Page 1

FABRICFLATION structuring textile techniques

[2014 -15]

MASTERINADVANCEDARCHITECTURE [DMIC]DigitalMatter_IntelligentConstructions

BARCELONA


MASTER IN ADVANCED ARCHITECTURE

Fabricflation

Research Studio: [DMIC] Digital Matter _ Intelligent Constructions

Director: Areti Markopoulou Faculty Assistant: Alexandre Dubor Assistant: Carlos Bausa Martinez

Zoi Dafni Arnellou Eirini Aikaterini Papakonstantinou Panagiota Sarantinoudi

BARCELONA


INDEX

[01] Introduction

06-07

[02] State of the Art

14-23

[03] 3d Printing Research

26-49

[04] Thermoplastic Material Research

[04_1] Bioplastic

[04_2]

Polymorph_ Polysterene_ Methacrylate

[04_3]

Shape Memory Polymer

[05] Alternate 3d Printing Research [05_1]

Alternate Material Deposition

[05_2]

Air Flow Insertion _ Tube Patterns

[05_3]

Inflated Patterns

[06] Prototype Design [07] Conclusion

52-99

102-177

180-205 206-207


[06]

Introduction

Introduction

[01] Introduction Textiles‘ tension and their ability to transform into self- supporting and self-adapting surfaces, when a system of patterns from different materials is embedded on them, has been our main interest from the beginning of the Digital Matter- Intelligent Constructions Studio. This system can generate significant three-dimensional structural organization from a two-dimensional leightweight and flexible surface of fabric, which grew to be our objective for the DMIC research. Our research was initially inspired by the recent Programmable Textiles project of the Self-Assembly lab of MIT. The objective of this project was to program pieces of textiles to deform in a specific way after patterns had been 3d-printed on them at a pre-stretched state. Stemming from the former research, our goal is to explore and study the mechanisms through which these deformations occur, to add interactive elements and to explore how a structure of these principles could be applied in architecture.

[07]


[08]

Introduction

Introduction

Objectives

non structural material self-suppoting structures two dimensional components three-dimensional structures combination of materials self assembling structures

[09]


[10]

Introduction

Introduction

At the first stage, our research was focused on the deformations that occur when simple patterns are being 3d-printed with certain filament on stretched lycra fabric. The conclusions extracted from this stage are important for the form-finding of our final structures in a bigger scale. The next step of our research was to define a way to enlarge our structures. The PLA filament we mainly used for the 3d-printing is a typical thermoplastic material, meaning that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling. This way, when the prototypes are heated the printed pattern becomes less stiff and at the same time the forces of the stretching of the fabric prevail and the deformation becomes more intense. Except if an external force is applied, the pattern becomes stiff again when cooled in a new position. Following this principle, among the heat-responsive polymers we think that the shape memory polymer could have a lot of potential for the further development of our project. Changing the stiffness of the material by heating, in the desired places would offer us control over the form of the structure in a much larger scale.

[11]


[12]

Introduction

Introduction

[13]


[14]

State of the Art

State of the Art

[02] State of the Art

During our quest for the[DMIC] Digital Matter-Intelligent Constructions Studio, we came across several projects from the field of architecture, as well as the academic one that acted as inspirations for the development of our project, influencing as both conceptually and scientifically. Among them the ones that influenced us most significantly are the following: [1] Programmable Textiles by Self-Assembly Lab, MIT+ Christophe Guberan + Erik Demaine + Autodesk Inc [2] The Magic Garden_ Karen Millen - Regent Street Windows Project 2013 by Arthur Mamou-Mani [3] Chelsea Xpo Pavilion London Festival of Architecture 2010 by Chelsea College of Art and Design + Cyril Shing and Yiching Liu

[15]


[16]

State of the Art

State of the Art

[1] Programmable Textiles by Self-Assembly Lab, MIT+ Christophe Guberan + Erik Demaine + Autodesk Inc

Programmable Materials _ Wood, Hybrid Plastic, Fabric and Carbon Fibre, Self-Assembly Lab, MIT+ Christophe Guberan + Erik Demaine + Autodesk Inc

Programmable Textiles Procedure, Self-Assembly Lab, MIT+ Christophe Guberan + Erik Demaine + Autodesk Inc

Programmable Textiles Project, developed by the director of MIT‘s Self-Assembly Lab, Skylar Tib-

„The idea here is to take existing material systems like fibres, sheets, strands and three-dimensio-

bits and his team; Athina Papadopoulou, Carrie McKnelly, Christopher Martin, Filipe Campos, has

nal objects and program them to change shape and property on demand,“ Tibbits explains. „It‘s sort

been the inceptive project for our research. As part of the Lab‘s Programmable Materials Project,

of like a vision of a robots without wire, motors or batteries.“ 2The technique that the Self-Assembly

which explores the unprecedented capabilities of simple materials, such as textiles, carbon fiber,

Lab follows in Programmable Textiles is based on prestretching fabric onto rigid frames and and

printed wood grain and other rubbers/plastics among others, it focuses on programming and using

then 3d print on top of them various layers of filaments. after releasing the tensed fabric from the

the former in such a way that they can change their initial shape, appearance or other property .

frame, a rigid geometry occurs tha depends on the pattern that has been apllied on the textile.

1

[17]


[18]

State of the Art

State of the Art

From the Programmable Textiles project we extrapolated the principle of pretension of textiles in conjunction with materials that change stiffness. These two principles grew to be our main objectives for the DMIC studio. However, the limitations of following precisely the same procedure were quite prominent from the beginning, for the required scale of the DMIC Studio. In addition, enhancing the pretensed fabric’s deformation after 3d printing on it, with further deformation stages, was another key point that we had to take into consideration. Thus, the intent of our research has been the application of Self Assembly’s Lab Programmable Textiles Project’s core principles into a bigger scale, through an extended deformation process.

Programmable Textiles, Self-Assembly Lab, MIT+ Christophe Guberan + Erik Demaine + Autodesk Inc

[19]


[20]

State of the Art

State of the Art

[2] The Magic Garden_ Karen Millen-Regent Street Windows Project 2013 by Arthur Mamou-Mani

‘The Magic Garden’ installation by Mamou-Mani is part of the Regent Street Windows Project 2013 organized by the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA)3. It has been designed to animate and seamlessly link all the windows of the store with one beautiful, fluid and surreal landscape. With the help of both digital and physical techniques, the architect used a smocking pattern to shape light-diffusing polyamide mesh fabric to maximise its structural qualities and interact with the mannequins . The result reflects the precision of both tailoring and architecture as well as the colour and lightness of the Karen Millen SS13 collection.

The individual manipulation of certain non structural textile’s points, in a way that transforms it into a structural element was the most critical feature of Mamou-Mani’s installation that inspired our project. In this manner. our intension has been to detect the materials, as well as the fabrication procedure, that would enable us to impose such a principle on to our research.

