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Reflection on Developing

DUCATIONAL INDICATORS in the Context of ESD T. M. QURESHI

Deputy Educational Adviser- Policy &Planning Wing, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan UNESCO-IUCN Meeting of DESD Indicators Project , Bangkok April 2-4, 2007


Sequence of Presentation • • • • •

Numbers & Data Statistics & Indicators Indicator System Types of Indicators Education Indicators in different contexts: • • • • • • • • •

EFA Indicators EFA Development Index (EDI) EFA MDA Indicators MDGs Indicators PRSP Indicators FTI Indicators Human Development Indicators (HDI) SDGs Indicators DESD Indicators T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Numbers, Data/Statistics & Indicators ƒ NUMBERS: – An mathmatic value used in counting & making calculations e.g. 0,1,2,3, 48.7, 786…. – A member of the set of positive integers

ƒ DATA: ƒ Factual information, especially information organized for analysis or used to reason or make decisions ƒ Information usually in the form of facts or Statistics that you can analyze. ƒ Merely numbers are not called Data; but when numbers are associated with particular facts or context, then they become data or statistics.

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Numbers, Data/ Statistics & Indicators • STATISTICS: (when used with a pl. verb)

– –

Numerical Facts systematically arranged; Facts obtained from analyzing information expressed in numbers; (when used with a sing. verb)

– The Science of collecting and analyzing numerical data; – A Discipline that includes procedures & techniques used to collect, process & analyse numerical data to make inferences & decisions in the face of uncertainty. T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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INDICATORS • Indicators are derived from Data or Statistics; • Statistical indicators are used to monitor complex conditions that we may probably judge imprecisely or miss altogether in day-today observations; • This information can be used to judge progress toward some goal or standard, against some past benchmark, or by comparison with data from some other institution or country. T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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TYPES OF INDICATORS • Social Indicators ƒ Demographic Indicators ƒ Education Indicators ƒ Health Indicators ƒ Gender Indicators

• • • • • • •

Economic Indicators Development Indicators Basic Indicators Composite Indicators Proxy Indicators Performance Indicators Output Indicators T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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EDUCATION INDICATORS • An indicator is an individual or composite statistic that relates to a basic construct in education and is useful in a policy context. • Education indicators are statistics that reflect important aspects of the education system, but not all statistics about education are indicators. • Indicators are thus expected to assist policy makers as they formulate schooling goals and translate those goals into actions.

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EDUCATION INDICATORS • Statistics qualify as indicators only if they serve as yardsticks; • For example, the number of students enrolled in schools or the number of Institutions or the number of teachers is an important fact; • But it does little to tell us how well the education system is functioning; • However, Survival rate to grade 5, or Transition to secondary Education or Literacy GPI can provide considerable insight into the health of the system, and can be appropriately considered an indicator. T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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PROXY INDICATORS An education system can be having underlying properties that are not directly or perfectly measurable. For example, QUALITY. • We can talk about the quality of the teaching force but also recognize that there is no direct way to measure it. • An indicator of teacher quality might be – some aggregate of years of academic training in the discipline taught; – possession (or lack of) a credential in the subject matter taught; – measured subject-matter knowledge; – measured pedagogical knowledge; – measured ability to translate subject-matter knowledge into a form that communicates to students of a given age, background, and prior knowledge; and so on. T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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INDICATOR SYSTEMS • Whether indicators are single or composite statistics, a single indicator can rarely provide useful information about such a complex phenomenon as schooling. • Ideally, a system of indicators measures distinct components of the system and also provides information about how the individual components work together to produce the overall effect. • Thus, an indicator system is more than just a collection of indicator statistics i.e. the whole of the information provided by a system of indicators is greater than the sum of its parts. • A good education indicator system is expected to provide accurate and precise information to illuminate the condition of education and contribute to its improvement. T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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CORE EFA INDICATORS ENROLMENT INDICATORS 1: Gross enrolment in early childhood development programmes, including public, private, and community programmes, expressed as a percentage of the official age-group concerned, if any, otherwise the age-group 3 to 5. 2: Percentage of new entrants to primary grade 1 who have attended some form of organized early childhood development programme. 3: Apparent (gross) intake rate (AIR): new entrants in primary grade 1 as a percentage of the population of official entry age. 4: Net intake rate (NIR): new entrants to primary grade 1 who are of the official primary school-entrance age as a percentage of the corresponding population. 5: Gross enrolment ratio (GER). 6: Net enrolment ratio (NER). T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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CORE EFA INDICATORS EXPENDITURE INDICATORS 7: Public current expenditure on primary education a) as a percentage of GNP; and b) per pupil, as a percentage of GNP per capita. 8: Public expenditure on primary education as a percentage of total public expenditure on education. TEACHER INDICATORS 9: Percentage of primary school teachers having the required academic qualifications. 10: Percentage of primary school teachers who are certified to teach according to national standards. EFFICIENCY INDICATORS 11: Pupil-teacher ratio. 12: Repetition rates by grade. 13: Survival rate to grade 5 (percentage of a pupil cohort actually reaching grade 5). 14: Coefficient of efficiency (ideal number of pupil years needed for a actual number of pupil-years). T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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CORE EFA INDICATORS LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT & OUTCOME INDICATORS 15: Percentage of pupils having reached at least grade 4 of primary schooling who master a set of nationally defined basic learning competencies. 16: Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds. ADULT LITERACY & GENDER PARITY INDICATORS 17: Adult literacy rate: percentage of the population aged 15+ that is literate. 18: Literacy Gender Parity Index (GPI): ratio of female to male literacy rates.

