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ECOLOGY WITHOUT NATURE

Ariadna Weisshaar & Simranjit Kaur Landscape Urbanism Architectural Association London


_____________________________Landscape

AALU Urbanism Research

ECOLOGY WITHOUT NATURE

_________________________________ 2013-2014 __________________________________________


______________________________ Disclaimer The opinions expressed in AALU issue are those of the authors.

04 INTRODUCTION ____________________

Board Ariadna Weisshaar Simranjit Kaur Tutors Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Clara Oloriz Douglas Spencer Ignacio Lopez Giancarlo Torpiano Vincenzo Reale Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank everyone involved in the production of the booklet for their generous assistance and support during the process. 2013-2014 Architectural Association, London, UK.

182 BIBLOGRAPHY ____________________


CONTENTS 06 EUROPEAN Broad -Generic ____________________

38 GERMANY SAXONY-ANHALT Regional ____________________

90 HALLE Local ____________________

08 FLOODPLAINS AND RIVERS

40 FLOODPLAINS AND RIVERS

92 FLOODPLAINS AND RIVERS

River dynamics in Floodplains

A case for River Elbe in Germany

Flooding scenario in Halle

Human control and impact

Flooding events in the region

Policy framework for floodplain management

Elbe floodplain and river characteristics

94 SHRINKAGE OF CITIES

52

Effect Analysis and present condition

(ESSAY 2A by A. Weisshaar)

98 DESIGN CONCEPT

“Room for River” Dutch strategy

22 SHRINKAGE OF CITIES Definition and causes

Floodplain structure & New Ecologies

68

De-industrialized cities with river restoration schemes

Design using River morphology in Floodplains

Strategy for change

(ESSAY 2B by S. Kaur)

30 FLOODPLAIN AND SHRINKAGE

80 SHRINKAGE OF CITIES

Ecology and Economy

32

Utopian Landscapes of Capitalist Imperialism (ESSAY 1A by S. Kaur)

Design concept Vacancy & connectivity for New green Infrastructure

112 CARTOGRAPHIES ____________________ 114

Relevance of (Trace) Cartography in Representation (ESSAY 3A by S.Kaur)

118

Maps: Orientation & Projection tools to change perception (ESSAY 3B by A. Weisshaar)

127 PAN-EUROPEAN ATLAS Floodplains & Shrinking Cities

Dynamic pockets in slope

143 RIVER ELBE & DANUBE

Slope & Vacancy X-Ray

Geomorphology of Floodplain & River Forms

Floodable & Safe zones

Shrinkage and Thinning of Cities

Control Tools

The chemical triangle cities: Halle, Leipzig & Bitterfeld

New Landform & Infrastructure

151 SAXONY ANHALT Social Formation & Geomorphology

Strategy for change

110 GENERIC GUIDELINES Description

161 HALLE Social Formation & Geomorphology

167 HALLE Cartogenesis and Proposal Zoom-in

175 REGIONAL -TERM 1 Compilation Appendix


OVERVIEW

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MANIPULATED LANDSCAPES The flooding events in the recent years in Europe have triggered a move towards re-naturalization of its river floodplains. The Dutch strategy of “room for the river” has gained acceptance as the most appropriate strategy to deal with the issue of flooding as well as maintaining ecological balance. However, the same has seen only sporadic success due the multiplicity of the agencies involved as well as the complexity of the riparian system which traverses many terrains, political boundaries and ownerships, along its length. (Warner Jeroen et al.,2013) Across history, settlements have grown around rivers for economic reasons; agricultural, industrial and service1. Post-industrialization, many of these earlier industrial towns, have attempted to revive their economy through the knowledge and service sectors. The period of de-industrialisation, has also led to a massive shrinkage or de-population in these areas (Oswalt Philip et al., 2006). We explore the issue of shrinkage in post-socialist cities and delve into the meaning of “room for the river” in this changing urban context. The idea is to investigate how two parallel processes, economic and ecological, at a state of unpredictability, stand to re-inform each other. Within a framework of ecology without nature2,the river form and process is used as a tool to determine and redefine urbanity. In the specific territory of Germany, the shrinkage and its state policy of urban re-structuring (demolition) is speculated to create a fragmented city, an archipelago of settlements (Robler Stefanie,2010). This fragmented form is mediated through use of the river to create new territories, whose use changes over time.

___________________________________ Notes 1. Use of water by agricultural, industrial and service economy: Agricultural economy utilized the river water and fertile floodplain for crop production. During industrialization, river water was used as input into production, electricity and inland navigation. At present, the service economy taps into the additional tourism value around the river floodplain. 2. The term “ecology without nature” is made in reference with Slavoj Zizek’s paper “Nature and its discontents”. Zizek, stresses Timothy Morton’s idea that to have a proper ecological view, we must relinquish the very idea of nature as something that sustains the civilization.


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EUROPE


01 EUROPEAN


FLOODPLAINS


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

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INTRODUCTION In order to assimilate a broad framework for European rivers and floodplains, we study them at a macro and micro-scale and understand the involvement of key parties relevant to both scales. The use that is being made of the floodplains and the mechanism for its protection in case of flooding are also studied. First, the major floodplains in Europe are described along with the general terminology of river dynamics and the three river stages (upper, middle and lower). It is noted that rivers, often pass through various political boundaries and each river stage has a different physical constraint. Second, it is stressed that the use of the river across time; as a source of irrigation and electricity, means of navigation and trade, as well as natural value has promoted human settlements along the river floodplain. Case samples from the Dutch cities are used as framework to elaborate how either natural high terrain or built-up protection like dams and dykes is an essential means against periodic flooding in the floodplains. Third, based on an overview of various EU policies, it is understood that the use of the floodplain is determined by the prevailing economy as well as the EU policies that may either support or be detrimental to the floodplain ecology and management. Fourth, the structural methods and non-structural methods of flood protection are reviewed. The emergence of support for the Dutch strategy of “room for river” is described, in light of the recent flooding events across Europe over the last two decades; and the preference given to non-structural systems. However, local adherence and acceptance as well as state policies largely govern its successful implementation. Based on our research on case samples, we find that the above has seen only sporadic success as it involves wider initiatives but local implementation.

___________________________________ Images Fig. 01  - This cartography helps us abandon the “notion” of rivers as singular and fixed; and understand them in the context of its entire flood basin. It highlights that river systems traverse many terrain, political boundaries and ownership, along its length. (Mapping done using arcGIS software) Fig. 02  - River Basin and Flow accumulation (to extrapolate Europe’s major floodbasins. Mapping done using arcGIS software) Fig. 03  - Map showing European with its main rivers and tributaries. (Mapping done using arcGIS software)

Fig. 01


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EUROPEAN RIVERS AND FLOODPLAINS

Fig. 03


RIVER DYNAMICS IN FLOODPLAINS

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The three major rivers of Europe are the Danube, Rhine, and Elbe; the former ending into the Black sea while the latter two into the North sea. Rhine, originating in France, passes through Germany and ends into the North Sea. Danube originates in Germany and travels across any countries like Austria, Slovenia, Hungary to finally end in the Black sea near Romania. The Elbe, originates in the Czech Republic but travels mostly across Germany to end in the North sea. Hence, any policy on river management in Europe requires participation of more than one country. (Warner Jeroen et al.,2013) Also, the river as a system has three distinct stages or parts: upper, middle and lower. Depending on what part of the river flows across a country, its role and involvement changes. As a physical process of sediment transportation, the river forms sediments (through erosion) in the upper part, which it transports across the middle part, to finally deposit in the lower part where it terminated and meets the sea.

Fig. 04

___________________________________ Images Fig. 04  - Mapping done to compare the scale of each European river and its subsequent floodbasin area. Fig. 05  - Zoom-in to capture the geomorphology of the River floodbasin. It may be noted that the solution lies not at the edge of a river bank; but rather it requires a much wider adherence. Fig. 06  - Another Zoom-in to capture the geomorphology of the River floodbasin.


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Fig. 06


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

Fig. 07

___________________________________ Images Fig. 07  - Extreme Flooding events across Europe over the last decade, a speculative mapping based on data on EU website and extropolated using arcGIS software. Fig. 08  - Using arcGIS to extropolate the floodbasin boundary for the major rivers across Europe. Fig. 09  - Zoom into Fig.05, highlighting the areas of Portugal, Spain. Fig. 10  - Zoom into Fig.05, highlighting the areas of Netherland, France, Germany.

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Fig. 08


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Fig. 10


HUMAN IMPACT AND CONTROL

The control over the river is essential for human habitation and economy. Human settlements along the rivers either manipulate existing natural high points in the the terrain or use the means of dykes and dams, to protect the lower land that they inhabit (figure 11,12,13,14). Dykes and dams are also essential for diverting and using the river water for the purpose of irrigation. Alongside, settlement and irrigation, the need for inland navigation in Europe, has been the main motive to manipulate the river form and straightening of river channels. This has lead to a reduction of river length and hence volume, in order to contain water during extreme flooding.

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Fig. 11

In the context of Netherlands, where there is almost no land without dykes, river engineering becomes extremely important. The impact on biodiversity in case of an engineered river is described in further in the essays ahead (pg. 52, 64). However, the recent extreme flooding events in Europe have put into question, the use of structural methods like dykes, and have debased this older accepted norm for flood protection. At present, the river Rhine is being prepared for a flooding event of 18,000 m3/s. and more and more land is being returned into the floodplain.

Fig. 12


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Fig. 13 ___________________________________ Images Fig. 11  - Schematic reproduction of a settlement located on a higher sandy ground. Eg. Arnhem in the year 1560. Fig. 12  - Schematic reproduction of a settlement located on a natural levee. Eg. Zaltbommel in the year 1560. Fig. 13  Schematic reproduction of a settlement located nest to a dam. Eg. Gorinchem in the year 1560. Fig. 14  Schematic reproduction of a settlement located next to a dyke. Eg. Dordrecht in the year 1560.

Fig. 14


POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT

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Fig. 15

Fig. 16

The major EU policies and directives that impact floodplain ecology and management include the Flood Directive, Water framework directive, Common agriculture policy, Rural development regulation, Birds and Habitat directive and the structural funding (Fig. 17). It is observed that though most of these policies are attuned positively towards floodplain protection, but loopholes for land-use for the purpose of agriculture as well as infrastructure projects exist. (WWF European fresh water programme, 2000) Amongst them, is the common agriculture policy (CAP) that allows for the growth of environmentally suitable crops through its policy of cross-compliance. The CAP has a 40% share in the EU funds and is thus an important policy. Although the rural development policy (RD) gives many incentives to farmers in high nature value areas, a major portion of RD funding goes instead into infrastucture development in the rural areas. Also, the other major component of funds and loans, the structural funding has no component for floodplain economy and focusses on large scale service and infrastructural projects. The main protection for the floodplains lie under the umbrella of “Natura 2000” sites, which are protected sites in Europe. A substantial amount of land along rivers is now deemed under the “Natura 2000”. However, the EU funding polices mostly favour the operator and not so much the land owner. Also, within the profit economics of mining and infrastructure development industry, it becomes unfavourable to release land for the use of floodplain ecology alone. (figure 18).

Two key issues emerge: first, that the funding is strongly pro-agriculture; and second, the gainers are not the real land owners but the operator.


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EU POLICIES: IMPACTING FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Flood Directive Water Framework Directive (WFD) Common Agriculture Policy (CAP)

Rural Development Regulation (RD)

Most (but not) all countries are binding

Integrated River Management FLOOD PLAIN MANAGEMENT Intensive grasslands (direct payment per livestock) “Cross compliance” : agriculture & environmental

Compensation for agriculture holdings in HNV areas Compensation for agriculture holdings in Less favoured areas (short growing season, poor soil, steep slopes Compensation for agriculture holdings in areas with environmental restriction

AGRICULTURE

Incentives for agri-environment practices committed for atleast 5 years: Extenfication of farming in flood plains

Beneficial to Floodplain ecology and management

Conversion of arable to permanent grasslands Restoration of wetland / landscape features Funding for land improvement , reparcelling, development of infrastructure in rural areas

Bird & Habitat Directive SPA & SAC areas as “Natura 2000”

Protection of Floodplain ecosytem Agri-environmental practice permitted

“restore to favourable status”

Structural Funding

URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Detrimental to Floodplain ecology and management; supporting instead agriculture and urban development

Funding for mega-infrastructure projects: Brown projects than green projects

Fig. 17

___________________________________ Images Fig. 15  - Mapping of Natura 2000 sites in Europe. (Mapping done using arcGIS software) Fig. 16  - Natura 2000 sites along the river length, River Elbe (middle section) including tributaries Mulde and Saale.(Mapping done using arcGIS software) Fig. 17  - Diagram based on (WWF European fresh water programme, 2000) highlighting various components & incentives of EU policies aimed at benefiting floodplain ecology and management and those that prove detrimental.

Fig. 18

Fig. 18  - Break-up of Natura 2000 sites based on use. The key players that benefit through EU policies is basically the operator who gain via RD, CAP incentives and not the land owner.


“ROOM” FOR RIVER - A DUTCH STRATEGY

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The backbone of the process of river re-naturalization is the Dutch strategy of “Room for the River”.

The recent flooding events in Europe has been credited for the change in river flood protection system from structural systems to non-structural systems. The Dutch system of creating land using structural systems like dykes and dams has proven unsuccessful in keeping water out, during the recent extreme flooding events. With the new target of ensuring a flooding retention of 18,000 m3/s instead of the present 15,000 m3/s, the policy of “Room for the River” and letting the river be, has gained accreditation. (Rijkswaterstaat Oost-Nederland, 2008) However, the Dutch policy of holding, storing and discharging water is based on the efficient use of all the three river stages: the upper, middle and lower parts of the river for respectively; holding, storing and discharge. (Hooimeijer Fransje et al., 2005). This means that this system is less efficient if one works only in some parts of the river basin; efforts of change have to be made locally and all along the river length. Various efforts have been made to create space for the river by means of generation of polder areas. The targetted areas near or in the floodplain are usually existing agricultural fields, which are to be utilised for water storage, in the event of flooding. Settlement areas like cites and towns are not seen as probable locations for polders. This policy of making space for the river is being practised all across Europe, especially Germany and Britain. However, each country differs into its economic aspirations from the river and state policies ensuring local adherence. (Warner Jeroen et al., 2013)

Room for the river is a strategic shift from structural methods of flood protection like dykes. It advocates the maintaining of natural floodplain width, reconnecting river channels or re-meandering by addition of by-passes; before polder systems. Hence the traditional system, based on floodplain "fixidity", is now being abandoned for a system towards the natural form of floodplain with rivers and its inherent channels.

5km

Fig. 19

10km

5km

10km

5km

10km


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________________________________ UNFOLDING ROOM. ELBE

Images Fig. 19  - Extreme Flooding events across Europe over the last decade, a speculative mapping based on data on EU website and extrapolated using arcGIS software. Fig. 20  - WHERE? : Searching Room for the river. Sectioning the site along the river to find the posible areas for room for the river. As a result of the river traslation through the floodplain lower land beneath the current river level can be found.

Fig. 20

Fig. 21  - HOW? : Strategies from Room for the River a)Lowering of floodplains Lowering (excavating) an area of the floodplain increases the room for the river at high water levels. b)Deepening summer bed The river bed is deepened by excavating the surface layer of the river bed. The deepened river bed provides more room for the river. c)Water storage The Volkerak-Zoommeer lake provides for temporary water storage when exceptional conditions result in the combination of a closed strom surge barrier and high river discharges to the sea. d)Dike relocation Relocating a dike land inwards increases the width of the floodplains and provides more room for the river. e)Lowering groynes Groynes stabilise the location of the river and ensure that the river remains at the correct depth. However, at high water levels groynes can form an obstruction to the flow of water in the river. Lowering groynes increases the flow rate of the water in the river. f)High-water channel A high-water channel is a diked area that branches off from the main river to discharge some of the water via a separate route. g)Depoldering The dike on the river side of a polder is relocated land inwards. The polder is depoldered and water can flood the area at high water levels. h)Removing obstacles Removing or modifying obstacles in the river bed where possible, or modifying them, increases the flow rate of the water in the river. i)Strengthening dikes Dikes are strengthened in areas in which creating more room for the river is not an option. Adapted from Room for the river program http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl

Fig. 21


01 EUROPEAN


SHRINKING

CITIES


SHRINKAGE & THINNING OF CITIES

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INTRODUCTION “ The current transition from a century long phase of population growth to a prolonged phase of population shrinkage, whose onset in many countries coincides with the beginning of the twentieth century, is a new phenomenon because the change has no negative external causes such as wars, epidemics or famines, and because it is happening in times of peace and during a period of unprecedented prosperity.” 3 We delve into the common phenomenon of shrinkage and thinning of industrialised cities, many of which were near river and ports. Post-industrialization and with the emergence of service and knowledge based economies, a reduction in workforce is imminent. Alongside reduced birth rates, the industrialised cities that experienced heavy shrinkage, remain like-wise. This chapter gives a broad overview of the phenomenon of urban shrinkage that hit the industrialised cities between 1950 to 2000. The countries getting affected first, were the ones that were th front-runners of industrialisation. Hence 70% of the industrialised cities in Great Britain, Germany and United States were impacted. The causes for the shrinkage are elaborated in the context of Europe and specifically the post-socialist Europe, in which shrinkage emerged between 1990 to 2000. It is also highlighted using examples that many of these river and port cities have “separate” urban restructuring schemes and river restoration schemes which may not always be cohesive. Also, in the context of shrinkage, an alternate understanding of city design are being advocated with ways to deal with vacancy and urban fragmentation. E.g. Ungers’s approach of “green archipelago”; Franz Oswald’s Network city, Hidetoshi Ono’s Fiber city.

