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Connecting with Kids JPA course curriculum

Division D


D-2


U50

INTRODUCTION TO CRIME PREVENTION

A police officer’s job in-‐ volves a great deal more than responding to crimes. Much of his/her time and resources are dedicated to the prevention of crime.

OVERVIEW: INTRODUCE CADETS TO THE IMPORTANCE OF CRIME PREVENTION. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUTS. CONCLUDE WITH CADET PRESENTATIONS OF CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES. OBJECTIVE: CADET WILL IDENTIFY THE COMPONENTS OF CRIME AND WILL EXPLORE CRIME PREVENTION STRATEGIES.

Most departments have a special unit that deals solely with crime prevention. A crime prevention officer spends a the majority of his time visiting with the members of a community, addressing groups and sponsoring events designed to educate the public about crime prevention. Can anyone think of a crime prevention program? Neighborhood Night Out Neighborhood Watch H.E.A.T. (Help Eliminate Auto Theft) Has anyone ever prevented a crime? How so? What behaviors can you adopt to minimize the chance of falling victim to criminal acts?

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

D-3


L50

INTRODUCTION TO CRIME PREVENTION

PERSONAL CRIME PREVENTION TECHNIQUES When you travel, know where you are going and how to get there and back. Check for construction detours, for longer trips; get a weather forecast. If traveling out-of-state, most state law enforcement agencies provide road-andhighway information; check to see what conditions they report before leaving. Inform a family member where you will be and when to expect you back. Give them your route if they don't know it. Travel and conduct your business during daylight hours if possible. If you have access to a cellular telephone, carry or bring it. When driving, keep doors locked and windows rolled up. Maintain at least half a tank of fuel, and keep vehicle in good repair. Follow the advice of Sergeant M. Wayne Smith: "It doesn't cost any more to keep the top quarter of your tank filled than it does to keep the bottom quarter filled." Even if you're pressed for time, take time to fill up the tank. If you experience a breakdown, pull as far onto the shoulder as possible and turn on your emergency flashers. If you have a cellular phone, summon assistance from a reputable source or call for law enforcement response. Otherwise, raise your hood or tie a streamer to your antenna, and await assistance inside your locked vehicle. If a stranger stops, speak to them through a partially rolled-down window, and ask them to go to a phone and call police or a tow service; do not exit your vehicle until a law enforcement officer or tow operator arrives on the scene. On longer trips, be sure you have water, food, and blankets in the vehicle.

Citizen safety is every law enforcer’s first duty.

If involved in a property-damage collision in an unfamiliar or potentially unsafe location, do not open or exit your vehicle. If you have a cellular telephone, summon law enforcement. If not, acknowledge the accident by hand signal, and motion the other driver to proceed with you to a safe location (where there are other people and lights) to exchange information. If unable to proceed, honk the horn to attract attention and ask a passer-by to summon the police. If signaled to stop by any vehicle other than a clearly marked law enforcement unit, acknowledge the signal, and wave the driver to follow you to a safe location. Drive within the speed limit and take the shortest possible route to the nearest safe place. If you have a cellular phone, dial 9-1-1, tell the call-taker you are being followed by an unmarked vehicle attempting to stop you, and ask them to send a marked law enforcement vehicle to your location. When parking, lock the vehicle, take the keys, and conceal valuables, preferably in the trunk. During hours of darkness, park and walk in lighted areas as much as possible. When returning to your vehicle, carry your keys in your hand and be ready to unlock the door and enter as quickly as possible. As you approach your vehicle, scan the area, glance underneath the vehicle, and take a quick look inside before entering.

D-4


While out and about, present an alert appearance. Be aware of your surroundings; scan the area from time to time. Avoid concentrating so hard on shopping that you fail to keep track of your surroundings, others near you, or your personal property. Wear conservative, comfortable clothing. Grip carried items firmly and avoid leaving them unattended. Carry minimal cash and valuables, wear minimal jewelry.

U50

Using debit or credit cards is much safer than carrying a lot of cash. If the vendors you visit don't take cards, consider obtaining traveler's checks which, unlike cash, can be replaced if lost or stolen. Only visit ATM's in well-lighted and populated locations, preferably during the day. Using the drive-up is usually safer than walking up or into a facility. Remember to scan around you as you make your withdrawal. If anyone is loitering, or you don't like their looks, go to another ATM. Stand such that those behind you cannot see your PIN as you enter it; your PIN should NEVER be written down on or carried with your ATM card. As you shop, return to your vehicle from time to time to check it and reduce the amount of material you are carrying. Remember to store your packages in the trunk or, if your vehicle doesn't have one, out of plain view (on the floorboard, under a blanket or clothing, etc). When possible, have purchases delivered instead of taking them with you; many businesses offer free delivery for the holiday season. Be observant. Avoid dark areas, short-cuts, cul-de-sacs, and suspicious persons. Stay near light and people. Be prepared to flee potential problems. If apprehensive about any location for any reason, leave. Consider carrying a whistle. Weapons are not recommended, and may be unlawful. If you are followed on foot, cross the street, vary you pace, change direction, and move towards a safer environment. If you are followed by a vehicle, execute several right turns to verify, get and stay on arterial streets, note and record the other driver’s license plate number and vehicle description. If they per-� sist, drive to a well it area and summon police.

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L50

INTRODUCTION TO CRIME PREVENTION

NEIGHBORHOOD WATCH

Discuss how Cadets can make their neighborhoods safer; ask them to find creative ideas other than those listed below..

9.

Safety Suggestions for Combating Neighborhood Vandals: 1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

6. 7. 8.

Identify 2 or 3 of your neighbors that might be willing to get involved. Hold a meeting in someone's home and determine if a problem exists. If it's bad enough, ask yourselves if you are all willing to participate in an active neighborhood watch program. Do a detailed survey of your neighborhood. Make notes about how serious the problem is and where your first attentions should be focused. Contact the police department and find out the name of your beat coordinator. This is the police officer that is responsible for your area of the city. Contact your beat coordinator and ask if he or she will attend your next meeting. At your next meeting, introduce yourself and the other neighbors in the program. Explain to the officer what you intend to do. Ask him to be aware that you intend to actively patrol the streets in the neighborhood, on foot and in cars. Explain that you will be in the area during late hours and that you are looking for graffiti artists and vandals. Provide a list of names and addresses of your patrollers to the beat coordinator. Organize your patrol to work specific hours on scheduled days. Determine if anyone has two-way radios ("walkie-talkies") or citizen band radios that could be used by the Watch Patrol until more permanent equipment can be secured. Find out if

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anyone has a portable cellular phone that can be used. This is not necessary but it can be helpful. Find out if any members of the group, or any of your neighbors, have a scanner and can listen to police frequencies. These units are not expensive and are available from Radio Shack and many other sources. Scanners can usually be programmed to listen to the frequencies of any walkie-talkie equipment you may elect to use. One person monitoring at home, near a phone, can act as your contact to the police department. Make up a letter asking for volunteers. Deliver a copy to each home in the neighborhood area you intend to patrol. Once you start your patrol, you must be prepared to arrest and detain people you catch in the act of painting graffiti. This is not as dangerous or difficult as you may think. However, you must use some common sense. You should try and patrol as a team, particularly on Friday nights and on weekends. This will give you a better chance of detaining painters being caught in the act. Do not try and arrest 3 or 4 painters if you are on patrol alone. In this circumstance, shining a spotlight on them is usually all that is needed to cause them to run from the area. Most painters are just teenagers and junior high school kids. If caught in the act and spotlighted from a car at close range, vandals are usually stunned and don't know how to react. Place them under arrest then call the police.

Define crime prevention. Name two crime prevention organizations. List three things you can do on the road to stay safe. List three things you can do while maneuvering through a city to stay safe. How is a Neighborhood Watch formed?


CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME

U51

When we think of a home being burglarized, we imagine a thief in the night, creeping through the house with a flashlight. How accurate do you think that is? Actually, most homes are burglarized in broad daylight. Why is that? Allow cadets to come up with their own ideas and then discuss the fact that most homes are vacant during the day. OVERVIEW: INTRODUCE TIME-HONORED STRATEGIES FOR DETERRING CRIME IN THE HOME. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS HOME SAFETY. CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF HOME SECURITY SYSTEMS. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL REVIEW TACTICS FOR PREVENTING CRIME AT HOME. THEY WILL DEVELOP AND EVALUATE STRATEGIES OF THEIR OWN FOR HOME PROTECTION.

How many of the cadets have homes that are vacant during the day? What do their families do to secure their houses? What might they do? Discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the following:  Locks  Security System  Dog in the house Discuss the effectiveness of signs posted in front of a home by a professional home security firm. Does it make a difference if the sign says “Armed Response”?

Take a close look at your own home’s security — before a criminal does!

Ask the Cadets to rate the overall crime rate in their neighborhood. Is crime up or down and why? A lot of burglaries can be prevented. Opportunist thieves commit most crimes. In two out of every ten burglaries, the thief does not have to force his way in because a door or window has been left open. Burglars like easy opportunities. They don’t like locked windows because breaking glass attracts attention. They don’t like security deadlocks on doors because they cannot be opened, even from the inside. Simple precautions like these work.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

D-7


L51

CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME

CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME Review the items on the list. Cadets should consider whether their home meets these standards. Ask for a show of hands after each item or open the floor to discussion.

