Handbook "E+ Heritage"

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E+ HERITAGE


CONTENT Project ...................................................... 3 Organizations ......................................... 4 People ...................................................... 5 Definition of Heritage to Us ................ 6 Fairytales .................................................. 8 N. Macedonia ......................... 8 Bulgaria .................................. 20 Turkey ..................................... 33 Serbia ...................................... 46 Customs .................................................. 51 Local Research ...................................... 54 How to promote heritage to young people ......................................... 58 Event ......................................................... 61


PROJECT Culture is the expression of how we perceive the world, how we interpret our environment and assess the people we meet. Our personal interpretation of what we perceive is guided by such diverse factors as affections, convictions, preconceived notions, beliefs and values. By promoting culture, we foster tolerance, the ability to accept the own and to embrace the other. We often hear about the importance of cultural heritage. But what is cultural heritage? What one generation considers "cultural heritage" may be rejected by the next generation, only to be revived by a subsequent generation. In the case of “cultural heritage,” the heritage doesn’t consist of money or property, but of culture, values and traditions. Cultural heritage implies a shared bond, a belonging to a community. It represents our history and our identity; our bond to the past, to our present, and the future. Knowing our and other nations’ culture gives us a better self-awareness and increases our tolerance towards others. Knowing our culture, history and roots makes us feel more self conscious and proud of being part of the European society, having common history and traditions and still being authentic and unique. Our aims were to make cultural heritage accessible to all by removing social, cultural and physical barriers, to promote debate, research and the exchange knowledge and good practices on the quality of conservation and of contemporary interventions on cultural heritage. Caring for our cultural heritage enables communities to overcome differences and strengthen social cohesion. Interventions on cultural heritage are actions that impact or have the potential to impact structures, places or sites of heritage interest, and could therefore cause physical changes or alterations. Management of cultural diversity requires efforts that are more active, better structured and more participatory, based on mutual understanding and respect for basic cultural values. Intercultural dialogue, which can be understood as a process consisting of an open exchange of views, with mutual respect, between individuals and groups of different ethnic, cultural, religious and linguistic backgrounds and heritage is one of the main objectives of the youth exchange. This is needed more than ever, as the increasing openness to globalization represents both an opportunity to promote diversity and creativity, and a challenge to Europe's ability to guarantee the existence of united societies and preserving the existing cultural heritages. Culture and cultural heritage are not just a “symptom” of strong, resilient societies. They are the key to strong, resilient societies.


ORGANIZATIONS ArTeam - Bulgaria “ArTeam” Bulgaria is the hosting organization of the project. It is youth association established at 2016 in Sofia, Bulgaria, as a local youth initiative with the aim to create a platform for development of projects, activities, partnerships and programs for youngsters, volunteers and youth workers which will give them opportunity to be active in their communities, learn new skills and competences, and gain experience and knowledge for personal and professional development. Our mission is to connect active adventurous people together, to promote nonformal and life-long learning among our society and to support quality and innovative projects that match the needs of young people. In the process of non-formal learning young people can learn from their experience and realize their true and authentic self and desires. They will be able to build and acknowledge the true values of life, to develop necessary skills and competencies outside the framework of formal education, and to improve the level of key competences and skills of youth workers and leaders.

Navissos - Serbia Navissos is a NGO recently founded in the City of Niš, Serbia. During the years members of Navissos were active participants of NGO’s that are situated in Niš. We organized and participated in many projects while promoting NGO sector, human rights, intercultural learning and in general non- formal learning methods. We met each other and decided to unite our knowledge and experience in one new organization. We brought an idea to name our organization after the former name of our city. The town was named Navissos by the Celtic in the 3rd century BC, and the meaning is „City of fairies“. Main focus of our activities is on helping and developing our local society and also trying to share European values and opportunities with youth. Every member of Navissos has a lot of background experience in volunteerism, youthwork and different forms of non-formal education. Together we created one new big opportunity for youngsters to develop creative and innovative thinking and skills trough the education projects and programs in the field of science and sport, culture and art, healthy lifestyle, civil society and human rights.