___________________________________ Notes 3. Oswalt Philip et al., 2006, Shrinking cities, vol.1 (Hatje Cantz). excerpt taken from The dawning of a New demographic age, Munich, 2001. Images Fig. 22  - Taking further our findings on simultaneously existing shrinking areas and flood-prone zones, we formulate a cartography at a pan-European level; to investigate “room” for river in the vacant zones. (Mapping using arcGIS) In Orange: Rivers & Floodplains; In Brown: catchment areas and flood basins; In Red: Shrinking Cities as on date. Fig. 23  - Zoom in of Fig.22; highlighting Central and Eastern Europe with countries like Germany, Czech Republic, Hungary & Romania. Fig. 24  - Base file for Fig. 22/23, overlapping the flood basins extrapolated using arcGIS with all major urban settlements in Europe.

Fig. 22


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SHRINKAGE: DEFINITION & CAUSES

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SHRINKAGE IN THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT The phenomenon of urban shrinkage refers to the decline of population and economic activity is cities. This goes hand in hand with thinning of cities, wherein the population spreads outwards and there is lesser activity across greater land area. European Cities are “shrinking” due to (one or all) of following reasons: a. De-industrialisation (and failed conversion to the service industry), b. Suburbanisation ( cheaper and better housing facilities in the suburbs, tax subsidies), c. Demographic Ageing (and youth moving out of cities for better work opportunities), Some examples of de-industrialised areas in Europe are near the sea or river banks include Midlands/Manchester region, Ruhr valley, Lodz Industrial region, Bilbao industrial region, Italian Industrial triangle etc. In addition to the above three reasons, in the context of post-socialist cites, a fourth reason is: d. Political changes and economic reforms in both urban-rural sectors. These include cities in Romania, Ukraine, Poland as well as East Germany (prior to its reunification). Here, the political changes have accelerated the process of shrinkage. (Tsenkova Sasha, 2006)

___________________________________ Images Fig. 25  - Shrinking cities between 1950-2000 in the world & Europe (Oswalt Philip et al., 2006) Fig. 26  - Shrinking cities of the 21th century are the major industrialised cities of the 20th century. E.g. Manchester-Liverpool; artist’s impression of a flourishing 20th century industrial city/ worker’s city (Oswalt Philip et al., 2006) Fig. 27  - Graffiti highlighting a hope for better times with “more people”;abundance instead of isolation (photography during site visit in the region of Saxony Anhalt- city of Leipzig)

Fig. 25

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Fig. 27


DEINDUSTRIALISED CITIES WITH RIVER RESTORATION PLANS

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“De-industrialised” shrinking cities with ongoing river restoration schemes are as below: East Germany (Saxony Anhalt): a. Failed revival of industries and trying to establish a service sector (network city, science city, tourism city, campus city etc). b. Existing infrastructure is being demolished, like housing, flyovers etc. “Function” for the vacant spaces is being rethought. c. Socio-Economic revival projects involve the role of rivers in some and but not all cases. d All face the problem of flooding.

Other Post-socialist countries (Lodz & Warsaw in Poland; Budapest in Hungary; Vienna in Austria; Bucharest in Romania) a. Struggling under Market control of urbanisation. b. “Suburbanisation” is a major reason for shrinking. Majority of nationalised funding projects (residential & commercial) are directed to the suburban region. c. Agriculture is a major economy, and many options like urban farming etc. are being explored.

West Germany (Ruhr region): a. Interesting case sample of Emscher Valley & river restoration. Here, the river is being re-naturalised and abandoned industrial plots put back into social/recreational function.

England (Midlands region i.e. Manchester): a. Unsuccessful revival of service industry (call centre industry). b. Though the city is no more shrinking, it faces a problem of suburbanisation. c. River restoration scheme for River Irwell, Medlock are underway. Here, the river is being re-naturalised and abandoned industrial plots put back into social/ recreational function.

Fig. 28


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Halle / Leipzig

Fig. 29

Fig. 30

___________________________________ Images Fig. 28  - Between 1990 to 2000, the majority of shrinkage in Europe was observed in the post-socialist countries (Oswalt Philip et al., 2006) Fig. 29  - (Mapping done using arcGIS software) Fig. 30  - (Mapping done using arcGIS software)Three highlighted areas are Manchester (UK); Ruhr valley (Germany) and Saxony Anhalt (Germany)


STRATEGY FOR CHANGE

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With the “shrinking and thinning of cities” being seen as a phenomenon experienced across many European cities; city design has come to accommodate two pre-requisites: 1) Thinning and creation of independent clusters with their own smaller network of sustainable functions. 2) Shrinkage and availability of vacant land and buildings. In the case of post-socialist cities, both forces play an equal role. This has made the “1977 Archipelago manifesto of Ungers of a Green Archipelago” relevant to the architectural discourse after years of obscurity. (Ungers Oswald Mattias, 2013) Some of the recent similar strategies of “Green Archipelago” are the Finn Geippel’s competition entry for the Grand Paris Agglomeration, Hidetoshi Ono’s Fiber City and Franz Oswald’s Network City. (Ungers Oswald Mattias, 2013) However, in regards to vacancy and change in the city, the original “Green Archipelago” is most relevant. But, the question of how to deal with open green spaces instead of the built-form is still a point of investigation.

___________________________________ Images Fig. 31  - Urban strategy for urban areas experiencing shrinkage (left) Ungers’s Green Archipelago as a response to the shrinking city of Berlin. (right, top) Finn Geippel’s competition entry for the Grand Paris Agglomeration. (right, bottom) Franz Oswald’s Netztadt or Network city Fig. 32  Grand Paris competition entry: Network cities to counter sub-urbanisation

Fig. 31


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GREEN VOIDS AND VACANCY- URBAN FRAGMENTATION?


UTOPIAN LANDSCAPES OF CAPITALIST IMPERIALISM

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Fig. 02

Fig. 03a

ESSAY BY S. KAUR

Fig. 01

Abstract. This paper examines the “Garden City” of Howard as well as its utopian representation in the capitalist and communist regimes, as the BroadAcre city of Frank Lloyd Wright and the Soviet city design in the 1930’s. It delves into the idea of capitalism to suggest that the “Garden city” is a landscape of capitalistic imperialism. Hence, being a landscape of spatio-temporal dialectic, it was destined to end as “profit” suburbia. Keywords: Garden City, landscape, capitalist, social, communal, collective, individual, transportation, technology

1 Introduction

2.1 The place of origin

This paper examines the influence of Ebenezer Howard’s “Garden City” in various parts of the Europe and United states, during the nineteenth and twentieth century. First, the origin of the Garden City in England is reviewed. Second, the inspired derivatives from the “social city”, namely the BroadAcre city and the Soviet city are studied. This comparative of similarities (and differences) of the “social city” in three locations: its place of origin, in a capitalist society and a communist society are taken up in a generic way as well as pertaining to specific queries.

Ebenezer Howard is described as the most important single character in the “Garden City”movement (Hall, 1988). The genesis of this movement lies in the overall discontent with the living conditions of the 19th century industrial London. Howard felt a pressing need for a solution to the unregulated growth of the capitalist city as well as migration of workers into the centre; which were worsening the already unhygienic conditions of city life.

The globalization of Howard’s concept is further examined in the political and economic condition of that time, specifically “capitalist imperialism”. This paper does not evaluate the reasons that led to the success and/or failure of varied derivatives of the “Garden City” across the western world. It does however; aim to deduce its eventual decline into suburbia. 2 The Garden City In the generic review of the examples below, four concurrent themes are being critically examined: the need for decentralization; the idea of disurbanisation (merge, marry, reject); the positive sentiment towards new technology; and last, the concern for efficienttransportation. Further, the conflicting ideology in regards to land ownership is also reviewed.

Howard’s idea of the new city, though crystallized into conceptualization from inspired borrowings, was primarily “restorative” (Pinder, 1994). He did not reject the existing city, which he felt needed to be brought into harmony with the town, and hence cured and restored. The figures 1, 2 describe this formation of a new social order imbibing the virtues of the town and the city into a new vision of a “poly-centric” city. This poly centric form however, need not be taken as an actual physical form of a city plan, but be interpreted as an idea of a social city (Hall, 1988). Hence, the form was flexible and to be varied based on the actual site condition and the project at hand. This social city was decentralized with locally owned and managed land and facilities. The motto was “freedom and cooperation” or more so, “individualistic freedom and cooperation” (Hall, 1988). The city was based on communal living, with a population of 32,000 spread over 6000 acre, out of which, 5000

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Images Fig. 01 - Howard’s famous diagram “The Three Magnets” in which the third magnet is a marriage of the first two existing magnets, the Town and the City. Fig. 02 - Figure 2: The evolution of the combined values of the Town and the City into an abstract city form, a “Polycentric social city with separate land use”. Fig. 03a - Soviet Garden Linear city, Miliutin Fig. 3b - Soviet Garden Polycentric city, M.Shirov Fig. 3c - Pre-fab houses, Ginzberg Fig. 3d - New UrbanSettlement, Alexei Gutnov Fig. 4a - BroadAcre City, FLW Fig. 4b - BroadAcre City, FLW


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Fig. 03b

Fig. 03c

Fig. 03d

acre were green. As the population would increase, newer self-sufficient sub-cities would be formed.

where “economy” was not monetary profit but social profit (May, 1931). May states that the main aim of the new city was “social hygiene and economy” with the decentralization of economic production and limiting the population of the future urban centre to 2,00,000. The possible form of the decentralized city is discussed as scattered settlements, closed medium density city and the satellite city. The “scattered settlements” prepossess a need for huge transport so as to maintain the desired communal social order of the ideal Soviet City. Hence this may not be a good solution. The “linear city” based itself on the proximity of the residential area to the industry; and with the industry being most efficient when linear; the entire city would take a linear form. The linear city was however bound by geographical constraints. The “satellite city” becomes relevant when the compactness between residential quarters and industry is no more possible.This could be either due to the size of the industry or the residential area required, the no. of industries required alongside etc. Here “satellite city” takes form with industry ad residential area forming distinct cluster units; possibly located around a central the main industry cluster unit. Figures 3a, 3b are example of the linear city and the satellite city. While the latter is similar to the Garden City of Howard, both cities may be categorized as “garden city”. It may be noted that the linear city concept was first propagated by Soria Y Mata. (Scott, 2009)

In regards to transportation, interurban railways & canals were proposed, and not automobiles and superhighways. However, there were railroads running along the rail tracks, to connecting the centre to the countryside. (Fishman, 1977) It is interesting to note that the place of emergence and implementation of the Gardencity (even though, in not its truest form) was, in fact, in a country where a century ago, the agrarian landscape had been completely politically altered and erased. The existing farmers had been converted into the “much needed” labour force for the newly formed city industry (Mitchell, 1994). The need for a social change once again called for a new landscape following the ideals of a communal life based on mutual cooperation. How this “restored” landscape, once again became the favoured tool of the capitalist shall be explored later in the essay. 2.2 In the communist Soviet of 1930’s Soviet Union possessed the political backing of the central state as well as huge empty land which made it an ideal ground for not just city building, but city planning as well. Many western architects (including FLW) were delighted at this opportunity, though none got to eventuallybuild their ideas. However, some of the concepts like the minimum dwelling space, independent room for each adult, prefabrication of housing, kitchen as a machine etc. were developed as a result of their early participation in the idea of building a new social city, the Soviet City.(Wolfe, 2011) The genesis of the new city was not commerce but creation of new industries and economic production, whether purely industrial, agrarian or combined

Further, the ideal Soviet city necessitated a reorganization of the entire social life and replacing a new social order of man, woman and family. In order to have efficient and enough labour, it seemed logical that the woman becomes an equal provider of labour to the society as man. This required an immediate change in the family structure, especially on the issue of food provision and child rearing. Hence, new housing options very deemed necessary for the ideal Soviet city form. May elaborates three distinct types: 100% private dwelling, collective house &

communal house (in the reduced order of privacy). The “private dwelling” was basically individual owned property, often clustered together around a social club for communal life. The “collective house” had no private kitchen, which all food &dining facility being common. Also, the children were taken care in kindergarten during the working hours of the adults. The “communal house” was a radical approach of minimization of family life as most daily activities were communal. Each adult had a limited area for personal use. Child rearing was separated. May highlights that the main problem more the mammoth construction was lack of transportation facilities and modern building material. Figure 3c is an example of the Disurbanist mobile city, which was as per May, an inappropriate Soviet city model. It may be noted that the Urbanist & Disurbanists, alike, intended to destroy the central city and advocated suburbanization to spread the new city(ies) nation-wide, with the help of technology of electricity & communication, which becomes most vital in case of the Disurbanist mobile city. Fig 3d is the postwar new urban settlement (Scott, 2009). This included a massive percentage of communal housing with no automobile dependency. 2.3 In the capitalist America BroadAcre city of Frank Lloyd Wright is decribed in the Architecture Record (1935), as a “new community plan” championing the use of new technology & transportation as a means to ensure individual freedom as well as an enjoyable communal life. This included the motor car and mororail; Telephone, Radio, telegraph, standardization machine shop production (electricity, oil, gas). The new technology & transportation allows the BroadAcre, a greater decentralization of than the original garden city (Fishman, 1977).


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

PG. 36

Fig. 04a

Fig. 04b

The homesteading principle is advocated with every person allocated (a minimum) of one acre land, who then uses it for living and farming. Hence a city of free independent farmers is created, thereby merging the town & city. The city contains houses (varying from one to 5 car units) and institutions like schools, factories, offices, hotels, hospitals and other facilities (Fishman, 1977). It is stated that the BroadAcre city establishes every individual’s “social right” to social credit, to his place, to ideas (personal & public). In this sense, the plan is democratic in its desposition. The function of the govt. is reduced to maintaining of the infrastructure, while the structuring of the city is at local level, by means of a county architect.

hinterland where capital formerly realized its surplus value. Characteristic of this phase are: lending abroad, railroad constructions, revolutions, and wars. The last decade, from 1900 to 1910, shows in particular the world-wide movement of capital, especially in Asia and neighbouring Europe: in Russia, Turkey, Persia, India, Japan, China, and also in North Africa. (Wolfe, 2011)

3 The Garden city as essence of Capitalist Imperialism The concept of the “Social City/ Garden city” was indeed like what Ebenezer Howard had imagined; it remained flexible to the conditions of the project and site. The Howard diagram reached much farther in the possibility of a global implementation, in the deride form of profit suburbia. Pinder enquires about the inherent reason within the concept that attracted and allowed powerful interests to turn it into its antithetical form (Pinder 2005).He states that the use of organic concepts in deriving the legitimate form of Garden City by Howard was in fact, manipulated as a tool to justify and “naturalise” the profit motive and portray it as good for society. Hence, further industrialisation would ensue. The “Garden City” formed a landscape was not neutral either in social, economic, political sense or in the sense of gender. It was as essence a landscape of capitalist imperialism. Capitalist Imperialism is a phase of capitalism: “The imperialist phase of capitalist accumulation, which implies universal competition, comprises the industrialization and capitalist emancipation of the

It is further stated that, “Capital accumulation is bound to be geographically expansionary and to be so by progressive reductions in the costs of communication and transportation.” As Marx would later put it: “If the progress of capitalist production and the consequent development of the means of transport and communication shortens the circulation time for a given quantity of commodities, the same progress and the opportunity provided by the development of the means of transport and communication conversely introduces the necessity of working for ever more distant markets, in a word, for the world market.”89 And so it is by the creation of this global market that capitalism inevitably “conquers the world,” imposing its logic onto the preexisting social structures with which it comes into contact. “Marx…argued,” Harvey reminds us, “that the historic tendency of capitalism is to destroy and absorb non-capitalist modes of production at the same time as it uses them to create fresh room for capital accumulation.” (Wolfe, 2011) Capitalist imperialism is a stage when capitalism goes global and transcends geographical boundaries. This stage is inherent in its order of being. Hence, the landscape of “capitalist imperialism” would eventually emerge. This is to say that the “suburbia as Garden City” was not just a politically imposed landscape, but that the Garden City traversed the logical path and outcome of the “spatio- temporal dialectic” inherent in creation of an “any” form of industrial society.

S. KAUR + A. WEISSHAAR

4 Discussion Yet, the “Garden City” in its place of origin as well as its derivatives in communist & capitalist cities was also a “Social City” claiming a new social order by means of decentralisation, disurbanisation and use of new technology and transport. But by doing so, it was creating more progressive systems; which like capitalism would follow a trajectory of survival, advancement and surplus capital value. The “Social City” in its truest form was possible & belonged in the “socialist state”. Both however, remain at present a Utopia, an abstract and a concrete possibility.