STRANGERS Be alert to people loitering in residential streets. If you see someone and he/she is not familiar to you, call the police.

BURGLAR ALARMS Signs announcing the presence of burglar alarms make burglars think twice.

GATES AND FENCES A high wall or fence at the back of a house can deter a burglar. Check for weak spots where a thief could enter. A thorny hedge along a boundary can also be a useful deterrent. Make sure the front of the house is still visible to passers by, so that a burglar can’t work unseen.

SMALL WINDOWS Even small windows like casement windows, skylights or bathroom fanlights need locks. A thief can get in through any gap larger than a human head.

SPARE KEYS Never leave a spare key in a hiding place such as under a doormat, in a flowerpot or inside the letterbox. A thief will look in those places first.

SLIDING GLASS DOORS Many burglars enter homes through improperly secured sliding glass doors. Additional locks and security measures will prevent the door from being opened or lifted out of the track.

DOORS WITH WINDOWS Doors with glass windows or glass ornamentation require double key deadbolt locks. This prevents the burglar from breaking the glass and reaching inside to unlock the door.

GARAGE DOORS Standard locks on garage doors are easily pried, allowing a burglar access to your home without detection. Cane bolts are excellent protection. Make certain each side of the garage door is secured to prevent prying open a crawl space.

DOOR VIEWERS To avoid opening your door without knowing who is on the other side, install a door viewer. This device has a wide-angle lens that lets you see someone standing outside your door before you open it.

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U51

VACATION TIME - HELP BURGLARS TAKE ONE TOO! Review the following tips and instruct the cadets to decide which of the following ideas are good and which are bad. Provide the correct answer after a brief discussion of each.

AFTER EACH TIP, DECIDE IF IT IS A GOOD OR BAD IDEA. Ask a neighbor to watch the house while you're away.

* Good if you trust your neighbor. Leave your vacation address and telephone number with a neighbor so you can be reached in case of an emergency.

* Good Idea Leave your house key hidden outside your home so a friend can water your plants.

* Bad Idea Continue all deliveries -- mail, newspapers and packages -- as if you never left.

* Bad Idea. They will stack up and signal your absence. Arrange for someone to mow your lawn, rake leaves and maintain the yard to give the home a lived-in look.

* Good Idea Plug in timers to turn lights, a radio or television on and off at appropriate times.

* Good Idea, this helps to disguise the fact that you are away. Increase the ringer volume on your telephone.

*

Bad Idea. If a burglar is around, he will be alerted to your absence by a ringing

phone. In fact, you could even turn your ringer off. Announce your absence and return date on answering machine messages.

* Really Bad Idea Tell your local police you plan to be away.

*

Good Idea. Patrol officers may have the opportunity to periodically check your home.

D-9


L51

CRIME PREVENTION IN THE HOME

THE WILD GOOSE CHASE:

Law Officers Everywhere Hunt Down False Alarms In 2002, the LAPD estimated that 97% of the automatic alarm system calls that it received were false alarms. This means that only 3 out of every 100 calls were warranted, but officers were dispatched to the scene the other 97 times as well, taking them away from other important emergencies and law enforcement occurrences. Tom Patterson of the Kimberlite Corporation believes a more advanced product is the solution to this alarming problem. THE PRODUCT—Kimberlite is the largest independent operator of Sonitrol-brand security alarm systems which are much more sophisticated than regular alarms. With the highest documented criminal capture rate in the security industry, Sonitrol uses an impactactivated, stored audio alarm verification system equipped with tiny microphones, rather than the more common use of motion detectors. Besides a criminal, what other things might set off a motion detection system? HOW IT WORKS—When the basic commercial alarm system is activated, the microphones of Sonitrol are "listening" for a noise above the ambient noise level in a building, like the sound of someone breaking through a wall or rooftop. Once triggered, the Sonitrol system transmits the actual sounds that tripped the alarm to Sonitrol's central monitoring station, followed by "live" audio feed from the site. These sounds are heard by highly trained operators who accurately assess the threats represented by an alarm system and then make appropriate dispatch decisions. What types of noises would warrant police intervention? THE RESULTS—Police responding to Sonitrol alarms have apprehended more than 150,000 criminals nationally since 1977. The effectiveness of Sonitrol is due to the information gathered and the way it is examined. Results can be used to determine exactly what officers need to know before approaching the scene and can often be used against criminals in court. Compared to many other systems, Sonitrol is fool-proof, but even its advocators will admit that no alarm system is perfect. Discuss: How might the Sonitrol system be improved? What facilities would benefit from this type of alarm system? What are the immediate and long-term results of officers being dispatched to scenes without crimes?

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Pretend you are a police officer and you are giving advice at neighborhood meeting. Someone asks, “What can we do to prevent crime in our homes?” Write your response. List 3 good ideas that will help prevent crime in your home while on vacation. List three bad ideas. What percent of burglaries involve forced entry? When do most burglaries occur?


U52

CRIMES AGAINST YOUNG PEOPLE

Where would you go to if you were a victim of violent crime? The police, your parents; would you tell anyone at all? It’s easy to say, “that won’t happen to me,” but statis-‐ tics say it might.

OVERVIEW: REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE SPECIAL CHALLENGES CONFRONTING LAW ENFORCEMENT WHEN DEALING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE AND CRIME. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND DISCUSS THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CRIME AND YOUTH. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP THEIR OWN STRATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH YOUNG PEOPLE INVOLVED WITH CRIME.

Explain: Research has shown that between the hours of 3:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m., youth are more likely to become victims of crime and violence, and suffer unintentional injuries. In fact, youth, ages 12-17, are nearly three times more likely than adults to be victims of serious violent crimes. The facts speak for themselves: Violence is the leading cause of death for 15-24 year olds. Despite these grim numbers, there are many misconceptions about teens involved in crime. Today we will review the facts behind some of these myths.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L52

CRIMES AGAINST YOUNG PEOPLE

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Before the cadets take out their Cadet Handouts, you may want to quiz the class with the ques-

tions provided. After fielding responses, ask the cadets to take out their Handout and fully review each detailed answer. A. In which age category are persons most likely to be victims of crime? The elderly (65 and over) Middle-aged people (35-49) Teenagers (12-19 years old) Correct Answer: #3 Teenagers are crime's most frequent targets. Teens are victims of violent crime and crimes of theft twice as often as the adult population (age 20 and older). Younger teens (12-15 years old) had lower violent crime and theft rates than older teens (16-19). (Source: Criminal Victimization in the United States, 1992, U.S. Department of Justice) Why are teens victims of crime more frequently than any other age group? Among the reasons frequently offered are that teens:

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Have a lifestyle that puts them in locations where there is more crime and at times when there is more crime.

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Are more trusting, more naive and more easily led into vulnerable situations.

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Are not even aware sometimes that a crime has been committed against them.

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Don't know about or can't find positive activities and thus hang around dangerous situations.

B. If you are 12 years old, what is the approximate risk that you will be a victim of violent crime during your lifetime? 1 in 2 (50%) 5 in 6 (83%) 2 in 3 (66%) Correct Answer: #2. 5 in 6 (83%) Someone who 12 years old has a 5 in 6 (83 percent) chance of being a victim of violent crime during his or her lifetime. And 50 percent of all victims will be victims more than once. (Source: Lifetime Likelihood of Victimization, U.S. Department of Justice, March 1987) What kinds of things can be done to reduce the number of teenagers who are victims of crime? Among the most frequent responses:

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Make teens aware of the crime risks they face. Educate teens about avoiding and preventing crime. Get parents more involved in the activities and safety of teens. Sponsor more positive activities for teens.


U52 C. Are teenage males or females more likely to be victims of violent crime? 1. Males 2. Females 3. Males and females are equally likely Correct Answer: #1 Male Like their adult counterparts, teenaged males have higher violent/theft crime victimization rates than females. What might account for teen males being more frequent crime victims? Among the reasons that have been indicated are:

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Teenage male offenders are much more likely to victimize other teen males. Males teens are much more likely to become involved in risky situations in which the law intervenes.

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In most societies, males are more likely than females to be offenders and victims.

D. For the three violent crimes of rape, robbery, and assault, are teens more or less likely than adults to be victimized by persons they know? 1. Less frequently victimized by persons they know than are adults. 2. More frequently victimized by persons they know than are adults. 3. Victimized by persons they know at about the same rate as are adults. Correct Answer: #2 Teenagers are more likely to be victimized by people they know than adults. The proportion of violent crime victims who have reported that their offenders are known to them (casual or close acquaintances, friends, relatives) is 36% for young adults, 38% for older teenagers (aged 16-19), and 52% for younger teenagers (aged 12-15). What does this suggest? The image of the offender as a stranger -- an unknown person who unexpectedly strikes -- is incorrect. Too often the offender is someone who is very much like us. Crime often arises out of personal disputes where someone does not know how to handle their anger or how to get away from a potentially dangerous situation. E. Of the violent crimes of homicide, rape, robbery, and assault, which is the most likely to be committed by a stranger? 1. 2. 3. 4.

Homicide Rape Robbery Assault

Correct Answer: #3 Robbery Robbery is the violent crime most likely to be committed by a stranger. In 1992, more than 80% of robberies (against all victims, not just teens) were by strangers, compared with 46% of rapes and 56% of assaults. Males are more likely to be victims of all types of violent crime (with the exception of rape) by strangers than are females – 89% of robberies by strangers, compared to 65% for females.

