Page 1

) e (r THE

e s Fu

E V D A

S E R NTU

OF

THE //NON_HUMAN

CITADEL

VOLUME ONE

ABPL30048: ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO AIR Arianna Garay 758843


(re)FUSE: The Adventures of the //Non_Human Citadel: Volume One Copyright Š2018 by Arianna Ina Garay garaya@student.unimelb.edu.au COURSE COORDINATOR: Dr. Stanislav Roudavski LECTURER: Bradley Elias SENIOR TUTOR: Rosie Gunzburg TUTOR: Daniel Schulz This subject was created by the University of Melbourne under the Bachelor of Environments course, currently affiliated with the Melbourne School of Design and the Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning. Any photographs, parametric drawings and edIted pictures that appear within this submission belongs to the student, unless listed otherwise. All items taken from the internet or within university sources are citated and sources can be found either within the page or in the bibliography at the end of the journal.


TA B L E O F ABOUT THE AUTHOR 6

(Release Date: 20th of Apri

ISSUE A. CONCEPTUALISATION “(re)FUSE: THE ORIGIN STORY”

ISSUE B. CRITERIA DESIGN “(re)FUSE: FORMATI

A.1

B.1

A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION 24

A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION

38

B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

A.4 CONCLUSION 48

B.4 TECHNIQUE: DE

A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES 49

A.6 ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

50

B.6 TECHNIQUE: PR

DESIGN FUTURING 10

BIBLIOGRAPHY 54

RESEARCH FIEL

B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

B.5 TECHNIQUE: PR

B.7 LEARNING OBJ AND OUTCOME

B.8 ALGORITHMIC S

BIBLIOGRAPHY

4


CONTENTS

il, 2018)

(Release Date: 6th of June, 2018)

N ION DAYS”

ISSUE C. DETAILED DESIGN “(re)FUSE: FINAL HOURS”

LD N/A

C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT N/A C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS AND PROTOTYPES N/A

0

N/A

0

EVELOPMENT

N/A

N/A

N/A

ROTOTYPES N/A

ROPOSAL

C.3 FINAL DETAIL MODEL

N/A

C.4 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES N/A BIBLIOGRAPHY N/A

JECTIVES ES N/A

SKETCHES

AFTERWORD: FROM THE AUTHOR

N/A

N/A

N/A

5


T U O B E A H T

A U

Hmmm.... What’s This?

My name is

oh

ARIANNA GARAY

I am a third-year student studying Architecture and Urban Planning and Design at the University of Melbourne. I love design and often take designing and photography projects, which is not only fun but also improves and expands my creativity and skills. It also allows me to study different styles and allows me to truly appreciate the design world and the people who constantly innovate in it. This journal will take you through a design assessment I’m doing for my degree and I hope you enjoy reading it as much as I have enjoyed making it. The art syle I have used has been heavily influenced by my love for comics and I hope it can effectively tell the tale of this project’s humble beginning to its final conception.

Please, enjoy the story! 6


UT HO R hello there!

I don’t have much to say at the moment. But don’t worry, I’ll be commenting throughout the journal!

7


I SSUE A STORY: Arianna Garay PENCILS: A.I. Garay INKS: Ariane G. COLORIST: Arianna Ina Garay LETTERER: A.I.A.G.

n o c

p e c

a u t

T


t r o t a s n z gi

i i r o l e a )fus

e r ( The

n io y


A.1 DESIGN FUTURING


WHERE DOES DESIGN NEED TO GO? ‘Answering the “design futuring” question actually requires having a clear sense of what design needs to be mobilized for or against . . . it means changing our thinking, then how and what we design’. - Tony Fry1 Currently, design goes through the process of obtaining a brief and processing it through this series of questions: What does the client want to achieve? and How can we achieve it? Design Futuring needs to create a process at which designers will be led from thinking about the final outcome first, to thinking and constantly returning to the aspect of the why? The “why” needs to be incorporated constantly within every aspect of the design process in order to achieve a better outcome to the design. An outcome that would greatly improve negative aspects of an unresilient future. And thus, designers must ask? Why would achieving this design be important, not only for the client, but also for the future?