Novus - North Macedonia The Center for Research and Analysis NOVUS, is a non-governmental organization established on 30.01.2013 in Strumica. The main areas of work of the association NOVUS are focused on the field of youth, informal education, improvement and raising the social status and awareness of citizens and youth, with special emphasis on protection and affirmation of basic human rights and freedoms guaranteed by the Constitution, laws and international agreements and conventions as well as promoting accountable and transparent operation of the institutions. The main focus of the association is young people and promoting European values and principles and encouraging local economic development.

Sosyal İnovasyon Girişimcilik - Turkey Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship Association (SInG-Der) is a non-governmental organization that aims to bring innovative solutions to social problems, to support the continuity of these solutions with various entrepreneurship models and to achieve this by using objective and scientific methods. Social Innovation and Entrepreneurship Association (SInG-Der) is operating at local, regional and EU level. It has dynamic and active members who develop innovative approaches to solve social problems. Located in the European side of Istanbul, SInGDer is actively working with local governments. The employees of the association have both academic competence and expertise in different fields of social sciences. SInG-DER aims to develop its capacity by benefiting from international experience and learning together methods and with different partnerships in different projects.


PEOPLE Young people from Bulgaria, N. Macedonia, Serbia and Turkey gathered in the magical village of Gudevitsa to explore the concept of cultural heritage and share good practices on how to preserve and promote it.


DEFINITION OF HERITAGE TO US In groups the participants formed their definitions of heritage: Heritage is a national treasure that is a guide for the future and the connection between the past and the present.

Heritage is an evolution; it can be something concrete that you can step on as a connection between past and future. It is something from the past that is still relevant today.


DEFINITION OF HERITAGE TO US Heritage is a bridge between the past and the future. Heritage is something we inherit from the older generations. It sets the principles for our further thinking and behaving.

Heritage - features belonging to the culture of a particular society, such as traditions, languages or buildings which come from the past and are still important.


FAIRYTALES N. Macedonia Struma's Grave How the city Strumica got its name There once was a roman king named Tiberij who built a castle in the mountain Belasica right above where Strumica is located now. He had a daughter called Struma who would often take walks around the castle without his knowledge. One day she met a Tatar soldier. She fell in love with him and told him how to get in the castle through the secret passage so they could have a secret date. That night he gathered the army and conquered the castle and the whole kingdom. The king quickly realized it was his daughter who betrayed him, so he cursed her, so that when she dies she'd have to be buried nine times. A week after that the princess Struma died and was buried, but the next day they found her body above the ground so they buried her again.


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

This kept happening for 8 more days. The legend says that the city Strumica got its name from this princess. Today near Strumica in a village called Banica there's a grave we call Struma's grave because it's made of nine layers and people believe that it's the grave from the story. Verica Krstevska


FAIRYTALES N. Macedonia The Dragon’s Cave Under the mountain Krastavec, near the village Dren in the southern part of Macedonia is situated the dragon’s cave renowned for its beauty in the region. One legend says that more than thousands of years ago, there lived a dragon. The ferocious animal was a symbol of terror and fear for the local population. Every time the dragon roars, the villagers would start to panic because of the mountain Krastavec’s shaking due to its mighty voice.


FAIRYTALES N. Macedonia Among other things, the mythological animal would eat humans as well. That's why the inhabitants were getting more and more anxious. They started thinking of how to get rid of the monster. One day, two courageous villagers went to the cave intending to kill the dragon. At the entrance of the cave, under some unnatural force, their bodies turned to stones. The legend says that since then, the dragon has disappeared because it was stuck in the cave without being able to get out. There the monster suffocated and died. After some period, the villagers visited the cave and were surprised to find the stone figures of the two brave villagers. Afterward, they entered the cave and took away the dead body of the dragon. From that moment onward, the inhabitants were freed of the monster, and they named the cave “Zmejovec” or “the dragon's cave”. Kristina Stamenova