[21]


[22]

State of the Art

State of the Art

[3] Chelsea Xpo Pavilion London Festival of Architecture 2010 by Chelsea College of Art and Design + Cyril Shing and Yiching Liu ‘Chelsea Xpo Pavilion Project is directed by Cyril Shing, Yiching Liu and Daniel Piker (creator of Kangaroo – physics engine for Grasshopper) and Chelsea College final year students4. The pavilion marks the achievements of Platform 2’s idea of digital creativity and addresses issues of sustainability through consideration of the use of materials and the development fabrication processes. The pavilion is sponsored by Speedo and is constructed using 200 LZR Racer swimming suits which due to recent changes in rules for competition couldn’t be used for competition, resulting in a remarkable structure. The project objective was to re-use this product, the LZR racer, as an architectural component to think about the sustainability approaches in the design and fabrication process with the integration of digital technology.

Similarly to the other projects that stimulated our research, in Chelsea Expo Pavilion we detected the structural properties of fabrics that occur when deployed at a prestreched state. Space generation from such textile control was one of the derired properties for the development of our research project, enriching it’s structural behaviour with more interactive states.

[23]


[24]

State of the Art

State of the Art

[25]


[26]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[03]3dPrintingResearch Our research started with applying the same technique explored in Programmable Textiles with an in depth experimentation with the various parameters that shape the resulting self-supporting fabric structures. In the tables below, the various experiments that were carried out are presented in an comparative way, so that the shaped geometries and the rules that form them can be organized. In such a way the desired deformations can become controllable.

manufacturing process

[27]


[28]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[29]

[Table 1] Experiments with different filaments Constants pattern: circle [r=40mm] fabric tension: fabric: lycra 150% infill oftension: fabric printing: 150% 100% Type of Filament

Height width Speed Temperature Time

material of filament width of filament

White PLA Filament 1.75mm

2mm 3mm 90 230oC 5 min

Variables

infill of printing: 100%

1mm 1mm 90 230oC 1 min

Eco Flex Filament 1.75mm

2mm 3mm 15 230oC 23 min

1mm 1mm 15 230oC 1 min

Ninja Flex Filament 1.75mm

2mm 3mm 15 245oC 19 min

1mm 1mm 15 245oC 1 min

Artificial Wood Filament 1.75mm

2mm 3mm 25 180oC 3 min

Nylon Filament 1.75mm

1mm 1mm 25 180oC 2 min

2mm 3mm 25 240oC 14 min

Makerbot Flexible Filament 1.75mm

1mm 1mm 25 240oC 3 min

2mm 3mm 45 100oC 15 min

1mm 1mm 45 100oC 2 min

Black Conductive ABS Filament 1.75mm

2mm 3mm 90 230oC 9 min

1mm 1mm 90 230oC 2 min


[30]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[31]

[Table 2] Experiment with different filament height Constants pattern: circle [r=40mm] fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150%

Height

x axis deformation y axis deformation z axis deformation

Variables

filament: Black PLA 1.75mm infill of printing: 100% width of filament: 1mm

h1= 0.5 mm

h2= 1.0 mm

height of filament [0.5 mm increments]

h3= 1.5 mm

h4= 2.0 mm

h5= 2.5 mm

h6= 3.0 mm

37.5 %

46.25 %

52.5 %

25.0 %

18.75 %

10.0 %

62.5 %

57.5 %

50.0 %

21.25 %

6.25 %

1.25 %

3.9 cm

4.0 cm

4.0 cm

3.4 cm

2.6 cm

0.9 cm


[32]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[33]

[Table 3] Experiment with different filament width Constants pattern: circle [r=40mm] fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150%

Width

Variables

filament: Black PLA 1.75mm infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

w1= 0.5 mm

width of filament [0.5 mm increments]

w2= 1.0 mm

w3= 1.5 mm

w4= 2.0 mm

w5= 2.5 mm

w6= 3.0 mm

62.5 %

60 %

38.75 %

27.5 %

11.25 %

6.25 %

46.25 %

48.75 %

35 %

26.25 %

22.5 %

0%

4.3 cm

4.3 cm

3.9 cm

4.1 cm

3.0 cm

1.2 cm


[34]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[35]

Deformation Diagrams for Tables 2 and 3 Variables

filament: Black PLA 1.75mm infill of printing: 100% width of filament: 1mm

height of filament [0.5 mm increments]

Constants pattern: circle [r=40mm] fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150%

Variables

filament: Black PLA 1.75mm infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

width of filament [0.5 mm increments]

y axis deformation

Constants pattern: circle [r=40mm] fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150%

40mm

20mm

h1

w1

h3

w3

h2

w2

h4

w4

h5

w5

h6

w6

x axis deformation

[Table 2]

[Table 3]


[36]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[37]

[Table 4] Experiment with different filament patterns Constants fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150% filament: Black PLA 1.75mm

Circular Pattern

3d printed pattern

Pattern 1

Variables

circle radius: 40mm infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

Pattern 2

double circle pattern variations width of filament

Pattern 3

Pattern 4

Pattern 5

Pattern 6

Pattern 7

Pattern 8


[38]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[39]

[Table 5] Experiment with different filament patterns Constants fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150% filament: Black PLA 1.75mm

Square Pattern

3d printed pattern

Pattern 1

Variables

square dimensions: 75 x 75mm infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

Pattern 2

square pattern variations width of filament

Pattern 3

Pattern 4

Pattern 5

Pattern 6

Pattern 7

Pattern 8

Pattern 9


[40]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[41]

[Table 6] Experiment with different filament patterns Constants fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150% filament: Black PLA 1.75mm Dashed Lines Pattern

3d printed pattern

Variables

square dimensions: 75 x 75 mm infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

Pattern 1

Pattern 2

dashed line pattern variations width of filament

Pattern 3

Pattern 4

Pattern 5

Pattern 6

Pattern 7


[42]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[43]

[Table 7] Experiment with different filament patterns Constants fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150% filament: Black PLA 1.75mm Square_ Rhombus Pattern

3d printed pattern

Variables

square dimensions: 75 x 75mm infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

Pattern 1

Pattern 2

square_rhombus pattern variations width of filament

Pattern 3

Pattern 4

Pattern 5

Pattern 6

Pattern 7

Pattern 8


[44]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[45]

[Table 8] Experiment with different filament patterns Constants fabric: lycra fabric tension: 150% filament: Black PLA 1.75mm

Multiplied Pattern

3d printed pattern

Variables infill of printing: 100% height of filament: 1mm

Pattern 1

multiplied patterns’ variations width of filament

Pattern 2

Pattern 3

Pattern 4

Pattern 5

Pattern 6

Pattern 7


[46]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[47]