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L52

CRIMES AGAINST YOUNG PEOPLE

SUFFERING IN SILENCE One in five children between the ages of 10 and 15 has been a victim of crime, but most keep it to themselves for fear of being blamed. New statistics reveal that 51% of victims do not report crimes to the police and 45% do not even tell their parents. This study, commissioned by Crimestoppers, showed that more than 40% of children lived in fear of crime. The crime pressure group said it offered a more complete picture of offences in Britain, since the Home Office Crime Survey only questioned those over 16. Theft, mugging and burglary were top of the list of children's fears, followed by drugs, crimes involving weapons, and murder. Perhaps of more concern, one in four victims said they had been targeted by somebody their own age and nearly half knew the identity of their assailants. This survey showed boys aged under 15 were more likely to be victims than girls (22% compared to 15%) and 23% of victims were mugged or were the victims of street crime. Of the 1,064 boys and girls questioned nationwide, 38% said they would be more likely to report crimes if they could do so without giving their names. Roy Clark, director of Crimestoppers, said: "What is particularly worrying is that half of the victims suffer in silence. They didn't tell their parents, they didn't tell the police. "We at Crimestoppers have long suspected that this is so and have concentrated on the plight of young victims throughout the past year. "What we have found is that the young have a cultural reluctance to be seen as tattletale, while some fear retribution from those responsible. It's simply not 'cool' and it is a load of 'hassle' to report a crime." The government is currently working on a number of initiatives aimed at reducing youth crime, which includes stationing a police beat officer in secondary schools.

D-14

1. What can teens do to decrease crime among people who know each other? 2. What are some ways to prevent homicide between those who know one another? 3. Why do teenagers report crime less often than adults? 4. How could teens be encouraged to report crimes more often? 5. What is the leading cause of death for people from 15-24 years of age?


PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE

School violence is defined as any intentional action or actions taken by an individual while on school property to physically harm or threaten oth-

U53

Concerns about guns, drugs, and violence in schools are nearly always directed towards schools in big cities.

Surprisingly, the major shootings of the past few years have all been in rural or suburban schools. Violence is a problem everyone must address, whether they are in New York City or [small city in your vicinity.

OVERVIEW: REVIEW AND DISCUSS CURRENT STRATEGIES FOR CRIME PREVENTION IN AMERICA’S SCHOOLS. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUT AND CONCLUDE BY ASKING THE STUDENTS TO CREATE SOLUTIONS. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL LEARN TO DEVELOP CRIME PREVENTION PROPOSALS THAT ADDRESS THE CHALLENGES FACING THEIR SCHOOL.

Ask the cadets to list some factors contributing to school violence:

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Lack of parental supervision Lack of family involvement with the school Exposure to violence in mass media Drugs and alcohol Racism

What can be done to stop the violence in schools? To be effective, violence prevention programs require communitywide collaborative efforts. Groups that should be included in these efforts include students, families, teachers, administrators, staff, social and mental health professionals, law enforcement, emergency response personnel, security professionals, school board members, parents, the business community, etc. There are many steps a school can take to make it a safer place to learn. But which steps work?

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L53

PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE

SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICERS

SROs often provide law enforcement, law-related counseling, and law-related education to students, faculty, and staff. Continuity of officers within individual schools should be encouraged, so that students and SROs develop rapport.

PARENT MONITORS

Encourage screened and trained parents/guardians and other volunteers to provide monitoring of students. Be certain that volunteers have adequate training and guidelines outlining their duties.

NO LOITERING!

Develop and enforce restrictions about student loitering in parking lots, hallways, bathrooms, and other areas. Publish restrictions in the student handbook/code of conduct.

METAL DETECTORS

Consider the use of metal detectors only in special circumstances to deter weapons on campus.

DRUGS AND SEARCH POLICY

Adopt policies for conducting searches for weapons and drugs. Publish policies in the student handbook/code of conduct.

SIGN IN PLEASE!

Require visitors to sign in and sign out at the school office and to wear visible visitors' passes. Post prominent signs at all school entrances instructing visitors where to sign in and out.

PHOTO IDS

Require students and staff to carry with them and/or wear their school photo IDs during school and at all school-related activities.

CLOSED CAMPUS

Establish a closed campus policy that prohibits students from leaving campus during lunch.

GET THE NEIGHBORS INVOLVED

Encourage neighboring residents and businesses to report all criminal activity and unusual incidents. Establish a protocol within the school to handle calls from the neighborhood.

BUS RIDER CHECKLIST

Develop a school bus rider attendance checklist for each bus and use it daily.

ON PATROL

Patrol school grounds, especially in areas where students tend to congregate such as parking lots, hallways, stairs, bathrooms, cafeterias, and schoolyards.

REPORTING

Establish a climate that encourages and enables students, teachers, and parents/guardians to report threats and acts of violence by establishing a properly staffed, confidential hotline for reporting issues of harassment, safety, vandalism etc. Aggressively advertise the hotline number to students and parents/guardians in student handbooks, on posters throughout the school, on pencils, student IDs, lockers, etc.

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SUSPENDED

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Suspend and recommend expulsion of students and dismiss or discipline staff for serious rule violations. Serious rule violations include:  Possession or use of a weapon, on school grounds or at a school event, that is capable of inflicting serious bodily harm.  Physical assault of a teacher, administrator, staff member, or student.  Verbal threat to a teacher, administrator, staff member, or student.  Possession, sale, or use of illegal drugs on campus.  Actual or threatened retaliation against persons who report threats or acts of violence.

STUDENT COURT

For non-criminal offenses, consider use of peer courts. Consider having qualified adults oversee peer courts.

POSITIVE INCENTIVES

Instead of focusing only on punishment of negative behaviors, find ways to encourage positive behaviors.  Create recognition rewards for students who perform good citizenship behaviors.  Invite community leaders to discuss different ways students can achieve success.  Consider the potential value of school-wide assemblies in which effective motivational speakers address such topics as drugs, alcohol and violence.

 SCHOOL PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT

A safe and secure physical environment promotes and enhances the learning process. Maintain the appearance of schools to decrease vandalism and violence.

DRESS CODE

Establish and enforce a dress code policy for students, faculty, and staff with input from all constituents. Consideration also should be given to requiring school uniforms. Dress codes can simplify the recognition of intruders, improve discipline, decrease violence and other forms of misconduct, and minimize the impact of gangs and other fringe groups on school property.

DRUG AND ALCOHOL EDUCATION

The use of drugs and/or alcohol is often associated with violence and other forms of delinquent behavior. Educate students about the dangers and illegality of drug and alcohol use.

ANTI-GANG PROGRAMS

Gang membership is destructive to a healthy school environment. Members of gangs are more likely than other students to carry weapons and to engage in acts of violence. Establish partnerships with law enforcement in order to exchange information and to educate teachers and staff about the presence of gangs and their activities.

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L53

PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE

PREVENTING SCHOOL VIOLENCE: WHAT CAN YOU DO IN YOUR SCHOOL? Ask cadets to make suggestions on what else they can do to help make their schools safer. STUDENTS  Settle arguments with words, not fists or weapons. Learn how if you don't know how.  Don't carry guns, knives, or other weapons to school.  Report crimes or suspicious activities to the police, school authorities, or parents.  Tell a school official immediately if you see another student with a gun, knife, or other weapon.  Tell a teacher, parent, or trusted adult if you're worried about a bully or threats of violence by another student.  Learn safe routes for traveling to and from school and stick to them. Know good places to seek help.  Don't use alcohol or other drugs, and stay away from places and people associated with them.  Get involved in your school's anti-violence activities -- have poster contests against violence, hold anti-drug rallies, volunteer to counsel peers. PARENTS Sharpen your parenting skills. Emphasize and build on your children's strengths.  Teach your children how to reduce their risks of becoming crime victims.  Know where your kids are, what they are doing, and whom they are with at all times.  Ask your children about what goes on during the school day. Listen to what they say and take their concerns and worries seriously.  Help your children learn nonviolent ways to handle frustration, anger, and conflict.

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5.

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Do not allow your child to carry guns, knives, or other weapons. Become involved in your child's school activities such as the PTA, various field trips, and helping out in class or the lunch room.

SCHOOL STAFF Evaluate your school's safety objectively. Set targets for improvement. Be honest about crime problems and work toward bettering the situation.  Develop consistent disciplinary policies, good security procedures, and response plans for emergencies.  Train school personnel in conflict resolution, problem solving, drug prevention, crisis intervention, cultural sensitivity, classroom management, and counseling skills. Make sure they can recognize trouble signs and identify potentially violent JPA Cadets can help stop school violence. students.  Encourage students to talk about worries, questions, and fears about what's going on in their schools, homes, and neighborhoods. Listen carefully to what they say.  If a student makes a threat of violence, take him or her seriously. Address the problem immediately and act to prevent a potential conflict.  When something violent and frightening happens at school or in the neighborhood, take time to talk about it. Discuss the consequences and get students to think about what other choices besides violence might have been available. Get help from trained counselors if necessary.  Work with students, parents, law enforcement, local governments, and communitybased groups to develop wider-scope crime prevention efforts.

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Why is crime prevention in school so important? What types of practices do schools use to prevent crime in and around schools? What types of educational programs are taught to prevent criminal activity? List three violations that would get you suspended from school? Which groups should be involved in order for a crime prevention programs to be effective?