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

Itar Peyo (Brave Peyo) and the Fish Stew Peyo left for the bazaar one Friday with his Mariovci. Going that way, he saw a pond with a lot of fish, and since it was Friday, he got tired, so Peyo decided to have a fish lunch. However, the pond was deep and Peyo couldn’t catch the fish, so everyone started eating bread and onions instead. Peyo said to himself: - “This is not right. To look at the fish and to be eating onions.” - so, as if to remember something, he jumped out of his place, took the spoon out of his bag and said to his friends:


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

- “Get your spoons, friends! You do not see how much fish stew there is in front of us, and we are eating bread and onions.” - and he sat by the pond alone and began to sip from the water in which the sweet crumbs from crustaceans and various other fish were transferred. The villagers obeyed him and lined up around the pond, so they drank from the "beautiful" and "sweet" "fish stew". Nikol Klesova


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia Rock of Death

There was a man named Strez. He was a lord and he had an adventurous spirit and often people would call him an abnormal person. He had unusual ideas and he had a lot of money. He often went climbing on the rock where the castle Prosek was. He got one idea that was unusual and that was to build a theater on the rock.


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

He called his slavers and told them to find workers to build his theater. He was strict with his workers and for every single mistake they made, they paid with their life. When the lord went on top of the rock with his slaves to see what the workers made, he wasn’t pleased with the result and he threw them off the rock into the river that was near the rock. Because of this act of killing, the rock was called the rock of death. Martin Georgiev


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

Bad Thought – Whole Sickness The king’s daughter was sick because of some thought that she had in her mind. Nobody could cure her and every day it was getting worse. One old doctor heard about it, but nobody asked him for advice because he was old. He said to himself that he would go to her and see her situation. He went to her and asked her what was wrong, and that he had found the cure. He said that he would cure her without herbs and that all he wanted in return was to be remembered by her. She said that if she was cured, her father would make him the first doctor in the kingdom. After the doctor heard that, he made a ring with the words: What happened – has passed, and what will happen – will pass.


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

He went to the king’s daughter and he put the ring on her finger. The doctor told her that this is the cure. Every time she catches herself thinking about something bad, she should read what is written on the ring. And so, the king’s daughter was cured in less than 40 days and the doctor was made the first doctor in the kingdom. Abdul Amedov


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

Itar Pejo and the Fog Itar Pejo is a poor village farmhand, but possesses remarkable slyness, wit and wile. His adventures take place in the region of Mariovo. One day he and his villagers were headed to Prilep. While they were passing a hill, there was an incredible landscape in front of them. They had a view of the whole Prilep valley, which was covered in fog. The villagers were both amazed and confused. They were all asking themselves what this white wonder in front of them was, when Pejo decided to give them the best answer anyone could ever give. He said “People of Mariovo, isn’t it obvious, it’s wool”.


FAIRYTALES

N. Macedonia

At that moment, one of the people jumped from the edge. When Pejo realized they believed him, he yelled “What are you waiting for? He’s going to collect all the wool” and all of the people started to jump off the cliff to collect as much wool as they could. Legend says they’re still collecting the wool. Angela Nikolova


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

"The Healthy Ones" - a Blessing or a Curse In the central part of the divine Rhodopes, among the incredible sounds of the bagpipe, is the small village of Yugovo. Despite its small size, however, the village of Yugovo is a source of all kinds of folklore legends. One of these legends is about the so-called "healthy ones". At the beginning of the 21st century, "the healthy ones" were little known. The first information about them was published by the local historian Ivan Gashtilov in 1994, in his work on the village of Yugovo and the local master builders. The main name of the image is "the healthy ones", although names such as "spirits" or "saints" can also be heard. The name "spirits" is explained by the fact that "the healthy ones " are invisible. Although they cannot be seen, they can be heard. According to locals, they are four girls, about ten years old.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