References: Architecture Record, 1935, BroadAcre: A New Community Plan Fishman Robert, 1977, Truth against the world, in Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century, pg 91-101 Hall P, 1988, Cities of Tomorrow (Basil Blackwell) May Ernst, 1931, City Building in the USSR, Das Neue Rußland, vol. VIII-IX Mitchell W.J.T., 1994, Landscape and Power (University of Chicago Press) Pinder D, 2005, Visions of the City (Edinburgh University Press) Scott WM Stephen, 2009, The Ideal Soviet Suburb, http:// www.design.upenn.edu/files/Panorama09_ 14_SovietSuburb_Scott.pdf Wolfe Ross, Spatiotemporal dialectic of capitalism; in The graveyard of Utopia, http://rosswolfe.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/ ross- wolfe-the-graveyard-of-utopia-sovieturbanismand-the-fate-of-the-international-avant-garde12.pdf


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EUROPEAN RIVERS AND FLOODPLAINS

GREEN VOIDS AND VACANCY- URBAN FRAGMENTATION?


FLOODPLAIN AND SHRINKAGE

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The investigation is whether the vacant land in the shrinking cities in the floodplain areas can be put to a new use that helps both the local economy and mitigate the problem of flooding.

Fig. 33

____________________________________________ Images Fig. 33  - Extreme Flooding events across Europe over the last decade, a speculative mapping based on data on European Commission of Environment website and extrapolated using arcGIS software. The map shows in tones of grey the number of flood events in Europe from 1998 to 2008. Based on: The European Environmental Agency data. In green the remaining Floodplain Forest in Europe. Adapted from: FLOBAR2, The European Commission Fig. 34  - Shrinking cities in Europe overlapped with flooding events across Europe over the last decade. The map shows the number of flood events in Europe from 1998 to 2008. In Blue: growing cities In Red: Shrinking cities In White: Stable population Based on 1-The European Environmental Agency. 2-Data from Dartmouth Flood Observatory (http://www.dartmouth.edu/~floods/). Fig. 35  - Cities in Europe overlapped with floodplains across Europe and Floodplain Forest reminding. In Orange: Floodplains of Europe, based on arcGIS software In Green: The remaining floodplain forests in Europe, Adapted from FLOBAR2, The European Commission(http://www. dartmouth.edu/floods/)


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EUROPEAN FLOODPLAIN AND SHRINKAGE

Fig. 35


GERMANY SAXONY PG. 6

PG. 6


ANHALT


02 ELBE RIVER SAXONY- ANHALT


FLOODPLAINS

AND GEOMORPHOLOGY


A CASE FOR RIVER ELBE IN GERMANY

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Fig. 36

Fig. 37

Fig. 38

Fig. 39

EUROPEAN FLOOD EVENTS

GIS. THE CASE OF GERMANY

FLOODING ELBE

ROOM FOR THE RIVER

Temperatures and sea level rise, snow and glaciers melt, rainfall patterns shift. Climate change is affecting the world impacting nature and the economy across territories.

The Elbe river basin occupies territory in four different countries. Austria with a 0,6%, Czech Republic 33,7 % Poland 0,2%. The major part is located in Germany with 65,5%.

In other to exchange knowledge and experience of European Partners with similar problems two main Projects where funded by the EU.

According to the European Environmental Agency global warming is projected to intensify the hydrological cycle on earth. This will increase the frequency and occurrence of flood events in large parts of Europe. However this still remains a projection and technology can not predict estimates of changes in flood frequency and magnitude. By now we can only regard on uncertain assumptions. Although projections suggest that less snow accumulation will result from warming and there for a lower risk of early spring flooding, also changes in flood risk in other seasons remind uncertain and yet to be seen.

Geographic information system:

Restoration and Biosphere Reserve into the river Elbe Landscape have been accorded by UNESCO since 1997. With the reunification of the two German stated to a single republic and the river Elbe running from west to east Germany, a large scale natural protection area was established. This area is located in the floodplain most floodable zones.

Although a significant trend in extreme river flows has not yet been observed, twice as many river flow maxima occurred in Europe between 1981 and 2000 than between 1961 and 1980. Since 1990, 259 major river floods have been reported in Europe, of which 165 have been reported since 2000. The rise in the reported number of flood events over recent decades results mainly from better reporting and landuse changes. European Environmental Agency

For the specific case of Germany there is extensive data. Historical-geographic information, updated geodata and information on current developments and projects is provided and accessible in governmental and public web pages in internet with constantly updated source of information. For visualization and Cartographic representation of Digital Models, spacial base data, environment, statistic, geodata in general can be found for research.

To protect and increase humid forest in the area, to buy and change humid arable land into swamp or hardwood forest are one of the strategies applied. Still towns and cities located in the floodplain face every two to four years flooding problems and the river runs out the reserve zone. The problem of flooding reminds unsolved and uncertain assumptions of changes in flood events due to climate change are a constant threat in the Elbe river basin.

ALFA ‘Adaptive Land use for Flood Alleviation’: It is an EU-funded project (INTERREG IVB NWE) which aims to protect citizens in the North West Europe region against the effects of the risk of flooding due to climate change. This will be done by creating new capacity for water storage or discharge of peak floods within river catchments in Belgium, France, Germany, United Kingdom and The Netherlands. FCR “FloodResilienCity”: It is an EU-funded project which enables responsible public authorities in eight cities in North West Europe to better cope with floods in urban areas. The main cities involved in the projects are :Bradford, Brussels, Dublin, Leuven, Mainz, Nijmegen, Orléans and Paris


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Fig. 40

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Fig. 41

_________________________________________________

Images Fig. 36  - Occurrence of flood events in Europe 1998-2008 Colour coding from 1 to 6 events. European environment agency Flood map 1998 - 2008 http://www.eea.europa.eu http://www.eea.europa.eu/dataand-maps/indicators/river-floods/ river-floods-assessment-published-sep-2008 Fig. 37  - Germany. Location of RIver elbe. Adapted from http://www.river-elbe-biosphere.niedersachsen.de Fig. 38  -Location of Biosphere Reserve ‘ Elbe River Landscape’ Adapted from http://www.river-elbe-biosphere.niedersachsen.de Fig. 39  - Room projects for the river in the contest of Europe Adapted from: http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl

Fig. 40  - The Telegraph. By AP 2:50PM BST 06 Jun 2013 Title of the News: Europe floods: Elbe River surges into Dresden Fig. 41  - Aerial view of the swollen Elbe River that has swamped fields next to the city of Elster, eastern Germany, June 5, 2013. Heavy rainfalls caused flooding along rivers and lakes in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic and Hungary. (AP Photo/ dpa, Patrick Pleul) Fig. 42  - CBC News Posted: June 10, 2013 3:11 AM ET Germany flooding forces evacuations and railway shut-down: 10 villages evacuated as Elbe flood nears, some relief seen upstream Fig. 43  - Profile Elbe river. Austria, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany.

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

Fig. 42

Fig. 43


RIVER ELBE IN SAXONYANHALT REGION

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The specific “region” of study and intervention is the industrial “chemical triangle” through which the river Elbe and its tributaries Mulde and Saale flow. This chapter describes the dynamics of the River Elbe as an astomising meandering river which has been straightened out over time. (Kaiser K.,et al.,2012) River Elbe and its tributaries have faced extreme flooding which has been recurrent during the past two decades: in the year 2002, 2006 and 2013. This has caused havoc in the cities near the river, including the cities of Bitterfeld, Halle and Leipzig. Although the latter two cities have had it easy in 2006 & 2013, with its post-mining areas being utilised for water storage and converted to natural lakes; it remains uncertain how the next extreme flooding event will be dealt with. The flooding in these areas is usually a resultant on unprecedented summer rainfall and usually the risk months are June to September. It is estimated, that during an extreme event of 200 year flooding, large parts of the Halle will be inundated. The main affected areas will be the pre-fab workers’ housing, which are under high level of vacancy due to the problem of urban shrinkage. (www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau) Fig. 44

___________________________________ Images Fig. 44  - The floodplain of River Elbe in the countries of Germany and Czech Republic. The state of Saxony Anhalt is highlighted along with the location of the city of Halle within the study area: middle section of River Elbe. (Mapping done using arcGIS software) Fig. 45  - The “regional” area of study in the “middle” section of River Elbe. Fig. 46  - The three cities in the region: Halle, Leipzig and Bitterfeld. Fig. 47  - River Elbe section along the length, crossing the countries: Czech Republic and Germany. The location of the study region is also indicated.


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ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

Bitterfeld

Halle Leipzig

Fig. 45

Fig. 47

Fig. 46


FLOODING EVENTS IN THE REGION OF SAXONY -ANHALT

Fig. 48

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Fig. 49


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1009 1015 1059 1118 1162 1196

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

1272 1275 1318 1342 1342 1400 1413 1427 1430 1432 1433 1445 1445 1471 1491 1498 1501 1506 1510 1530 1533 1538 1539 1574 1555 1552 1555 1559 1560 1564 1565 1565 1568 1569 1573 1586 1595 1598

Fig. 50

1602 1622 1622 1617 1629 1651 1652 1655 1661 1666 1695

_____________________________ Images Fig. 48  - Flooding event 2010 + Gis Data. Adapted from data base source: TerraSAR-X Copyright:2013 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Astrium Services / Infoterra GmbH. Fig. 49  - Flooding event 2006 + Gis Data. Adapted from data base source: TerraSAR-X Copyright:2013 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Astrium Services / Infoterra GmbH. Fig. 50  - Flooding event 2002 + Gis Data. Adapted from data base source: TerraSAR-X Copyright:2013 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Astrium Services / Infoterra GmbH. Fif. 04 - Flooding Satelite images Source: TerraSAR-X Copyrigth:2013 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Astrium Services / Infoterra GmbH. Fig. 51  - Flooding event 2006 + Gis Data. Adapted from data base source: TerraSAR-X Copyright:2013 German Aerospace Center (DLR), Astrium Services / Infoterra GmbH.

Fig. 51

1703 1714 1777 1783 1784 1799 1822 1824 1845 1854 1858 1860 1832 1865 1880 1882 1890 1890 1897 1897 1905 1908 1912 1916 1925 1926 1926 1927 1927 1931 1932 1934 1948 1954 1955 1957 1958 1981 1981 1981 1981 1981 1932 1398 1999 2002 2005 2006 2010 2013

FLOODING SINCE WHEN?


ELBE RIVER & FLOODPLAIN CHARACTERISTICS

Fig. 52

River Geomorphology analysis using data from GIS, historical tracing of river meanders and use of computer simulation model tools.

___________________________________ Images Fig. 52  - River Elbe’s movement is highly controlled through the use of wing dykes all along the river length on both sides. Fig. 53  - We study the historical traces and movement of the river in order to speculate the connectivity branching in case of an extreme flooding event. Fig. 54  - We see agricultural fields patterned in such a way that the old meanders become the drainage channels for the fields. The settlement (though few)is worked around to accommodate the same. Fig. 55  - A simulation study using “Caesar simulation tool” confirms the above.

PG. 50

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Fig. 53


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Fig. 54

PG. 51

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

Fig. 55


ELBE RIVER & FLOODPLAIN CHARACTERISTICS

Fig. 56

Site survey to comprehend the geomorphology of the “floodplain” and compare it with the in-house study done earlier (using arc GIS, historical data, computer simulation).

___________________________________ Images Fig. 56  - The “protected” floodplains of River Elbe. Fig. 57  - In its “protected” natural form, the floodplain channels have been maintained. These are created can the river meanders and changes its course. Fig. 58  - do Fig. 59  - do -

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Fig. 57


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PG. 53

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

Fig. 59


FLOODPLAIN STRUCTURES & NEW ECOLOGIES

PG. 54

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ESSAY BY A.WEISSHAAR

Some sites by their geomorphological scale and structure are an invitation to refer to new reformulation of the aspects of nature that are broken up today. Our European landscapes are often the product of technocratic regulations and human strong engineering intervention (dikes, embankments, drains, see walls). Consolidation of extensive farming in the floodplains of Europe have led to the disappearance of physical elements that gave the land its legibility and dynamic system of movement, change and regulation. The understanding of a landscape logic, should begin with the understanding of the geomorphological aspects of it and the natural processes of land formation that are constantly changing its natural shape over different times and scales. The point is not to imitate forms found in nature but to understand how to work with the natural processes and forces that are constantly shaping the landscape. Coherence between the ways of occupancy and the natural processes should led us to a new approach on how to design and occupy our territory. If nature shapes the land, then human intervention should take into account those natural forces and used them not as a treat but as a tool in other to achieve a new type of urban and landscape territorial design approach. The exercise focus itself in the floodplains of east and central Europe in this post-industrial era where a process of deurbanization and shrinking cities is taking place. Its an opportunity for us to rethink about the floodplain structure. Specifically the project will zoom into the river Elbe which basin is mostly located in the east of Germany. This site is under constant threat from possible climatic disturbance an heavy floods. The idea is to break down the dikes, to allow water to spill into the land and find and leave room for increases in the water level . The challenge of this exercise is to make possible the formation of new land forms that can retain water in case of a flooding event, to find room or space for the river. The proposal presented in the following pages pertain to the desire to give a modern-day landscapes a geomorphological anchorage that involve natural transformation and processes for the design of urban and suburban forms that will settle in the floodplains. 2.0 Fluvial Systems: FORM & PROCESS In order to describe the Fluvial Systems we have to collect the three objects related and the processes between them. The unit of this tree objects is the River Basin and its parts are hill slopes, channel networks and floodplain witch are linked together by the processes that move water and sediments between them.(Charlon, 2008).The main inputs to this system are water and sediments. To drive the system the energy is provided by the precipitation over the drainage basin. The different forms of systems are liked to each other through the flow of water and sediments. Process or Flow Systems also called Cascading systems is the flow of water and sediments

pulled by gravity down slope. In this particular case of study will focus on floodplain areas, where the slope is reduced, therefore also velocity and also the energy of erosion is lower than upstream. As a result deposition zones increases in the floodplain where the river finds itself meandering or braiding, structures that will be explained in the next chapter. This systems can be analyse in different scales of time and space. Therefore we could zoom in to a scale of millimetres and zoom out a scale of hundreds of kilometres while time scale relevant processes could take place in a few seconds to periods of hundreds or even thousands of years.

2.1 Spatial Scale: According to the type of reach the scale of relevance varies. In our particular case of study we focus on the meandering or braining structures in the floodplain. The figures shows the features of our particular object of study placed in the major scale of the entire river basin until we reach the detail if the smaller scale. From the components of all the fluvial system to the channel network to river reach. Zooming closer to an meander bend or wandering bed the process-form interaction can be observed. Our design based research will be focusing in investigations of rates of bend migration or bank erosion and deposition processes that can be observed in this particular scale. Relevant also is the study of the system in the following zoom of the bedforms. The finest two scales left are the sedimentary structure or internal arrangement of grains and the unit of a single sediment, the type of grain.

2.2 Time Scale: At the finest scales of the internal arrangement of grains the process-form interactions result within minutes. At a larger scale the evolution occurs over long-term periods however external basin controls can introduce changes as for example a change in tectonics plates or long periods of flood return events. ( land slides, flooding events due to a significant change in precipitation rate, among others). Flow of various size pass trough the channel scouring the bed and deposition build up the channel bed again in an steady state of equilibrium of scour and fill. The elevation of the channel bed fluctuates around a constant average value. In the longer time scale of thousands or more than that erosion gradually lowers the landscape and reduces the channel elevation.

Fig. 01 -


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Fig. 02 -

____________________________________________ Images Fig. 01 - a) European main river basins, b) Elbe River basin channel network. Fig. 02 - c) Elbe river basin in the context of Germany d) Area of study e) Zoom into the floodplain River Elbe and tributaries. Fig. 03 - The time scale and the Meander form- process

Fig. 03 -

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY


FLOODPLAIN STRUCTURES & NEW ECOLOGIES

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Fig. 01

Fig. 02

ESSAY BY A.WEISSHAAR

3.0 Floodplain Spatial Structures. The following section is devoted to rivers floodplain spatial structures, its units and the river patterns emerging, constructing and changing the floodplain morphology, as result of channel dynamics. 3.1 Channel forms: Strait and meandering channels/ Braided channels/ Anabranching channels (anastomosing). Many qualitative classifications have been established to predict different channel patterns over the past decades (e.g., Leopold and Wolman, 1957; Schumm, 1985). The river morphology, its geometry and structure have being related to channel slope, Flow discharge rate and a representative bed sediment diameter. The review of Kleinhans (2010) provides two hypothetical explanations for channel pattern: 1) Pattern changes with flow strength. According to the first explanation, due to decreasing flow strength the channel patterns change from braided to meandering. The flow strength is determinate by parameters as flow velocity, flow discharge, between others as shown in the graphic below. 2) Pattern changes with sediment supply. A second explanation depends on the sediment supply and properties.(Ferguson, 1987). Changes in supply of bed sediments provokes changes in channel pattern. Sediments reduction promotes meandering while overloading results in braiding. The hypothetical explanations have uncertainties: “Still, there is no agreement on what the characteristics for braided and meandering rivers are, e.g. the number of bars, vegetation on bars and the sinuosity of the channel. Therefore, classical explanations stress that there is a morphological continuum, but this still leaves unclear what causes the difference in river patterns.” 3.2 Geormorphic units: Levees: Risen ridges that form at the channel-floodplain boundary during over bank flow events. Crevasse splays: Levees that where breached by flood waters. Backswamps: Depression or a swamp area characterize by wetland vegetation. Flood channels: bypasses the main channel it is a relative strait channel. Floodouts: associated with dry land channels. They occur where flood waters leave the main channel and branch onto the floodplain in a number of distributors channels. Meander scroll bars: can be seen in the surface topography of the floodplain as scroll bars. Cut-offs: abandoned meander bends that have been short-circuited. Paleochannels: longer sections of abandoned channels.


supply and properties.(Ferguson, 1987). Changes in supply of bed sediments provokes changes in channel pattern. Sediments reduction promotes meandering while overloading results in braiding.