Despite the fact that resilience is not an element of importance that is always brought up in terms of design, the practice, has fallen on to being presented within multi-disciplinary platforms. It is accounted for in many technological aspects of various disciplines, albeit at times, mentioned casually. With this, the leap into thinking about the design, to thinking about how and why we need to design for the future is just a stone’s throw away and the resources that we would need to achieve this lies within the many disciplines at which design and resilience thinking has now incorporated itself in. This chapter looks upon the following case studies, a look into habitats of the eucalyptus diversicolor tree in the Royal Botanical Gardens and the Landesgartenschau Exhibition Hall; how the designs might affect and inspires us to speculate about the possibilities of the future, or as Dunne and Raby2 has so carefully put it, ‘Design speculations can act as a catalyst for collectively redefining our relationship to reality’.

1. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), p.4 2. Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything. p.7

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CURRENT LOCATION... MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA

EUCALYPTUS LAWN ROYAL BOTANICAL GARDENS

A1.1 HABITAT SKETCHING //TREE FOUND. BEGIN ANALYSIS3...

TYPE: EUCALYPTUS DIVERSICOLOR FAMILY: MYRTACEAE ORIGIN: WESTERN AUSTRALIA MAX HEIGHT: 80M MAX WIDTH: 7M //END ANALYSIS...

12

3. ‘EUCALYPTUS Diversicolor’, Australian Seed.


//POTENTIAL HABITATS FOUND. BEGIN ANALYSIS... <SUBJECT IDENTIFIED: DELAMINATING BARK>

<RUN: ILLUSTRATION.EXE>

I saw spiders inside the bark. ♫ The eensie, weensie spider climbed up the water spout.... ♫

<SECTION>

13


<SUBJECT IDENTIFIED: UNDERSTORY PLANTS>

<SECTION>

14


<SUBJECT IDENTIFIED: BIRDSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; NEST>

SPECIES: UNCONFIRMED

<SECTION>

15


<SUBJECT IDENTIFIED: LICHEN>

Precedent A1.1 “Habitat Sketching” was tasked so that an understanding about animal habitats could be achieved, in the way native species use aspects of a tree to create their home. The eucalyptus tree was chosen as as a species as it is a common australian tree and will most likely be found among and along the banks of the future proposed site, Merri Creek. As the brief’s requirement and ultimate goal is to introduced a parametrically designed habitat tree that will mimic existing habitat forms and interiors, a deeper understanding or imagining the way animals will use these spaces must be researched, hence the design sketches.

16


Now, I’m not exactly sure what lives in Lichen besides bacteria and fungi, or how to even remotely draw it, so I’m just going to draw little faeries with little faery hats.

<SECTION>

//POTENTIAL HABITATS ANALYSED. END ANALYSIS...

17


A1.2 P RECEDENT STUDY 1 U A H C S N E T R A G S E L D L N A H LA N O I T I B I EXH

MEANWHILE...

IN STUTTGART, GERMANY...

/4/ PICTURE OF THE LANDESGARTEHNSCHAU HALL IN STUTTGART. CREATED BY THE ICD/ITKE TEAM.

18

g n i t a c i r b a f s d s” ar s w e l o T m o r f e “mor


/7/ PICTURE OF THE BUILDING PROCESS. A LIGHTWEIGHT BUILDING FRAME WAS ERECTED IN ORDER TO GUIDE THE CONSTRUCTION PROCESS AND WAS REMOVED AFTER THE INTERIOR SHELL WAS CREATED.

/5/ PICTURE OF THE EXHIBITION HALL’S EXTERIOR.

/6/ PICTURE OF THE FABRICATION PROCESS.

/8/ PICTURE OF THE EXHIBITION HALL’S INTERIOR. THE FIXTURES ARE DESIGNED TO IMITATE FINGER JOINTS, ALIKE TO WHEN TWO HANDS ARE JOINED TOGETHER.

The Landesgartenschau exhibition hall was commissioned by the Europian Union and the State of Baden-Württemberg in 2014 to Achim Menges and his design students at the University of Stuttgart.

maintain it’s shell-like structure to function as the building’s facade and framework, completely supporting itself. The connections are probably the most important aspect of this design, in that, the joints were made to mimic how human fingers link together. Through simulation processes and testing, the lab was able to come up with a structure that is not only strong, but turns what is normally a facade material into a load-bearing structure.