U54

GANGS

Many communities (maybe the one you live in) have serious problems with gangs. There are many kinds of gangs, but whatever kind you community is dealing with, gangs spell trouble.

OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE CHALLENGES LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS FACE AS THEY WORK TO QUASH GANG ACTIVITY. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL UNDERSTAND THE LEGAL DEFINITION OF GANG AND WILL LEARN THE EFFECTS GANGS HAVE ON OUR SOCIETY.

For many students in America, school has become a gathering place for gangs, where guns, drugs, and violence are a part of the daily educational landscape. Data from the National Crime Victimization Surveys indicate that the percentage of students reporting gangs in schools increased by 100% between 1989 and 1995. While growth in gang activity is now a concern nationwide, gangs have been a problem in Los Angeles for years. Did you know that they account for about half of that city's murders? ď€ Gangs are now responsible for 41 percent of the homicides in Omaha, Nebraska. Drive-by shootings rose 3,000 percent in Wichita, Kansas from 1991 to 1993. Oklahoma City is home to 80 separate gangs. In fact, Violent street gangs are now operating in 94 percent of all medium and large-sized cities.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L54

GANGS

History of Gangs Gangs in one form or another have been around for hundreds of years. Pirates were probably some of the original gangs. The groups that traditionally come to mind when one thinks of modern day gangs are the Crips and the Bloods from California. Crips and Bloods The origins of the Crips and Bloods can be traced to the late 60's, and the gang culture since then has become so ingrained on the west coast that many families have two and even three generations of gangsters residing in the same residence. Depending on whose figures you listen to (government officials have a tendency to downsize the numbers), L.A. gangs number between 800 and 1000, with anywhere from 120,000 to 220,000 members. First Glimpse Oftentimes, young peripheral or associate gang members get their first exposure to the gang culture through various aspects of the media窶馬ews shows, movies, videos, and even through the music of various artists. Some music and movies tend to glamorize the gang lifestyle. Many kids who gravitate to gangs do so out of a need to belong to something and for the power that is gained from being in a gang. The society that we live in makes alternative lifestyles very appealing to our youth. Real Life Gang Bangers While in prison, these youngsters become exposed to and indoctrinated into the world of real life gang bangers who are truly the hardest of the hard-core. Then, back to the streets these bangers go with more "knowledge" than ever could have been gained on the streets. When they are in prison, many members gain rank or "juice" within their gang because they went to the "joint." While most kids on the streets are good kids, all kids must be considered at risk. Why? Groups that may have started out as a delinquent band of neighborhood tough guys/girls often turn into violent drug gangs, some of whom retain a gang identity for enforcement, collection, or other reasons. Power Appeal Most gang members crave power, or "juice" as it is known in gang slang. Several years ago, a way to determine rank within a gang may have been established by flying fists. Now it is settled by flying lead.

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A Bad Rep Joining a group known to have a reputation, good or bad, gives a kid looking for a purpose something to belong to. Participants have said that the mere interaction of members--listening to one another's problems, sharing the other trials and tribulations—is reason to participate in a group or a gang.

U54

Respect Gang members claim to enjoy the respect or fear others exhibit around them. Then the money begins flowing, and with that comes all of the things associated with material wealth that are usually beyond the reach of these adolescents without the criminal activity of being involved in a gang. No Way Out All of this is quite a heady trip for a young kid. Once in a gang, a young person is told over and over again that there is no way out. They fear serious repercussions from fellow gang members if their allegiance is doubted. Reasons for Joining Sociologists as well as gang members have isolated six reasons for joining a street gang:

     

fear hatred bigotry poverty disenfranchisement the general breakdown of social values

Additionally, many kids are pushed into gangs to avoid continued harassment. Gangs provide their members and their family members with protection from other gangs as well as any other perceived threats. Nothing New Gangs are nothing new. Many large police departments on the east coast had gang units at the turn of the century to monitor the immigrant gangs who protected their neighborhoods and came together for social reasons. Gangs as most people think of them probably began to be recognized by the general public around the nation with the birth of the Los Angeles gangs in the early seventies. Gang-like activity has plagued large cities around the nation for years. In Los Angeles, the average age of a gang member is around 25 years. In Arkansas, gang members are in their teens. Older individuals sometimes claim gang membership for similar reasons as teens. Recently, street graffiti was found that indicated second generation membership in a local street gang.

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L54

GANGS

ASSIGNMENT Have the cadets read the three scenarios and decide if the group represented should be classified as a gang. This can be used in class or as a home assignment. Each paragraph describes a group of individuals. Determine if the individuals can be considered to be part of a gang. List the elements that helped you determine whether a group of individuals is a gang or not. The first group consists of 50 individuals, most of them reside in and “hang out� in a specific neighborhood. They have structured leadership (based on who has the best drug connection), are involved in the sale of crack cocaine and marijuana, use violence to protect their drug trade and many members of the group engage in random acts of violence, robbery, and car theft. They intimidate residents and are feared in the neighborhood. They do not have any specific gang name other than the name of the neighborhood, do not use graffiti to mark their territory or advertise their group. They do not have any initiation rituals, do not wear "colors" or use hand signs. The second group consists of 25 individuals, most of who reside in and "hang out" in a specific neighborhood. They have a loose knit leadership structure depending on who is toughest during a time of conflict with another group, or who may have the most charisma at a given time. Some members of the group engage in random acts of violence, robbery, and car theft. They intimidate residents and are feared in the neighborhood, but are not as intimidating as group one. They have a specific name, "89th Street Crew" and have marked their neighborhood with graffiti. They wear T-shirts that display the crew name for social events only but use no other group identifiers such as tattoo's, hand signs, etc. The third group consists of only seven individuals, who originally met in school but live in several different neighborhoods. This group also has a loose knit structure and is involved in the same types of criminal activity as groups one and two. But group three is much smaller in membership thus their overall criminal activity is not near the scope, nor are they as detrimental to the community, as groups one and two. This group calls themselves the 8th Street Crips, has "colors", dresses in black and blue colors, employs the use of graffiti, hand signs, tattoo's, and jewelry to identify with their group. They also have initiation rituals.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

D-22

What is a gang? Why are gangs appealing to young people? What are the goals of a gang? List some ways young people can avoid getting involved in a gang? Where are kids first exposed to gangs?


U55

ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME

What causes a young person to commit crime? Should parents be responsible for the crimes and actions of their children?

Consider this: If the parents of Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris — the two teenagers responsible for the massacre at Columbine — had done a better job raising their children, could the tragedy have been avoided? OVERVIEW INSTRUCTOR WILL LEAD THE CADETS THROUGH A VARIETY OF THEORIES CONCERNING THE ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME. OBJECTIVE CADETS WILL IDENTIFY THOSE FACTORS THAT ARE MOST OFTEN ASSOCIATED WITH JUVENILE CRIME AND DEVELOP THEIR OWN OPINIONS REGARDING PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY.

Should the parents be prosecuted for the horrific crimes of their children? Why hadn’t the parents seen the warning signs that their children were troubled? Had Harris’ parents never seen their son’s rage-filled Web site or the sawed-off shotgun barrel left on the bedroom dresser? Are parents really to blame? In this Unit we will examine the question of responsibility and explore the root causes of juvenile crime.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L55

ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME

ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY Many experts contend that the groundwork for violent behavior in adults is laid in childhood. To support this conclusion, they discuss the high percentages of inmates in American prisons reporting to be victims of friend abuse. PERSONAL CHOICE A growing number of researchers and professionals propose that personal choice plays a much larger role in juvenile delinquency than otherwise thought. As support for this view, they show the very high percentages of juveniles who have experienced abuse and witnessed excessive violence but have not become delinquent. IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION Excitement and immediate gratification to alleviate boredom are said to be significant causes of violent juvenile behavior. It is not the environment that causes the juvenile behavior, but instead, the manner in which an individual reacts to the environment. Much of the research centers on boredom and alienation. Some delinquents are actually hyperactive and need extra stimulation to keep them interested. They can become deviant because of their desire for risk and excitement. FAMILY STABILITY Research has shown that in most cases, family stability can trump negative influences that might otherwise lead to a child's violent behavior. For each individual violent juvenile, any number of influences can contribute to violent behavior; i.e., rejection by peers, failure at school, mental or emotional problems, low self-image, early childhood trauma. When researchers study juvenile violence, they try to determine what characteristics or outside influences are responsible. Does a certain temperament lead to violent behavior? Do certain physical anomalies make some kids prone to violence more than others? Does a child's physical or mental make up determine whether he will grow up to be a violent juvenile? The answer, according to the best research, is "it depends." It depends upon the child's family. In the war against juvenile violence, research shows that there is no more effective weapon than a healthy family.