Fig. 03

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Images Fig. 01 -River patterns subdivided from braided to meandering to straight, i.e. laterally immobile and is plotted with bar pattern. The river patterns are given by potential specific stream power, which is based on valley gradient and predicted width, related to the median grain size. After: Kleinhans and Van den Berg (2011).

Fig. 02 - River patterns subdivided from braided to meandering to straight, i.e. laterally immobile and is plotted with bar pattern. The river patterns are given by potential speciffic stream power, which is based on valley gradient and predicted width, related to the median grain size. After: Kleinhans and Van den Berg (2011). FIG. 03 - Examples of rivers with various channel patterns, from braided until meandering. From top to bottom: Rakaia River, New Zealand (braid plain);Tagliamento River, Italy (braid plain); Allier River, France (meandering with chutes); White River, USA (meandering with scrolls); and edge of the Aeolis Planum, Mars (relict meanderswith chute cutoffs). Source: Google, DigitalGlobe and NASA. Wietse van de Lageweg, 2013

Levees: Rised ridges Crevasse splays: Lev Backswamps: Depres Flood channels: bypa Floodouts: associated and branch onto the f

3.2 Geormorphic unit

Figure 3. Meandering floodp Ariadna Weisshaar, 2014

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Double headi

Figure 2. River patterns subd The river patterns are given median

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FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

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During the 18th and the 19th centuries, progress in civil engineering expertise resulted in widespread channelisation in order to improve navigation, to reduce flooding in some urban areas, to reclaim floodplain land for agriculture and in some regions to

Elbe

improve channel form for timber floating (Nilsson et al. 2005). This works also allowed greater control over domestic and industrial water supply. As a result floodplains became physically iso-

Bitterfeld

lated from their adjacent rivers and hydrological and sedimentary processes and patterns became changed in most river systems (Moss, 2008). As a consequence chemical and ecological condition of river systems have been truly profound. There are many examples

Halle

of severe environmental degradation leading in the

Leipzig

last part of the twentieth century to new considerations on engineering tools and a new sensitivity future response for the future management of river s and their catchment areas.( Charlton,2008). As a result of human intervention over floodplain areas ninety per cent of the original, native, natural alluvial forest have now disappeared from the European landscape.( Richards and Hughes, 2008).

4.1 Physical Gray infrastructure. Channelisation and flow regulation describes the modification of the natural river channels for the purposes of navigation, flood control, land drainage and erosion control. Main modifications techniques have been developed for different purposes such as re-sectioning and realignment, dredging, snagging and clearing, levees and embankments, bank protection, bed protection, river training and dam construction away from vulnerable banks. Sills are fully submerged, even during low flow conditions, and modify near-bed flows. ( Charlon, 2008)

Fig. 01 -

Fig. 02 -


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ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

4.2 Physical Green Infrastructure and Floodplain Natu

4.3 Zoon into In-stream structures:

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ral Function. To recreate physical diversity in-stream structures There has being a change in the comprehension and

can be installed creating areas of flow divergence

the relation between man and nature. Formerly the

and convergence, modifying conditions at the bed

river management was dominated by the idea that

and encouraging localized erosion and deposition.

man can control water and nature (verkerk and van

(Charlton, 2008). Weirs or low dams create an area of

Buuren, 2013). River management was dominated by

ponding immediately upstream from the

an anthropocentric attitude: by means of engineer-

structure and are constructed using natural materials

ing people were able to optimize human use of river

such as wood or stone. Flow deflectors are widely used

systems ( Jorde, 2002) The physical

to promote localized scour and deposition, to deepen

gray infrastructure mentioned before,dams, dikes,

the channel and to divert flow.

locks between others, were used to froze a predicted form and structure of the river; this technocratic approach broad big failures and shifted towards a more 2013). The Causes for this shift to a room or space for the river and floodplain restoration projects had clear starting a recurrent points. Unprediction and self-organizing logic could not be controlled completely by management and engineering. Deterioration of the ecological quality of river systems (due to the pollution of industries, location of urban settlements, agriculture and therefor the destruction of the natural floodplain vegetation ecology) went unnoticed for a long period but lead to a first cause of disaster (Van heezik, 2006; Lenders, 2003), Space for the Rivers is Shrinking (Moss & Monstadt, 2008). Such hard engineering methods actually took River Elbe 2,300,000,000 m3 of retention of volume got lost since the 12th century for a centennial flood due to levees.(Hartmann, 2013) This is a reduction by 86% of the originally retention area, from 6172 km2 to 838 km2. (Engel, 2002).Soft engineering techniques, like the room for the river projects are being apply in several cases. Distant flood banks do no need to be as high as those adjacent to the channel to provide the same level of protection. Also in projects of forest restoration water can infiltrate reducing the total hydrograph volume. When floodplain are wooded the forest contribute to its natural retention function. “The essential natural function of a floodplain is to store water and sediments derived from the river basin, especially during floods. Peak Flows that cannot be accommodated within the channel spill onto the floodplain. As a result the flood hydrograph is attenuated in downstream locations. This is because water is stored on the floodplain, and then released slowly after the peack passed” (Richads and Hughes, 2008). Studies of feedback between channel dynamics, floodplain and vegetation have arrived to the conclusion that a lack of vegetation increases erosion rates and the occurrence of chute cutoffs in meandering rivers.(Wout M. van Dijk, 2013)

Fig. 01 - Map illustrating European floodplain forest, based on the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center for the FLOBAR project. Ariadna Weisshaar, 2014.

Fig. 02 - Map of the Region Saxony-Anhalt. Case of study: Elbe and tributaries floddplain combined with Natura 2000 forest restoration project, based on the United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Center for the FLOBAR project. Ariadna Weisshaar, 2014. In red the floodrisk, In black the Floodplain restoration Project. FIG. 03 - In stream structures (a) Weirs or low dams. b) Flow deflectors. c) Sills. Adapted from Hey (1994).

social-ecological approach (Verkerk and van Buuren,

much space from the rivers: for instance along the

Images

Fig. 03 -


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

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5.0 Natural forces and Compututational aproche to design. Computer simulation: “Performance simulation is a very powerful tool, but on their own they are not too much use to designers, especially in the early design phase...In order to introduce computational design search in the early design stages, a different approach to performance simula-

TEST AREA 3

tion and data handling is required. Simulation accuracy is very much dependent on the accuracy of the data given to the model...designers really need to understand the physical phenomena that are being simulated, the variable involved and how to interpret the results” (Mendez Echenagucia, 2013). A meander form with a general rule of proportion was tested with respect to variation in channel depth and width. The same showed diferences in water depth and general flooding. Further longer duration testing is required to observe actual variation in the meander form. Processes of erosion and deposition showed in red and green in the folowing images gives us an idea on how this structures evolved over time. Diferent prototypes of intervention will be also be tested in the next terms to come. 5.1 Setup and Simulation research. Important achievements are being accomplished in contemporary research on geomorphology. The following images correspond to a thesis published in

TEST AREA 2

July 2013.In Meandering rivers Feedbacks between channel dynamics, floodplain and vegetation published in the Utrecht University. Its author Wouter Matthijs van Dijk observed different vegetation patterns in an experimental setup that change and shape the formal structure of the bank, related to increasing erosion or on the contrary stabilizing the shape. Cutoffs and creation of oxbow lakes also increases with absents of vegetation. _________________________________________________

Images Fig. 01 - Illustrating meander and time.

Fig. 02 - Map of the Region Saxony-Anhalt. Case of study: Elbe floodplain. Simulatiuons of flooding event based on CEASAR software. FIG. 03 - Detail of simulation. Elbe floodplain based on CEASAR software.

Fig. 01

Fig. 02


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TEST AREA 1

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 140 160

Erosion (red) & depositionday (green) 200 day 160-180

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 180- 200

INPUT PARAMETERS CONSIDERED FOR CAESAR MODELLING DISCHARGE RATE: 4,800 m3/s. (FLOODING SCENARIO)/ HIGH DISCHARGE (NORMAL SCENARIO: 480 m3/s.)

Fig. 03

We make guidelines to understand the geomorphology of the floodplain. Starting with slope and topographic analysis, types of soil, historical traces on earth, analysis of satellite images and simulations software to clarify the flow direction during the flooding events.


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

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day 200

INPUT PARAMETERS CONSIDERED FOR CAESAR MODELLING DISCHARGE RATE: 4,800 m3/s. (FLOODING SCENARIO)/ HIGH DISCHARGE (NORMAL SCENARIO: 480 m3/s.)

MEANDER MACHINE

day 190

day 200

day190

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 1 - 2

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 2-50

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 50-100

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 100-140

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 140 160

Erosion (red) & deposition (green)day 200 day 160-180

Erosion (red) & deposition (green) day 180- 200


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Erosion (red) & deposition (green)

Flow velocity

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

Flow velocity

SIMULATION STUDIES IN BY PASS SCENARIO

day 500

day 500

day 500

day 1000

day 1000

day 1000

day 500

INPUT PARAMETERS CONSIDERED FOR CAESAR MODELLING OUTPUT PARAMETERS COMPARISON DRAINAGE PROFILE EROSION AND DEPOSITION FLOW VELOCITY DISCHARGE RATE: 4,800 m3/s (FLOODING SCENARIO)/ HIGH DISCHARGE POSSIBLE UTILIZATION LOW LYING FLOOD PLAIN ALTERATIONS WITH INHABITATED SPACES

day 1500

day 1500

day 1500

day 2500

day 2500

day 2500

POSSIBLE RULE PARAMETERS ADDITION IN A SINGLE LEVEL PLAIN AND MULTILEVEL PLAIN MIRROR ALTERNATIVES

SIMULATION STUDIES IN A FOODING SCENARIO FORMATION OF AN OXBOW LAKE Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 10m Radius = 2.3 times channel width Wavelength = 10 times channel width Amplitude = 3 times radius with neck constricted

THE FORM EXIHIBITS A TENDENCY TOWARDS A DETATCHMENT TO CREATE A DISCONNECTED ARC AND A POTENTIAL OXBOW LAKE DAY 1 ALSO, IN CASE OF THE POSITION OF THE MEANDER IN A DOWNWARD SLOPE, THE RIVER CHANNEL SHOWED DEPOSITION AT THE NECK, WITH THE CHANNEL BREAKING INTO TWO STREAMS WITH A “V-FORMATION”

With generic simulation of meandering channels we could understand creation of groups of islands with several oxbow lakes on both sides. This looked too symmetric almost as a mirror with oxbow lakes in both sides of the river.


PG. 64

Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 10m Radius=2.3 times channel width

1 Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 10m 1 width = 50m Wavelength Channel = 10 times chnnel Channel depth = 10m 1 Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 10m Erosioin (red) Erosioin & Deposition (red) Erosioin & Deposition (green) (red) & Deposition (green) (green) Water depthWater DAY depth 10 Water DAY depth 10 DAY 10 Landform DAY Landform 10 Landform DAY 10 DAY 10

FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

Further longer duration testing is required to observe actual variation in the meander form. Diferent prototypes of intervention will be also be tested in the next terms to come. Processes erosion deposition showed in redwas and tested green with in therespect folowing images gives us an idea A meanderofform withand a general rule of proportion to variation in channel on howand this structures evolved over diferences time. depth width. The same showed in water depth and general flooding. Diferent prototypes of intervention will beto also be tested in the next terms come. form. Further longer duration testing is required observe actual variation in thetomeander Processes of erosion and deposition showed in red and green in the folowing images gives us an idea on how this structures evolved over time. S. KAUR + A. WEISSHAAR Diferent prototypes of intervention will be also be tested in the next terms to come.

width

1A Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 25m 1A Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 25m

1B Channel width = 100m Channel depth = 10m 1B Channel width = 100m Channel depth = 10m

1A Channel width = 50m Channel depth = 25m

1B Channel width = 100m Channel depth = 10m


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5.1 Setup and Simulation research.

Simulations by Simran Kaur, 2014

Important achievements are being accomplished in contemporary research on geomorphology. The following images correspond to a thesis published in July 2013.In Meandering rivers Feedbacks between channel dynamics, floodplain and vegetation published in the Utrecht University. Its author Wouter Matthijs van Dijk observed different vegetation patterns in an experimental setup that change and shape the formal structure of the bank, related to increasing erosion or on the contrary stabilizing the shape. Cutoffs and creation of oxbow lakes also increases with absents of vegetation.

,

Simulations by Simran Kaur, 2014

Simulations by Simran Kaur, 2014

S. KAUR + A. WEISSHAAR PG. 66

FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

FIgure 1. Simulations. Meandering channel. Adapted from Van Djik. (2013).

FIgure 1. Meander and time. Based on Van Djik (2013

5

NATURAL FORCES AND COMPUTATIONA APROCHE TO DESIGN


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REFERENCES Charlton, R., 2008. Fundamentals of fluvial geomorphology. Routledge, Oxon.pp 11-195. Ferguson, R. I. 1987, Hydraulic and sedimentary controls of channel pattern. In: K. Richards, ed., River channels: environment and process, Institute British Geographers Special Publication 18, Oxford, UK: Blackwell, pp 129-158. Hartmann, T., 2013. Land policy for German Rivers: making Space for the Rivers. In: Warner, J. F., Van Buuren, A., Edelenbos, J. 2013. Making space for the river, governance experiences with multifunctuional river flood management in the US and Europe. IWA Pulishing, London, UK. pp 121-130 Hey, R.D., 1994. Environmentally sensitive river engineering. In: P. Calow and G.E. Petts (eds), The rivers Handbook: Hydrological and Ecological Principles. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 337-362. Kleinhans, M. G., H. Weerts and K. Cohen (2010c), Avulsion in action: Reconstruction and modelling sedimentation pace and upstream flood water levels following a Medieval tidal-river diversion catastrophe (Biesbosch, The Netherlands, 1421-1750 AD). Geomorphology 118, 65, 79. Leopold, L. B. and M. G. Wolman. 1957, River channel patterns: braided, meandering and straight, vol. 282-B. Geological Survey Professional Paper. Mendez Echenagucia T., 2013. Computational Search in Architectural Design. Politecnico di Torino, Italy, pp 9-33. Moss T. and Monstadt J.2008. Institutional dimensions of floodplain restoration in Europe: an introduction. In: Moss T. and Monstadt J.2008, Restoring Floodplains in Europe, Policy Contexts and Project Experiences. IWA Publishing. pp. Nilsson, C., Lepori, F., Malmqvist, B., Tornlund, E., Hjerdt, N., Helfield, J.M., Palm, D., Ostergren, J., Janson, R., Brannas, E, and Lundqvist, \h (2005) Forecasting Environmental Responses to Restoration of Rivers Used as Log Floatways: An interdisciplinary Challenge. Ecosystems 8 (7), 779-800. Richards K. and Hughes F. 2008. Floodplains in Europe: the case for restoration. In: Moss T. and Monstadt J.2008, Restoring Floodplains in Europe, Policy Contexts and Project Experiences. IWA Publishing. pp.16-45. Schumm, S.A., 1988. Variability of the fluvial system in space and time. In: T. Rosswall, R.G. Woodmansee and P.G. Risser (eds), Scales and Global Chnage: Spatial and Temporal Variability in Biospheric and Goespheric Processes. SCOPE; 35. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 225-250. Warner, J. F., Van Buuren, A., Edelenbos, J. 2013. Making space for the river, governance experiences with multifunctuional river flood management in the US and Europe. IWA Pulishing, London, UK. pp 1-33. Wouter Matthijs van Dijk,2013. Meandering rivers Feedbacks between channel dynamics, floodplain and vegetation. Utrecht University.pp 12-60. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/index_en.html http://www.ruimtevoorderivier.nl/english/room-for-the-river-programme http://www.glowa-elbe.de/


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Fig. 01. 01 Zoom into topography. Traces on earth.

Fig. 02 - Constelation of Meanders.

Fig. 03 03. Meander belt migration as a result of lateral tilting.


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Fig. 04 - Zoom into groups of meander.

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ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

Fig. 05

Zooms of real floodplains where we found something very interesting. We found groups of meander with similar features moving together towards one direction. This is called the Meander Belt Migration as a result of lateral (cross-valley) tilting.