It was completed in a class called “Robotics in Timber Construction,”. The design was completely innovative, that many of aspects of a typical construction process was completed by robots, from fabrication and cutting the materials, to surveying the site and understanding the effect of the weather on the materials. The hall consists of lightweight, recycled 50mm plywood plates and are designed using grasshopper and grasshopper plugins. The design also went through several tests to encure that all connections are under compression in order to 4-8. “Achim Menges. Landengartenschau 2014.” Divisare. Information from “Achim Menges. Landengartenschau 2014.” Divisare..

Due to the building’s biomimetic lightweight design, the building achieves a ‘more from less material’ ideology. One of the design goals of this building was to create a future passage into resource efficiency, to which it has clearly achieved. Another, is to see the future possibilities in creating buildings with simply one single material and leaving the fabrication process to robotic production methods.

19


A1.3 DESIGN TASK <SIMULATION: DELAMINATING BARK>

<SIMULATION: UNDERSTORY PLANT CAVIT

<SIMULATION: BRANCH SURFACE>

20


K 1 <SIMULATION: LICHEN>

TY>

<SIMULATION: DELAMINATING BARK V2.0>

21


A1.3 DESIGN TASK

<SIMULATION: BREP COMBINATION>

I have no idea about wh this drawing was going to become, but it looks slightly dystopian.

22


K 1 (CONTINUED)

hat g s

23


A.2 DESIGN COM PUTATION Albeit the fact that architecture has always been a craft of precision within the built form, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;buildings, prior to the Renaissance, were constructed, not planned (Kalay, 2004)1. Elements of the built form, architecture of the brick-and-mortar era, were cut, layed, chipped etc. within the actual site of construction, and at times, upon the building itself. Computational works have greatly changed, from the architecture medium of engaging in complicated planning and mathematical compositions within the 14th-15th century, to the introduction of the metric system in 1670, these creations in history have greatly change the profession from one of construction to one of planning. Even the smaller inventions, like the pencil in 1795 meant that mistakes could be erased and designs could be changed. But the most important invention that greatly changed the practice of architecture is the creation of the computer, and all of the programs that aid mathematical computation and computer-aided design (CAD), courtesy of the 20th and 21st century. Through computer-aided design, architecture made

the change t corporate a m significantly dane task of tions to a pro The processi taking proce hours and m

Therein lies t COMPUTATI the creation various pathw

As we launch ry, Oxman an tion of archit hensive dom â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;emerge in th nology, desig The following Neri Oxman a joint projec Murdoch Hal


MY COMPUTER IS SMARTER THAN YOU!...BUT IT LACKS IDEAS... NATURE INSPIRED DESIGN TO DESIGN INSPIRED NATURE It was highlighted by Neri Oxman that architects often think about their work as assembly lines of discrete parts, but her research brings her into researching homogenous architecture through biomimicry. She looks towards architecture

that wll bring us away from the ideas of ‘industrialization’ and into growth. This is possible now through the power of computational processes, additive manufacturing, materials engineering and synthetic biology. Through these added functions, architecture moves into its latest experimental form.

to the digital world and can now inmulti-disciplinary approach, as well as take away from the architect the munhaving to come up with multiple soluoblem presented within the design brief. ing time for this is also cut significantly, esses that may take a lifetime to that of minutes.

the beauty of the IONAL PROCESS; of solutions through speed and through ways.

h ourselves forward into the 21st centund Oxman2 have claimed that the directecture will become ‘a new and compremain of architectural theories,’ that will he intersection between science, techgn and architectural culture.’

g section looks at the Vespers Exhibit by and the Mediated Matter Group and at ct between ARM and ARUP’s Elisabeth ll, within the Melbourne Recital Centre. 1. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, p.7 2. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture, p.1

25


NATIONAL GALLERY OF VICTORIA

AT THE VESPERS 2016 EXHIBITION

A2.1 EXHIBITION


I find it a bit weird that the name of the exhibition is the word ‘vespers’ which means ‘evening prayers’. . . Although, seeing this in the middle of the night would definitely make anyone pray.

