Page 1

AUTONOMOUS TERRITORY Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu


TABLE OF CONTENTS

RESEARCH PART 0. INTRO: DATA AND DATA CENTERS

6

1. TOWARDS HYPERSCALE

14

2. FROM ENIAC TO THE CLOUD

22

3. DUTCH DATA CENTER LANDSCAPE

40

4. A CASE STUDY: EQUINIX AM4

50

5. INTERVIEW: SMARTDC IN VAN NELLE

60

6. REVERSE THE CLOUD

64

7. DATA CENTER SECURITY

70

8. AI AND SUSTAINABILITY

78

VISION PART 9. REDESIGN DATA CENTERS

95

10. DC1: THE ATLANTIC OCEAN/ECO-FRIENDLY

104

11. DC2: SOUTH CHINA/EFFICIENCY

116

12. DC3: SVALBARD/POLITICAL SECURITY

130


RESEARCH PART NETWORKS AND SYSTEMS


6

Autonomous Territory


MATERIALIZATION OF DATA Google data center Photos by Connie Zhou

“By 2021, more than 90% of large data centers will revise their strategies due to global socioeconomic and environmental trends.� Gartner, 2016

Autonomous Territory

7


INTRO: DATA AND DATA CENTERS

Data volume of global consumer IP traffic (EB per month) Source: Statista

8

Autonomous Territory


GLOBAL INTERNET SCENARIO

“Despite the fact that hardware is constantly getting smaller, faster and more powerful, we are an increasingly data-hungry species, and the demand for processing power, storage space and information in general is growing and constantly threatening to outstrip companies’ abilities to deliver.” Courtney, Digital Science Series, EMC A study by International Data Corporation for EMC estimated that 1.8 trillion gigabytes, or around 1.8 zettabytes, of digital information was created in 2011. The amount of data in 2012 was approximately 2.8 ZB and is expected to rise to 40 ZB by the year 2020. We’re using the internet far more than we used to. So says new data from USC Annenberg about the digital lives of Americans. Since 2000, time spent online every week by an average American has risen from 9.4 hours to 23.6. Of that, time spent ogling the internet at home has risen from 3.3 to 17.6 hours a week over the same period. That’s a lot of screen time.

global high speed network which consist of optical fiber cables that connect almost all the data centers all over the world. DATA CENTERS IN THE NETWORK

Currently there are 4417 traceable colocation data centers from 122 countries in the index of Data Center Map website. But obviously these are just a small part of all data centers, especially not including a large number of private data centers. These facilites used roughly 416 TWh in 2016, nearly 40% more than the entire United Kingdom. Different data centers are owned by different enterprises, institutions or specialized cloud providers like Google, Amazon, Microsoft or IBM, running different functions. For instance, if we watch a video on Youtube, the streaming data actually from one of the server in the Youtube data center which probably is in US. The digtial signal travel all the way though different IT equipments in multiple layers, intercontinental submarine cable, your internet service provider’s switch and finally router to your home. Heavy physical equipments are used in every step of network but most of them are even unnoticeable in our daily life.

Behind all of this is a exponentially growing

Autonomous Territory

9


10

Autonomous Territory


ALWAYS ON

Internet companies logo collection Images from Internet

“57 percent of the global population is now connected to the internet, spending an average 6.5 hours online each day.� Global web index 2019

Autonomous Territory

11


12

Autonomous Territory


GLOBAL NETWORK

Submarine cables and data centers all over the world Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

13


User

Access point/Router

Modem

Internet servic

Youtuber

Edge router

14

Autonomous Territory


HOW INTERNET LOOKS LIKE IT equipments in data processing Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

ce provider switch

Internet exchange point switch

Aggergation router Server Storage area network

ToR switch

Storage server

Core router

Autonomous Territory

15


TOWARDS HYPERSCALE

Apple CEO Tim Cook (center) breaks ground with Nevada Governor Brian Sandoval (right) and Reno Mayor Hillary Schieve (left) on a new data center. https://www.macworld.com/article/3274584/where-does-apple-stores-your-icloud-data.html

16

Autonomous Territory


“‘The cloud’ is a concept, not a place, although collectively, the cloud is made up of places.” Glenn Fleishman, Macworld Cloud computing refers to an aggregation of servers that you don’t have to know much about to gain the benefit. This can be for storage, like iCloud Drive or Amazon Cloud Drive or Google Drive, or for computation and other more specialized purposes. When you use a cloud-based service, your actions and data may be split among many machines and drives—maybe even across continents. So called data centers are these very huge infrastractures. They are geometric, neutral and very different from living enironment of human. Which probably remind us of superstudio’s the continuous monument. The boom of data centers came during the dot-com bubble of 1997–2000. Companies needed fast Internet connectivity and nonstop operation to deploy systems and to establish a presence on the Internet. Installing such equipment was not viable for many smaller companies. Many companies started building very large facilities, called Internet data centers, which provide commercial clients with a range of solutions for systems deployment and operation. New technologies and practices were designed to handle the scale and the operational requirements of such large-scale operations. These practices eventually migrated toward the private data

