, the Internet, and even pornographic material that dictate how things must be done – from wearing clothes to stubbing out cigarette ash in style to even uttering a pick-up line to get a date. Citing a survey in 2000 by the giant advertising firm McCannErickson, the Report said “media have become the source

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of authority regarding what is right, what is wrong, what is important.” No wonder most of the print and broadcast advertisements that the ad company produces target the young; and this is also being done by other media entities doing creative work. In 2002, the Young Adult Fertility and Sexuality Survey of the University of the Philippines somewhat validated this finding when it noted the “mass media as the new surrogate parents” of the youth. Media today are more expansive, have more variety in form and content and more accessible especially to the youth. Among all the media, it is television that dominates young lives today. Television viewership is high – young people spend eight to 14 hours per week watching TV. The Internet is a medium used by mostly in-school youth, and is teaching an increasing number of users. One in five young people has used the Internet in 2002. Somehow, it has created a technological divide: it is the new and interesting medium for urban, in-school youth who use it regularly unlike young people in rural locations who do not have an idea about what it can do. But the continuing and expanding coverage of electronic communication will make the world smaller for young people in the coming years. Pornography has captured the interest of a sizeable number of youth, particularly boys. Whatever tenets between what is allowed and acceptable and what is not permissible in media are already thinning fast because of the emergence of glossy magazines and videos that feature pornography in its many forms. This is reinforced by the liberal system of information and of publishing and broadcasting in the country. This situation leaves judgment entirely on the audience. So the young’s exposure to pornography becomes certain. The YAFS said 55 percent of young people, mostly males, watch x-rated films and this is increasing with older adolescents and young people who have jobs and incomes. The youth in Metro Manila have the widest exposure to reading and viewing pornographic materials, with many males preferring to view rather than to read. With the dominance of faddism, the desire to be cool and the eagerness to know about what’s next, it is hard to think whether or not young people also seek a larger meaning to what mass media are offering them, or are looking forward to a cool future indeed while appreciating the special moments that are happening to their lives now.

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Media are the best source of data and information, but not all of them are involved in youth issues and do not disseminate correct information on youth health and development. While media are asked to develop a conscience and social responsibility, it is important for young people as media spectators to hold on to values every time they see movies that depict the worst of humanity or read the news of ugly politics in their country. Parents and adults, who are also audiences of media, must stay glued to their roles in any possible way they can.

Source: State of the Philippine Population Report, 2nd Issue, 2003

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