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EFA DEVELOPMENT INDEX ƒ

ƒ .

ƒ

The international community defined EFA at the Dakar Forum in 2000, in terms of a set of six time bound goals. The UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) team succeeded in 2003 to quantify some of these goals through EFA Development Index (EDI); which is a composite of relevant indicators, providing one way of reflecting progress towards EFA as a whole. The currently agreed/ used four constituents of EDI and their corresponding indicators are:

¾ ¾ ¾ ¾

UPE: Net Enrolment Ratio in Primary Education; (EFAI:6) ADULT LITERACY: Literacy Rate of the population group aged 15 and over; (EFAI:17) QUALITY OF EDUCATION: Survival to Grade-5; (EFAI:13) & GENDER PARITY: Gender specific EFA Index (EFAI:18++) (GEI: the simple average of GPI for the primary and secondary Gross Enrolment Ratios and the Adults Literacy Rate).

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Millennium Development Goals ƒ The MDGs flow out of the Millennium Declaration (MD) adopted by 147 heads of State and Government in Sep 2001. ƒ The Declaration mainstreams a set of interconnected and mutually reinforcing development goals into a global agenda. ƒ The endorsement by the Government of Pakistan (GoP) to the MD places an obligation on the state for leading the process in the formulation and finalization of the MDG Report, as annual feature.

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Millennium Development Goals & Indicator Relating to Education Achieve Universal Primary Education Indicators Ensure that, by 2015, children ƒ Net enrollment ratio in primary education (EFAI: 6) every where, boys and girls ƒ Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who alike, will be able to finish a reach grade 5 (EFAI: 13) full course of primary ƒ Literacy rate of 15-24 year olds (EFAI:16) schooling .

2 Targets

3 Targets

Promote gender equality and empower women Indicators

Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and to all levels of education no later than 2015

ƒ Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education (from EFAIs 5 & 6 ++) ƒ Ratio of literate females to males of 15-24 year olds (EFAI: 18) ƒ Share of women in wage employment in the nonagricultural sector ƒ Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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SAARC Development Goals & Indicator Relating to Education Goals

Indicators

.

Goal-13: Access to Primary ƒ Gross enrollment ratio primary (EFAI: 6) Education for both gender ƒ Net enrollment ratio primary (EFAI: 6)

ƒ Ratio of girls to boys in primary education

Goal-14: Completion of Primary Education Cycle

ƒ Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5 (EFAI: 13) ƒ Repetition rate by grade (EFAI: 12).

Goal-15: Universal Functional Literacy

ƒ Adult Literacy Rate for population 10 years and above ƒ Ratio of literate females to males 10+ pop

Goal-16: Quality of Education

ƒ % of pupils grade 4 who master a set of defined basic learning competencies. ƒ Pupil-teacher ratio Primary (EFAI: 11)

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) Intermediate and Outcome Indicators of Education •

Gross enrolment rate primary (by Gender); (EFAI: 5) + Ratio of girls to boys (GPI) enrolled in primary;

Gross enrolment rate middle (by Gender); + Ratio of girls to boys (GPI) enrolled in middle;

• •

Net enrolment rate primary (by Gender); (EFAI: 6) Literacy rate (by Gender); (EFAI: 17)

• • • • •

Students Drop-out rate from primary (by Gender); (EFAI: 13) Number of functional public Schools; Percentage of trained teachers; (EFAI: 9) Teacher Absenteeism; Sanctioned Staff strength (by Gender). (Yellow lines show Outcome Indicators)

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Fast-track Initiative (FTI) • Following on the development consensus reached at Monterrey; the Education for All (EFA) Fasttrack Initiative (FTI) was established in 2002 as a new compact for the education sector. • FTI is an evolving global partnership of developing and donor countries and agencies to support global EFA goals by focusing on accelerating progress towards the core EFA goal of universal primary school completion (UPC), for boys and girls alike, by 2015.