The stories of the locals say that "the healthy ones" inhabited the so-called "konak" - an uninhabited room from a house in the village. One must live in this house, otherwise the "the healthy ones" were lonely and their voices could be heard at night. In the beginning there were two "konaks" in the village, but later only one remained. In it, the faithful women of the village came to pray on certain days of the week for health. The voices of little girls could be heard from the konak of the "the healthy ones" at night. According to legend, they went somewhere, although it is not known exactly where, and returned in the morning. Other signs of living in the inn were knocking on the stairs and attic. The owner of the "konak" from the village says that she is afraid to approach the room inhabited by the "the healthy ones" at night. The door of the "konak" must always be open so that "the healthy ones" can enter and leave safely.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

Darkness and silence must be maintained in the room itself. The only source of light is the candles that are lit in honor of "the healthy ones " on Mondays, Thursdays and Saturdays. In case their "konak" breaks down or its occupant dies or leaves, they sob and cry. This happens at night. However, as soon as the first roosters crowed, the crying stopped. One can also show "the healthy ones" that they are not wanted in their home by leaving the lamp in their "konak" on. Nikolina Dimitrova


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

Grandfather Pulls Out a Turnip Once, not too long ago, an old man planted a turnip. The turnip grew, and grew, and grew some more, until it was enormous. The old man started to pull the turnip out of the ground. He pulled and pulled, but it was just too big for one man alone. So he called his wife to help. The old woman took hold of the old man, the old man took hold of the turnip and they pulled and pulled, but could not pull it out. The turnip was just too big. So the old woman called her granddaughter to help. The granddaughter took hold of the old woman, the old woman took hold of the old man, the old man took hold of the turnip and they pulled and pulled. But the turnip was just too big and they could not pull it out. So the granddaughter called the dog over to help.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

The dog took hold of the granddaughter, the granddaughter took hold of the old woman, the old woman took hold of the old man, the old man took hold of the turnip and they all pulled and pulled. But still they could not pull the turnip out. So the dog called the cat over to help.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

The cat took hold of the dog, the dog took hold of the granddaughter, the granddaughter took hold of the old woman, the old woman took hold of the old man, the old man took hold of the turnip and they pulled and pulled. It seemed impossible, and they still could not pull it out. So the cat called the mouse over to help. The mouse took hold of the cat, the cat took hold of the dog, the dog took hold of the granddaughter, the granddaughter took hold of the old woman, the old woman took hold of the old man, the old man took hold of the turnip. They all pulled and pulled, and pulled some more, and finally, the turnip came out! It took the help of the tiny mouse to finally pull out the turnip. The lesson is that there is value in even the smallest and least among us. Adriana Rangelova


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

Horror Story of the Lady with the Pig Face There was a village in the Rhodopa Mountain where old people frightened the bad children that if they were naughty, the Devil would come and take them away. They said that the Devil looked like a woman with a pig’s head. One evening, two 18-year old boys took their grandfather’s car and drove to the next village to meet with their girlfriends. They drove home just after midnight and while doing so, they saw a lonely woman walking on the road. The boys decided to stop and ask her who she is and if she needed a ride to her village. They stopped and one of the boys opened the door and shouted: “Hey, lady, do you need a ride?”. The woman turned towards them. The boys saw an enormous pig head that stared right at them with its yellow, devilish eyes. The driver tried to start the car, but he couldn’t.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria The creature with the pig head started walking towards them. In the last second, the boys managed to start the car and drive away. They returned to the village, but since that day, the both of them weren’t able to speak again.

Dimitar Ivanov and Stefanie Krebs


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

Origin and a Story of Hitar Petar Hitar Petar or Clever Peter is a peasant trickster character of Bulgarian folklore. He is a poor village farmhand, but possesses remarkable slyness, wit and sometimes slightly sinister. He is often presented as the “typical Bulgarian” and the perpetual antagonist of either the rich nobles and money lenders. He is therefore regarded as a strictly positive figure and a hero of the common folk, representing the idea that the good overcomes the bad and evil. As a character, Hitar Petar first appeared in the 16th–17th century, when Bulgaria was still under Ottoman rule. There’s no certainty on the question from which part of Bulgaria the character originates. Tales on his deeds are presented in the folklore of all regions inhabited by Bulgarians: Dobrudzha, Thrace and Macedonia. In 1873, he was introduced to literature, with Iliya Blaskov publishing several anecdotes involving him.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

Hitar Petar is similar to other characters of European and Oriental folklore, more notable are Nasreddin of Islamic folklore, the German Till Eulenspiegel, the Hungarian Csaloka Peter and the Jewish Hershele Ostropoler.