Autonomous Territory

centers, and were adopted largely because of their practical results. Data centers for cloud computing are called cloud data centers, and the largest among them are called hyperscale data center. GLOSSARY

[HYPERSCALE DATA CENTER] - A Hyperscale (or Enterprise Hyperscale) data center is a facility owned and operated by the company it supports. This includes companies such as AWS, Microsoft, Google, and Apple. They offer robust, scalable applications and storage portfolio of services to individuals or businesses. - Hyperscale computing is necessary for cloud and big data storage. - Has anywhere from 500 Cabinets upwards, and at least 10,000sq ft. in size. - Usually have a minimum of 5,000 servers linked with an ultra-high speed, high fiber count network. - May use external companies on initial fit outs before maintaining internally. - Noticeable difference from Enterprise to Hyperscale is the High Fiber Count utilized across the network. [Cloud computing] - Cloud computing is the the use of various services, such as software development platforms, servers, storage and software, over the internet, often referred to as the “cloud.” - The back-end of the application (especially hardware) is completely managed by a cloud vendor. - A user only pays for services used (memory, processing time and bandwidth, etc.). - Services are scalable

17


18

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

19


20

Autonomous Territory


THE CONTINUOUS MONUMENT

On the Rocky Coast, project (Perspective), 1969 Image by Superstudio

“On the other hand, during those same years we realized that society could no longer be identified with the rationalmechanical model of the all-production factory, of early capitalism, but that we were well on our way to another model, Data center the supermarket, a place of consumption, a faceless, anonymous container within Data which goods were displayed and moved without requiring Architecture in order to be represented.� CRISTIANO TORALDO DI FRANCIA - founder of Superstudio

Autonomous Territory

21


0 0 200m 200m BK City BK City Delft,NL Delft,NL

smartDC smartDC Van Nelle Van Nelle 2017 2017 Rotterdam,NL Rotterdam,NL 2200 m2 2200 m2

Equinox Equinox AM3 & AM4 AM3 & AM4 2017 2017 Amsterdam,NL Amsterdam,NL 6000 m2 6000 m2

Switch Switch superNAP superNAP 2015 2015 Nevada,US Nevada,US 40000 m2 40000 m2

Colocation Colocation Colocation

22

Autonomous Territory

ICloud ICloud Apple D Apple 2014 2014 Nevada, Nevada

43400 4340


DC

,US

0 m2

FOOTPRINT

Top view of different data centers on the same scale Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

ICCNCI DC 2014 Bluffdale,Utah US

45000 m2

ICloud Apple DC 2014 North Caroline,US

46900 m2

Google DC 2017 Eemshaven,NL

62500 m2

Microsoft Azure DC 2016 Iowa,US

64000 m2

Hyperscale

Hyperscale

Autonomous Territory

23


FROM ENIAC TO THE CLOUD

Global data center IP traffic, by data center type (EB per year) Source: Statista

24

Autonomous Territory


An increasing amount of computing work is moving from traditional to hyperscale cloud data centres. According to Cisco’s Global Cloud Index, by 2021, 94% of all workloads and compute instances will be processed in cloud data centres. Hyperscale data centers will grow from 338 in number at the end of 2016 to 628 by 2021. They will represent 53 percent of all installed data center servers by 2021. The use of private (rather than public) hyperscale data centres is expected to grow 11% a year from 2016 to 2021. So why and how this shift will happend and why hyperscale is important for us? DATA CENTER TIMELINE

People use specific tools to process data from very long ago, like anicent rome us abacus to calculate taxes. Until last century, mechanical analog computer like differential analyzer start to took a big step to what we called computer nowadays. Finally ENIAC, one of the first modern computer launched in 1946. When we go through supercomputer data center, mainframe data center, client-server data center, colocation data center to the cloud data center wich is also hyperscale, is easy to notice that the way of organize server are changing because its amount and size and we can see the volume of data center is getting bigger, need more area for specific supporting equipments but human are in the data center is getting smaler.

Autonomous Territory

There are some hidden information in this timeline if we look at some cyber characterisc. Data center start from people working inside the computer, then able to control mutiple computer in a local network, then different centrilize their equipment in a colocation then in the end everyone use computing power from a huge computer pool in a global highspeed network. In this process we can see hwo we gradually get away from physical infrastracture when we use more and more data in our daily life.