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ESSAY BY S. KAUR

Abstract. This paper examines the river dynamics in the floodplain areas and the “spatial structures” formed by the natural processes as well as man-made interventions. In the specific case of River Elbe and its tributary Saale, two kinds of river channel systems are observed: meandering and anastomosing. The former creates oxbow lakes while the latter creates islands. The design intervention while creating a room for river (flood-able zones) in the areas of vacancy inside the floodplains of the shrinking cities, seeks to utilize/ work the natural forms towards new/additional economic use. Two forms are discussed; fixed forms near habitation and more fluid forms further away from the city core. Keywords: meandering, anastomosing, floodplain, groynes, erosion, deposition

1 Introduction We begin with the explanation of the emergence of Dutch “room for river” strategy and its acceptance throughout Europe due to the extreme flooding events across the last two decades. The need to re-look into the floodplain ecology is discussed wherein the cities as well as agricultural areas have an equal role to play and also gain from it. The reason for the relevance of such an intervention in the specific design site is elaborated. The focus is on the Elbe river formation and patterns of meandering and anastomising with its specific spatial formations. We discuss the natural processes in meandering rivers, which flow through areas with low slope, high sinuosity and create oxbow lakes due to outer edge erosion and inner edge deposition in the river channel. On the other hand, anastomising river process creates stable submersible islands. We explore two specific interventions: use of groynes as well as vegetation. The idea is to manipulate the structures to accelerate the river processes to create specific spatial forms, which are utilizable for productive use in the city and urban green zones. Finally, the simulations using physical model and the chosen forms and its use are discussed. 2 Designing a floodplain ecology without nature The flooding events in the recent years in Europe have triggered a move towards renaturalisation of its river floodplains. The Dutch strategy of “room for the river” has gained acceptance as the most appropriate strategy to deal with the issue of flooding as well as maintaining ecological balance. However, the same has seen only sporadic success due the multiplicity of the agencies involved as well as the complexity of the riparian system which traverses many terrains, political boundaries and ownerships, along its length. (Warner Jeroen et al., 2013)

Fig. 01 ____________________________________________ Images Fig. 01 - Various structural and non-structural methods used for managing flooding water in floodplain areas. The “room for river” lays preference on non-structural methods Fig. 02 - Mapping of areas losing population: vacant pre-fab housing areas shown in green; vacant commercial zones shown in blue. Fig. 03 -

River Elbe channel pattern across various ages (Kaiser K., et al., 2012)

Fig. 04 - Time scales of adjustment of various channel forms (Charlton Ro, 2008) Fig. 05 -

Types of Channel bars (Charlton Ro, 2008)

Fig. 06 - (top, bottom) Alluvial river types from upper to lower catchments; Channel patterns: Meandering, Braiding, Anastomosing (Makaske Bart, 2000)


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Across history, settlements have grown around rivers for economic reasons; agricultural, industrial and service1. Post-industrialisation, many of these earlier industrial towns, has attempted to revive their economy through the knowledge and service sectors. The period of de-industrialisation, has also led to a massive shrinkage or de-population in these areas (Oswalt Philip et al., 2006). We explore the issue of shrinkage in post-socialist cities and delveloped into the meaning of “room for the river” in this changing urban context. The idea is to investigate how two parallel processes, economic and ecological, at a state of unpredictability, stand to re-inform each other. Within a framework of ecology without nature2, the river form and process is used as a tool to determine and redefine urbanity. In the specific territory of Germany, the shrinkage and its state policy of urban restructuring (demolition) is speculated to create a fragmented city, an archipelago of settlements (Robler Stefanie, 2010). This fragmented form is mediated through use of the river to create new territories, whose use changes over time. The investigation is whether the vacant land in the shrinking cities in the floodplain areas can be put to a new use that helps both the local economy and mitigate the problem of flooding. 2.1 Flood prevention strategies The control over the river is essential for human habitation and economy. Human settlement along the rivers either manipulate existing natural high points in the terrain or by means of dykes and dams, protect the lower land. Dykes and dams are also essential for diverting and use of river water for the purpose of irrigation. The need for inland navigation in Europe has been the main motive to manipulate the river form and its straightening. This reduces the river length and volume to contain water during extreme flooding. The recent flooding events in Europe have been credited for the change in river flood protection system from structural systems to non-structural systems. The Dutch system of creating land using

PG. 71

ELBE FLOODPLAIN IN GERMANY

We move into the particular features of the Elbe river and its tributaries. Our river is meandering and branching at the same time, that is, Anastomosing channels Formation of several meander channels is usually triggered with higher floods / flooding events. Fig. 02

Fig. 03

structural systems like dykes and dams has proven unsuccessful in keeping water out, during the recent extreme flooding events. Structural flood control measures include increasing channel cross-section, constructing flood embankments, straightening channels, removing vegetation and creating flood diversion channels and flood storage reservoirs. In the case of Rhine river, in order to accomplish a new target of ensuring a flooding retention o 18,000 m3/s instead of the present 15,000 m3/s, the policy of “room for the river” and letting the river be, has gained accreditation. (Rijkswaterstaat Oost-Nederland, 2008) Various efforts have been made to create space for the river by means of generation of polder areas. The targetted areas near or in the floodplain are usually existing agricultural fields, which are to be utilised for water storage, in the event of flooding. Settlement areas like cities and towns are not seen as probable locations for polders. However, the Dutch policy of holding, storing and discharging water is based on

Fig. 05


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ESSAY BY S. KAUR

pattern of the city and the surrounding regional area. The inundation zones may function as agriculture areas in order to strengthen the local city economy. The fragmentation of land may be structured based on the manipulation of the river form and process, to create land pockets.

an equal and efficient use of the upper, middle and lower parts of the river respectively for holding, storing and discharge. (Hooimeijer Fransje et al., 2005). This means that this system has less efficiency if one works by concentrating on only a single part of the river only.

3 Floodplain of River Elbe: Spatial structure formation.

This policy of making space for the river is being practised all across Europe, especially Germany and Britain. However, each country differs into its economic aspirations from the river and state policies ensuring local adherence. (Warner Jeroen et al., 2013)

The characteristic of River Elbe and Saale (in the city of Halle) is both meandering and anastomosing. This has lead to a creation of smaller oxbow lakes and large islands, through the ongoing process of self-adjustment. These processes include channel migration and point bar formation, braid bar formation and channel avulsion.

2.2 Shrinking cities and space for flooding. Due to the economic and political policies, the city of Halle is unable to extend its administrative boundaries, is thus an economic island. All towns around the region are independently trying to consolidate and extend its economy. Internally, having faced urban shrinkage, the city has specific areas that face major vacancy. These include the pre-fab housing in the floodplain areas as well as earlier dedicated commercial zones that are also slowly getting redundant. Reinterpreting the city as a “green archipelago”, the design investigation is towards using the vacant land in Halle into a new use that helps both the local economy and mitigate the problem of flooding. One of the options is the use of these containments in the state-owned land, as agricultural fields willing to bear the risk of flooding in the time of extreme flooding.

The types of river channels (braided, meandering and straight) are showcased as below. Anastomising rivers are distinct from braided rivers due to the fact that the latter are found in the areas with higher slope and are one channel systems. However, the former is found more in areas with low slope and are multi-channel systems. The multi-channel in an anastomising river is formed primarily due to channel avulsions, as the slope gradient within the bed becomes lesser than the surrounding

Fig. 06

3.1 The oxbow lake in a meandering river The diagrams below describe the conditions of a chute break-off in the meandering river, leading to the formation of oxbow lake. This is due to bend curvature and gradient advantage in the channel, from where the cut-off is likely to happen. The process leads to a land gain in the inner curvature and land loss in the outer curvature, due to a process of deposition and erosion. This process may be accelerated and stabalised, using structures like groynes (which are discussed ahead).

Fig. 07

2.3 New Productive floodplain use. The way forward lies in the exploration of suitable forms that allow for creation of inundation zones as well as stable non-floodable islands for the construction of “re-structured and reduced” infrastructure, based on the de-growth

3.2 Stable Islands due to branching in an anastomosing river 4 Use of Groynes in movement of river and use of vegetation

Fig. 08


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Fig. 11 Groynes are vertical structures in the river channel to direct the flow of the

of banks As is observed above, groynes and

As is observed in the illustrations below (of various stages), the meandering forms and branching forms were recorded. Two possible forms were chosen in design: a) utililizable a fixed zones for infrastructure crossovers in the city centre; b) fluid form utilizable as agricultural areas which may be flooded during extreme flooding events

Fig. 09 river. These have been historically used for the “normalisation” or straightening of the river course, for the purpose of navigation and change of a river course, as well as floodplain width reduction. 4.1 Use for normalisation of river and reduction of the floodplain 4.2 Use of groynes in deposition and erosion areas 4.3 Addition of vegetation for fixidity

vegetation are mediums with which the flow of water can be directed, areas stabilized by accelerating depositions and in other cases areas eroded. areas. 5 Discussion Based on the above, a physical

Fig. 10

simulation was done in order to create forms similar to a meandering river system and a branching river system. The same was performed using strips of paper, which was joined using glue. Here the strips of paper acted as the flow of river over time, hence, representing various river stages. The glue acted as possible barriers (representative of vegetation & groynes) as well as to increase sluggishness (representative of reduction of sinuosity).

Fig. 12

References: Charlton Ro, 2008, Fundamentals of Fluvial Geomorphology (Routledge) Hooimeijer Fransje et al., 2005, Settlements in river regions in Atlas of Dutch water cities (Sun, TU Delft) Huang He Qing, Nanson Gerald C., 2007, Why some alluvial rivers develop an anabranching pattern in Water Resources Res., Vol. 43 (American Geophysical Union) Kaiser K., Lorenz S., Germer S., Juschus O., Kuster M., Libra J., Bens O. & Huttl R. F. (2012): Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview in E&G Quaternary Science Journal, 61 (2): 103–132. DOI: 10.3285/eg.61.2.01 Makaske Bart, 2000, Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products in Earth-Science Reviews 53, 2001, pg 149–196 (Elsevier) Rijkswaterstaat Oost-Nederland, 2008, Space for River, Nature and People: Sustainable Floodplains along the Rhine (Coers & Roest) Robler Stefanie, 2010, Green spaces in shrinking cities: opportunities and limitations of green space planning in the process of urban restructuring (Rhombos-Verlag) Haase Dagmar, 2008, Urban ecology of shrinking cities: an unrecognized opportunity? in Nature and Culture, Volume 3, Number 1, Spring 2008, pp. 1-8 (Berghahn Journals) Oswalt Franz, Baccini Peter, 2003, Netzstadt: Designing the Urban (Birkhauser) Oswalt Philip et al., 2006, Shrinking cities, vol.1 & 2 (Hatje Cantz) Ungers Oswald Mattias, 2013, A manifesto, 1977 in A city within the city: Berlin: A green archipelago (Lars Müller Publishers) Warner Jeroen et al., 2013, Making Space for the River: Governance Experiences with Multifunctional River Flood Management in the US and Europe (IWA Publishing) Wout M. van Dijk, 2013, Meandering rivers: Feedbacks between channel dynamics, floodplain and vegetation, PHD Thesis (Utrecht studies in Earth Sciences) WWF European fresh water programme, 2000, Wise use of floodplains: Policy and economic analysis of floodplain restoration in Europe (EU Life Environment) www.ecrr.org/sdfproject/sdfproject.htm www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/hochwasserschutz-wasserbau www.civilthought.com Notes 1. Use of water by agricultural, industrial and service economy: Agricultural ecomony utilised the river water and fertile floodplain for crop production. During industrialisation, river water was used as input into production, electricity and inland navigation. At present, the service economy taps into the additional tourism value around the river floodplain. 2. The term “ecology without nature” is made in reference with Slavoj Zizek’s paper “Nature and its discontents”. Zizek, stresses Timothy Morton’s idea that to have a proper ecological view, we must relinquish the very idea of nature as something that sustains the civilization. 3. Oswalt Philip et al., 2006, Shrinking cities, vol.1 (Hatje Cantz). excerpt taken from The dawning of a New demographic age, Munich, 2001.


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After understanding the process of the meander formation and channel migration, we moved on into modelling of a meander generator. We did several experiments and analyzed the forms based on our previous knowledge and understanding. Placement of obstacles to create meanders or branching or both through different time scales. The idea is to increase river channels and contain more water and reduce flooding.


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Based on the model studies of the river form, three model forms are chosen to effect change in the floodplain to make them more capable of storing water during extreme flooding; to maintain certain infrastructure zones free of flooding and to convert the vacant areas in the state owned land into productive agriculture and inundation zones.


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MEANDERING

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BRAIDING

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MEANDERING + BRAIDING


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Island formation in the speculated form from Meandering plus Braiding


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Island formation in the speculated form from Meandering plus Braiding


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02 ELBE RIVER SAXONY- ANHAL


LT

SHRINKING CITIES


Fig. 60


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The chapter illustrates the rise and fall of the industrial region called the “chemical triangle” in East Germany. The conurbation of Halle-Leipzig along with Bitterfeld was until 1990 (pre-unification of Germany); the main source of brown coal. Post unification and change in economic reforms and acceptance of privatization, the earlier state run chemical industries were unable to cope with the global market forces. Hence it suffered manifold: de-industrialisation, suburbanisation, demographic ageing and unfavourable economic reforms. Our project focuses on River Elbe in the Saxony-An halt region of Germany. This region famous as chemical triangle, includes the cities of Halle, Bitterfeld and Leipzig. Until the 1990’s, this was a landscape of open lignite mines and polluted rivers. The area faced massive de-industrialisation after re-unification, with most of the industries unable to withstand the competition of an open market. Recently, various incentives of regeneration have been targeted with the prime aim of providing specific “service industries” to each of the city in the region ranging from education, tourism, health, alternate energy etc. The overall landscape of ecology and tourism is being advocated, and the open mines being converted to lakes and floodplains restored. Fig. 62

___________________________________ Images Fig. 60  - German Landscape paintings on display in the Museum der bildenden Kunste, Leipzig. (Inset bottom right image) presents the aesthetics of “romantic landscape” that delves on the sublime and an impression of awe towards nature. We position ourselves, differently and seek a design intervention within a framework of ecology without nature2. Fig. 61  - Image of abandoned buildings and vacancy near River Saale, photograph taken during field trip Fig. 62  - Image of abandoned buildings and vacancy near River Saale, photograph taken during field trip. Fig. 63  - Images of New city area: abandoned buildings and vacancy near the river Saale, photograph taken during field trip. Fig. 64  - Images of New city area: abandoned buildings and vacancy near the river Saale, photograph taken during field trip.


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Fig. 63

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SHRINKAGE IN SAXONY- ANHALT REGION

Fig. 64


THE CHEMICAL TRIANGLE CITIES: HALLE, BITTERFELD, LEIPZIG

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60 19

to

90 19

ELD ERF TT BI

Bitterfeld

2000 to 2003

Halle Leipzig

IG

LE IP Z

Fig. 65

Fig. 66

The above images describe the change in connectivity and linkage between the cities of Halle, Bitterfeld and Leipzig from 1960 till present date. Due to the chemical mining industry between 1960 to 1990, there was a large commuter traffic from Halle to Leipzig and Bitterfeld, as the workers housing was provided for in Halle. (Fig. 65) After 1990, with most of the factories in Leipzig & Bittefeld shut down, Halle as well as the region experienced massive shrinkage. (Fig. 66) This reduction in Halle city population was further accentuated between the small but strong phase of suburbanisation between 2000 to 2003. (Fig. 66) At present, the city is shrinking. Also, the most prevelant direction that the city investment is likely, is in the direction of Leipzig (that is, south-east). Hence, the left bank of Halle, is expected to be depopulated in the coming years.

SAXONY ANHALT, GERMANY: CHANGING ECONOMY & ECOLOGY PRE-FAB HOUSING FOR CHEMICAL FACTORY WORKERS (1960-1990)

CHEMICAL FACTORY (1960 TO 1990)

2000 ONWARDS: COMMERCIAL HUBS


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SHRINKAGE IN SAXONY- ANHALT REGION

Bitterfeld

Bitterfeld

Halle

Halle Leipzig

Fig. 67

___________________________________ Images Fig. 65  - Connectivity between the cities of Halle, Bitterfeld and Leipzig before 1990. Fig. 66  - Connectivity between the cities of Halle, Bitterfeld and Leipzig after 2003. Conversion of landscape into a natural recreational zone, hoping to overcome the fallout of shrinkage. Fig. 67  - Process sheet for Fig. 67 indicating the connectivity diagram for settlement areas with Population of 50,000 and more. Fig. 68  - Process sheet for Fig. 67 layering, River Elbe, Natura 2000 sites with settlement areas with “Zero” Population.

Leipzig

Fig. 68


STRATEGY FOR CHANGE

Fig. 69

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1990

1990

2010

2010

2010

2010


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SHRINKAGE IN SAXONY- ANHALT REGION

SOLAR CELL INDUSTRY

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

EDUCATION & CALL CENTRE

CHEMICAL INDUSTRY

Fig. 70

This is the future planning scenario for the region of Saxony Anhalt. It includes reduction in infrastructure with the understanding that de-population in imminent. Various urban strategies have been advocated for the archipelago like future cityrural zones. For e.g. : node and connectivity systems like Netzstadt , green and grey clustering of urban areas and formation of green archipelago with retention of specific building to create urban space. The IBA project, Less is future -19 themes for 19 cities, advocated different service economies to each of the shrining cities in the region of Saxony Anhalt. The major highlights included: 1) The reduction in infrastructure and conversion into sustainable energy like solar, wind etc.; 2) Creation of network cities, with each city having a distinct service economy like institutional, tourism, light manufacturing etc. 3) Acceptance of urban islands and seeking an urban design strategy similar to Ungers’s “ Green archipelago”. The overall regional landscape is getting converted into a “tourism economy”and becoming a region of re-naturalised rivers and post-mining lakes. This is now, the new connectivity between the three cities.