[Table 9] Pattern Classification

least deformed

most deformed

least deformed

most deformed

least deformed

most deformed

least deformed

most deformed

least flexible

least rigid

least predictable deformation

most flexible

most rigid

most predictable deformation


[48]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

Conclusions

Outline thicker outline

smaller deformation more controlable deformation

Inner Pattern denser pattern

smaller deformation more controlable deformation

single line diagonal to fabric’s fibers maximum deformation cross diagonal to fabric’s fibers addition of rigidity at the corners

cross parallel to fabric’s fibers stiffer pattern with less deformation dashed line cross diagonal to fabric’s fibers more flexible pattern

[49]


[50]

3d Printing Research

3d Printing Research

[51]


[52]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

[04]ThermoplasticMaterial Research During the course of our 3d printing research the compelling need to scale up our models became evident. As the various filaments that we used are thermoplastic, we decided to expand our research into various other thermoplastic materials, in order to test the behaviour of tensed fabric in bigger scale. Our experiments started with applying the same patterns with viscoelastic materials onto prestreched fabric, with bioplastic, polymorph and then with more controllable materials such as polysterene, methacrylate and eventually shape memory polymer.

[53]


[54]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

silicone

liquid rubber

One of our first experiments using other patterning techniques than 3d prin-

limitations than those experienced with 3d printing. Although the deformed

ting, was to apply silicone and liquid rubber on the same prestreched lycra

shapes are very similar to the previous experiments the resulting geomet-

frames, using a

ries proved to be extremely flexible, without the desired stiffness and con-

simple circular pattern. Applying the former materials

with brush or injections onto tensed fabric we came across to even more

trollability.

[55]


[56]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastics Definition: Thermoplastic or thermosoftening plastic material is typically a polymer, that becomes pliable or moldable above a specific temperature and solidifies upon cooling5. Within their glass transition temperature Tg and their melting temperature Tm, thermoplastics are rubbery due to their alternating rigid crystalline and elastic amorphous regions, Respectively, above and below those temperatures, their physical properties change drastically without an associated phase change. In their softened state they can be formed into any desired shape by molding or extruding techniques6. Thermoplastics make about 90% of all plastics produced today and among others, the most common are PLA, ABS, acrylic, nylon, polycarbonate, polystyrene, bioplastics, polymorph, e.t.c. Another interesting feauture of thermoplastics is that a significant percentage of them is recyclable and biodegradable.

various thermoplastics

[57]


[58]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

[04.1] Bioplastic

Definition: A bioplastic or biopolymer is a plastic that is entirely or at least 20% composed of renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, pea starch or microbiota starch, cellulose or sugar7. Bioplastics, due to the fact that they have absolute biological origin, they are biodegradable and in this way can be easily broken down into CO2, water, energy and cell mass with the aid of microbes. There are several types of bioplastics that can be produced both commercially and domestically which meet different requirements. Depending on the raw materials used for their production and on their proportions, the bioplastic properties and behaviour can alternate vastly, ranging from completely stiff and britlle outcome or rubbery and flexible one. In the course of our experiments we focused on gelatin based bioplastics and various composites, in order to define a type which can generate a controllable deformed pattern, when applied onto prestretched fabric.

[59]


[60]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Manufacturing Process

puring bioplastic

molding frame

spreading

A

B

C

D

water [ml]

60

60

60

60

gelatine powder [g]

10

10

10

10

glycerine [ml]

3

6

9

12

bioplastic

removing sheet

bioplastic sheet

Experiment with different proportions of glycerine

B

A

C

least flexible_elastic A

B

C

D

water [ml]

60

60

60

60

gelatine powder [g]

5

10

15

20

glycerine [ml]

3

3

3

3

most flexible_elastic Experiment with different proportions of gelatin

A

B

C

least stiff_brittle | less drying time A

B

C

height 1mm

height 2mm

height 3mm

D

D

most stiff_brittle | more drying time

Experiment with different thickeness _ Experiment with addition of graphene

D

water 60 ml gelatine powder 10 g glycerine 3ml

addition of graphene A

least elastic

B

C

D

most elastic

[61]


[62]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

After experimenting with different bioplastic compositions, we tested the patterning application technique, similarly to the silicon and liquid rubber experiments. A simple square pattern with bioplastic material was applied onto a prestretched farbric frame, which was then released. The resulting pattern was again very flexible and its deformation significantly uncontrollable (wavy result). In that way, we tried to scale up the experiment, in order to test bioplastic behaviour in a larger scale. Two experiments were carried out, one with a self-supporting prototype and one with a tensed fabric surface. The self-supporting structure consists of several mesh fabric columns brushed with several layers of bioplastic. The structure proved to be self- supporting, with notable stifness and rigidity.The second prototype consists of a mesh fabric surface which is tensed with strings in several points , with sveral layers of bioplastic. This experiment also showed the noteworthy stiffness of bioplastic. Nevertheless, these prototypes use the textile tension only at a primary level and not in a continuous manner, as the desired one.

self-supporting bioplastic prototype

[63]


[64]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

[04.2]Polymorph_Polysterene_ Methacrylate

Considering the limitations of all the techniques that we tested in terms of scaling capability and single level of deformation [inability to return to the primary state/shape or continuously changing state/shape], we decided to experiment with Shape Memory Polymer (SMP). As SMP‘s commercial availability is limited, we searched for other materials that would allow neverending deformations, such as polymoph, polystene and methacrylate. These materials belong to the broad thermoplastic category and can simulate -to a certain level- the deformations of the SMP material. The following experiments include patterning or lasercutting the thermoplastic materials and attaching them by stiching onto prestretched fabrics.

Tensed Bioplastic Surface Prototype

[65]


[66]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Material Temperature Deformation Tests Polymorph

room temperature

70oC

120oC

100oC

150oC

80oC

130oC

70oC

120oC

Polysterene

room temperature

Polymorph Square Pattern Ironed bettween prestretched lycra fabric

Methacrylate

room temperature

Shape Memory Polymer

room temperature

Lasercut Polysterene Sticks stitched on prestretched mesh fabric

[67]


[68]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 1

Experiment 2

Fixed Methacrylate Diagonal Cross Pattern on mesh fabric

Free Methacrylate Closed Diagonal Cross Pattern on mesh fabric

Experiment 3

Two phase deformation

of Methacrylate Multicross Pattern [Dome Creation after release that shrinks after heating

[69]


[70]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

[04.3] Shape Memory Polymer

Shape-memory polymers have attracted significant attention from both industrial and academic research circles due to their functionality. shape fixing and recovering mechanisms. These were the main properties that led our research to this smart material. SMPs‘ abililty for perpetual derfomation between two reversable states in combination with derfomation of patterning on prestretched textiles is the desired for the material and behavioural evolution od our experiments. In this manner, we explored lasercutting Veritex Shape Memory Polymer and embedding it on prestreched fabric, creating self- supporting structures out of Veritex and applying fabric tension on them, as well as changing the textile tension, in order to observe the struxtures deformation caused by both textile stress and heating.