“If you look back over the history of computing, it started as mainframes or terminals. As PCs or work stations became prevalent, computing moved to the edge, and we had applications that took advantage of edge computing and the CPU and processing power at the edge. Cloud computing brought things back to the center.� Peter Levine, venture capital investor

25


26

Autonomous Territory


BEFORE COMPUTER

Above: Roman tax collector calculating someone’s taxes on an abacus ( 225 AD ) Below: Vannevar Bush with his differential analyzer (1930s) Photos from Internet

“The Encyclopedia Britannica could be reduced to the volume of a matchbox. A library of a million volumes could be compressed into one end of a desk.” VANNEVAR BUSH, As We May Think (1945)

Autonomous Territory

27


28

Autonomous Territory


DATA CENTER EVOLUTION I

The timeline divides data center development into 5 steps by critical computer and Internet techonlogies Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

29


30

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

31


32

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

33


34

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

35


36

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

37


38

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

39


40

Autonomous Territory


DATA CENTER EVOLUTION II

Changing relationship between people and computer (data center) Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

41


DUTCH DATA CENTER LANDSCAPE

AMS-IX is one of the largest Internet exchange point in the world, based in Amsterdam, NL. Photo by HUAWEI

42

Autonomous Territory


DIGTIAL GATEWAY TO EUROPE

In 1988 the Dutch were second in the world to connect to the Internet. The Netherlands quickly developed excellent connections, and the population embraced the Internet. Today, the Netherlands is the best-connected countries in the world, according to the DHL Global Connectedness Index (2016), regarding cross-border flows of trade capital, information and people. The Netherlands is host to the Amsterdam Internet Exchange (AMS-IX), the largest in the world together with Frankfurt-based DE-CIX. Number 4 is IX.br in Brazil and number 4 is LINX in London. Another large Dutch internet exchange is the NL-IX, which climbed to a 6th place globally and has 630 connected networks. AMS-IX stated in their 2018-report that their overall Internet traffic volume increased from 12 EB in 2016 to 13 EB in 2017. The peak traffic at the Exchange grew from 5 to 5.5 Tbps. Last year, 84% of new AMS-IX customers came from abroad, which shows that The Netherlands is an attractive foreign candidate when it comes to digital infrastructure. State of the Dutch data hub report 2018

DUTCH DATA CENTER

Until May 2018, there are 198 multi-tenant data centers in Netherlands with 308,000 sqm data floor totally. And 71% of floor space in located in Amsterdam region. The importance of Amsterdam for the Dutch multitenant data center market continues to grow, like it did over the last twelve months.

Autonomous Territory

This growth does not come without its challenges. Similar to the other European top locations, access to power is becoming a challenge for multi-tenant data centers in the Metro Region Amsterdam (MRA). In a survey among members of the Dutch Data Center Association, Pb7 Research found that more than half of the data centers mention access to power as a key challenge for the next three years, as opposed to none of the data centers from other regions. In line with that challenge, MRA data centers are very concerned about finding suitable locations. State of the Dutch data report 2018

CLOUD IN NETHERLANDS

The strong growth of multi-tenant data centers has, more than anything, been the result of the rise of cloud computing. Cloud computing continues to shape the data center industry in various ways. It has resulted in the arrival of hyperscale data centers, in the Netherlands represented by Microsoft and Google Microsoft and Google have so far built 71.520 m2 of data center floor and are far from done. Interestingly, hyperscale data centers are not attracted to metropolitan areas such as Amsterdam. They require excellent connectivity (for example where an ocean cable comes ashore), access to large quantities of green power and affordable locations. As a result, new data center onevendor hotbeds are emerging in Groningen and the north of North Holland. State of the Dutch data report 2018

43


HYPERSCALE 0

Hyperscale data centers in Netherlands Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu High population density region Low population density region Hyperscale Data center and its capacity

50km

Other Data center and its capacity

GRONINGEN

Hyperscale campuses

NORTH HOLLAND

Hyperscale campuses

44

Autonomous Territory


OVERALL 0

High population density region

Data centers in Netherlands Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Low population density region Hyperscale Data center and its capacity

50km

GRONINGEN Regional Hub

AMSTERDAM Regional Hub

AMS-IX

ROTTERDAM Regional Hub

EINDHOVEN Regional Hub

Autonomous Territory

45


CONNECTIVITY 0

Data centers and Internet cable Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu Internet backbone Other Internet cable Data center and its capacity

50km

46

Autonomous Territory


ENERGY 0

380kV connection/substation

Data centers and power grid Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

380kV connection/substation project 380kV interconnection 380kV interconnection project Subsea interconnector 50km

Subsea interconnector project 220-150-110 connection/substation Power plant Areas below sea level Data center and its capacity

Autonomous Territory

47


GRONINGEN HYPERSCALE CAMPUSES Google in Eemshaven Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