___________________________________ Images Fig. 69  - Future vision 2050, for the region of Saxony Anhalt (IBA, Bahaus Dessau Foundation, 2010) Fig. 70  - Change of economic base towards service economy. Fig. 71  - The regional rivers and lakes become the backbone of a tourism sector to connect the city regions as a whole.

Fig. 71


02 HALLE CITY SAXONY- ANHALT

FLOODPLAIN

AND RIVER SAALE


FLOODING IN HAALE

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Based on the flooding scenario in case of a likely extreme flooding event in Halle, the areas with flooding inundation of 1m, 3m & 4m are highlighted. It is noted that the river channels (present and abandoned) are the ones that carry and store maximum depth of flood waters. Hence, by accelerating the process of river channel branching, the flooding water storage may be re-structured across the floodplain. This will create a better control over flooding waters as well as provide desired flood-able and non-flood able pockets.

Fig. 72 ___________________________________ Images Fig. 72  - Image showing the flood levels in the flooding event of 2013. (www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau) Fig. 73  - Extreme flooding 200 year event mapping for the city of Halle from the official city website (www.lhw. sachsen-anhalt.de/hochwasserschutz-wasserbau) Fig. 74  - Areas with less than 1m flooding in the extreme flooding event.(www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau) Fig. 75  - Areas with less than 3m flooding in the extreme flooding event.(www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau) Fig. 76  - Areas with more than 4m flooding in the extreme flooding event.(www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau)

Fig. 73


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SHRINKAGE THE CITY OF HALLE HALLE CITY IN & RIVER SAALE FLOODPLAIN

Fig. 74

Fig. 75

Fig. 76


03

HALLE


SHRINKAGE: ANALYSIS OF PRESENT CONDITION

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Due to the economic and political policies, Halle is unable to extend its administrative boundaries, is thus an economic island. All towns around the region are independently trying to consolidate and extend its economy (Fig. 79). Internally, having faced urban shrinkage, the city has specific areas that face major vacancy. The shrinkage of the city of Halle is studied to understand that these are of two types: pre-fab housing sectors and industrial plots (Fig. 78). The housing which earlier housed chemical factory workers and professional lie majorly vacant as the preference for detached housing. Under the state policy of demolition of vacant housing, these areas are being demolished and converted to nature as urban forests. The pre-fab housing areas lie mostly to the left bank of the River Saale and is a flooding low lying area. Hence the left bank vacant area becomes the project site for flooding and creation of land form that can be put to use of inundation, water storage and agriculture. Reinterpreting the city as a “green archipelago”, the design investigation is towards using the vacant land in Halle into a new use that helps both the local economy and mitigate the problem of flooding. One of the option is the use of these containments in the state-owned land, as agricultural fields willing to bear the risk of flooding in the time of extreme flooding. Fig. 77


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Fig. 78

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SHRINKAGE IN THE CITY OF HALLE

Fig. 79

___________________________________ Images Fig. 77  - Google map of the city of Halle. Fig. 78  - Thematic mapping of vacancy and change in the city of Halle. Fig. 79  - Region of Saxony Anhalt and administrative limitations of the city of Halle (official city website)


DESIGN CONCEPT

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(STEP 1): VACANCY & CONNECTIVITY FOR NEW GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE In line with the regional planning of network cities and clustering, the design concept is based on the following steps: First: Halle as a city is understood as clusters of built areas around open areas (forest, river) that generate circular and linear nodes. Hence the node is expanded to contain built spaces and adjacent open areas. Second: A cartography of Grey and Green islands is made: • Grey is existing tight infrastructure and settlement; • Green includes speculated vacant areas which at present, may be areas of low use, abandoned areas or open areas. Third: The line of forces of water systems is introduced into the cartography. This is the "connectivity" of use, which, irrespective of industry have a regenerative potential. Out of these, those that pass through the green islands, will be retained in the process of conversion of grey to green. Also, connectivity of tourism, institutional and commercial are understood. As is highlighted, we further explore the most dynamic part of the water system, vacant areas in the floodplain, to re-mediate the urban fabric. (Fig. 81)

Fig. 80

___________________________________ Images Fig. 80  - Floodplain in the city of Halle, with the shrinking land pockets overlapped (light green). Fig. 81  - Result of network analysis of speculated settlement clusters. These mostly coincide with the road network proximity of 5km (marked in red). Fig. 82  - The 5km road connectivity overlapped with the shrinking areas (marked as Grey and to be converted to Green). Fig. 83  - Three areas in the shrinking zones lie in the floodplain area. Fig. 84  - Final mapping of flood-able shrinking zones with essential city road connectivity in the near proximity marked. Also, to be retained are the institutional, commercial and tourism spines (yellow, orange, green).


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Fig. 81

Fig. 83

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NEW LANDFORM IN A FLOODPLAIN CITY

Fig. 82

Fig. 84


DESIGN CONCEPT

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(STEP 2): DYNAMIC POCKETS IN SLOPE MESH

Fig. 85

___________________________________ Images Fig. 85  - Site images showcasing infrastructure conflict with meander forms. Fig. 86  - Overlapping of site topography with flooding zones in the event of a 200 year flood. http://www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau/ Fig. 87  - Floodplain contours. Fig. 88  - Final overlapping of flood water and topography slope mesh. Fig. 89  - Overlap information (topography slope mesh) Fig. 90  - Final overlapping of flood water and contours.

Fig. 86


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NEW LANDFORM IN A FLOODPLAIN CITY

Fig. 87

Fig. 88

Fig. 89

Dynamic-Pockets After a slope analysis an interesting pocket dynamic is found in the floodplain. The areas almost without slope, are pockets for water accumulation during flooding events. This areas remains muddy, water drains slowly. Nevertheless not all of them they get flooded. Some are not located in the lowest areas of the floodplain. Almost without obstacles and slope they are perfect areas for fast experimentation with the forces of the river: erosion of the bank and deposits of sediments.

Fig. 90


DESIGN CONCEPT

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Fig. 92

Fig. 93

(STEP 3): SLOPE & VACANCY X-RAY

Fig. 91

Floodplain City Pockets of extreme plain areas are left and visible in the floodplain. An overlapping with the existing city structure can make us find the principal path for a new River system and more room for Water. The steps of overlap images is explained as below: ___________________________________ Images Fig. 91  - X Ray of the city in danger. New cromatic Noli of city building with flooding risk. Fig. 92  - Marking of new inundation zones with the areas of permanent depopulation. Fig. 93  - Dynamic pockets in the slope mesh. Fig. 94  - Existing road infrastructure and the part to be changes marked in red. Fig. 95  - Existing road infrastructure overlapped with dynamic pockets of the slope mesh. Fig. 96  - Making of NEW LAND WITH NEW location of essential city connectivity.


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NEW LANDFORM IN A FLOODPLAIN CITY

Fig. 94

Fig. 95

Fig. 96


DESIGN CONCEPT

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(STEP 4): FLOODABLE AND SAFE ZONES

Fig. 97

Fig. 98

___________________________________ Images Fig. 97  - Halle floodplain as speculated in case of extreme flooding event with the NEW LANDFORM of river channels. Fig. 98  - Start-up landform and existing river channel. Fig. 99  - Addition of “controlled” left arm NEW river branching channel. Fig. 100 

- Phase 1.

Fig. 101 

- Phase 2.

Fig. 102 

- Phase 3.

Fig. 103 

- Phase 4.

Fig. 104 

- Phase 5.


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NEW LANDFORM IN A FLOODPLAIN CITY

Fig. 99

Fig. 100

Fig. 101

Fig. 102

Fig. 103

Fig. 104


DESIGN CONCEPT (STEP 5): CONTROL TOOLS

___________________________________ Images Fig. 105  - Use of wink dykes for directing the migration of river channels. Fig. 106  prototypes.

Fig. 105

- Process of addition in case of three

PG. 108

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Fig. 106

PG. 109

NEW LANDFORM IN A FLOODPLAIN CITY


DESIGN CONCEPT

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Fig. 108

Fig. 109

(STEP 6): NEW LANDFORM & INFRASTRUCTURE

Fig. 107

New Green Infrastructure As we create new landform, the dykes used to control migration before the grid for new connectivity and infrastructure. The steps of overlap images is explained as below:

___________________________________ Images Fig. 107 

- Start-up river branching (LINEAR)

Fig. 108  meanders.

- Translational growth of river

Fig. 109  - Translational growth of river meanders. with formation of PERPENDICULAR SPINES. Fig. 110 

- BRANCHING of PERPENDICULAR SPINES.

Fig. 111  channels.

- Overlap of BRANCHING with river

Fig. 112 

- FINAL BRANCHING & SPINE SYSTEM.


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Fig. 110

PG. 111

Fig. 111

NEW LANDFORM IN A FLOODPLAIN CITY

Fig. 112


GENERIC GUIDELINES

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Flood water volume protection

1) Establishing meander belt zones based on river width and historical data. This is the area of intervention. 2) Direction of floodplain slope for direction of channel migration.

Floodplain and Channel characteristics

No. of Meander Belts

Addition of By-pass channels

3) Fulcrum point for channel migration. Adding by-pass channels, if required.

ZONE OF INTERVENTION

Sediment production zone Upstream area outside of main city

Sediment utilization zone Downstream area inside of main city

Intervention B-1

4)Define water level protection for the city and hence volume required as reservoir and channels.

Types of floodplain edges

5) Definition of Edges: Hard vs. Soft; protection vs. non-protection. 6) Decide on the sediment producer zone, upstream of the city. This is the “extreme” meandering zone for floodplain erosion and sediment production.

Floodable vs. Non-Floodable Urban characteristics

Vacant land in floodplain

Land-use based on economic sector

7) Selection of areas in the floodplain available for re-use. Types of crossovers

8) Define sediment deposition zones in the floodplain. 8) Defining floodplain cross-overs as desired for the city. Crossovers to become direction for desired translational movement.

Intervention A-1, A-2

10) Adding road infrastructure.

Fig. 113

Images Fig. 113 

- Chemical triangle.

Fig. 114  - Conversion of landscape into a natural recreational zone, hoping to overcome the fallout of shrinkage.

MEANDER MOVEMENT CONTROL

Extension, Rotation

9) Phasing of land development based on translational time frame for meanders.

___________________________________

New city connectivity based on the

Translation

Phasing of Land


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DESIGN PROPOSAL & IMPLEMENTATION

essen

HALLE

lodz ostrava brno cluj napoca

bacau

timisoara

Fig. 114

The way forward lies in the exploration of suitable forms that allow for creation of inundation zones as well as stable unfloodable islands for the construction of “re-structured and reduced” infrastructure, based on the de-growth pattern of the city and the surrounding regional area. The innudation zones may function as agriculture areas in order to strengthen the local city economy. The fragmentation of land may be structured based on the manipulation of the river form and process, to create land pockets.


CARTOGRAPHIES APPENDIX

THOUGHTS ABOUT CARTOGRAPHY


RELEVANCE OF (TRACE) CARTOGRAPHY IN REPRESENTATION

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SIMRANJIT KAUR

1 Introduction

Abstract. This paper examines the techniques of representation used by Alan Berger in his research on the reclaimed mining landscapes in the American West. Berger discusses the use of three modes of representation: cartography, imagery and mapping. He describes his mapping as “trace cartography”. It is observed that Berger’s “trace cartography” is an important research tool that allows in his work, a smooth transition from the objective to the subjective. Trace cartography and mapping work together, not as binaries, but as a productive discourse. 01

In the broad sense of what has come to be defined as Landscape Urbanism, wherein landscape is seen as a plane of machinic operation rather than a pictorial representation, 02 the operative act and the agency of operation become pivotal to its design discourse. Hence, in order for a designer to work with a process rather than towards a product, mapping as a tool of design and representation gains relevance. In his study of reclamation landscapes of the mined areas in the American West, Alan Berger uses mapping as a means to understand, reveal and speculate the landscape, through a technique he calls “trace cartography”. This paper attempts to comprehend the field and constraints of trace cartography, and also, positions it as a method of putting the tracing back into the map. 03 This results in a research tool that remains open ended, allowing for a design to undertake an overlay of enquiries and open to multiple possibilities.

Keywords: cartography, tracing, mapping, reclamation, landscape, rhizome, operative, open-ended and governed by loose land-use reclamation policies (Figures 1, 2, 3). This makes it a large landscape of alteration, undergoing a process of mining and subsequent reclamation. 2.2 Mining and Reclamation landscape

First, it is stated that within a broader framework, landscape as an operation is, inherently an act of alteration. Further, the reclaimed landscapes are defined within the specific history of the American west, which has been constantly altered for the purpose of economy and habitation. It is also highlighted that the act of landscape reclamation is irreversible and hence, non-restorative. Second, the representation tools as elaborated by Alan Berger are highlighted.04 These include cartography, imagery and mapping. The distinction and purpose of each is discussed, along with the process of combining them, through a sequence of creation of a field, extraction and plotting. 05

Fig. 1

3 Visualisation Tools: Cartography, Imagery and Mapping

Third, the method of trace cartography is reviewed based on Deleuze and Guattaris’s principle of cartography. It is stated that in the case of landscape representation, trace cartography may be seen as a way of establishing the open ended nature of cartography, while sourcing and opening up new ecological frameworks into its discourse. 2 All Landscape is “Altered”

In the American West, the reclamation laws for post-mining works do not categorically specify the final form and use of the landscape. Hence the mining companies play a big role in the final outcome. Berger stresses that the reclamation landscape can never be completely restored to its original form, as it would be financially unfeasible to take up an intervention of such a large scale. It is also highlighted that one is dealing with natural processes, and even if the reclaimed landscape was made to look like the original form, it may not necessarily function the same. Moreover, for the mining companies, it is more critical that an ecological stabilisation is brought about, so as to ensure a new productive use to the land, rather than mere visual appeal.

Fig. 2

For a critical discourse on the reclaimed landscapes, Berger utilizes three modes of representation: cartography, imagery and mapping. Each serves a specific purpose, and entails a process of creating a field, gaining extracts and suitably plotting them.07 3.1 Cartography

Landscape as an operation, is inherently an act of alteration.06 It deals with natural forces alongside social and cultural claims. This alteration, whose genesis whether power or ecology, and whether disguised or rendered visible, needs to be worked upon in a landscape discourse.

The first piece of information that is utilizable to understand the mining landscape is through public records of maps drawn by the mining companies based on the earlier cartographic surveys of the West, which were instrumental for its division, settlement, and habitation. These are mostly in the form of plans and sections, to document the pre- mining and establish the post- mining landscape for work and approvals.

In the case of mined areas and reclamation landscape, where alteration is most apparent, two issues come forward. First, the agency of operation, that is, the role of the mining companies. Second, the irreversibility the operation, that is, reclamation.

Cartography, here, is only “momentarily” relevant, as it is use terminates once the mining work is initiated at site. Thereafter, it will be re-drawn many times over, till reclamation.

2.1 Landscape of the American West Berger highlights that the American West is primarily a federal controlled land, rich in natural minerals

Fig. 3

Cartographic maps used in mining and reclamation


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CARTOGRAPHY

describe how sites are altered, justified, and absorbed into culture through quantification and spatial analysis. This kind of cartographic information also captures quantifiable, physical attributes of terrain and various forces that underlie the workings of a given place. These include: environmental processes, scientific data, histories, legal boundaries, and private or public programmatic structures. 08

important role, though the same may be invisible.

However, Berger states these existing cartographies are pivotal to his research, which he converts to further use, by the process of tracing them. The intent of undertaking this process is to reveal the internal agendas of mining industry as it is as much a social construction as a physical construction. This is the “first key essential “extract” for the mapping. In some way, the tracing provides a structured image and objective quantification, “a measure” with which the rest of the extracts will be related, but not connected. Also, this tracing is as much a field of the subsequent mapping. It acts as the field of a systematic montage, where multiple and independent layers are added, one of them being the “measure” from the cartographic trace itself. Fig. 1

3.2 Imagery The second extract that forms a part of the mapping is imagery, that is, photographic compilation of the site. These include: aerial views and ground views (at specific oblique angle). The idea is to capture the site at a scale at which, larger ecological processes can be revealed. This is not possible through a normal visual or physical human experience. The purpose of the imagery is thus, not to authenticate the area under study, but is to speculate the process of change it entails, and at a scale, it becomes relevant. Another way of establishing the same may be gaining information through GIS (Geographic Information Systems) computer technology. Although the same is not utilized in these specific mappings, however, these show a reflection in Berger’s further works on reclaimed landscapes. 09

Fig. 2

3.3 Mapping Berger utilises the above mentioned extracts and plots them to create maps that have a much longer life and relevance for reclaimed landscapes. These underline three main discourses: a) To reveal hidden agendas (of the mining companies ad agencies involved in the process of mining and approvals); b) To comprehend reclamation as a temporal process and act in it through speculation; c) To create multiple readings (and allow for multiple solutions).