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FAMILY RELATIONS

U55

The impact of family relations upon children can never by over-stated. Delinquency is highest when positive family interaction and control are weak and conflict is high. Family is the immediate origin of delinquency because family structure through childhood influences how strongly peer pressure influences a friend. Family influences impact the possible attractiveness of negative groups. SOLUTIONS FOR JUVENILE VIOLENCE In the area of violence reduction in youth, solid research on the effects of different strategies is sparse. However, according to available evidence the following influences have the most impact: Family School Community A recurring theme in any investigation into juvenile violence is alienation and boredom. Social institutions must generate meaningful programs for youth. Less juvenile violence occurs in areas where many positive activities exist. THE PARENT FACTOR Parents need to increase participation in their children's lives and to make certain that their children understand that parental involvement is done out of love and concern, not control and punishment. Parents need to know what associations their children have with school activity, peers, and their neighborhood groups. Juveniles should be treated as individuals, not as numbers. COMMUNICATION Increasing a student’s success in school is an old idea but one that continues to demonstrate results. Students who do not achieve in school are more frequently involved in confrontational behavior. A part of this solution effort might be to increase communication between students, parents, and teachers.

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L55

ROOT CAUSES OF JUVENILE CRIME

WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT Instruct the cadets to answer the following questions. This can be done during class or as part of a take-home assignment. 1.

Do you think child abuse plays a role in the making of a criminal? Why?

2.

Which plays a larger role in crime: child rearing or choice? Why?

3.

Does the class know of a student who has been in trouble with the law?

4.

What was his/her family situation?

5.

Explain why you di not become a criminal? Was it purely choice or did an adult mentor you?

6.

Think of a younger brother or sister (or friend), what is the single most effective thing you could do to keep them away from a life of crime? 1

CROSSWORD 2

3

Across 5. Juvenile _______________ Down 1. Teens and _______ make a deadly combination 2. Recurring theme in juvenile violence 3. Another word for teenager 4. Stay out of____________ 6. Obey the _____________

4

5

6

Answers:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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Delinquency is highest when positive family interaction and control are weak and conflict is high. True or False? __________ and immediate _________ to alleviate boredom are said to be significant causes of violent juvenile behavior. Who has the most influence on teens in the fight against teen violen Less juvenile violence occurs in areas where many ________________ exist. List two factors the may promote juvenile delinquency.

Across 5. Delinquent Down 1. Weapons 2. Boredom 3. Juvenile 4. Trouble 6. Law


U56

TEENS AND DRUG USE

Adolescence is a time for trying new things. Teens use drugs for many reasons, including curiosity, because it feels good, to reduce stress, to feel grown up or to fit in.

OVERVIEW INSTRUCTOR WILL DISCUSS THE PROBLEM OF DRUG ABUSE, WHILE EMPHASIZING THE BENEFITS OF AVOIDING ABUSE.

OBJECTIVES CADETS WILL EVALUATE VARIOUS METHODS OF FIGHTING DRUG ABUSE AND WILL DEVELOP A SOUND STRATEGY OF THEIR OWN FOR ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM.

Drugs and the human body can be a bad mix.

Consider the experience of a person’s first cigarette? After choking on the smoke, you felt nauseated, dizzy, your heart beat wildly and your head pounded. Your body, shocked at the toxic insult, told you in the only way it knew how that nicotine was unacceptable. It violated your body’s natural chemical mix. Stop, it said, or I’ll make you throw up. The new smoker persists in puffing on the thing anyway — your motivation to look cool overruling any internal protest. Bowing to your sheer dumb will, your body shifts into survival mode, as it would when presented with any toxic psychoactive substance — whether alcohol, caffeine, heroin or crack cocaine. It adjusts. With each subsequent puff, drag, snort or injection, the drug etches permanent biochemical changes in your brain that enables you to tolerate more and more of the poisonous compound. This marvelous physiological response is a stunning example of the body’s resilience and capacity for adaptation. It illuminates another fascinating, though insidious, process, too: addiction. In this lesson we will examine teenage addition — formulating strategies for identifying and treating the problem.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L56

TEENS AND DRUG USE

Signs of Drug Abuse How you can spot drug abuse among your friends? Being alert to the signs of alcohol and other drug use requires a keen eye. It is sometimes hard to know the difference between normal teenage behavior and behavior caused by drugs. *Review the list below and ask the cadets to discuss each item and provide any personal history associated with the problem. 1. Track or needle marks (usually on arms, hands, neck or legs) 2. Wearing of sunglasses (to conceal dilated, constricted or bloodshot eyes) 3. Wearing of long sleeve shirts in warm weather (to hide needle marks) 4. Long stays in the bathroom (possible drug ingestion) 5. Frequent lateness to school or work (typical pattern of drug users) 6. Excessive use of breath mints (masks the smell of alcohol) 7. Unwarranted laughter (associated with marijuana and PCP use) 8. Extreme mood swings (typical reaction to drug use) 9. Unusually disheveled or unkempt appearance (distorted priorities) 10. Nodding out (drowsiness; lethargy) 11. Sweating profusely, even on cold days (physical reaction to drug use) Never confront a friend while 12. Bad attitude in the morning (hangover; depression or low self-esteem) they are under the influence of 13. Borrowing or begging for money (to support drug habit) alcohol or other drugs 14. Poor circulation (reaction related to drug use) 15. Undependable, unpredictable behavior (typical pattern of drug use) 16. Aggressive, uptight, or paranoid behavior (common reaction to stimulants) 17. Swollen/puffy hands and/or feet (possible IV use) 18. Constant sniffling (signs of withdrawal or nasal damage) 19. Yawning (withdrawal symptom) 20. Associating with known users (could indicate drug involvement) 21. Teary eyes (withdrawal symptom) 22. Hanging out in known drug locations (could indicate drug involvement) 23. Unnecessary or obvious lying (to cover up drug use) 24. Burns, lesions, sores, in mouth or on lips (smoking of drugs) 25. Burns or scorch marks on nose, lips, face (smoking of drugs) Do you have a friend or sibling who you suspect of abusing drugs? Consider the following questions:



Does your friend seem withdrawn, depressed, tired, and careless about personal grooming?

   

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Has your friend become hostile and uncooperative? Have your friend’s relationships with other family members deteriorated? Has your friend dropped his or her old friends? Has your friend lost interest in hobbies, sports and other favorite activities?


WHAT TO DO?

U56

Never confront a friend while they are under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. Wait until he or she is sober. Then discuss your suspicions with your friend calmly and objectively. It's not easy. Take a walk around the block first if you need to calm down. Bring in other members of the family to help, if necessary. Many young people lie about their alcohol and other drug use. (Just like many adults.) If you think your friend is not being truthful and the evidence is pretty strong, you may wish to have your friend evaluated by a health professional experienced in diagnosing adolescents with alcohol/drug-related problems. If your friend has developed a pattern of drug use or has engaged in heavy use, you will need help in order to intervene.

THE BEST ADVICE Healthy lifestyles mean, among other things, living free of drugs, including tobacco and alcohol. Without illicit substances, you will live a longer, healthier life that is more meaningful and productive. Drugs and alcohol can have a lasting negative impact on both your body and mind.

WHAT IS A 'DRUG'? A drug is any chemical that produces a therapeutic or nontherapeutic effect in the body. Chemicals, on the other hand, are a broad class of substances -- including drugs -- that may or may not produce noticeable effects in the body. Many chemicals (such as tin, lead, gold) have harmful effects on the body, especially in high doses. Most foods are not drugs. Alcohol is a drug -- not a food, in spite of the calories it provides. Nicotine is a chemical that is also a drug. The group of "illegal" drugs includes dangerous chemicals that have only toxic actions (e.g., inhalants). TEENAGERS AND DRUGS Teenagers may be involved with legal or illegal drugs in various ways. Experimentation with drugs during adolescence is common. Unfortunately, teenagers  often  don’t  see  the  link   between their actions today and the consequences tomorrow. They also have a tendency to feel indestructible and immune to the problems that others experience. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increases the risk of using other drugs later. Some teens will experiment and stop, or continue to use occasionally, without significant problems. Others will develop a dependency, moving on to more dangerous drugs and causing significant harm to themselves and possibly others.

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L56

TEENS AND DRUG USE

CREATE YOUR OWN ANTI-DRUG PROGRAM It’s your job to come up with an anti-drug message that works. But the subject of drugs can be very confusing to young people. If drugs are so dangerous, why is the family medicine cabinet full of them? If alcohol is so bad for you, why do Mom and Dad drink wine at dinner? Parents and older siblings need to help young people sort out the facts from the fiction. It's never too soon to begin. The average age at which a young person first tries alcohol is 12; for marijuana, it's 13. And many young people become curious about these substances even sooner. So let's get started! A prevention message might include:  Most of their peers - and the people they admire - do not use drugs.  Getting high has negative physical, mental and social consequences.  Staying drug free has positive benefits for body, mind and soul.  Young people can learn how to make good decisions without bad consequences. THE COMPANY YOU KEEP Friendships are extremely important when it comes to the paths that young people choose in life. For that reason, it is important that our program encourage positive, healthy, helpful friendships and that it guide young people away from friendships that are potentially harmful.

Explain: How many of you in the class have a younger brother or sister. Have you ever spoken to them about drugs. What did you talk about? Did they know about drugs and the consequences? Today we are going to design an anti-drug program for your little brothers and sisters. APPROACHES FOR YOUR PROGRAM Let’s first identify the reasons young people abuse drugs. (Discuss).

The risks of using drugs are intriguing on several levels:  Frustrating the law (To defy laws of community)  Breaking the rules of parents and schools  Defying physical danger. As the creators of a drug prevention program, how do we handle/address this attraction that young people have to risk? How can we convince them to focus on the short and long-term consequences of drug use? Use the survey in the Cadet handout to answer the following questions. What will work best in your drug program? What has little or no effect on getting through to young people?