GRONINGEN

Hyperscale campuses

Windpark Eemshaven-west Vopak Solarpark 0

Eemshaven

Vattenfall Solarpark Google

Windpark Delfzijl-noord Solarpark Weefsweer

Solarpark Delfzijl

12.5km

Windpark Delfzijl-zuid

Groningen

48

Autonomous Territory


NORTH HOLLAND HYPERSCALE CAMPUSES Agriport A7 in Middenmeer Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

0

NORTH HOLLAND

Hyperscale campuses

Middenmeer

Windpark Wieringermeer AgriportA7 Greenhouse AgriportA7 Greenhouse

Microsoft

12.5km

Amsterdam

Autonomous Territory

49


50

Autonomous Territory


DATA CENTER AGRIPORT A7 EVOLUTION II

Microsoft hyperscale Changing relationshipdata between center people (left) and and agriport computer (data A7 greenhouse center) (right) Image from by Arda Google ErtanEarth Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

51


A CASE STUDY: EQUINIX AM4

Data center AM4, Benthem Crouwel Architects Photo by Jannes Linders

52

Autonomous Territory


The tower with a height of seventy-two meters has been opened in 2017 on the Science Park, an academic campus in Amsterdam. From the ringroad A10 this ‘cloud box’ is clearly visible. The new building is Equinix’s second data center on the Amsterdam Science Park. The campus processes about 38 percent of all Dutch data traffic. In Europe, the ​​Amsterdam area – together with London and Frankfurt – is one of the most important data center hubs. In 2012, the first data center was opened, AM3 – with horizontal lamellae, and now the tower – AM4 with 24.000m2 of server space – has been added. The buildings are linked by bridges. We designed a canal as the first layer of safety, a more friendly alternative to barbed wire fences. Employees and visitors then go through an identity checkpoint in a light and spacious lobby. To reach the data center, the visitor walks over a bright red bridge which marks the passage to a strictly secured area. After scanning fingerprints, one enters the ‘white space’, where the servers are located. It is a totally different experience from being in a converted warehouse, the type of building mostly used for data centers. The exterior is grand, clean and cool: it resembles a large hard disk, with horizontal slants passing the air from the cooling system. The high-rise building is made of triangular aluminum profiles, which are black on one side and silver on the other, and become more narrow in the top – an optical illusion that makes the tower look slimmer.

When heat is generated, it provides heat for other buildings at Amsterdam Science Park. “On the one hand, you see that we’re increasingly storing data in the cloud; currently, there is a lot of demand of new datacenters. On the other hand, there is continuous miniaturization, which results in less storage space. We have also taken into account that when less server space is needed, the facades can easily be replaced, and the building can be easily transformed into a laboratory, office and/or apartments.” Benthem Crouwel Architects, Temple of the 21st century: Data centers Equinix in Amsterdam

FACTS ARCHITECT: Benthem Crouwel Architects, Generaal Vetterstraat 61, 1059 BT Amsterdam CLIENT: Equinix Netherlands bv LOCATION: Science Park 610, Amsterdam GROSS FLOOR AREA: Bruto floor area: 6.500m2 AM3 ‘ 24.000m2 AM4 START DESIGN AM4: 2014 START CONSTRUCTION AM4: 2015 OPENING AM4: July 2017 OPENING AM3: October 2012 PROJECT TEAM: Jan Benthem, Joost Vos, Saartje van der Made, Guido de Wit, Gwendolyn Huisman, Henk van Rossum, Volker Krenz, Jeroen Jonk, Noortje ter Heege, Marcel Wassenaar, Walter Brouwer STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING/MECHANICAL SERVICES/BUILDING PHYSICS: Royal Haskoning DHV CONTRACTOR: UDD: Unica and Dura Vermeer LIGHTING DESIGN: Bartenbach Lichtlabor PHOTOGRAPHER: Jannes Linders

AM4 is equipped with energy storage systems.

Autonomous Territory

53


54

Autonomous Territory


DATA VS. HUMAN

Data and human both have their own space in city. Different kind of infrastructures serve for them which creates a seperation and defines their own territory. Red lines indicate fiber optic cable network and blue lines indicate human traffic. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Human Data Autonomous Territory

SCIENCE PARK,AMSTERDAM. 55


56

Autonomous Territory


AM4

Above: The entrance Below: Inner space with data servers Photos by Jannes Linders

“The buildings had to fit in with its surroundings. They must be attractive, however not too welcoming. We all want our personal data to be safe, but we feel awkward about large data centers in our cities, because we don’t want fortress-like buildings surrounded by high-security fences in public spaces.” JOOST VOS - partner of Benthem Crouwel Architects