Fig. 3

One of the key revelations of these mappings is the technological dominance in the reclaimed landscape. 10 Hence, in order to re-naturalise the post-mining landscapes, technological interventions contribute an

3.4 Process Berger’s thematic process includes highlighting the alterations taking place in the landscape throughout the cycle of pre-mining, mining and onto reclamation. Using trace cartography, he captures the following: surfaces, sub-surfaces, jurisdictions, topographies, sequences, staging, clearings, movements, diversions, displacements, volumes, dispersals, and ecologies. This new graphic language does not omit the objective, scientific language used by the mining, reclamation and environmental industries. It amends the language with a highly graphical and more accessible one that can open the field of reclamation for public discussion. 11 The process is elaborated using the reference of Figures (9, 10 & 11), which describe the reclamation project for Edna coal mine, Colorado. Field and Extract 1: Figure 9; Extract 2: Figure 10; Mapping: Figure 11. The reclamation law for coal mines in Colorado states that, post-mining, the site topography needs to be reclaimed to its original pre-mining contours. Berger maps the specific hydrological constraints of the site, which need to be controlled by technological means during the stages of adding the top soil for contour reclamation. Hence, precise water containment and drainage is orchestered, for each desired level of the topography. Hence, the mapping highlights the fact that even though the reclaimed landscape looks similar to its pre-mining condition; however, its ecological cycle is forever altered. It is highlighted that the reclaimed landscape that begins as automata or copies of organic life made by humans through technological means, is in fact, facilitated to ensure the “new productive use” of the land, in this case as grazing fields. In order to further his work on reclaimed landscape, and in general, drosscape 12 Berger utilises mapping as a framework to allow ecology, culture and technology to be grasped as open-ended systems, thereby allowing non-linear, non-rational decision making and planning. 4 Discussion: Relevance of Trace Cartography Elaborating on the works of Deleuze and Guttari, James Corner elevates mapping over tracing. He reiterates that in order to capture the operative, that is, how things work and what they do; we need to make a map, not a tracing. He states that the open-ended and intermediate characteristics of a map are likened to the process-form of the rhizome. In the case of Berger’s work on reclaimed landscapes, which eventually basis itself on systemic and performance networks, why does then, tracing or trace cartography becomes a substantial part of his mapping? The same is reviewed below, using Deleuze and Guattari’s principle of cartography.


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

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4.1 Tracing versus mapping Delueze and Guttari describe the principle of cartography, distinguishing a tracing from a map as below:

A map has multiple entryways, as opposed to the tracing, which always comes back “to the same.” The map has to do with performance, whereas the tracing always involves an alleged “competence.” 13 However, it is made clear that a map and a tracing are not binaries, opposite of each other. In order to counter the tendency of a map to become a tracing, a reverse method is suggested, that is the tracing should always be put back on the map. 14 Citing situations, where the starting points of a discourse are dead ends or Oedipal, then one of the multiple entryways, could be made through the same and rendered Anti-Oedipal. In the case of reclamation landscapes, the same hold true for the use of “trace cartography”. It is a question of a model that is perpetually in construction or collapsing, and of a process that is perpetually prolonging itself, breaking off and starting up again. 15

Notes:

Fig. 3

1. Here “discourse” is referred to as productive, only when it remains open-end ed. Refer note 3, for elaboration of tracing and mapping as binaries. 2. Mostafavi Mohsen, 2003, Landscape Urbanism: A manual for Machinic Landscape (AA Publication); in reference to Christopher Hight’s essay in which it is highlighted that “Landscape can provide only a new mode of operation”.

By the use of “trace cartography”, and putting the tracing back into the map, various relevant closed systems that inform the landscape discourse may be thus activated. In the present scenario of Landscape discourse, where ecology is being explored, worked and manipulated using various streams of science, many such otherwise closed systems, will warrant this process of mapping. 16 By “trace cartography”, the life of a map as a relevant framework of design discourse in landscape representation is ensured. Fig. 3

3. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, 1987, Introduction: Rhizome in A Thousand Plateaus, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press); pg. 12-14; According to the Deleuzian understanding of cartography, tracing and mapping should not be dealt as two binaries; and a way be ensure that a map remains open-ended and out of a binary conflict is to reconnect the tracing back into the map. In such an assemblage, multiple entries are possible, including through a tracing as well. 4. Berger Alan, 2002, Representation and Reclaiming: Cartographies, Mappings and Images of Altered American Western Landscapes in Landscape Journal, 21:1-02 (Stanford University HighWire Press); wherein the author elaborates his design and research tool for reclaimed landscapes as three modes: cartography, mapping and imagery. 5. Cosgrove Denis, 1999, Agency of Mapping: Speculation, Critique and Invention in Mappings (Reaktion Books Ltd.); pg. 229-231; James Corner describes the three stages to the process of mapping: creation of a neutral field, extracting objects to be observed in the field (process of de-territorialisation) and plotting them in the field (process of reterritorialisation)

Fig. 3

6. The statement is based on two premises: (a) Landscapes are laden with social agenda and constantly altered to accommodate the same; refer Mitchell W.J.T., 1994, Landscape and Power (University of Chicago Press) and; (b) Intrinsic to Landscape is ecology, which operates in a non-linear feedback loop, constantly changing over time;


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refer Reed Chris & Lister N.M, 2014, Adaptability in Projective Ecologies (Harvard University, Actar Publishers, NY). Hence any work on large landscapes entails an inherent alteration.

14. Refer note 3; 15. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, 1987, Introduction: Rhizome in A Thousand Plateaus, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press); pg. 12-20;

7. Refer note 5.

16. Reed Chris & Lister N.M, 2014, Introduction in Projective Ecologies (Harvard University, Actar Publishers, NY).

8. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press); 9. Berger Alan, 2008, Designing the Reclaimed Landscape (Taylor and Francis); Here Berger describes the relevance of GIS to reveal ecological processes in large landscapes and his method of using GIS information in his research. 10. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press); Berger describes “Whether it is in the form of engineered ditches, hydrological stability, slope manipulation, volumetric, or even the aspects of geological time, technology and reclaiming are inseparable.” Mappings reveal the mostly invisible technologies that change the landscape. Especially in mining, mappings are made to reveal some of the following dynamic conditions: geologic hazards, unstable slopes, landslides, expansive soils and rock, seismicity, avalanches, water flooding, soil settlement, corrosive soils, erodible soils and rock, ground subsidence, radioactivity, soil contaminations, water pollution (pH), and chemical exposure.

Fig. 3

List of Figures 1. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg. 28; 2. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.36; 3. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.37; 4. Berger Alan, 2002, Represtation and Reclaiming: Cartographies, Mappings and Images of Altered American Western Landscapes in Landscape Journal, 21:1-02 (Stanford University HighWire Press); pg. 15; 5. Berger Alan, 2002, Representation and Reclaiming: Cartographies, Mappings and Images of Altered American Western Landscapes in Landscape Journal, 21:1-02 (Stanford University HighWire Press); pg. 17;

Fig. 3

11. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press);

6. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.121; 7. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.124;

12. Berger Alan, 2009, Systemic design can change the world (Sun Publishers, Amsterdam and Wouter Mikmak Foundation, Delft); Berger’s drosscape or post technological landscape, wherin the ecology is allowed to heal itself over time through its own process of adaptability, accelerated through a use of technology to initiate the process. 13. Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, 1987, Introduction: Rhizome in A Thousand Plateaus, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press); pg. 12-13;

CARTOGRAPHY

8. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.125; 9. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.114; 10. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.126;

Fig. 3

11. Berger Alan, 2002, Reclaiming the American West (Princeton Architectural Press), pg.127.


MAPS: ORIENTATION & PROJECTIONS AS WAYS TO CHANGE PERCEPTION

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S. KAUR + A. WEISSHAAR

A JOURNEY THROGH DYMAXION AIROCEAN WOLD MAP, INVERTED MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA AND THE CONTEMPORARY PROJECTION IN GOOGLE EARTH.

ARIADNA WEISSHAAR

A critical analyses of cartography could make us realise that orientation in maps is a powerful tool to dominate our perception of the world in “special hierarchies and power relations”. In the following paragraphs we 1 will describe two extraordinary visionary maps from 1943 highlighted in James Corner text: The Agency of Mapping, concern with cartography arts and politics and specifically related to the problem of orientation. As both maps played with cartographies orientation they were an invitation to be conscious of the essentially fictional state of maps, More than 60 years have passed after the creation of this these two maps and there for we will also take a quick look into the new types of mapping exiting in the web today, specifically Goggle Earth, and how the constructed projection of the north being on top have not change. This is an attempt to be awareof maps with pre determinate orientations and look them now as reduced instrumental tools for constructing an imaginary “re-shaping” world. This idea in the new millennium has already started to change. The first map will be from R. Buckminster Fuller and Shojo Sadao, Dymaxion Aircean World Map from 1943. Here the round shape of the world has being cut into triangle pieces.  A flat idea of a round globe putted than into paper where orientations get particularly lost. The new projection evidences a new world never seeing before The separation between continents has being lost and the map reveals one unified land or what we can call the world as one continent. The second map from the Uruguayan artist Joaquin Torres-Garcia, called Inverted MAP of South America is a black and white sketch map showing just the South American continent oriented towards the south. The figures draw along the map are symbols to reinforce a political statement. The following lines will invite us to look into details the symbols and the meaning of orientation present in this maps as a political statement. The convergence and divergence between the two maps are the key points for a legible concept of changes in perception .The goal is to emphasise the idea that maps are essentially subjective as well as orientation.  Codes and conventions of habitual maps of the world that face the north on top will also be more legible and clear as a consequence of this previous analysis. As a last step we point out how new technologies have created interactive maps in the web where it is allowed for us to play with orientation to see the globe in different angles but still the web is following Mercator’s projection and will re-orient us with the top towards the north and a reinforcing the idea of a globe with geopolitical conceptions.

Figure 03. Buckminster Fuller,R. (1943). “ Alternative Sectional Arrangements of

Fig. 02 -Buckminster Fuller,R. (1943). “ Alternative Sectional Arrangements of the

the Airocena World Map”

Airocena World Map”

Dymaxion Aircean World Map The notion of the North being on top is the result of our human constructed conventions. As Corner points out “the convention of orienting the map to the north first arose early in the global and economic expansion of Northern Europe and in response to practices of navigation” . Less than 500 years have passed since Gerardus 2 Mercator geographer and cartographer presented Mercator’s projection of the earth’s in 1569, a nautical purposes map that still remains the template for all maps.. It is known that “maps as we know hem are not terribly old- 500 or 600 years at the most - and describes the rise of the map in the rise of the modern state” . 3 Orientation of common cartography has being since then pre established and we are following this projection on cartographies without even questioning it. Mercator’s map (fig 01) and Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxiol map (fig 02) differ not just in projections. Our perception of earth is constantly changing with the different options that Buckminster Fuller is proposing . Quoting James Corner “the same planet, the same places, and yet significantly dissimilar relationships are revealed or, more precisely, constructed” . We have realised there could thousands of ways of deconstructing 4 and constructing the globe in a flat cartography but with a clear purpose radical spatial conditions are reveal and emphasise. The cartographies could stand up for infinitive relations and meanings yet Buckminster Fuller’s is pointing out and making us realise that the way in which we construct the map will clearly have a repercussion in the way we perceive the world and that different meanings can be pointed out from different projections depending on the authors purpose.


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rise of the map in the rise of the modern state” . 3 Orientation of common cartography has being since then pre established and we are following this projection on cartographies without even questioning it. Mercator’s map (fig 01) and Buckminster Fuller’s Dymaxiol map (fig 02) differ not just in projections. Our perception of earth is constantly changing with the different options that Buckminster Fuller is proposing . Quoting James Corner “the same planet, the same places, and yet significantly dissimilar relationships are revealed or, more precisely, constructed” . We have realised there could thousands of ways of deconstructing 4 and constructing the globe in a flat cartography but with a clear purpose radical spatial conditions are reveal and emphasise. The cartographies could stand up for infinitive relations and meanings yet Buckminster Fuller’s is pointing out and making us realise that the way in which we construct the map will clearly have a repercussion in the way we perceive the world and that different meanings can be pointed out from different projections depending on the authors purpose.

The world as one Continent. It is important to take a deep look into Dymaxiol map and the possibilities it offers for achieving instrumentalist perceptions of reality. In other to establish an influential meaning of the map a decodification of its main features will be recognise. The shape of the globe have being cut into triangular facets. This resulting forms are being flatten to create an horizontal plane at the end to create a flatten cartography of earth. Quoting Alpers to have a clear concept “What is called a projection in never visualised by placing a plane between the geographer and the earth, but rather by transforming, mathematically, from sphere to plane.” .The cuts do not 5touch the continents but the sea. Earth has being cut without cutting trough shore or land. Also the shortest point between the separation of land have being taken into account. This means that Antitrade has being left close to South America, the north polo is showing how Asia and North America come together. Australia has a smoothly tendency to be part of an archipelago resulting from Asia’s extension.. As a final perception All the continents seem to have no more a clear separation between them as they “normally” do and the land forms on earth are represented as one big continent. Technically the map is not trying to highlight the idea that the land is the result of the break-up of Pangaea but that the continents are not separated but still forming part of one component, one inseparable unit. Political divisions between countries are completely forgotten in this map, a land without limits, nether boundaries. The only difference we see in the map are colours grading from blue, green, red and yellows filled in an organic way symbolising temperature or climatic zones. It is a conscience conventional code of colour grading denoted cold and warm colours. The see coloured grey takes a subordinary condition. The linearity in witch the Land is placed can create also an other perspective equalising the territory. There is almost no up or down just a strait emplacement where north and south hemisphere, the east and the west, are no longer the protagonist.

Fig. 01 - Mercator, G. (1569) , Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata.

CARTOGRAPHY


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

PG. 122

S. KAUR + A. WEISSHAAR

INVERTED MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA Inverted map of South America from the Uruguayan artist Joaquín Torres García also called the Upside-down Map it is an emblematic artwork of the 20th century in Latin America. The extraordinary feature of the map is that it turn the South America continent upside-down and this creates new statement and perception that we wouldn’t have with an habitual map where the north is located on top.  Full of symbolism it resembles with just  5 figures, three written words and two straight lines the essence of a manifesto with gestures that establish new special parameters related to orientation, identity and geopolitical power. A variety of interpretations are possible regarding this map and its symbols. The most radical condition of the drawing is that open ups a question : what is the meaning of  “upside down”?

The continent. In his subsequent text, The agency of mapping : Speculation, Critique and Invention, James Corner elaborated that this remarkable images reminds us the way in witch “habitual conventions (in this case the unquestioned domination of north on top) condition spatial hierarchies and power relations” . If the maps are a 6 representation of horizontal projections technically they are perpendicular to the line of gravity and that could be the only starting point for our orientation. This reminds us there is no up or down. There is no need to locate the continent “at the bottom” of the map. There are also no limits or boundaries inside the shape of the continent. This reclaims the territory to be unified: a non- boundaries territory. No figures are draw inside the map reclaiming a land in “blank” where history, politics and cultural standers have to be written by its own habitants. It is also an invitation to have a deep look into it and fill it with our own ideas and critics. Quoting Martin Dodge: Today, physical borders may similarly act to produce identity, for example, a national border may serve to construct a “biometric identity” when they are crossed or approached. In this case, identity construction depends upon risk profiling by placing individuals into certain groups and performing a calculation about that individual’s riskiness as a consequence of which groups he or she may he a member of . 7

The Figures The artist and theorist marks his hometown Montevideo with one straight line and coordinates. By the same line stands an ancient looking ship, remind us maybe a colonial caravel. Uncertain is if this ship is arriving or leaving the continent, as a perennial South American foreign-influenced with imported and imposed ideologies as those of locating the north on top. It looks like the identity of the continent could be new voyage of self- exploration, awareness or self-discovery. A continent from where ship are now sailing and departure going down to north and coming back up to south. Radically connotations are also reinforce by the symbol of the fish. This ancient and constant symbol is emblematic describing a the prominent resources of nature and the force of a the rich land. A territory of hope a territory of spiritual nourishment of ancient cultures coming together creating something unknown and magic in a black and white sketch map. The sun and the moon have also different connotations for South America. They symbolise more than east and west. The sun rising now from the left could also be part of a political stamen. Another connotation of the symbolism can also go forward to the ancient goods of the sun and the moon for the Pre- Columbian cultures and the necessity to relay on their own mix identity. The cultural battle for continent standing in between of day and night, lightness and darkness . Lines and the Ecuador. The first line recalling Torres Garcia’s hometown represents his personal first point of departure for an individual identity. This recall not only for an open individual interpretation but for an individual identity of the continent South America as an entity.                The line of the Ecuador has also changed its conventional location. Although the Continent surface is located one third in the northern hemisphere, in Torres Garcia map the Ecuador has lightly moved towards the north, reinforcing the idea of the whole continent belongs to the south. The statement in James Corner text The agency of mapping : Speculation, Critique and Invention, “unlike the scientific objectivism that guides most modern cartographers, artist have been more conscious of the essentially fictional status of maps and the power they posses for construing and constructing Wolds” reinforces the idea that by changing our point of view and the map orientation, Torres Garcia is 8 decontextualize the dominant construct and places unique question, provoking with a new radical question a process of reterritorialization and invites us to fill the map with new sense and meanings constructing a new world. Different approaches and views recall for new perspectives of the continent identity and geopolitical standards reminding tension of territory.