FAIRYTALES Bulgaria HERE IS A STORY ABOUT HIS WITTY MIND : One day Hitar Petar was walking down the street when he met a rich man. “Hey you,” said the rich man, “Why did you not bow to me?” “Why should I bow to you?” asked Hitar Petar. “Because I’m rich and have 1000 gold pieces.” “So, you’ve got 1000 gold pieces. They are yours, not mine, so why should I bow to you?” replied Hitar Petar. “What if I give you 500 of my gold pieces? Will you bow to me then?” asked the rich man. “If you give me 500, you’ll have 500 and I’ll have 500 and we’ll be equal. Why should I bow to you then?” said Hitar Petar. “What if I’m tired of being rich and give you all my gold pieces?” asked the rich man. “If you give me all your gold coins, that will be good. I’ll have 1000 and you’ll have nothing. But why then should I bow to you?” And Hitar Petar turned and walked away. Ivo Ivanov


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

Wedding in the Night Gencho was the shepherd of the village and one evening, he gathered the sheep, had dinner and went out in the dark to play his flute. He laid down in a meadow and suddenly heard shouting, festive whistles and a lot of noise. He got up and saw wedding guests approaching him. The best man was in front, followed by the newlyweds, which were holding hands and behind them, followed by the guests. At the back were the musicians playing while on the move. Gencho wondered what this wedding in the middle of the night was, but as they approached, he greeted the newlyweds. However, the godfather handed him a glass of wine decorated with geraniums to drink from for their health. When he looked into his eyes, Gencho saw that they were fiery red, and when he looked at the wedding guests, he saw that all of them were actually dead.


FAIRYTALES

Bulgaria

His heart sank, but they all shouted at him to drink from the cup. He crossed himself according to custom and drank. The next day, his sister found him climbing the branches of an old willow tree, singing and shaking a dead horse's head. Nikola Polihronov


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

The Legend of Maiden Tower Maiden Tower is located on the Istanbul Bosphorus between Asia and Europe. It is estimated to be around 2500 years old. The story behind why people build a structure here at sea is: There was an emperor and his young daughter, the princess. The emperor took the princess to a fortune teller. The fortune teller saw that the princess would die due to a snake bite when she turns 18 years old. The emperor immediately commands his people to build a tower at sea in order to protect his daughter. After that, the princess started to live in the tower. One day, a lady was carrying food to the tower and a fruit basket.


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

On the same night, the princess decided to have some grapes from the basket. While she was eating, a snake came out from inside the basket and bit her arm. She died because of the poison at the age of 18 as the fortune teller saw it happening. Fatih Cambaz


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

What if it Does? One day, Nasreddin Hodja realized that he did not have enough yoghurt and decided to go to the lake with his bucket and started pouring spoonfuls of yoghurt into the lake. Seeing Hodja near the lake with a copper bucket full of yoghurt, the curious villagers asked: -"What's up, Hodja? What are you doing with your spoon?” -"I'm pouring yoghurt into the lake to make more yoghurt" replies Hodja. -”Is it gonna work?” -”What if it does?" Hodja replied. Ayşe Damla Mutlu


FAIRYTALES

Turkey


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

Deli Dumrul Once there was a brave and powerful man called “Deli Dumrul”, which means “Mad Dumrul”. He was guarding a bridge and getting 30 dinars from every person that would pass through, 40 dinars from those who would not. If people didn’t want to pay, he would get it by force. He was fearless. He had young soldiers under his command. One day, one of his soldiers, a young boy, died. He was shocked and asked the people around : “Why did this happen?”. “It is the angel of death, he takes lives by the will of God”, they said. Dumrul could not handle this situation. He waited for the angel of death to arrive, so he could challenge him to a battle. When the angel arrived, they made an agreement. If the angel wins, he will take both the soldiers and Dumrul’s life, and if Dumrul wins he will spare the boy. Then the battle started, but Dumrul could not even catch the angel. He had to give up.