[71]


[72]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Definition

Types of shape memory polymers

Shape Memory Polymer is a polymeric smart material, which can change continuously between a

Linear block copolymers

deformed state (temporary shape) to their original (permanent) shape, when actuated by an exter-

Amorphous polynorbornene

nal stimulus (trigger), such as temperature change8.

Chemically crosslinked SMPs

SMP‘s, as all Shape Memory materials, have the ability to ‘‘memorize’’ a macroscopic (permanent)

Crosslinked polyurethane

shape, be manipulated and ‘‘fixed’’ to a temporary and dormant shape under specific conditions of

PEO based crosslinked SMPs

temperature and stress, and then later relax to the original, stress-free condition under thermal,

Thermoplastic shape-memory

electrical, or environmental command9. Due to the fact that most SMPs have relatively low glass

Light-induced SMPs

transition temperature (Tg) ranging between 50 to 100oC and sifnificantly low tensile strength in their rubbery state10 , they can undergo extreme deformations with the application of appropriate

Electro-active SMPs Veritex Shape Memory Polymer Sample

external forces. More particularly, SMPs have a high capacity in continuous elastic deformation [elongation by 200% in the rubbery state], without degradation of their material performance. Definition

General properties _Unique shape memory properties

Veritex is the trademark name of CRG’s Shape Memory Polymer composite material, similar to

_Strengthening fabric reinforcement

other high-performance fiber-reinforced composites, except that CRG’s patented Veriflex resin

_Deforms and recovers shape repeatedly

is used as the matrix11. It has high strength and stiffness in low temperatures, but when heated

_Transforms from rigid composite to soft elastomer

after the glass transition temperature, it softens. In this state it can be reshaped12. Then it cools

_Up to 80% elongation in elastic state

in a few seconds and hardens, maintaining its new shape. When reheated, Veritex will return

_Durable

to its original cured shape.

_Machinable Benefits

Mechanical properties Tensile Strength, Ultimate 16.7 MPa

17.9 Mpa

Elongation at Break

2420 psi

Y-Direction; ASTM D638

2600 psi

1.7 %

4.2 %

X-Direction; ASTM D638 1.7 %

Y-Direction; ASTM D638

4.2 % X-Direction, ASTM D638 Below Tg

Tensile Modulus

80 % 1.187 GPa

80 % X-Direction, ASTM D638

Toughness_ Unique shape memory properties_ Recovery to memorized shape after repeated deformation_ Ability to change from a rigid polymer to rubbery elastomer_ Over 95% (one-part resin) and 100% (two-part resin) elongation possible in elastic state_

Above Tg

Low viscosity for easy processing

172.2 ksi X-Direction; ASTM D638

(RTM or VARTM) (two-part resin)_

1.227 GPa 178.0 ksi

Y-Direction; ASTM D638

Open-mold curable_ Aesthetic clarity_ Machinability once cured_

Thermal properties Glass Transition Temp, Tg

62.0 °C

144 °F

[73]


Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Comparison of Veriflex® specimen – the upper after tensile test at 70º C, the lower was never used for tests14

Temperature at the peak of tan delta of Veriflex SMP as a function of frequency13

Applications _Customized, reusable molds _Deployable mechanisms and structures _Adjustable furniture _Reformable toys _Customized containers, adjustable shipping and packaging _Actuators _Sensors _Space-qualifiable applications _Removable mandrels _Automotive components

real stress (MPa)

[74]

Activation methods _Resistive heating _Embedded heaters (for example, stretchy heaters, nichrome wires) _Contact heating (MRE heaters) _Induction heating _Dielectic heating _Microwave heating _Infrared radiant heating conductive fillers, CNT, CNF, iron and ferrite

temperature [oC]

real deformation

Veriflex® working cycle in real deformation, temperature and real stress coordinates15

[75]


[76]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 1_ Initial SMP Experiment Process

Experiment 2 _ Diagonal SMP stick deformation on prestretched lycra frame

Step 1_Heating and deforming

Step 2_Heating again

Step 3_Reducing the stressing forces of the textile

Preheating SMP stick state

Step 4_Heating and deforming

Step 5_Removing the fabric and deforming

Deformed SMP stick after heating

[77]


[78]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 3

SMP prototype experiment using Veritex arches that are deformed by heating and multi directional fabric mesh tensile forces

[79]


[80]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 3.1_ Shape Memory Polymer as structural element

anchor points of arch

the tension of the fabric on top of the structure makes the shape memory polymer arch structure to deform

[81]


[82]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 3.2_ Shape Memory Polymer as structural element

one anchor point

free end of the arch structure allows complete deformation under the tension of the fabric

[83]


[84]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 3.3_ Shape Memory Polymer as structural element

anchor points attached vertically

the difference in attaching of the anchor points creates a completely different deformation

[85]


[86]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 3.4_ Shape Memory Polymer as structural element

anchor points attached vertically when the tension of the fabric is less and the structure is released from its force, the shape memory arch is able to regain its original shape up to a point

[87]


[88]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 4_ Shape Memory Polymer Multiple Patern embedded on fabric

four anchor points attached vertically fabric tensed

four anchor points fabric not tensed

attached vertically

no anchor points fabric not tensed

[89]


[90]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 4_ Shape Memory Polymer Multiple Pattern embedded on fabric

[91]


[92]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

[93]


[94]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 5_ Shape Memory Polymer in Kinetic Tensegrity

Four-strut tensegrity patterns

section

plan

[95]


[96]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Experiment 5_ Shape Memory Polymer in Kinetic Tensegrity

tensegrity component before heating

tensegrity component after heating

[97]


[98]

Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

Final SMP Experiment _ Shape Memory Polymer in Kinetic Tensegrity Structure

In the final SMP experiment, on which Shape Memory Polymer patterns were embedded on tensed fabric frames, the tensengrity components were combined in a three dimensional structure. Individual actuation of the former, enabled the movement of both the tensegrity component, as well as the the structure as a whole. In this way, a linear three dimensional structure could be manipulated from a single point to its whole extend, when actuated by heating the componetns accordingly.

[99]


[100] Thermoplastic Material Research

Thermoplastic Material Research

[101]


[102] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [103]

[05]Alternate3dPrinting Research The exploration of pattern deformations of various thermplastic materials onto prestretched textiles revealed the potentiality of the previously explored 3d Printing Research in terms of application procedure and derformation control, as well as the need to be redifined in a larger scale. Thus, our research focus shifted to the primary one, that of the additive manufacturing process, alternating, however, material deposition and application procedure. Testing several filaments or material composites, different material deposition techniques and, at the same time, adding actuating parameters apart from fabric pretension. enabled us to scale up and enhance the deforming patterns exploration.