Fig. 04- Torres-Garcia, J. (1943), Inverted Map of South America


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Fig. 05 - NASA, (1972) Photo AS17-148-22727

Fig. 06 - Google Earth.(2014)

Fig. 07 - Google Earth.(2014)

PG. 123

From NASA photograph 22727 of the Globe to Google earth. There is no doubt the 22727 is the starting point for a new type of cartography. Whet ever it turned out to be more “iconic rather than cartographic” . There is no doubts that now days a similar view of the earth is the 9 portal and icon of the most used web side in the world in term of mapping. It is also important to note however that the projection of the earth remanded the same as Mercator’s as we first open the web page but this projection changes immediately while we are doing zoom in or zoom out and the user is capable of controlling his trip inside the map. This sense of control turns immediately into a sense of disorientation. If we are not used it the first thing we will realise is that the sensibility of the zoom in zoom out changes the projection of Mercator’s and brings a sense of disorientation. New point of view that we are still not used to, feeling almost as those “few humans” Crosgrove talks about: Those few humans who actually witnessed the revolving terracqueous globe and who produced photo 22727 describe their experience in terms of awe, mystery and humility. The axis of world order, if it existed for them, stretched infinitely above and below the global surface.10 Despite of this infinitely above and below, Google Earth opens up with a remarkable contradictory feature: not just the projection is adjusted towards the north and yellow boundary that still tries to play a highlighted roll in human perception and conscience. That is, much to the interest of this essay, the fact that with yellow lines Google is emphasising the political boundaries of the world. In the case we are navigating and changing our view and perspective but typing a location name the projection towards the north will get adjusted again. This automatic adjustment of projection in the new technologies presented today in the web, makes us regain always a sense of direction towards the north. We are looking into a sphere floating into space but projected and secure because of the north on top. In stead of encouraging the user to adapt to this new image of a world as a space ship, fragile with out directions and unified, the sphere is hanging secure dominated by Mercator’s projection and highlighted divisions. To this last explanation, we would like to add Donna Haraway statement: Cartographic practice inherently is learning to make projections that shape worlds in particular ways for various purposes. Each projection produces and implies specific sorts of perspective . 11 If maps are fictional constructions of reality, if orientation can change our perception and maps are make with political statements , witch is the porpoise behind contemporary Mercator’s projection in modern cartography? Orientation of maps is not neutral or passive, it emphasises the perspective in which we understand the world and it changes our perceptions of its shape through imaginative or mental constructions of our ideas of reality. Could we find a new approach and embrace the idea that the orientation on maps is fictional and that a new approach of creating cartography is possible? Despite the critique presented in the maps from 1943 before mentioned, despite the knowledge that the north toward the top is a constructed idea, the new technologies developing maps and the image presented in Google Earth are still oriented towards the north.having implications in our perception of the world.

CARTOGRAPHY

Notes: 01. Corner, J. The Agency of mapping in Cosgrove,D. (Ed).(1999) Mappings. London: Reaktion books ltd. page 218. 02. Ibid. page 219 03. Wood, D. (2010). Rethinking the power of maps. New York: The Guilford Press. page 7. 04. Corner, J. ‘The Agency of mapping’ in Cosgrove,D (Ed).(1999) Mappings. London: Reaktion books ltd. page 218. 05. Alpers, S.(1983) The Art of Describing Dutsch Art in the Seventeenth Century. Page 138 06. Corner, J. The Agency of mapping, in Cosgrove,D (Ed).(1999) Mappings. London: Reaktion books ltd. page 218. 07. Dodge,M. (2009) Rethinking Maps. Oxon:Routledge. page 36 08.Corner, J. The Agency of mapping, in Cosgrove,D. (Ed). (1999) Mappings. London: Reaktion books ltd. page 218. 09. Cosgrove, D. New world orders in Dodge, M. (2009). Rethinking Maps. Oxon: Routlgede. page 36. 10. Cosgrove, D. (2001). ApolloS Eye: A Cartographic Genealogy of the Earth in the Western Imagination. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. page 261. 11. Haraway D, Modest-Witness@Second-Millennium:Femaleman_Meets_Oncomouse, in Dodge, M.(2009) Rethinking Maps. Oxon: Routledge, page 113. Image Credits: Cover Figure: Weisshaar, A.(2014). Collage of Dymaxion Airocean World Map, Inverted Map of South America and Google Earth. Figure 01. Mercator,G. (1569) “Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigantium Emendate Accommodata”. Foound at: http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Mercator_projection Figure 02. Buckminster Fuller,R. (1943). “Dymaxion Airocean World Map”. Found at:http://arttattler. com/ architecturebuckminsterfuller.html Figure 03. Buckminster Fuller,R. (1943). “ Alternative Sectional Arrangements of the Airocena World Map” Found at: http://www.cfa.arizona.edu/ahgsa/files/ ahgsa/Corner_Agency-of-Mapping1.pdf Figure 04.  Torres-Garcia,G.(1943) “Inverted Map of South America”. Found at: http://www.wordsinspace.net/ urban-media-archaeology Figure 05.Nasa.(1972). Photo AS17-148-22727. Found at: http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/images/ apollo/ apollo17 Figure 06 - Google Earth 2014. Found at: Google Earth 2014. Figure 07 - Google Earth 2014. Found at Google Earth 2014.Select Bibliography: Alpers, S.(1983) The Art of Describing Dutch Art in the Seventeenth century. Chicago: Univeristy of Chicago Press. Cosgrove, D. (1999) Mappings. London: Reaktion books ltd. Cosgrove, D. (2001) ApolloS Eye: A Cartographic Genealogu of the Earth in the Western Imagination. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Coverley, M. (2010) Phychogeography. Harpenden: Pocket Essentials. Deleuze, G. and Guattari, F. (1983) Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia, trans. Robert Hurley, Mark Seem and Helen R. Lane. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Dodge, M. (2009) Rethinking Maps. Oxon: Routledge. Garfield, S. (2013) On the Map. London: Profile Books. Haraway, D.(1997). Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.FemaleMan©Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience. New York: Routledge Harmon, K. (2004). You Are here. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Wood, D. (2010) Rethinking the Power of Maps. New York: The Guilford Press.


CARTOGRAP

ECOLOGY WIT


PHIES

TH OUT NATURE


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CARTOGRAPHY

PAN- EUROPEAN ATLAS: FLOODPLAINS & SHRINKING CITIES This European atlas depicts cities in the floodplains of Europe. The focus lies in the Central and Eastern Europe and the post-socialist cities that are experiencing shrinkage. This speculative mapping process is described as ten maps in the pages ahead. The major idea is the use of layering of information and use of colour and orientation in maps to reveal specific enquires.

Map 1: Stating with rivers and tributaries using arcGIS.

Map 2: The Flood Basins .

Map 3: The catchment areas as productive zones.

Map 4: Rivers and floodplains through arcGIS.

Map 5: Flood basins with rivers and tributaries.

Map 6: Layering of rivers, floodplains, flood basins WITH shrinking cities in the floodplains. We find that there is a similarity between the central & eastern Europe, in terms of the sheer number of shrinking urban areas near or in the floodplains.

Map 7: Blow-up of Map 5 Map 8: Blow-up of Map 6 Map 9: Map 6 re-represented with emphasis on shrinking cities. Map 9: Map 6 re-represented with emphasis on shrinking cities.


W

LONDON

N

S

E


W

N

S

E


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CARTOGRAPHY

RIVER GEOMORPHOLOGY: RIVER ELBE & DANUBE: The rivers Elbe and Danube are studied for its meander formation stages across time. A study is conducted using ArcGIS software to overlay the location of sediment and vegetation. This helps determine the river movement (lateral and transverse) across time and to understand how features like oxbow lakes are formed. This process of investigation in described as a series of 5 maps. The major idea is the use of layering of information and use of colour and orientation in maps to reveal specific enquires.

Map 1: Stating with Flood basins of Danube and Elbe. The map is position vertical so as to highlight the connectivity of rivers from North Sea to Black Sea.

Map 2: Layering of rivers, floodplains, flood basin areas WITH urban areas in the floodplains .

Map 3: Mapping using arcGIS to locate the position of abandoned river channels and understand river migration across time.

Map 4: Start-up mapping for Map no.5; this is a topography visualisation with arcGIS.

Map 5: Final mapping with various rules of river migration in case of a meandering river (as derived from River Danube and River Elbe).


North Sea

+

Elbe River Basin

Danube River Basin

Danube River Basin

Black Sea


+ Danube River Basin

Black Sea

Elbe River Basin


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CARTOGRAPHY

SOCIAL FORMATION- CHANGING ECONOMY & ECOLOGY: Region of Saxony Anhalt, Germany is also referred to as the “chemical triangle”. Between 1960 to 1990, this triangle formed of the cities of Halle, Bitterfeld and Leipzig was famous for its chemical factories with its landscape of open cast mines and polluted rivers. The map describes the change it faced in the post-socialist era, in terms of economy. Due to de-industrialisation as well as suburbanisation, there has been a massive depopulation or shrinkage. An attempt to revitalise a service sector for education, tourism etc. is underway. The overall landscape of ecology and tourism is being advocated, with the open mines being converted to lakes and restoration of the river floodplains. The major idea is the use of layering of information and use of colour and orientation in maps to reveal specific enquires.

Map 1: Overlay of cluster connectivity of urban areas with population between 0-500; 1000-10,000; 10,000-50,000 WITH the flood plain & low-lying areas.

Map 2: Start-up map for Map no.1; showing floodplain & low lying areas in the region of Saxony Anhalt (using arcGIS).

Map 3: Exageration of Map 4; to determine drainage flow in the terrain.

Map 4: Layering of river, floodplain and Natura 2000 sites of River Elbe and region of Saxony-Anhalt.

Map 5: Zoom-in of Map 1; but showing only cluster connectivity of areas with population between 10,000-50,000 and above. (major city centres)

Map 6: Map 1 variation; but showing only cluster connectivity of areas with population between 0-10,000. (Suburban agglomeration)

Map 7: Zoom-in of Map 8, showing the suburban connectivity at present. Also, the change in regional connectivity with change in economy.

Map 8: Final map indicating a change in regional connectivity with change in economy; specifically change in the terrain to form its latest service sector of tourism. The use of specific colours to show-case a change for brown economy to green economy. (Post-mining to nature and tourism sector)


ER TT BI

0 6 19

to

90 9 1

2000 to 2003

LE I


to

ELD ERF TT BI

60 9 1

90 19

2000 to 2003

IG

LE IP Z

SAXONY ANHALT, GERMANY: CHANGING ECONOMY & ECOLOGY PRE-FAB HOUSING FOR CHEMICAL FACTORY WORKERS (1960-1990)

CHEMICAL FACTORY (1960 TO 1990)

2000 ONWARDS: COMMERCIAL HUBS


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CARTOGRAPHY

SOCIAL FORMATION- CHANGING ECONOMY & ECOLOGY: The shrinkage of the city of Halle is studied. The main areas include two types: pre-fab housing sectors and industrial plots. The housing which earlier housed chemical factory workers and professional lie majorly vacant as the preference for detached housing. Under the state policy of demolition of vacant housing, these areas are being demolished and converted to nature as urban forests. These areas mostly lie in the floodplain of the river and become the project site for flooding and creation of land form that can be put to use of inundation, water storage and agriculture. The major idea is the use of layering of information and use of colour and orientation in maps to reveal specific enquires.

Map 1: The floodplain sections are studied along with historical traces of river meanders to speculate the new branching of the river.

Map 2: Floodplain and contours overlay (mapping using arcGIS).

Map 3: Final mapping.

Map 4: The shrinking zones are identified in more detail. Three connectivity areas are identified as essential for the city. One of the connectivity “institutional” is to be maintained in design.


FLOODPLAIN AND RIVERS

PG. 168

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EUROPEAN RIVERS AND FLOODPLAINS

CARTOGENESIS & DESIGN PROPOSAL: Based on the model studies of the river form, three model forms are chosen to effect change in the floodplain to make them more capable of storing water during extreme flooding; to maintain certain infrastructure zones free of flooding and to convert the vacant areas in the state owned land into productive agriculture and inundation zones. One of them is added into the zoom-in area and road connectivity conceptualised. The major idea is the use of layering to speculate the acceleration of river process and addition of channels.

Map 1: Zoom-in of Map 2.

Map 2: River channel addition with less control over the river on the outskirts of city than in the interior.

Map 3: Revision of Map 2; with one chosen prototype and two additional main channels.

Map 4: Final Map; with one chosen prototype and two additional main channels. (Overlay with the shrinking and low inundation area.

Map 5: Zoom-in with road connectivity.

Map 6: Start-up for Map 4.


TO BE CHANGE WORK IN PROGRESS APPENDIX


CARTOGRAP APPENDIX


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CARTOGRAPHY

PHIES COMBINING SIMULATION RESULTS WITH SITE ANALYSIS: This is a term 1 overlay mapping of geomorphological & social formation study in the River Elbe in the project region of Saxony Anhalt. The major idea is the use of layering of information and use of colour and orientation in maps to reveal specific enquires. Here the process of mapping included: 1) Tracing of meander migration from available historical data of rivers and settlement formation. 2) The utilization of computer simulation results of extreme flooding and its layering over the flooding data as available from civic authorities.

Map 1: Final Geomorphology mapping of River Elbe.

Map 2: Final Social Formation mapping of the area.

Map 3: Formation of prototype

Map 4: Start-up mapping for Map no.1; layering of largest flooding event over topography with road connectivity.

Map 5: Start-up mapping for Map no.1; layering of last three major flooding events with the floodplain derived through arcGIS.

Map 4: Start-up mapping for Map no.1; layering simulation results for flow movement and velocity with tracing of meander migration over time.


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B Charlton Ro, 2008, Fundamentals of Fluvial Geomorphology (Routledge) Hooimeijer Fransje et al., 2005, Settlements in river regions in Atlas of Dutch water cities (Sun, TU Delft) Huang He Qing, Nanson Gerald C., 2007, Why some alluvial rivers develop an anabranching pattern in Water Resources Res., Vol. 43 (American Geophysical Union)

sedimentary products in EarthScience Reviews 53, 2001, pg 149– 196 (Elsevier) Rijkswaterstaat Oost-Nederland, 2008, Space for River, Nature and People: Sustainable Floodplains along the Rhine (Coers & Roest) Rink Dieter et al., 2010, Urban shrinkage in Leipzig and Halle, the Leipzig-Halle urban region, Germany (shrink smart, EU)

IBA, Bahaus Dessau Foundation, 2010, Less is Future: 19 cities-19 themes in International Building Exhibition Urban Redevelopment Saxony-Anhalt 2010 (Jovis)

Robler Stefanie,2010, Green spaces in shrinking cities: opportunities and limitations of green space planning in the process of urban restructuring (Rhombos-Verlag)

Kaiser K., Lorenz S., Germer S., Juschus O., Kuster M., Libra J., Bens O. & Huttl R. F. (2012): Late Quaternary evolution of rivers, lakes and peatlands in northeast Germany reflecting past climatic and human impact – an overview in E&G Quaternary Science Journal, 61 (2): 103–132. DOI: 10.3285/ eg.61.2.01

Haase Dagmar, 2008, Urban ecology of shrinking cities: an unrecognized opportunity? in Nature and Culture, Volume 3, Number 1, Spring 2008, pp. 1-8(Berghahn Journals)

Tsenkova Sasha, 2006, Urban mosaic of post-socialist Europe: space, institutions, policy (PhysicaVerlag)

Oswalt Philip et al., 2006, Shrinking cities, vol.1 & 2(Hatje Cantz)

Makaske Bart, 2000, Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and

Oswalt Franz, Baccini Peter, 2003, Netzstadt: Designing the Urban(Birkhauser)

Oswalt Philip et al., 2006, Atlas of Shrinking cities (Hatje Cantz)


AALU 2013 - 2014

PG. 185

BIBLIOGRAPHY Ungers Oswald Mattias, 2013, A manifesto, 1977 in The city in the city: Berlin: A green archipelago (Lars MĂźller Publishers) Warner Jeroen et al., 2013, Making Space for the River: Governance Experiences with Multifunctional River Flood Management in the US and Europe (IWA Publishing) Wout M. van Dijk, 2013, Meandering rivers: Feedbacks between channel dynamics,floodplain and vegetation, PHD Thesis (Utrecht studies in Earth Sciences) WWF European fresh water programme, 2000, Wise use of floodplains:Policy and economic analysis of floodplain restoration in Europe (EU Life Enviroment) Zizek Slavov, 2008, Nature and its discontents in SubStance,Issue 117,vol.37,no.3 (University of Wisconsin Press) www.davidrumsey.com www.ecrr.org/sdfproject/ sdfproject.htm www.iba-stadtumbau.de www.lhw.sachsen-anhalt.de/ hochwasserschutz-wasserbau www.shrinksmart.eu


Landscape Urbanism Architectural Association London, UK 2013-2014

Landscape Urbanism ECOLOGY WITHOUT NATURE: Shrinking Cities & Floodplains. Architectural Association  

Thesis by Ariadna Weisshaar & Simranjit Kaur. The flooding events in the recent years in Europe have triggered a move towards re-naturalisat...

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