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

He understood the power of death and that it cannot be changed. He apologized and did not want his life to be taken. The Angel replied: “If you bring another life to me, I will exchange it with yours”.


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

So he went to his father, asked for his life. “I won’t give you my life, ask your mother.”, he said. He went to his mother and his mother said, “I won’t give you my life, ask your wife.” Then he asked his wife for his life in exchange for his. His wife said, “Yes, I will give my life for you”. Dumrul returned to the angel of death with his wife and told him: “Take both of our lives or spare both of us. I do not want to live this life without her.” The Angel of Death saw how Dumrul had changed and understood death. And then God added 40 more years to their lifetimes. Ali Aydın


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

Galata Tower Legend says that if you go into the tower for the first time with your partner, you will get married to each other. If you love someone, take them to Istanbul and visit the Galata Tower and see what happens.

I hope you haven’t already been there with someone you don’t want to get married to! Onur Sarı


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

Galata Tower and Maiden's Tower Love Story Galata tower and Maiden's Tower fell in love with each other. However, the Istanbul Bosphorus made that love impossible. One day, Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi climbed the Galata Tower. His aim was to fly from the European side to the Anatolian side. He could not resist the insistence of the Galata Tower and the letters he had accumulated, which were bought by Galata. He leaves the letters to the Maiden Tower. The letters are swept away by the wind and the waves reach the Maiden's Tower. Maiden's Tower realizes that her love is not unrequited and it becomes even more beautiful. Thus, the Galata Tower realizes that the Maiden's Tower is in love with it. By looking at each other but not meeting, they form the most beautiful view of Istanbul and their love defies centuries. Saliha Aran


FAIRYTALES

Turkey


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

The Story of the ‘Arda Boyları’ Folk Song The Arda river is located in what is now southern Bulgaria. It empties into the Meriç river in the Greek territory near Edirne. It is approximately 300 km long. The Arda Boyları folk song is the sad story of two young people in love who lived in Rumelia when it was still an Ottoman land... In one of the villages, there were two young people named Halime and Receb, who were in love with each other. While the young people were dreaming of meeting each other as soon as possible, İsmail, the son of the village chief, confessed to Halime. İsmail deceived the girl's family with the opportunities he had, and the family decided to marry their only daughter to the village chief’s son, İsmail, not to her beloved Receb. Halime could not convince her mother, whatever she did or said.


FAIRYTALES Turkey Thereupon, Receb leaned against the agha's door with great anger. However, he could not help the agha and those around him. He could not save the girl he loved from these ruthless people because he had neither shelter nor money to kidnap. He ran to the mountains with great helplessness inside him. When she left, everyone convinced Halime that Receb had another lover and that he had fled to her. Taking advantage of Halime's disappointment, her mother immediately started the wedding. The night before the wedding, Receb did not give up and came to the village to kidnap the girl he loved again, relying only on the power of his love, even though he had nothing. However, he was sent back to the mountain after encountering the agha's men and having a dangerous conflict. This time, they spread the news in the village that "Receb was killed!"