The atmospheres of the Royal Botanical Gardens and the National Gallery of Victoria are somewhat similar in that they both incite for peace, but while the garden asks for a ‘quiet’ atmosphere, the Vesper’s exhibition and their dark and slightly ominous presentation demands ‘silence’. The masks’ parametric forms have created a sense wonder and fear through its unfamiliar, alien like forms, moving the observer to a fictional, other-worldly dimension. <SKETCH: DISTORTED FRONT>

SKETCHING


<SKETCH: BACK>

28


<WATERCOLOUR ATTEMPT>

While drawing out different aspects of one of the masks in the exhibits truly, one comes into the realisation the time and effort it would take for an architect up to the mid 20th century had to go through in order to complete their work. The insurmountable idea that they probably had hundreds of drawings of the same picture or side or even elevation in order to gain perfection or to fix a drawing really makes us appreciate the invention of computers and the design softwares that come with them. Another invention that has greatly helped is the camera as it helps us capture the exact imagery of what we’re looking at. Imagine having to describe what you’re seeing. They do say ‘a pictures paints a thousand words’, although if I were asked to describe what I was seeing on the spot, it’d take a while, as the masks certainly stuns you into ‘silence’. The juxtaposition of that enclosed room to the openness of the gardens really draws out the difference between the familiarity of nature/natural elements to new forms created by man.

29


<SKETCH: LEFT>

30


<SKETCH: RIGHT>

sketching the mask certainly took time and a lot of effort. These lines are certainly a far cry from the monotonous lines of modern architecture. it really makes me believe that weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re now in a new design age.

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MEANWHILE... ACROSS THE ROAD FROM THE NGV...

melbourne recital centre

/3/ (ABOVE) PICTURE OF THE MELBOURNE RECITAL CENTRE. /4/ (RIGHT) PICTURE OF ARUP’S SOUND LAB.

3. “MTC/MRC The Creative Process - Two New Arts Venues by Ashton Raggatt McDougall (ARM).” Peter Kohane. 4. “SoundLab: making sound decisions.” Nick Boulter. 5. “Access.” Melbourne Recital Centre. 6-7. “Melbourne’s Symphony of Architecture and Engineering.” Stephen Crafti. 8-9. “SoundLab: making sound decisions.” Nick Boulter.

The Melbourne Recital Centre, a joint project by Ashton Raggatt McDougall (ARM) Architecture and Arup Consultants used the power of computation from start to finish.

ARM needed to know if the design will function will work the way it should, along with the hall requirements including seat numbers and performance area.

The topographic design of the Elisabeth Murdoch Halls’ interior facade was created to form recesses that will absorb excess sound from performances, inspired by historic music halls around the world6. ARM also used hoop pine timber, a common material to make instruments with7, as well as settling for its golden effect, typical of ornamented concert halls of the 20th century.

This is where ARUP comes in with their acoustic technologies in SoundLab, where the 3D model of the hall design is run through a series of test where sensors are used to capture existing environmental sounds and are overlayed on the model8.

Along with the computational generation of the facade’s design, there is also the aspect of knowing if the design will work. Because of the complicative structure of the design,

The studio uses 3D recording equipment9 to create a fully scoped sound field and with this joint effort, both ARM and ARUP were able to convince stakeholders that the design was a ‘sound’ decision as the final outcome for the new Melbourne Recital Centre.


/5/ (ABOVE) PICTURE OF THE ELISABETH MURDOCH HALL. THE HALLâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S COMPLICATED CARVED FORMS WERE MADE TO ALLEVIATE SOUND.

h t e b a s i el l l a h h c o d r mu

A2.2 PRECEDENT STUDY 2 h c r a e s e r f o n o ti a r e b r me o c t reve u o o t n o i t ea r c m o fr

33


A2.3 DESIGN TASK

34


K 2

35


A2.3 DESIGN TASK

36


K 2 (CONTINUED)