Autonomous Territory

57


58

Autonomous Territory


Logistic Exit

AM3 DC

Entrance AM4 DC

Logistic Entrance Customer Center& Office

Human Power Data

Autonomous Territory

59


60

Autonomous Territory


A NEW DAWN

AM4 for Equnix is on the cover of the 2017/2018 yearbook architecture in the Netherlands Image from Benthemcrouwel.com

“We are designing over 40 years beautiful buildings, famous ones, we never reach the cover of the architectural year book. To our own surprise, with this building without any windows in it, it reach the cover of year book. I think it’s sort of an example what is this kind of new typology doing with our surrondings.” JOOST VOS - partner of Benthem Crouwel Architects

Autonomous Territory

61


62

Autonomous Territory


SMARTDC IN VAN NELLE Richard Boogaard

managing director via SmartDC, Van Nelle Factory, 51.9231° N, 4.4340° E

DataPolis: We belong to chair complex projects where we like complex projects in general. We are research and design studio and the title of this term is called “Datapolis”. The idea is to understand the impact of data and how we as architects can understand better all infrastructure behind the data because it’s kind of a totally new field for architecture in general. We’re looking in different scales from homes to offices, factories, datacenters, satellites, any kind of architecture needed for exchange and storage of data. Not only infrastructure architecture but also building and factories and houses. We’re based in Delft. In fact, we are based in the Netherlands and we’re trying to visit a few important sites in the Netherlands. In our research, we saw that you are the biggest datacenter in Rotterdam. That is how we are related to the Van Nelle Factory and SmartDC, we’ve already read some information but it was interesting to try to come and look at it.

So if you look at this building, what we’ve done is that, when we started to build smartDC, I wrote a business plan. And it was back in the 2000s -end of 2008, beginning of 2009- and there was a banking crisis. So we had to come up with a plan that we could lend some quite large amount of money. Datacenter is a nice business, but you have to invest quite a lot before you can attract customers as well. So what have we done? We built the kind of box in box principles and we started to reorganize this complete facility here.

Richard Boogaard: Well, it’s good to the starting point. You’re here at smartDC and my name is Richard Boogaard. I’m the managing director of Smart DC. I’m also the owner. Just recently sold to Ubisoft last year and basically, I just built from scratch starting with just a few racks. It’s nice to mention Van Nelle factory because nowadays -I think since three-four years- it’s a UNESCO World Heritage monument. So it makes it quite interesting for you guys as architects for building itself. If you have the time left later today, you can visit here. Then you can see all kinds of things which are back in the days in the beginnings of 1930s where the doors are closed, not by typical door closings, but it’s a ramp which is putting a little bit up. For the main entrance, you had different entrances for men and for women. The stairs were cross-linked so you cannot touch one another. So those kind of things were for basically quite normal in the beginning 30s.

Over the years, we had two outages. So when they come up, we have to always have power. Datacenter is the locality of mobile phones, everything you do on the mobile phone comes somewhere out of a datacenter and just think of the idea that all datacenters are connected in one way or another with fiber, anywhere in the world. You have sea cables running, six major lines running from Europe to the US. And also that is why everything is connected. Here in this datacenter, we are quite lucky to have a big connection, which is 12 megawatts, total capacity.

The main reason for us to come to this location is, due to the factory of coffee tobacco it has a quite large infrastructure for power. The power grid is connected to the 23,000V, which is also the hardware standards and where the trains are going on. So it’s a little bit higher from the rest of the industry is connected to. That makes it less independent for all kinds of maintenance.

“There’s also another quite important thing for datacenter which is connectivity”

This building is built in roughly about in 1970 due to the expansion of the production of coffee-tobacco at the back of us, which is the main building. They had the storages, the long term one was in the whitespace of the datacenter and for this part it was(entrance of smartDC) it was Albert Heijn’s. Autonomous Territory