FAIRYTALES

Turkey

Hearing this, Halime could not stand this pain and committed suicide by throwing herself in Arda with her wedding dress the next morning. Receb, after learning that Halime had killed herself, took his own life in the same way. Nurşen Karabulut


FAIRYTALES

Serbia

The Legend of Marko Kraljević Marko Mrnjavčević was the de jure Serbian king from 1371 to 1395, while he was the de facto ruler of territory in western Macedonia centered on the town of Prilep. He is known as Prince Marko. In Serbian Cyrillic: Краљевић Марко. He differs in legend from the folk poems; in some areas he was imagined as a giant who walked stepping on hilltops, his head touching the clouds. He was said to have helped God shape the earth, and created the river gorge in Demir Kapija ("Iron Gate") . This drained the sea covering the regions of Bitola, Mariovo and Tikveš in Macedonia, making them habitable. Legend also has it that Marko acquired his strength after he was suckled by a vila. King Vukašin threw him into a river because he did not resemble him, but the boy was saved by a cowherd (who adopted him, and a vila suckled him).


FAIRYTALES

Serbia

In other accounts, Marko was a shepherd (or cowherd) who found a vila's children lost in a mountain and shaded them against the sun (or gave them water).


FAIRYTALES

Serbia

As a reward the vila suckled him three times, and he could lift and throw a large boulder. An Istrian version has Marko making a shade for two snakes, instead of the children. In a Bulgarian version, each of the three draughts of milk he suckled from the vila's breast became a snake. According to folk tradition Marko never died; he lives in a cave. According to Macedonian tradition Marko drank "eagle's water", which made him immortal. Marko is portrayed as a protector of the weak and helpless, a fighter against Turkish bullies and injustice in general. He was an idealized keeper of patriarchal and natural norms: in a Turkish military camp, he beheaded the Turk who dishonorably killed his father. Characteristic of Marko was his reverence and love for his mother, Jevrosima; he often sought her advice, following it even when it contradicted his own desires.


FAIRYTALES

Serbia

Actually Marko was a loyal vassal of the Ottoman sultan, fighting to protect the potentate and his empire from outlaws. When summoned by the sultan, he participated in Turkish military campaigns. With his comic appearance and behavior, and his remarks at his opponents' expense, Marko is the most humorous character in Serbian epic poetry. Jevrosima once advised her son to cease his bloody adventures and plough the fields instead. He obeyed in a grimly humorous way, ploughing the sultan's highway instead of the fields. A group of Turkish Janissaries with three packs of gold shouted at him to stop ploughing the highway. He warned them to keep off the furrows, but quickly wearied of arguing:


FAIRYTALES

Serbia

Дижe Марко рало и волове, Те он поби Турке јањичаре, Пак узима три товара блага, Однесе их својој старој мајци: "То сам тебе данас изорао." He swung plough and oxen on high, And slew therewith the Turkish Janissaries. Then he took the three charges of gold, And brought them to his mother, "Behold," he said, "what I have ploughed for thee this day." Stefana Stojković


CUSTOMS Each country group presented traditional customs. We discussed them and looked for similar customs among the other contries. This is how we realized how much in common do we have with each other. Conclusion: Do not forget the past, adapt yourself to the present, create a better future.

We saw the Serbian wedding with shooting an apple and playing a traditional dance.

Forgiveness Day included the kids trying to catch an egg with their mouth.


CUSTOMS We witnessed how the bride should be prepared for a Turkish wedding.

As well as stealing a young woman for marrying in past Turkish tradition.

Finally, we saw two Turkish families discussing a future marriage and testing the man's will by serving him salty coffee.


CUSTOMS We also learned about: - the magical Bulgarian nestinarstvo in which a dance is performed barefoot on burning embers for well-being, health, and fertility - the elaborately costumed Bulgarian men called kukeri performing rituals intended to scare away evil spirits - the beautiful festival "Kalenica" (or "Sunny weddings") in which hundreds little girls wear white wedding dresses to be wed to the Sun and perform rituals to bring joy, health and well-being


LOCAL RESEARCH Participants walked around in groups in the nearby villages and interviewed locals. Their findings are summarized here. Research in Arda Interviewees were 4 people – men and women, aged 25 and up. Most people have lived in Arda all their life. In the past there were a lot of people and thousands of sheeps, cows and other animals. There were more schools and lots of people were learning; now there are only 11 students from 1st to 8th grade.