[104] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [105]

The initial attempt for scaling up the 3d Printing Research was realized by applying manually the circular pattern on a 150% prestreched lycra fabric using the 3d Doodler Pen, as a first step towards making an extruder for a robotic arm. These experiments displayed the need for scale testing the explored patterns from material deposition volume point of view, as well as from fabric tension percentage.

3d Doodler Pen

50 x 50 cm Frame with Circular Pattern Scale Up using 3d Doodler Pen [scale factor 6.25]


[106] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [107] Scaling Tests

scale factor 0.5

scale factor 1

scale factor 1.5

37.5 x 37.5 mm

75 x 75 mm

112.5 x 112.5 mm

pattern

dimensions

deformed pattern

limited textile tension

optimum textile tension and pattern rigidity

excessive pattern rigidity


[108] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [109]

[05.1]AlternateMaterialDeposition

Simutaneously with the scaling tests that revealed that the patterns don‘t have analogous deformations among scaling factors, material deposition should also be questioned. Depositing materials that have interactive properties or can enhance the derfomation states was the next step of our research. The research that was carried out, regarded not only different kinds of filaments but also other materials and composites that could be deposited manually or mechanically based on the explored geometric patterns.


[110] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [111] Fabrics and Strechable Surfaces

textile

composition

stretching ability

lycra

82% polyamide 18% elastane

two directional

lycra lining

75% polyester 25% lycra

two directional

lycra lining

75% polyester 25% lycra

one directional

polyleather

43%polyurethane 57% polyester

one directional

latex

100% latex

two directional hyper-elastic

polyleather

92% polyester 8% spandex

two directional hyper-elastic

carbon fiber

100% carbon fiber

non stretchable

filament attachment

attaching

attaching

attaching

attaching glossy surface: very good matte surface: good attaching easily removed

-

attaching


[112] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [113] Interactive Filaments Catalogue Limitations

Black ABS Conductive Filament - 1.75mm 1200 ohms Resistance - 1200 ohm/cm Print Temperature - 220-260℃ Recommended Extrusion Temperatures: 220C-260℃ Dimensional Accuracy: ±0.05mm Compatible with ABS-capable 3D printers Durable, withstands a wide range of temperatures, and tends to be more flexible than PLA.

Needs heated bed, otherwise large parts collapse

Proto-Pasta Magnetic Iron PLA - 1.75mm Magnet functionality (Similar qualities like pure iron) Print Temp: 170C -190C Melting point: 1811 K ​(1538 °C, 2 ​ 800 °F) Boiling point: 3134 K ​(2862 °C, 5 ​ 182 °F) Density near r.t.: 7.874 g·cm−3 when liquid, at m.p.: 6.98 g·cm−3 Heat of fusion: 13.81 kJ·mol−1 Heat of vaporization: 340 kJ·mol−1 Molar heat capacity: 25.10 J·mol−1·K−1

PLAs general limitations

Proto-Pasta Polycarbonate ABS Alloy Black - 1.75mm

Strong and resilient Hygroscopic material-absorbs humidity Heat deflective, Impact resistant Rigid and flexible / it softens when heated Print Temp:  260C-280C / Print speed: 30-80mm/s Good electrical insulator Direct Drive extruder recommended

Very moisture sensitive Needs dry - bake in an 85C-95C oven for about an hour A heated bed may help warpage and layer adhesion on larger/thicker parts Printing at high temperatures Difficult to stick to the bed table Toxic

Proto-Pasta Carbon Fiber Reinforced PLA Filament Durable Structural strength, resists bending, increased rigidity Delivers a rock-solid feel Layer adhesion with very low warpage Print Temperarture: 190C-210C

A little more abrasive when extruding Prolonged use can increase wear on your 3D printer - especially on lower end nozzles Moisture sensitive, quite brittle

High Impact Polystyrene (HIPS) Dissolvable Black Filament- 1.75mm Dissolvable support material HIPS uses Limonene* as a solvent Very similar to ABS but much less likely to warp Ideal for printing in conjunction with ABS Similar strength and stiffness profile to ABS Extrusion Temperature: 220-230°C Bed Temperature: 50-60°C

slightly sensitive to moisture


[114] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [115] Wtaer Soluble Filaments Catalogue Limitations

PVA Filament - 1.75mm Polyvinyl acetate - water-soluble Printing temperature: 170-190°C Translucent with a slightly yellow tint Compatible with both ABS and PLA Heating responsive shape memory effect

Extremely sensitive to moisture (must be kept dry)

PORO-LAY LAY-FOMM 40 Porous Filament - 1.75mm Foamy and highly porous material Part rubber-elastomeric polymer and part PVA(water soluble) Rinsed in water, it becomes microporous and flexible Bendable and sponge-like, elastic It gets full flexibility if it is dipped in tap water for 1-4 days Shore hardness: A40 Strong, sturdy, rigid when printed / almost zero warp Elastic, flexible, and rubber like after the rinse in hot water

Very moisture sensitive If it gets wet it needs to dry out in an oven at 80° for some hours Ultrasonic cleaner with warm water for 60-90 minutes might be needed to clear the PVA left overs, or warm, soapy water

PORO-LAY LAY-FOMM 60 Porous Filament - 1.75mm Similar to PORO-LAY LAY-FOMM 60 Porous Similar to PORO-LAY LAY-FOMM 60 Porous Shore hardness: A60 Slightly more firm

PORO-LAY GEL-LAY Porous Filament - 1.75mm Similar to the the above water-soluble filaments Jelly-like material Part rubber-elastomeric polymer and part PVS Floatable When printed is strong and slightly bendable Printing Temperature: 225C – 235C

Similar to the the above water-soluble filaments

PORO-LAY LAY-FELT Porous Filament - 1.75mm Part rubber-elastomeric polymer and part PVA The same as the rest of the series Appropriate for semipermeable membranes and filters Flexible and with felt like rubber result

Similar to the the above water-soluble filaments


[116] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [117] Flexible Filaments

Filaflex flexible filament 1,75 mm or 2,85mm available +-0.05mm tolerance Printing temperature _225-260 °C Print speed _20-110 mm/s High adhesion with 3d printed bed Do not need heatbed Do not need kapton or blue tape. Do not need hairspray or special adhesion spray Odorless Resistant to acetone, fuel and solvent incredible elasticity Density_1200 Kg/m³ Shore hardness_82A Tensile strength_39MPa Elongation to break_700% Compression 25% Abrasion resistance_30mm³ Tear propagation resistance_70kN/m Tensile storage modulus_33-48MPa

Composition TPE (thermoplastic elastomer) with a polyurethane base and some additives