37


A.3 COMPO SITION/ GENERATION THE SPECTRUM OF POSSIBILITIES IN TECHNOLOGIES GEARED TOWARDS COMPOSITION DESIGN WITH INTENT

Architecture GENERATION

DESIRED RESULT

DESIRED RESULT THE GAP CAN BE CLOSED BY TRYING TO UNDERSTAND BOTH MEDIUMS AND BY CREATING A

Symbiotic Relationship WITH COMPOSITION AND GENERATION

DESIGN WITH INSTINCT


INSTINCT? OR INTENT? SUPERPOWERS OR DEXTERITY? “For computational techniques to be useful, they must be flexible - they must adapt to the constantly changing parameters of architectural design.” According to Peters (2013)1, computational processes are constantly redefining architecture, but in order for a computational process to become a necessity and a part of the future of architectural design, the user must learn to know the difference between using it as a method to creation compared to using it as a tool. The final design, to be accepted by society, must have a semblance of humanity within the design, a social scale that will make everyone accept the final outcome. It is with this comes the questions; how much of the design will incorporate intent, in which can be defined as the final composition that, from the beginning, al-

ready had a set path or outcome. A sort of final vision. Or, how much of the design will incorporate instinct, in which, throughout the process of the design stage, the designer will allow themselves the creative freedom, free from restraint, to come up with whatever their skills and mind will come up with. Similarly, within a computational process, you can allow a definition to come up with a pseudo-random design if you allow yourself to create an algorithm in which the user can enter different data or change the definition’s bounding parameters. Finding a near-perfect, emphasis on the near, balance between these two mediums will produce a desired result, further creating a symbiotic relationship as the oversight for the design process, at which, harmony between the computer and humanity are born.

If we were to talk about the spectrum of powers or dexterity, I would love to bring up the debate between b and s . Now here me out here, I know that it’s a far cry from architecture, etc, etc, but if Superman s was to be considered our computers and their considerable powers of computation, generation in this sense, he wouldn’t really be able to function or move forward without receiving orders from Batman b, our creative process, as everything he does is done with intent. And that comes from his incredible ability and self-control, imagining all possible outcomes and planning contingencies for all problems. as they are complete opposites, they work well together. 1. Peters, Brady. (2013) p.9

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A3.1 PRECEDENT STUDY 3

/1/ (ABOVE) THE PHOTO ABOVE SHOWS A MONTAGE OF THE SYSTEM’S FORMCHANGING PROCESS AND HOW IT ADAPTS IN ORDER TO ABSORB MORE SOUND. /2/(TOP LEFT) SHOWS A PHOTO OF A PERSON OBSERVING THE COMPLETED PRODUCT. /3/ (BOTTOM LEFT) THIS PHOTO SHOWS HOW THE A SINGLE SECTION OF THE RESONANT CHAMBER HAS MANY ELEMENTS OF TECHNOLOGY AND MATEIALS THAT BUILDS UP THE FINAL PRODUCT. /4/ (RIGHT) MANY PROGRAMS WERE USED TO CALCULATE THE DESIGN PARAMETERS OF THIS COMPOSITION, AND ONE OF THEM TESTED THE ANGLES AT WHICH SOUND SHOULD COME FROM AND AT WHAT LEVEL, IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE SCALE AT WHICH THE DESIGN WOULD MOVE IN. 1-4. “Resonant Chamber: Material System Protoype (Acoustic).” RTVR.

40


Resonant Chamber is a project created by RTVR architects to test creations that may be possible in the realms of dynamic architecture. In order to establish the possible parameters of the design, as well as the fabricating the final outcome, the team at RTVR needed to be well-versed in the fields of dynamic spatials, material performance and electro-acoustic technologies. With a multidisciplinary approach, the RTVR team were able to put together a dynamic project that challenged intentional compositions by presenting a project that changed in an instinctual manner. The Resonant chamber is a structure that

changes depending on the surrounding environmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sound. The structure opens up when audible levels reach a certain point, and will continue to open when audible levels go higher in order to absorb more sound due to the materials used in the design, as well as within the design itself. As per the brief, the acoustic properties of the design, as well as the dynamic movement might solve the premise that we cannot have anymore habitat trees within the city or within its limits. It might, not only open up possibilities in design, but also with possible sites that the overall final design can be placed upon.

41


A3.2 PRECEDENT STUDY 4 /5/ “Observatory, Air-PortCity

Installation View,” /6/ (Middle Left) London Hayward gallery installation /7/ (Bottom Left) Flying Garden Installations /8/ (Below) Internal view of larger cloud dome installations /9/ (Right) This is a visualization by Tomás Saraceno about the possibilities and potential that could be generated by cloud cities/ flying garden.

5-9. “Cloud Cities/Flying Garden.” Tomás Saraceno.