LOCAL RESEARCH Research in Arda We spoke with some people on the street and with some we even went to their homes. People were very friendly and welcoming. The most loved meals are "Patatnik" or "Sarmi" and other meals from the Rhodope Mountains. People shared their feelings with us. The best thing in the village was the clean fresh air, the peaceful life. The biggest problem is young people leaving the village to go to bigger cities or foreign countries. When we asked them what they would change about Arda their response was to bring back the people, to have work for all of them and to live together again. The citizens who lived there with less luxuries than most, rated the village with the highest value. As a team we fell in love with Arda and the people who accepted us into their warm homes, gave us gifts and wished us well in our lives. Arda is a place of tradition, humble village life, peace and trust.


LOCAL RESEARCH Research in Gudevitsa We talked to a villager who is 93 years old and knows a lot about the region. We found out how the name of Gudevitsa, Gozdevitsa and Arda were invented. We found out about how the hill Kom got its name and the rituals that were held there, as well as the story of the lost church and cave with treasure up on the hill. Grandpa Toma told us about what life was like before and now in the village of Gudevitsa which has less and less villagers every year and about his and his wife's everyday life.


LOCAL RESEARCH Research in Gudevitsa and Mogilitsa Two women from Mogilitsa were interviewed and also two from Gudevitsa. Three of them were in their 70s and one of them was in her 50s. The conclusion is that the interviewed people in the bigger village (Mogilitsa) seem to have more struggles and complaints than the people in the smaller village (Gudevitsa). However, in general it could be said that although being a bit negatively minded, people in both places do well.


HOW TO PROMOTE HERITAGE TO YOUNG PEOPLE The ideas of the participants are on a large scale and in specifics. Improve the visa situations and make traveling much easier Allow changes in traditions, have fun with it and make it more relatable for young people (no sexism in traditions, for example) Less government issues Give information to people, allow them to ask questions, what makes heritage special Free days in museums Architecture involving traditions Find and use old words that not many know


HOW TO PROMOTE HERITAGE TO YOUNG PEOPLE

Create children books with traditional and cultural content Have young people promote cultural heritage Vlogs about cultural heritage, personal stories, traditional food Music, painting, movies, anime about cultural heritage Interactive competitions and quizzes More trips to cultural places Cultural magazines Shops and online shops where people can leave old stuff, traditional, cultural stuff that they are not using so they can get promoted to more of the population.


HOW TO PROMOTE HERITAGE TO YOUNG PEOPLE Have older people tell their stories to a wider audience Places for communication between young and old people School programs/classes about cultural heritage, Erasmus BUT without putting pressure on young kids (for example forcing them to dance or sing) Play traditional games Events with workshops, skill learning, dances and singing traditions. For example: horse riding, ceramics, carpentry, cooking Video games with cultural heritage motives, influencers talking about cultural heritage, spreading it among platforms like Netflix, YouTube Make traditional clothes for daily use


EVENT

Youth exchange

E+ heritage Youth Conference in the Town of Smolyan 3 July 2021

O n 3 J ul y 2021 i n the c enter of Smol yan w as hel d a c onfer enc e p r ep ar ed and or gani zed b y young p ar ti c i p ants fr om the E+ H er i tage p r oj ec t fi nanc ed b y the Er asmus + p r ogr am. The ai m of the event w as to p r omote d i al ogue on c ul tur al her i tage and the exc hange of know l ed ge and good p r ac ti c es on how to p r eser ve i t. Par ti c i p ants l ear ned how to p l an and or gani ze events, how to c r eate and i mp l ement c ul tur al her i tage p r oj ec ts and how the Er asmus + p r ogr am c an sup p or t the r eal i zati on of thei r i d eas. Those young p eop l e b ec ame amb assad or s of thei r c ountr i es and shar ed w i th the l oc al p eop l e of Smol yan thei r tr ad i ti ons, c ul tur e and fol kl or e.


EVENT


Created by: Nikoleta Stefanova Teodor Vasilev Assia Koleva Hristina Petrova with the help of the participants