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PARTICIPATION IN THE FTI ‰ FTI is open to all interested funding agencies, and lowincome countries that seek and receive endorsement through the FTI review process of their plans to achieve the MDG and EFA goal of a complete primary education of good quality for all children by 2015. ‰ Endorsement through the FTI review process normally requires the following: ƒ An approved national poverty reduction strategy (PRSP) or a similar national strategy that would help ensure that education strategies are anchored in country level consultative and budgetary processes, ƒ A sector-wide program for education agreed with incountry donors and including a strategy for HIV/AIDS, gender equality, capacity, monitoring and evaluation ƒ Agreement to monitor benchmark indicators.

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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FTI Benchmark Indicators The World Bank has developed following indicative framework for EFA/ Education Sector Plans as a key bench marking tool to be applied with flexibility: Service delivery

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Student flow

ƒ Girls’ & boys’ grade-1 intake rate. (EFAI:3) ƒ Girls’ & boys’ primary completion rate. (EFAI:13 as proxy) ƒ Construction cost per class room (furnished & equipped including sanitation)

Trend rate to 100% by 2010

ƒ Govt. revenue ƒ Education spending ƒ Primary Education spending (EFAI:8)

14-18% of GDP 20% of Govt. Revenue 50% of total education recurrent expenditure

System expansion System financing

Average annual teacher salary Pupil/Teacher ratio. (EFAI:11) Non-salary spending. Average repetition rate. (EFAI:12) Annual hours of instructions.

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

3.5 x per capita GDP 40 : 1 33% of recurrent education spending 10% or lower. 850-1000 hours Trend rate to 100% by 2015 US$.10,000 or less

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Human Development Indicators (HDI) • Human development index (HDI) measured and presented annually in UNDP Human Development Report, is a composite index. • It ranks majority of countries of the world on the basis of their average achievement in three basic dimensions of human development— ¾ A long and healthy life, as measured by life expectancy at birth. ¾ Knowledge, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two- thirds weight) and the combined primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio (with onethird weight). (EFAI:17 & EFAI 5 + +) ¾ A decent standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita (PPP US$). T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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Human Development Indicators calculating the human development indices .

The diagram summarize how the human development index used in the UNDP Human Development Report is constructed: DIMENSION

A long and healthy life

INDICATOR Life expectancy at birth

DIMENSION INDEX

Knowledge

A decent standard of living

Adult literacy rate Gross enrolment ratio GDP per capita (GER) (PPP US$) Adult literacy index GER index

Life expectancy index

Education index

GDP index

Human development index (HDI)

T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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EFA- MDA Indicators In the UNESCO Regional workshop held four weeks back in Bangkok, 65 Indicators have been laid down for assessing progress towards Dakar EFA Goals

#

Goal

Inds

1

Expanding & improving comprehensive early childhood care & education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children.

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2

Ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.

3

Ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life skills programs.

4

4

Achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults.

4

5

Eliminate Gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieve gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girl’s full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality

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6

Improve all aspects of the quality of education and ensure excellence so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential lifePak skills T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE,

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15

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DESD Monitoring Indicators 1. TECHNOLOGY OPERATIONS AND CONCEPTS: Teachers demonstrate a sound understanding of technology operations and concepts. 2. PLANNING AND DESIGNING LEARNING ENVIRONMENTS AND EXPERIENCES: Teachers plan and design effective learning environments and experiences supported by technology. 3. TEACHING, LEARNING, AND THE CURRICULUM: Teachers implement curriculum plans, that include methods and strategies for applying technology to maximize student learning (Cond‌) T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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DESD INDICATORS

(Contd)

4. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION: Teachers apply technology to facilitate a variety of effective assessment and evaluation strategies 5. PRODUCTIVITY AND PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE: Teachers use technology to enhance their productivity and professional practice 6. SOCIAL, ETHICAL, LEGAL, AND HUMAN ISSUES: Teachers understand the social, ethical, legal, environmental, and human issues surrounding the use of technology in PK-12 schools and apply those principles in practice

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CHALLENGES 1. Low level of spending on Education 2. Donors’ interventions are scattered and disjointed, leaving little impact 3. Lack of coordinated projects/ programs, procedures for funding and procurement Capacity, Monitoring and Evaluation 4. Weak Education Management Information System

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Suggested Steps to Overcome CHALLENGES 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

A sector-wide holistic program (SWAp) for education with in-country donors and including a strategy for Hepatitis /HIV/AIDS, Gender Equality, Capacity, Monitoring and Evaluation, under Government Leadership Strengthening of National / Provincial / District Education Management Information Systems Dialogue with all stakeholders in the sector, and a joint Commitment to Change, Flexibility and transparency in procedures and implementation plans, Harmonisation of donor procedures. An early agreement on common procedures and a joint commitment, T.M. QURESHI, P&P WING, MoE, Pak

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