1. 2.

List some of the signs of someone using drugs. What should you do confront when you suspect a friend of using drugs? 3. List 3 types of drugs people are likely to use? 4. What treatments are there for drug use? 5. Why do teens use drugs?

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U57

WHAT IS TERRORISM?

Terrorism is the use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of the criminal laws of the United States for purposes of intimidation, coercion or ransom.

OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE DIFFERENT TYPES TERRORISM IN THE U.S. AND AROUND THE WORLD. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNATIONAL VS. DOMESTIC TERRORISM.

Terrorists often use threats to create fear among the public, to try to convince citizens that their government is powerless to prevent terrorism, and to get immediate publicity for their causes. Different types of terrorist weapons include: explosives, kidnappings, hijackings, arson, shootings, and NBC's (nuclear, biological agents, and chemicals). Most terrorist incidents in the United States have been bombing attacks, involving detonated and un-detonated explosive devices, tear gas, and pipe and fire bombs. Other possibilities include attacks at transportation facilities, or attacks against utilities or other public services. Most terrorist incidents involve small extremist groups who use terrorism to achieve a designated objective. Terrorists often choose targets that offer little danger to themselves and are located in areas with relatively easy public access. Terrorists look for visible targets where they can avoid detection before or after an attack such as international airports, large cities, major international events, resorts, and high-profile landmarks.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L57

WHAT IS TERRORISM?

TERRORISM: WHAT? WHO? WHY? WHERE? HOW? WHAT IS IT?

Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objective. —FBI DEFINITION

WHO ARE TERRORISTS?

What do you think of when you hear the word terrorist? These days most people think of someone of Middle Eastern descent with a turban and a beard. You may be surprised to learn that terrorists can be anyone--even your next door neighbor! Nowadays, it is very hard to distinguish who a terrorist might be. Fortunately for us, the U.S. Government and other nations have compiled a list of terrorist individuals and groups. Al-Qaida, which bin Laden operates from his sanctuary in Afghanistan, is on the list. Among the Palestinian groups listed are the Hamas and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. Most of the focus has been on the Middle Eastern groups because of there consistent activity. But the government remains vigilant to all types of groups and individuals throughout the world .

WHY THEY DO WHAT THEY DO?

There are a wide range of terrorist organizations in the world, driven by a variety of causes and beliefs. Listed below are the goals and ideals that drive most terrorist groups. Ideologies: Ideology is defined as a collection of beliefs or values of an individual, group or culture. It is the ideology that binds the terrorist group together and provides the group justification of the use of violence to achieve its objectives. Examples of ideologies include political, religious and special interest. Long Range Goals of Terrorism:  Revolutionary: To force the complete overthrow of an existing government.  Sub-revolutionary: To influence the government against its will to change certain political, social or economic aspects of the country.  Establishment: Terrorism used by a government against its own people to protect its control of the country. Intermediate Goals of Terrorism To obtain worldwide or local recognition of its cause. To force an overreaction by the government which in turn, can cause the people to resent government imposed restrictions on freedom.  To harass, weaken or embarrass government security forces.  To obtain money or equipment.  To destroy facilities or disrupt lines of communication and transportation.  To influence government decisions.  To free prisoners.  To revenge.  To turn the tide in an ongoing guerrilla war

 

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The Ku Klux Klan: a domestic terrorist


WHERE DOES TERRORISM HAPPEN?

Terrorism has no boundaries. Attacks can happen anywhere at anytime. Until recently most have occurred outside the U.S. in such place as the Middle East, Africa, and Columbia. Most attacks have occurred in countries with a history of political instability, territorial disputes, waning infrastructure or religious conflict.

U57

Most terrorist incidents in the United States have been bombing attacks, motivated by disagreement with U.S Government laws or policy. One way government attempts to reduce our vulnerability to terrorist incidents is by increasing security at airports and other public facilities. The U.S. government also works with other countries to limit the sources of support for terrorism.

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM

International terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are foreignbased and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States or whose activities transcend national boundaries. An Example of an international terrorist is The Party of God, or the Hizballah, a radical and well-known group from Lebanon. A devout Islamic organization founded by Ayatollah Mahmud Gaffari, the Hizballah seeks an Islamic republic in Lebanon that would bar all non-Islamic people.

DOMESTIC TERRRORISM

Domestic terrorism involves groups or individuals whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government or population without foreign direction.

 

For example, radical pro-life groups have bombed numerous abortion clinics and assassinated abortion doctors, supposedly in defense of unborn babies. There are also individual terrorists acting on their own. Theodore Kaczynski, also known as the Unabomber, is a good example. He used terrorism to coerce the New York Times and the Washington Post to publish his manifesto, and was later captured as a direct result of that publication.

TERRORISM TACTICS FOR A NEW AGE

As the access to Technology gets easier, many terrorist groups are finding new and creative ways to advance their agendas. Listed below are some more recent methods that terrorist have used to threaten, intimidate and coerce governments or populations. Cyber-Terrorism: the use of computing resources to intimidate or coerce others. An example of cyber-terrorism could be hacking into a hospital computer system and changing someone's medicine prescription to a lethal dosage as an act of revenge. Biological Terrorism: the use or threatened use of biological or biological-related toxins against civilians, with the objective of causing fear, illness, or death. Chemical Terrorism: The use of chemical weapons against civilians with the objective of causing fear, illness or death. Chemical terrorism might range from dissemination of aerosolized anthrax spores to food product contamination; predicting when and how such an attack might occur is not possible. Nuclear Terrorism: The use of nuclear weapons against a territory with the objective to destroy a population.

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L57

WHAT IS TERRORISM?

THE HISTORY OF TERRORISM Terrorism has been practiced throughout history and throughout the world. The ancient Greek historian Xenophon (c. 431–c. 350 BC) wrote of the effectiveness of psychological warfare against enemy populations. Roman emperors such as Tiberius (reigned AD 14–37) and Caligula (reigned AD 37–41) used banishment, expropriation of property, and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule.. The Spanish Inquisition used arbitrary arrest, torture, and execution to punish what it viewed as religious heresy. The use of terror was openly advocated by Robespierre as a means of encouraging revolutionary virtue during the French Revolution, leading to the period of his political dominance called the Reign of Terror (1793–94). After the American Civil War (1861–65) defiant Southerners formed a terrorist organization called the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate supporters of the Reconstruction. In the latter half of the 19th century, terrorism was adopted by adherents of anarchism in Western Europe, Russia, and the United States. They believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate persons in positions of power. From 1865 to 1905 a number of kings, presidents, prime ministers, and other government officials were killed by anarchists' guns or bombs.

PREVIOUS U.S. TERRORIST ATTACKS 1920, Sept. 16, New York City: TNT bomb planted in unattended horse-drawn wagon exploded on Wall Street opposite House of Morgan, killing 35 persons and injuring hundreds more. Bolshevist or anarchist terrorists believed responsible, but the crime was never solved. 1975, Jan. 24, New York City: bomb set off in historical Fraunces Tavern killed four and injured more than 50 persons. Puerto Rican nationalist group (FALN) claimed responsibility and police tied 13 other bombings to it. 1993, Feb. 26, New York City: bomb exploded in basement garage of World Trade Center; killed six and injured at least 1,040 others. Six Middle Eastern men were later convicted in this act of vengeance for the Palestinian people. They claimed to be retaliating against U.S. support for the Israeli government. 1995, April 19, Oklahoma City: car bomb exploded outside federal office building, collapsing wall and floors. 168 persons were killed, including 19 children and one person who died in rescue effort. Over 220 buildings sustained damage. Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols later convicted in the antigovernment plot to avenge the Branch Davidian standoff in Waco, TX, exactly two years earlier. 2001, Sept 11, New York City: Four airplanes were hijacked by a group of 19 terrorist. The first plane crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center, the second plane crashed into the south tower, the third plane crashed into the Pentagon and the fourth plane crashed into a field in Somerset County ,Pennsylvania. Both WTC Towers were destroyed and over 5000 people were killed or are still listed as missing. * Ask cadets if they can name any other acts that they are aware of during their lifetime.

1. 2. D-34

3. 4. 5.

What is terrorism? What is the difference between an international and a domestic terrorist? Give examples of each. List three immediate goals of terrorists. What is an ideology? What types of places do terrorists attack?


U58

COUNTER TERRORISM: AMERICA FIGHTS BACK

On September 11, the curtain came up on a troubling new world, filled with danger. In one awful day, the nation’s self-confident mood and its public agenda were both turned on their heads.

A threat that had been waiting in the wings moved to center stage.

Since then, terrorism has been public issue #1. Deciding what to do about it, and how to regain a measure of our national security, are now the chief preoccupations of elected officials and the American public.

OVERVIEW: INSTRUCTOR WILL REVIEW AND DISCUSS THE NEW ROLE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AS THEY BATTLE AGAINST TERRORISM ON U.S. SOIL. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT TERRORISM IS AND WHAT COUNTER-TERRORISM TACTICS AND TOOLS LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES USE TO COMBAT HOMELAND TERRORISM.