Requirements / Difficulties Increase the extruder flow if your plastic melt flow is not constant.(105-115%) Decrease the pressure of the idler bearing of your extruder in order to avoid filament clogging between the extruder gear and bearing

Ninjaflex flexible filament 1.75 mm or 2.85mm available +-0.05mm tolerance Printing temperature_210-225°C (Platform temperature_20-50°C) Preheating_180-200°C Print speed_30mm/s heated build plate is not required Not necessary coating of the build platform Crossing open unsupported spans maximum temperature for NinjaFlex printed parts_66°C minimum temperature for NinjaFlex printed parts _ -30°C Compatible with support material Degradation when exposed in water for an extended period Highly affected by solvents, acids, and fuels such as gasoline Shore hardness_85A Medium tensile strength High flexural modulus High elongation

Composition Colorants: (only those present 2 ≥ 1% in ≥ 1 pigment formulations) Aluminum Hydroxide (as AL) Carbon Black - Ethylene Bisstearamide - Limestone (Total Dust) - Silicon Dioxide, Amorphous Titanium Dioxide (Total Dust) Thermoplastic Polyurethane Resin

Requirements / Difficulties Need of PTFE guide tubes Gorilla Glue or a hot knife welder is required for connecting particles Distance between the stepper motor and the extruder head effects the result Performs best in printers with direct-drive extruders The extruder must support the filament between the exit of the drive gear and the entrance to the melt chamber


[118] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [119] Experiments on the Solubility of filaments

PLA filament

ABS filament

soaking alcohol

acetone

water

alcohol

acetone

water

after 2 hours

scale state liquid evaporation liquid absorption

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%


[120] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [121] Experiments on the Solubility of filaments

PLA filament

ABS filament

after 1 day alcohol

acetone

water

1.1x inelastic _ flexible 35% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 10% 0%

alcohol

acetone

water

after 2 days

scale state liquid evaporation liquid absorption

1x inelastic _ flexible 25% 0%

1.1x inelastic _ flexible 15% 0%

1.2x elastic _ flexible 25% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 15% 0%


[122] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [123] Experiments on the Solubility of filaments

PLA filament

ABS filament

after 3 days alcohol

acetone

water

1.2x elastic _ flexible 50% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 15% 0%

alcohol

acetone

water

after 4 days

scale state liquid evaporation liquid absorption

1.1x inelastic _ flexible 35% 0%

1.2x inelastic _ flexible 0% 0%

1.5x elastic _ flexible 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%


[124] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [125] Experiments on the Solubility of filaments

PVA filament

soaking

after 1 day alcohol

acetone

water

after 2 hours

scale state liquid evaporation liquid absorption

alcohol

acetone

water

after 2 days

1.1x inelastic _ flexible 35% 0%

1.2x elastic _ flexible 50% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 15% 0%

1.2x inelastic _ flexible 0% 0%

1.5x elastic _ flexible 0% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 0% 0%


[126] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [127] Experiments on the Solubility of filaments

PVA filament

circular pattern of PVA filament on prestretched fabric

after 3 days alcohol

acetone

water

1.2x elastic _ flexible 50% 0%

1x inelastic _ stiff 15% 0%

after 4 days

scale state liquid evaporation liquid absorption

1.1x inelastic _ flexible 35% 0%

Testing PVA filament patterns on prestreched fabric showed that the pattern can be disolved completely in 4 days when soaked into water environment. In addition to this, the fabric detaches from the pattern instantly once dived into water. In that way, the patterns can be applicable in various cases responding to external stimuli, such as rain.


[128] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [129] PVA filament application

rectangle PLA frame on prestretched fabric with PVA filament connection

bending point simulation after water disolution

experiment with combination of PLA and PVA filaments


[130] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [131] Expancel Microspheres

Simultaneously to interactive filament research we tested Expancel Micospheres individually and as a composite with silicone and carbon fiber, in order to explore other materials that change stifness and that respond to certain stimuli, as heat in this case. As Expancel material is heat expandable it could enhance the derormation process of 3d printing onto prestretched fabric .

Polymeric shell spherical particles encapsulating hydrocarbon fluid which turns to gas Properties Expansion temperature range: 80 – 250oC 1 m³ (1000 l) of Expancel weighs only 12 to 35 kg Particle sizes: 20, 40, 80 and 120 µm Density range: 24 - 70 kg/m³ Availability in unexpanded and expanded form Variety of forms Expansion of microsphere volume up to 40 times Low density Insulation Compresibility Elasticity Adhesion Surface moodification Reflektion Applications Theromoplastics Thermosets Coatings (paint, printing ink) Technical textiles and nonwovens Paper & board Sealants and underbody coatings Reflective coatings Application process Printing Injection molding and extrusion


[132] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [133] Expancel and Silicone Composite Experiments

silicone and lycra fabric

silicone and lycra fabric

1.2x yes

1.1x free yes

silicone and expancel

silicone and expancel on lycra fabric

silicone and expancel on lycra fabric

before heating

after heating

scale fabric state merging

1.8x yes

1.1x free yes

1x prestretched yes


[134] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [135] Expancel and Silicone Composite Experiments

silicone and polyleather fabric

silicone and polyleather fabric

1x free yes

0.5x prestretched yes

silicone and polyleather fabric (backside)

silicone and expancel on polyleather fabric (backside)

before heating

after heating

scale fabric state merging

1x free yes

0.4x prestretched yes


[136] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [137] Expancel and Silicone Composite Experiments

silicone and carbon fiber fabric

silicone and expancel on carbon fiber

silicone and expancel on carbon fiber (diagonal)

before heating

after heating

scale fabric state merging

1x yes

1x no

1x no


[138] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [139]

[05.2]AirFlowInsertion_TubePatterns

Following the material research on interactive filaments and other composites, taking into consideration the intended behaviour of our project, which is based on materials and systems that change stiffness and in that way deform fabric structures, we considered working with air. Inserting air in tube patterns, similar to the two dimensional patterns explored and controlling the occuring deformations became our research objective, as it would augment the deformed patterns that were tested during the 3d Printing Research of our project. As air flow enables tube stiffness change, we experimented with air importation in tube networks on prestreched fabric.