63


64

Autonomous Territory


When we started here, we had quite some look, because the complete backbone of Amsterdam, Brussels, Paris runs just in this street here. So for us to interconnect all major carriers is quite easy. Basically, that is one of the things, it’s quite important and the rest you can build yourself. When we have started, we had an idea to have built-in modules. Smaller modules are arranging from 30,40 or 50 rack entities just filled up a complete facility here. And every time when we have a new customer, I just go to the investors with the new contracts and then I get another bit of money. Negotiation is quite necessary though. So this is what you see here is the main entrance where the lorries used to come into the facilities here. Now doors are taken out and we have a glass door inside. I was arguing for roughly about five-six years to have all the doors fixed wall. But the UNESCO and the local government said that it is not possible. So, we have a wall looks like a door basically, that is in general what it is. The main entrance here is redone roughly about at the end of 2017. As of the last part, the infrastructure is extremely important for our customers since it’s where we are making our money. We have modules built with a closed hot corridor. Normally in traditional datacenters, you have raised-floor with perforated tiles. With pressurized air and perforated tiles, you can get cold air exactly where you want it to be. It is quite a normal thing to do. When IT loads were depending more power. First of all, it was roughly about 500 watts 1000 watts in a rack, and now they’re pushing five-kilo kilo waters 5000s 10,000 kV per rack. That is quite a lot. So they had to come up with an idea just to close the cold corridor -because it was already there- and to have more cold into the racks. The reason why we don’t do it the other way around is that we have the hot aisles and it’s back to the rack unit and the hot air makes it more efficient for the rack unit itself. So that is one of the advantages what you find here. So, I suggest we can start the tour by opening one of the hot corridors. When we started smartDC, we did it together with my business partner. His company is not so famous Netherlands itself but it has a huge platform for the big game publishers. So if you ever played a Call of Duty, Division or FIFA in Western Europe they come here to this datacenter and visit one of these rooms for them. That is why it’s such a powerful location here -because due to the gaming and due to the low latency networkwhich is very important for the small and medium enterprises we have. If there is an issue outside and we have quite a lot of carriers and parties. If one of the lines down or if it’s broken or maintenance or whatever it is just sent to another carrier for the persistence of service. For our customers, they don’t even notice which lines go out. Autonomous Territory

We have a connection not only towards Amsterdam but also directly to Frankfurt. In Amsterdam, you have two biggest worldwide exchanges, then if you have an issue one on your servers we just reroute it to another. So it will end up on the internet at any time. This is one of the big advantages of our network. Here this is our power module. We have UPS power for our IT source. The first UPS are already 10 years old now. No one sees this-this is when but it will fail. But that’s why we have extra power source and storages. DP: So what is the temperature you try to maintain? RB: Roughly about 23 degrees. All It load is converted into heat, so if 1 rack is 10kV it is converted directly to heat, just like your air blower. The heat of datacenter is low in terms of capacity. What we have is 1mV IT load. We have an engineering firm who can do something with it. We will have running water on top of the datacenter and the idea is to put into a water tank in the size of a small swimming pool. 15x10x4m which will be heated by datacenter then Van Nelle factory will take out the heat. Hopefully, it will work, but it is will be a big project with 4 million $ investment. What you can see here is that this is one of our modules. This one is particularly built in 2011. Every time we build a new one, we just look that if we can make any improvements. So, if you notice that there are small differences.

“Cold and hot corridor temperature difference is roughly about 10 degrees. Technically it’s more efficient if we raise the temperature that we have” DP: Is there some kind of official datacenter requirements in space organization? RB: You can see we had a local installer they just come up with his design. We have 24 containers next to each other, it is fixed by 2.20m. This is why he did it in that size because you can transport it. -logistic reasonsDP: And if there is an expansion, would you consider to increase the storage spaces of the equipment itself -hardware capacity of them- or to expand the space? RB: I am not responsible for IT. So, the only thing what we do is to have the expansion of modules. It is filled up now but the whole next door is still empty. This is what we can do. 65


REVERSE THE CLOUD

Cloud and edge computing Image by openautomationsoftware.com

66

Autonomous Territory


EDGE COMPUTING

The term “cloud computing” has established itself firmly in the vocabulary of most consumers. “Edge computing” is a concept that can be seen as an extension of now ubiquitous cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT). In the most fundamental terms, edge computing is the movement of intelligence and computation from centralized data servers in a cloud network to hardware on the fringes of a network. Instead of sensors collecting data at a location and sending it back for a centralized server to process, hardware is available locally that will compute that data and then send the results to the cloud where the information will be immediately available and actionable without further processing. Alright, so now that we know what edge and fog computing are, how are they useful in the real world? The future of automated driving relies on data about traffic, obstacles, and dangers being computed in real-time for quick decision making. In the event of a collision, a second delay is more than enough to change the outcome. Fog computing can also be used to analyze and computer data about local traffic, by collecting information from vehicles, processing it, and then sending it to the overall cloud to share. Chantelle Dubois, Computing on the Fringes: How Edge Computing and Fog Computing Are Changing How We Use the IoT

Autonomous Territory

Among the top services that are driving edge compute, video content delivery, which included 360 video and venues, was first at 92% followed by a three-way tie among autonomous vehicles, augmented reality/ virtual reality and industrial internet of things/ automated factory all at 83%. Gaming was next at 75%, with distributed virtualized mobile core and fixed access in another tie with private LTE at 58%. IHS Markit, Video to Drive Demand for Edge Computing Services