Explain to cadets the urgency of counter-terrorism. Explain the new role that law enforcement has taken on in order to help combat terrorism in the U.S. and abroad. What can we do? The general objective of anti-terrorism programs is neutralizing terrorist groups. As in most stability and support operations, neutralization in this context means rendering the source the threat benign, not necessarily killing the terrorists. In anti-terrorism, the objective can be further refined as preventing attacks and minimizing the effects if one should occur. This includes any actions made to weaken the terrorist organization—including its political power—and those actions made to secure potential targets.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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L58

COUNTER TERRORISM: AMERICA FIGHTS BACK

A NEW PRIORITY

The September 11th terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, the1993 bombing of the World Trade Center, the 1995 bombing of the Federal building in Oklahoma City and the destruction of TWA Flight 800 have all brought a sense of national urgency to the threat of terrorism in America. The United States has been forced to take serious measures in order to reduce its vulnerability to attack. In this lesson, we will discuss American policy toward terrorists and the steps taken to fight terrorists at home and abroad. U.S. Counterterrorism Policy America has a firm policy in dealing with terrorist organizations or individuals. Discuss the importance of each of the following policy guidelines:

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Make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals. Bring terrorists to justice for their crimes. Cut off and apply pressure on states that sponsor terrorism to force them to change their behavior. Strengthen the counterterrorism capabilities of those countries that work with the U.S. and require assistance.

Check out these web sites to get more information on how we are fighting terrorism in America: The New Department of Homeland Security: www.dhs.gov or www.ready.gov http://www.nifi.org/terrorism.html

WHAT ACTIONS WE ARE TAKING TO FIGHT TERRORISM.

Listed below are a variety of methods law enforcement agencies use to combat terrorism. Can you give an example of each?

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Counter-terrorist intelligence – worldwide, cooperative efforts of law enforcement and military to root out and stop terrorism Economic counter-terrorism – cut off money supply to potential terrorists Political counter-terrorism – make it clear that the terrorists will make political gains through their actions Offensive counter-terrorism –create elite international counterterrorism units to actively pursue and stop terrorists. Technological counter-terrorism – the use of technology to root out terrorist and their plans for violence


Ask cadets if they can list other types of counter-terrorism tactics that the U.S Government has put in place to fight terrorism.

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Hints: Airport security National Guard Coast Guard No Fly Zones Discuss: Do you think America can defeat terrorism? How? And how long will it take? * Suggested Answer: Defeating terrorism will require a long-term effort, years in fact. It will take a combination of law enforcement efforts, intelligence and counterintelligence cooperation, ending the financial network that supports terrorists, attacking the bases where they train, and undermining the governments that support and assist terrorists.

HOW YOU CAN HELP

Experts in the field have commented that the problem of stopping terrorism is difficult because America is an open society with a large and diverse population. On the other hand, it is possible that tips from an attentive public can help authorities by alerting them to potential threats.

The key is stopping an attack before it occurs

Authorities have sought help from the general public by using toll-free telephone hot line numbers and the Internet in their efforts to gather useful information. Jeff Beatty, a terrorism expert who worked on security planning for the Olympic Games in Los Angeles in 1984 and Barcelona in 1992, has observed: “In the counter-terrorism business, the key is stopping an attack before to occurs. Terrorists build practice bombs and conduct rehearsal activity that may be suspicious. Citizens need to chip in with additional eyes and ears to report suspicious activity.” A similar view was offered by Robbie Friedmann, another Olympic security consultant, who stated: “The community should be called on to help law enforcement do their job.... It’s common sense. There are more of them than security personnel....” * Ask cadets to come up with ideas of how they can help.

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COUNTER TERRORISM: AMERICA FIGHTS BACK

THE LAND OF THE FREE For centuries, people from all over the world have flocked to the melting pot of America in search of opportunity, prosperity, and freedom from less accepting governments and conditions. And, for the most part, America has let them in, allowing itself to become more culturally diverse and less exclusive. But recent attacks on our soil, namely the events of and around September 11th, have altered our immigration policies and closed our open arms. Of the 19 hijackers held responsible for the terrorist attacks, at least 9 were in the country on valid tourist or student visas, which are legal permits issued by the government allowing foreigners to visit the U.S. for travel or study. Three others had entered the country legally but then stayed beyond their visas' expiration. How the others entered the U.S. is still unknown by state officials and indicates, along with many other mishaps, a faulty immigration system. While some Americans believe it is currently in our best interest to enforce laws that will keep potential immigrants out of the country, others see a different side of the story. New policies and attitudes will discourage people from coming in and that means that foreign money and foreign students will be extracted from our nation’s environment. For decades, the United States has been the first place international students want to go to study. Many of the brightest students abroad work hard to be accepted by American schools, and often help to raise the standards of American learning institutions.

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Consider individuals in your school or community who have come here from another country. How do they enhance your education and environment? The U.S. government is trying to strike a delicate balance between maintaining the diversity of the United States and ensuring the security of a country devastated by terrorism. What would America be like if it closed its doors to outsiders? Do you think that excluding outsiders would put an end to terrorism? If you were in a position of governmental power, what would you do to remedy this issue?

1. 2. 3. 4.

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What events have led up to the development of new antiterrorism actions? What is Political Counter-Terrorism? Give an example. What is the current U.S. policy in dealing with terrorists? Give an example of Technological Counter-Terrorism.


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WHAT YOU CAN DO IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM

The people inside of the Twin Towers on September 11th had no idea what was about to hit them. We, too, have no idea as to what will be next, but we can still prepare.

OVERVIEW: DISCUSS PREPARATION FOR A FUTURE TERRORIST ATTACK. DISTRIBUTE CADET HANDOUTS AND CONCLUDE WITH A DISCUSSION CONCERNING THE EMOTIONS AND EFFECTS OF LIVING THROUGH AN ATTACK. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL LEARN TO UNDERSTAND THE BENEFITS OF BEING PREPARED AND AWARE PRIOR A TERRORITST ATTACK. THEY WILL LEARN HOW TO BEST BEHAVE BEFORE AND AFTER AN ATTACK.

Whenever possible, we want to stop terrorist attacks before they happen. All Americans should begin the process of learning about potential threats so that we are more prepared to react during an attack. While there is no way to predict what will happen, or what your personal circumstances will be, there are simple things you can do now to prepare yourself and your loved ones. Some of the things you can do to prepare for the unexpected, such as assembling a supply kit and developing a family communication plan, are the same for both a natural or man-made emergency. With a little planning and common sense, you can be better prepared for the unexpected.

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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WHAT YOU CAN DO IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM

WHAT YOU CAN DO TO FIGHT TERRORISM While we agree that the root causes of terrorism need to be addressed, your views about who is right and who is wrong will not provide any protection for your family members and pets in a terrorist attack. This is the world we live in now and whether we like it or not, we had better get used to it. There are a number of simple things to you can do to fight terrorism:

DEALING WITH A STATE OF EMERGENCY 

A terrorist attack is intended to inflict suffering and maximum psychological damage. It causes great uncertainty, disrupts people’s personal and daily business routine, disrupts the economy and creates a very real climate of fear that more attacks will follow.

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The physical and psychological trauma runs the gamut from emotional outbursts, stress and fear to loss of appetite and may trigger asthma or heart attacks.

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The best and indeed, the only way to handle such adversity is to be prepared for it to whatever degree is humanly practical. The more we can feel confident about protecting our loved ones and pets, the better able we are to deal with an emergency when and wherever it arises.

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Prepare a family emergency plan and be familiar with the various emergency situations and their associated dangers and responses

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Conduct emergency drills with all the members of your family

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Depending on the nature and severity of the attack, you need to be able to plan ahead to decide whether or not you should stay in your home or leave If you have to leave, always bring your pets with you

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Every family member should learn how and when to turn off your water, gas and electricity including the location of the shut off valves and switches and keep the necessary tools next to them (if you do turn off your gas, a professional must turn it back on, do not attempt to do this yourself)

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Be familiar with all aspects of your human and pet emergency kits and practice giving first aid to your family members and your pets

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Talk things over openly with your family

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If there are elderly or disabled people in your neighbourhood, please include them as a part of your community and/or family emergency plan

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Make certain that in the event of a terrorist attack that each member of the family knows where they should meet up at the earliest and safest possible opportunity and that each person has a complete of phone numbers for each family member, friend or relative Take your personal emergency kit and your pet emergency kit and lock the door of your home behind you.

CITIZENS CORPS After the terrorist attacks on Sept. 11, 2001, many Americans asked what they could do to make their communities safer. People really wanted to volunteer and to work together with their neighbors. President Bush created Citizen Corps and encouraged all Americans to volunteer their time to help others. How does this work? There are four Citizen Corps programs:

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Neighborhood Watch; Volunteers in Police Service Community Emergency Response Teams; and the Medical Reserve Corps.

The Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) are overseen by FEMA. These very special teams are trained to help first responders in an emergency. What does that mean? In a large emergency, emergency responders such as firefighters, will be very busy. They will not be able to help all the people who might need help. This is where CERT comes in. These special teams are trained to help out. They can do basic first aid, help with evacuations and other duties that are very important in an emergency.