[140] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [141] Square Particle with Two Diagonals Experiment

0.2 bars

0.4 bars

0.0 bars

0.6 bars

0.9 bars

1.2 bars

section deformation diagram

0.7 bars

0.8 bars

1.0 bars

1.1 bars

1.3 bars

1.4 bars


[142] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [143] Square Particle with Two Diagonals Experiment

0.4 bars 0.0 bars

0.7 bars

1.0 bars

1.3 bars section deformation diagram

0.2 bars

0.8 bars

1.1 bars

1.4 bars

0.9 bars

1.2 bars

1.5 bars


[144] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [145] Square Particle with Two Diagonals Experiment

0.5 bars 0.0 bars

0.7 bars

1.0 bars

1.3 bars section deformation diagram

0.2 bars

0.8 bars

1.1 bars

1.4 bars

0.9 bars

1.2 bars

1.5 bars


[146] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [147]

structural line

Anchored Particle Partition

cm

25

inflated line

distance between anchor points of the structural line 6cm

distance between anchor points of the structural line 9cm

distance between anchor points of the structural line 12cm

distance between anchor points of the structural line 6cm

distance between anchor points of the structural line 9cm

distance between anchor points of the structural line 12cm


[148] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [149]

[05.3] Inflating 3d Printed Tubes

Air flow insertion on 3d Printed Patterned Tubes showed the capability of stiffness change on our experiments and more importantly the ability to enhace deformation state range. However, as a mean of stiffness change it proved to be limiting in terms in controling and stabilizing the deformed fabric patterns. Subsequently, we considered using inflation instead of merely air passage, in order to provide a higher level of ruling on the deformation states of the patterns. In this way, we started printing pneumatic artificial muscles, in order to study their function and principles, with the aim of embedding them on the process of stiffness change of patterned prestretched fabric. Testing various muscles and the parameters that control their behaviour enabled us to provide more control on the occuring deformed geometries on prestretched fabrics. Along with this research, we tested prefabricated silicone tubes and ways in which we can simulate artificial muscles principles and their inflation movent, so that we could test the scalability of our research.


[150] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [151] Types of Pneumatic Artificial Muscles

McKibben Artificial Muscles McKibben muscle is an actuator which converts pneumatic (or hydraulic) energy into mechanical form by transferring the pressure applied on the inner surface of its bladder into the shortening tension15. Lightweight, easy to fabricate, are self limiting (have a maximum contraction) and have load-length curves similar to human muscle. The muscles consist of an inflatable inner tube/bladder inside a braided mesh, clamped at the ends. When the inner bladder is pressurized and expands, the geometry of the mesh acts like a scissor linkage and translates this radial expansion into linear contraction. Standard McKibbens contract in a linear motion up to a maximum of typically 25%, though different materials and construction may yield contractions around 40% . Though they can technically be designed to lengthen as well, this is not useful as the soft muscles buckle.

Pneumatic Networks Bending Actuators PneuNets are a class of soft actuator originally developed by the Whitesides Research Group at Harvard, which are made up of a series of channels and chambers inside an elastomer16. These channels inflate when pressurized, creating motion. The nature of this motion is controlled by modifying the geometry of the embedded chambers and the material properties of their walls. When a PneuNets actuator is pressurized, expansion occurs in the most compliant (least stiff ) regions. The behavior of the actuator can be programmed by selecting wall thicknesses that will result in the desired type of motion or by using materials with different elastic behavior in combination, as to the muscle will bend towards the most rigid material when the actuator is pressurized.

Fiber-Reinforced Soft Actuators Fiber-reinforced actuators are a class of soft actuator originally developed by Kevin Galloway at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard17. Their function is based on an elastomer bladder wrapped with inextensible reinforcements, which acts like any typical balloon; when inflated it tries to expand in all directions. Inextensible fibers that wrap the bladder constrain radial expansion of the bladder and allows certain movement in axial direction. Adding a sheet of inextensible material prevents the actuator from expanding in the region of that sheet, causing actuator bend when inflated, since only one side is capable of expanding axially.


[152] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [153]

Typical Artificial Muscle

Typical Artificial Muscle _ Scale x 2 wall thickness: 0.6 mm air pressure: 3 bar 6mm

wall thickness: 0.3 mm air pressure: 3 bar

10mm

20mm

3mm

section

plan view

section

perspective section

plan view

perspective section

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

10

11

12

10

11

12


[154] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [155]

Semicircular Muscle

Semicircular Muscle inner wall thickness: 1 mm external wall thickness: 2 mm air pressure: 3 bar

wall thickness: 1 mm air pressure: 3 bar

6mm

15mm

15mm

6mm

section

plan view

section

perspective section

plan view

perspective section

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

10

11

12

10

11

12


[156] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [157]

Square Muscle

Rectangular Muscle wall thickness: 0.7 mm air pressure: 3 bar

inner wall thickness: 0.7 mm external wall thickness: 2 mm air pressure: 4 bar

12mm

4mm

5mm

5mm

section

plan view

section

perspective view

plan view

perspective view

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

10

11

12

10

11

12


[158] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [159]

Rectangular Muscle with Protrusions

Rectangular Muscle with Protrusions wall thickness: 0.7 mm air pressure: 4.5 bar

wall thickness: 0.7 mm air pressure: 3 bar

12mm

4mm

12mm

4mm

section

plan view

section

perspective view

plan view

perspective view

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

10

11

12

10

11

12


[160] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [161]

Circular Muscle

Cross Muscle wall thickness: 0.7 mm air pressure: 4 bar

wall thickness: 1.0 mm air pressure: 3 bar 4mm

12mm

12mm

4mm

section

plan view

section

perspective view

plan view

perspective view

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

10

11

12

10

11

12


[162] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [163]

Double Curve Muscles wall thickness: 1.0 mm air pressure: 4 bar

12mm

4mm

plan view

perspective view

1

2

3

4

5

6

y axis

section

3.5cm 2.0cm 1.6cm

x axis

7

8

9

10

11

12

geometry deformation diagram


[164] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [165] Embedding fabric _ Weaving Fabric on Artificial Muscles

Embedding fabric _ 3d Printing on Pre-stretched Fabric 1

4

2

5

3

6

semicircular pre-bent muscles as structural components

+

form finding reference pattern on shape

7

8

9

10

11

12

=


[166] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [167]

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

high air pressure

1

low air pressure

Embedding fabric _ Weaving Fabric on Artificial Muscles

1st muscle inflation

10

11

12

2nd muscle inflation

simultaneous inflation


[168] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [169] Scaling Up _ Simulation Using Silicone Tubes

1

2

3

1

2

3

4

5

6

4

5

6

7

8

9

7

8

9

10

11

12

10

11

12


[170] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [171] Scaling Up _ Simulation Using Silicone Tubes [Fabrication Process]

3d printed component

simulation with silicone tubes

heat shrinkable tube covering to secure rigidity to the non-moving parts

tight net textile tube covering to secure structure and create anchor points

individual stiffness manipulation of tubeface using plastic componets


[172] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [173] Conclusions

Curvature higher curvature degree lower curvature degree

more deformed and most controlled deformation less deformed and less controlled deformation