While case study one, Resonant Chamber, challenges the parameters of what can be defined as ‘intentive design with a dynamic aspect’, Cloud Cities, Flying Garden by Tomás Saraceno can be seen as a ‘dynamic, generative design with an outlying intent’, at which the artist wanted the public to realize the potential of having modular architecture that could expand and extend. The generative design at which the algorithms create during the design process can continue to generate and extend according to the limits of the specific site. This design style challenges designs with a more focused final outcome and creates a community aspect to design by allowing synaptic creations throughout the design. The design also promotes it’s modularity by allowing areas of connection on any side of

the pod, allowing a more instinctive generative design. By allowing this, users will also be able to create networks of connections that will incite a different and engaged perception on the possibilities and potentials of generative design and how it could be a good thing for the future of the architecture profession. This design could possibly address the brief as it looks into the possibilities of expansion and expansion is an aspect that we can all agree nature truly has. As the human population grows, we must also allow the habitats of animals grow otherwise they will face the possibilities of extinction. We need animals as they are part of the cycle that sustains our earth and providing habitats for them will not only help them, but us as well.

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A3.3 DESIGN TASK

44


K 3

45


A3.4 DESIGN TASK

46


K 4 <TOO MANY VORONOI CELLS> <DIDNâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;T WORK>

47


A.4 CONCLUSION

Architecture has truly entered a new age of design. If anything, we are now in our version of the industrialisation era, in which the digital processes of the new world encourages our minds to realise that we need to rethink the way we approach architecture and not only the

materiality and physical effects it may make to a sight, but also the social and environmental aspects that may come along with it. By applying these aspects, we learn to redefine what it means to change a space, redirecting architecture to a new path, a new

medium. And as we review the work that we have created, we can relive architecture to our new ways of life, or in this case, redesign animal habitats so that it can adapt to our new ways of life.


A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES Just like the parametric lists created in Grasshopper, I believe that I am beginning my journey in this subject on â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;ground zeroâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; or at the beginning of a long list of parametric levels, of which I, have little to no former experience in coding and architectural computing. But through careful study and reviews of countless videos, as well as with the exlab tutorials, I am able to create shapes that I would have never been able to create before. The computational process is a delight to experience, albeit the fact that it is a disastrous quagmire if left misunderstood. I had to learn to trek through every visual component in the programs and needed understand on a deeper level what each component will do; what it will change if values are inserted, and what it can change if added to the script. The theory behind the components helped broaden the capacity of my understanding and I look forward to creating my final design.


A.6 ALGO RITHMIC SKETCH BOOK


vases

51


scale nu + orient


gregory. peck.

53


y h p a r g o i l b i b “Access.” Melbourne Recital Centre. Accessed August 04, 2017. https://www.melbournerecital. com.au/experience/access-/ “Achim Menges, Roland Halbe · Landesgartenschau 2014.” Divisare, (2014),<https://divisare.com/ projects/319142-achim-menges-rolandhalbe-landesgartenschau-2014> Boulter, Nick. “SoundLab: making sound decisions,” inside. People, ideas, innovations. Accessed on August 04, 2017. http://inside. arup.com/2016/05/03/soundlab-makingsound-decisions/ Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013) Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45 ‘EUCALYPTUS Diversicolor’, Australian Seed, (date n.a.), <https://australianseed. com/shop/item/eucalyptus-diversicolor-> Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York:Routledge), pp. 1–10 Peter Kohane, PhD. ‘MTC/MRC The Creative Process - Two New Arts Venues by Ashton Raggatt McDougall (ARM)’, Architecture Australia. March (2009), 98 no. 2. “Resonant Chamber: Material System Prototype (Acoustics).” RTVR. Accessed August 07, 2017. http://www.rvtr.com/projects/resonantchamber

54

Stephen Crafti, ‘Melbourne’s Symphony of Architecture and Engineering’, The Sydney Morning Herald, 15 December 2010. http://www. smh.com.au/business/property/melbournessymphony-of-architecture-and-engineering20101214-18ww4.html Tomás Saraceno, (2017) ‘Cloud Cities/ Flying Garden,’ Tomás Saraceno. Accessed August 08, 2017. http://tomassaraceno.com/projects/ cloud-cities-flying-garden/


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Journal  

Air Journal Part A

Journal  

Air Journal Part A