WHAT CAN YOU DO? First off, be sure your family is prepared. Then talk to your teacher about school preparedness. Then, find out if there is CERT in your community. Even youngsters can learn basic first aid or help with providing information to a community. The bottom line is this: Get Involved! To find out more about Citizen Corps and CERT, go to www.citizencorps.gov

CONCLUSIONS  All of the steps you take to protect those you love can be used in the      

event of a terrorist attack, natural or manmade disaster Be prepared Hope for the best, plan for the worst Be alert Do your part in the fight against terrorism Be as self sufficient as humanly possible Follow the advice and directions of health care professional and emergency services personnel

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WHAT YOU CAN DO IN THE WAR ON TERRORISM

WHAT YOU MAY EXPERIENCE FOLLOWING A TERRORIST ATTACK

People who have experienced or witnessed a terrorist attack may go into a state of acute stress in reaction. You may feel one or all of these symptoms:

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Recurring thoughts of the incident Becoming afraid of everything, not leaving the house, or isolating yourself Stopping usual functioning, no longer maintaining daily routines Survivor’s guilt -- "Why did I survive? I should have done something more." Tremendous sense of loss Reluctance to express your feelings, losing a sense of control over your life

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WHAT YOU CAN DO 

COPING WITH THE TRAUMA Identify the feelings that you may be experiencing. Understand that your feelings are a normal reaction to an abnormal situation. Remember that you have overcome adversity and trauma in the past. Try to remember what you did that helped you overcome the fear and helplessness in that situation.

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Talk to others about your fears. It’s okay to ask for help. Workplaces may convene small groups with an EAP counselor or other mental health counselor so people can share their feelings. Make efforts to maintain your usual routine. Think positively. Realize that things will get better. Be realistic about the time it takes to feel better.

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1.

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2. 3. 4. 5.

Recognize that the nature of terrorist attacks creates fear and uncertainty about the future. Continue to do the things in your life that you enjoy. Don’t get preoccupied with the things you cannot control to the extent that they prevent you from living your normal life. Know the actions our government is taking to combat terrorism and restore safety and security. Recognize that trained officials throughout the country are mobilized to prevent, prepare for and respond to terrorist attacks. Limit exposure to media coverage.

Talk about it. Not expressing your feelings will keep you from being able to work through what happened. By talking with others, you will relieve stress and realize that other people share your feelings. Get plenty of rest and exercise. Remember to eat. Avoid excessive drinking and risktaking activities. Spend time with your family. If you have any children, encourage them to discuss their concerns and feelings with you. As soon as it feels comfortable, go back to your usual routine. Do things that you find relaxing and soothing. Recall other times when you have experienced strong emotions and how they were resolved. Do something positive that will help you gain a greater sense of control (for example, give blood, take a first aid class or donate food or clothing). If you feel overwhelmed by the disaster, ask for help. It’s not a sign of weakness. Talk with a trusted relative, friend, social worker, or clergy member.

What preparations can you make to prepare for a future terrorist attack? How might you feel after being involved in an attack? What is Survivor’s Guilt? What you should do after being in an attack? How can you help yourself to gain back a sense of control in your life?


DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES?

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If all the oh-so glamorous responsibilities covered in the last unit sounded interesting, you might be wondering if you have what it takes to be a police officer. No buts about it: the work is demanding, dangerous and stressful.

OVERVIEW: DISCUSS THE DEMANDS OF A CAREER IN LAW ENFORCEMENT. DISTRIBUTE THE CADET HANDOUT AND EXPLAIN THE PROCESS OF BECOMING A POLICE OFFICER. CONCLUDE WITH A GUEST SPEAKER DISCUSSING HIS OR HER EXPERIENCES AS A LAW ENFORCER. OBJECTIVE: CADETS WILL GAIN A DEEPER APPRECIATION FOR THE DUTIES A POLICE OFFICER PERFORMS AND BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY THE QUALITIES REQUIRED FOR A SUCCESSFUL PROFESSIONAL CAREER.

In addition to the obvious dangers of confrontations with criminals, officers are on constant alert for any number of threatening situations. In most jurisdictions, officers are expected to be armed and exercise their authority even when they’re offduty. Many law enforcement officials deal first hand with death and suffering which can really wear down one’s state of mind. It takes a strong will to deal with the long hours, difficult emotional situations, and the general stress of being a police officer. Still sound like fun? The reward at the end of the day is the knowledge that the work officers do helps to keep our nation’s cities and homes safe...even if that means working holidays and weekends. Officer Beverly Freshour and Lamar Middle School Cadets, Austin, Texas

Now, have your cadets take out their Cadet Handout for this unit.

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DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES? THE “GOOD GUYS” OK, so there are some bad cops out there. But this is not about those guys. This is the story of the “Good Guys” -- the overwhelming majority of the men and women who wear a badge. While they don’t wear white hats like the “Good Guys” of popular legend, police officers do their fair share of riding to the rescue and rounding up the “Bad Guys.” For most police officers it’s the role of a lifetime --to perform heroic deeds, to make a real difference in the lives of people in their community. On the pages that follow, you will learn qualities that elevate the exceptional cop to the status of “One of the Good Guys”. Along the way take stock of yourself, find out if you are on the right track to becoming a “Good Guy” whether you wear a badge or not.

COMPASSION

“To be a great police officer, you have to care about people. Compas-‐ sion is often an underrated quality. You have to want to help people. The majority of the people you come in contact with are calling for help and have been victimized somehow. The last thing those people want or need is some cop who is acting like he’s just going through the motion and not caring about them; he or she must be willing to do everything he can do to help them. Compassion is absolutely essential.” Officer Jim Adams, Hanford Police Dept., Hanford, CA “One of the most important skills law enforcement officers need is peo-‐ ple skills. If you don't have good people skills, you cannot interact with the community and serve their needs.” Officer Mitchell Garcia, Houston Police Department

A SENSE OF HUMOR

A sense of humor may seem like an unlikely choice but ask any law enforcement officer and they’ll tell you that it is essential for dealing with the absurdities and tragedies that dominate a law enforcer’s career. Learning to cope, decently and without rancor, is your best hope for making it all the way to retirement. “A sense of humor is essential to coping with the realities of a law en-‐ forcement career. This job is a tough job, and you've got to have your priorities in order.” Det. Staha added that along with humor, learning to leave the stresses of police work at the office, and maintaining a strong religious faith keep your life in balance. Det. Howard Staha, Austin Police Dept., Austin, TX,

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MATURITY

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“Maturity is important. And it does not necessarily depend on age. A lot of times we get kids right out of college and they lack maturity and will make childish mistakes. A mental maturity is important. Every day in this job you will be required to conduct yourself in a professional way, many times under stressful situations. That requires maturity, usually beyond your years.” Officer Mitchell Garcia, Houston Police Dept., Houston, TX “You have to think in terms of the enormous authority that the police officer has. You’re carrying a gun. You have power to do things to peo-‐ ple. Peoples’ lives are in your hands in certain situations. Maturity is absolutely essential.” Officer Jim Adams, Hanford Police Dept., Hanford, CA

INTEGRITY

A thief believes that everybody steals. An honest person knows that is not true. As a police officer, this is your core value: integrity, and there’s no on/off switch. “I think integrity is important with this job. There are so many things that can happen. If you lack integrity, you can fall off that thin line and go astray. In our local Junior Police Academy, we teach that integrity is not something you have a little bit of -- you’ve either got it or you don’t. I find that when integrity is the top priority all the other character traits fall into place.” Captain Tom Long, Herkimer Police Department, Herkimer, NY

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DO YOU HAVE WHAT IT TAKES?

Police and detectives held about 727,000 jobs in 1998. About 81% of police detectives and investigators were employed by local governments, primarily in cities with more than 25,000 inhabitants. Some cities have very large police forces, while hundreds of small communities employ fewer than 25 officers each.

DO YOU HAVE THE RIGHT STUFF? Candidates must be U.S. citizens, usually at least 20 years of age, and must meet rigorous physical and personal qualifications. Physical examinations for entrance into law enforcement often include tests of vision, hearing, strength, and agility. Eligibility for appointment generally depends on performance in competitive written examinations and previous education and experience. In larger departments, where the majority of law enforcement jobs are found, applicants must have at least a high school education. Federal and State agencies typically require a college degree. Personal characteristics such as honesty, judgment, integrity, and a sense of responsibility are especially important in law enforcement. Candidates are interviewed by senior officers, and their character traits and backgrounds are investigated. In some agencies, candidates are interviewed by a psychiatrist or a psychologist, or given a personality test.

AN INFORMAL GUIDE TO BECOMING A POLICE OFFICER

typically concerns your work experience and education. You send that in and then get called for an initial interview. THE INFORMAL INTERVIEW This is done one on one with the applicant coordinator. It is an informal screening interview. THE EXAM Next comes the written exam. Multiple choice and very much like the SATs, the test covers basic skills: math, reading comprehension, logical thought. You can buy prep books for the exams. BACKGROUND CHECK If you pass the written exam, next comes the very thick background questionnaire. They are about twenty pages long and ask for all kinds of personal information on you and your family, your work and educational history, drug use, legal problems, finances, old roommates, anything goes. THE PANEL INTERVIEW The applicant coordinator and a few others will spend a couple of hours asking you just about anything. THE DOCTOR AND THE POLYGRAPH The doctor's physical is next, including a physical fitness test and then a polygraph. TIPS Internships, if you are in school, are a great way to get a foot in the door and make some contacts. Support positions are also great. Higher education and/or work experience are also very helpful.

THE CALL Here's how it usually works. You call up an agency's personnel department and ask for them to send you an application. This first application is a page or two and

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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What are two traits an officer must have? Why does an officer need a sense of humor? What is integrity? What kinds of exams must a potential officer pass? Are you ready for the challenge of law enforcement?

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