Geometry curved line

higher deformation percentage

Inner Volume Pattern scalabilty

Free Edges more edges without anchor points

smaller deformation more similar deformation rate

Section more deformed and less controlled deformation

different wall thickness

programmable bending movement

Area linearity

higher deformaion capability


[174] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Taking into consideration the several experiments that were carried out during our research, both 3d Printing Tubes and simulating them with the use of fabricated silicone tubes are techniques that are able to create self supporting structures from light weight materials. However, the advantages of 3d Printing surpass those of fabricated silicone tubes. 3d Printing as a mean of fabrication of stuctural textiles is significantly more accurate and efficient in terms of controling the stiffness, the thickness and the density of the materials, as well as achieving complex geometries. The main limitations of 3d printing, related to scale ad time, could be to a great extend solved with the construction of an extruder for a robotic arm. Thus, our intent was to build an extruder for flexible filament using either a more powerful motor than the ones used by the common 3d printers, or one that would have a multiple filament input. We started this procedure by attaching on the robotic arm of KUKA a 3d Doodler Pen in order to make tests concerning speed settings and line output, but due to time limitations we weren‘t able to build the extruder and to apply the conclusions of these experiments in a big scale prototype. However, our intent is to continue towards this direction in the future in order to extend our research.

Alternate 3d Printing Research [175]


[176] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [177]

3d Doodler on KUKA line and speed tests and Robotic Arm Extruder Line Test 1

Speed Line length Gap Width Height

Line Test 2

1% 13 mm 1 mm 5 mm 2 mm

Speed Line length Gap Width Height

Robotic Arm Extruder Line Test 3

2% 6 mm 3 mm 2,5 mm 1,5 mm

Speed 3% Line length 25 mm Gap 4 mm Speed 2 mm Height 1,5 mm

Input

one filament

Output

thick extrusion line

Speed

fast

Nozzle

one filament

2 Very fast extrusion speed

3d Printed Tube Surface Simulation with KUKA

Input

multiple filaments

Output

thick extrusion line

Speed

medium

Nozzle

3 filaments

1 Large amount of filament


[178] Alternate 3d Printing Research

Alternate 3d Printing Research [179]


[180] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

[06] Prototype Design Considering the expriments of various 3d Printed Artificial Muscles, it became evident that prebended shapes that are inflated have the highest percentage of deformation. The bending movement can be controlled by individual manipulation of the muscles side thicknesses, as well as by their geometry. In that way, for designing our performative prototype, we chose the most deforming arificial muscles -those printed in a curved shape- in combination with the most deforming patterns on prestretched materials. Compiling the above in linear, two dimensional and three dimensional ways, we finalized our prototype design. Thus, we designed two performative prototypes, one that is based on a 3d printed tube structure, and a close up of part of it in real scale, using the silicone tubes. These prototypes generate various curvature forms that can have multiple applications as linear objects, surfaces and spaces.

[181]


[182] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

3d Printed Prototype Tube Structure

external fabric layer

actuation points on surface

inflated tubes pattern

inner fabric layer

non inflated secondary tube structure

external fabric layer

pre-bent surface components

[183]


[184] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

[185]

3d Printed Prototype Tube Structure _ Actuating Moments

Inflating Points

Inflating Points

Inflated Tubes Air Pressure

Inflating Points

max bars

0

Inflating Points

Inflated Tubes Air Pressure

0

max bars


[186] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

3d Printed Prototype Tube Structure _ Multiple Actuating System

Inflating Points

[187]


[188] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

3d Printed Prototype Tube Structure _ Components and Assembly

[189]


[190] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Scale Up Prototype _ Silicone Tubes Pattern Fabrication

Pre-bent pipes in 3d printed version

External fabric layer

Silicone Tubes in flat position due to lack of structural behaviour

Secondary tube system for better control in big scale

External fabric layer

[191]


[192] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Scale Up Prototype

[193]


[194] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Architectural Applications _ Linear Assembly

air supply

[195]


[196] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Architectural Applications _ Surface Assembly Variations

[197]


[198] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Architectural Applications _ Surface Assembly Variations

[199]


[200] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Architectural Applications _ Space Assembly Variations

[201]


[202] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Architectural Applications _ Space Assembly Variations depending on User Stimuli

Deformation of the Structure

Stimulus _ numbers of users _ needs of users _

[203]


[204] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

Architectural Applications _ Space Assembly Variations depending on User Stimuli

[205]


[206] Prototype Design

Prototype Design

[07] Conclusion From the begining of the DMIC studio in terms of smart material and behavioural research, our objective was to create three-dimensional, self-supporting structures by using a two-dimensional and non structural material such as fabric. The behaviour of the prototypes that we are creating, using the 3d printing technique as well as the process of inflation is based on the inner balance of the forces that are embedded in the stiffness of the frame-pattern and the pre-stretching of the fabric. During our experiments, we had the chance to understand and, in this way, control the occuring deformations and enhance the procedure of fabric‘s deforming states. Our aim for the future, is to scale up this technique by constructing an extruder for a robotic arm, in order to explore 3d printings potential to its full extend.

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[208] References

References: [1] http://www.selfassemblylab.net/ProgrammableMaterials.php [2] http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2014-10/14/skylar-tibbits-exclusive-interview [3] http://mamou-mani.com/karenmillen/ [4] http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/chelsea-xpo-pavilion-grasshopper/ [5] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermoplastic [6] http://materiability.com/bioplastics/ [7] http://materiability.com/bioplastics/ [8] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shape-memory_polymer [9] http://research.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/srdesign/2009/group8/Papers/shape%20memory%20polymers%20review%20article.pdf [10] Ece Tankal, Efilena Baseta, Ramin Shambayati, Translated Geometries, DMIC- Digital Matter Intelligent Constructions, IAAC-Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia, Barcelona 2013-14 [11] http://technology.ksc.nasa.gov/sbir/sbir-SS-CRG.htm [12] http://www.crgrp.com/rd-center/shape-memory-polymers [13] Mohammad Nazmul Hasan Nahid, Degradation Behavior of Shape Memory Polymer Due to Water and Diesel Fuel, The Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College [14] Ing. Jan Klesa in collaboration with the Department of Applied Mechanics of the University of FrancheComtĂŠ, Experimental Evaluation of the Properties of VeriflexÂŽ Shape Memory Polymer [15] Ching-Ping Chou, Blake Hannaford, Measurement and Modeling of McKibben Pneumatic Artificial Muscles, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington [16] http://softroboticstoolkit.com/book/pneunets-bending-actuator [17] D. Holland, E. J. Park, P. Polygerinos, G. J. Bennett and C. J. Walsh, The Soft Robotics Toolkit: Shared Resources for Research and Design for Soft Robotics, Soft Robotics

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MAA Iaac studio booklet Fabricflation  

Master in advanced architecture_Iaac Digital matter/Intelligent constructions final book Professors_ A. Markopoulou, A. Dubor, C. Bausa Mart...

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