P2P NETWORK AND BLOCKCHAIN

Edge computing is dispersing computing power, but it is still a part of a centralized structure. Something more radical is happening. P2P networks that use blockchain to manage cloud storage based on the sharing of excess drive and network capacity on PCs and in data centers. Those who share capacity get free storage – and can be paid in cryptocurrency. The emerging blockchain-based distributed storage market could challenge traditional cloud storage services, such as Amazon AWS and Dropbox, for a cut of the cloud storage market. The idea of using P2P networks to aggregate computer resources is not new. In the early 2000s, BitTorrent opened as a distributed filesharing service and grew to handle more than half of the internet’s file-sharing bandwidth. Lucas Mearian, Blockchain and cryptocurrency may soon underpin cloud storage

67


68

Autonomous Territory


10SQM OF TROPICS

Above: Edgepod website page Below: Micro data center Photos by Edgepod.com

“In the 5G era, Mobile Edge Computing will be a key technology for next-generation industries including realistic media and autonomous driving.� JONG-KWAN PARKE - senior vice president and head of Network Technology R&D Center of SK Telecom

Autonomous Territory

69


70

Autonomous Territory


P2P NETWORK

Decentralized cloud storage brands Images from Internet

“Storj uses blockchain to track digital ‘farmers’ who, similar to Bitcoin miners, have signed on to allow an application to share excess network and storage capacity on their computers or servers.” LUCAS MEARIAN - senior reporter of Computerworld

Autonomous Territory

71


DATA CENTER SECURITY

Julian Assange, co-founder of Wikileaks, was arrested inside the Ecuadorian embassy Photo by Reuters

72

Autonomous Territory


SECURITY

Data centers are complex and to protect them, security components must be considered separately but at the same time follow one holistic security policy. Security can be divided into physical and software security. Physical security encompasses a wide range of processes and strategies used to prevent outside interference. Software or virtual security prevents cybercriminals from entering the network by bypassing the firewall, cracking passwords, or through other loopholes. A data center building’s most obvious security characteristics are related to design and layout. A data center building is usually built away from major roads in order to establish buffer zones made up of a combination of landscaping and crash-proof barriers.

view of a data center’s security posture. And creating secure zones in the network is one way to layer security into the data center. Before applications and code are deployed, certain tools may be used to scan them for vulnerabilities that can be easily exploited, and then provide metrics and remediation capabilities. CYBER EDU: What is Data Center Security? Data Center Security Defined, Explained, and Explored

POLITICS

When data relates to confidential or illegal content, the data center can become very politically sensitive. Some events involving national interests may evolve into information wars between multiple countries. At this time, data center security will face greater challenges.

Access into a data center facility is fairly limited. Most do not have exterior windows and relatively few entry points. Security guards inside the building monitor for suspicious activity using footage from surveillance cameras installed along the outside perimeter. Visitors may use two-factor authentication to enter the building, including scanning personal identity verification (PIV) cards and entering a personal passcode. Employee badge readers and biometric systems, such as fingerprint readers, iris scanners and facial recognition, may also be used to permit entry. Hacking, malware and spyware are the obvious threats to data stored in a data center. A security information and event management tool (SIEM) offers a real-time

Autonomous Territory

73


Perimeter Wall Password& Retina Scanner

Fingerprint Lock

Motion Sensor

Gated Door

Video Surveillance

X-ray Scanner Security Guard

74

Autonomous Territory


QUESTION OF SECURITY

While many think of data centers and consider the risk of cyberattacks, physical security threats must be evaluated as well. Physical breaches at data centers do happen and can result in costly consequences. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

“Applying the five D’s of security – deter, detect, deny, delay and defend – should serve as the framework for every data center’s protection plan” JOHN DISTELZWEIG - Vice President and General Manager of FLIR Security Systems

Autonomous Territory

75


76

Autonomous Territory


UNCLEAR BUNKER

Swedish broadband carrier Bahnhof confirms that some Wikileaks servers are now hosted in its Pionen data center, converted from an underground Cold War-era nuclear bunker in downtown Stockholm. The server farm, carved out of a 100-foot-tall granite hill, has a single entrance, protected by 20-inchthick steel doors.If the power goes out, back-up is provided by a couple of German submarine engines. Photos by Bahnhof

STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN Exterior and interior of Pionen data center

Autonomous Territory

77


78

Autonomous Territory


UNCLEAR BUNKER

Drawings of Pionen data center Images by Bahnhof

Would Pionen’s 8,000 servers survive a nuclear blast?

“I’m not sure about the people, but the machines would survive.” JON KARLUNG - chairman of Bahnhof

Autonomous Territory

79


AI AND SUSTAINABILITY

Google Brings Liquid Cooling to Data Centers to Cool Latest AI Chips Photo by Google I/O 2018

80

Autonomous Territory


ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

Across the globe, Data science and AI are influencing the design and development of the modern data centers. With the surge in the amount of data everyday, traditional data centers will eventually get slow and result in an inefficient output. Utilizing AI in ingenious ways, data center operators can drive efficiencies up and costs down. A fitting example of this is the tier-two automated control system implemented at Google to cool its data centers autonomously. The system makes all the cooling-plant tweaks on its own, continuously, in real-time- thus saving up to 30% of the plant’s energy annually. Every five minutes thousands of sensors throughout the data center issue and send readings to the cloud. Deep neural networks then work to “predict how different combinations of potential actions will affect future energy consumption. AI has enabled data center operators to add more workloads on the same physical silicon architecture. They can aggregate and analyze data quickly and generate productive outputs, which is specifically beneficial to companies that deal with immense amounts of data like hospitals, genomic systems, airports, and media companies. Nowadays, the use of AI in the data center field is more at the device and system level. With implement of more technologies, AI will greatly change the type of data center.

Autonomous Territory

NEW SURROUNDINGS

The use of automated systems has led to the withdrawal of human technicians from remote data centers, which has enabled data centers to more freely choose the better location. Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella says underwater data centers will play a major role in expanding the firm’s global cloud computing platform. Nadella predicts Project Natick, under which Microsoft deployed a 40-foot data center pod on the seafloor off the coast of Scotland, could be repeated across the world. “Since 50 percent of the world’s population lives close to water bodies, we think this is the way we want to think about future data center regions and expansion,” he told the Microsoft Future Decoded conference in London. Nick Heath , Microsoft CEO Nadella: Underwater data centers are the future

“There is more to Microsoft’s sinking a data center the size of a shipping container off Scotland’s Orkney Islands than cheap power, free cooling, and being close to where half the world’s population lives. The big hope is that a truly lights-out data center could end up being cheaper to run and failing less often.” Mary Branscombe, Why Microsoft Thinks Underwater Data Centers May Cost Less

81


Van Nelle Distribition Center NL, 1920-2009

200 People 82

Autonomous Territory


200/5

5 people work in the SmartDC in Van Nelle factory nowsdays while around 200 people worked in the same area when there was a distributuion center Images by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Van Nelle Smart DC NL, Today

5 People Autonomous Territory

83


84

Autonomous Territory


UNMANNED FUTURE

News about AI in data center industry Images from Internet

“By 2020, 30 percent of data centers that fail to apply AI and machine learning effectively in support of enterprise business will cease to be operationally and economically viable.� MILIND GOVEKAR, Gartner

Autonomous Territory

85


10

86

2700

2100

1200

Autonomous Territory


POST-HUMAN LANDSCAPE

Fully automated data centers will develop to the most effective form for itself. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

800

4000

000

Autonomous Territory

?

?

87


88

Autonomous Territory


OCCASIONAL VISITOR

Many features of data center are not suitable for human, such as high running temperature. If we can be detached from there for most of the time, data center can have less limitation from human being. Images from Internet

“... data center managers can save 4 percent in energy costs for every degree of upward change in the set point.� MARK MONROE - director of sustainable computing of Sun Microsystems

Autonomous Territory

89


Clean* Coal Natural Gas Nuclear Other

4.0%

3.0% 17.0%

10.0%

32.0%

26.0%

23.0%

30.0%

24.0%

31.0%

3.0%

5.0%

5.0%

10.0%

4.0% 5.0%

14.0%

56.0%

15.0%

83.0%

90

Autonomous Territory


DATA IS POWER: CLEAN OR DIRTY ?

IT industry often points to the cloud or cloud computing as the new, green model for our IT infrastructure needs, but few companies provide data that would allow us to objectively evaluate these claims. Pie charts shows the type of energy, supplying power to the datacenters that make up cloud. Images from by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu * Clean includes renewable energy and existing hydroelectric projects

“The gigantic data centers eat up more than 2 percent of the world’s electricity and emit roughly as much CO2 as the airline industry. And with global data traffic more than doubling every four years, they are growing fast. To change that, data companies need to turn to clean energy sources and dramatically improve energy efficiency.” FRED PEARCE - Freelance author and journalist based in the U.K, contributing writer for Yale Environment 360

Autonomous Territory

91


1,000 TWh

1,000 TWh

2,000 TWh

GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION

Russia

IT Sector Datacenters

Japan India Germany Canada Brazil South Korea

Today

ENERGY FORECAST

Widely cited forecasts suggest that the total electicity demand of information and communications technology (ICT) will accelerate in the 2020s, and that data centers will take a larger slice.

92

2012

2014

2016

2018

Autonomous Territory

20


3,000 TWh

4,000 TWh

5,000 TWh China 9,000 TWh

US

Networks (Wireless and wired)

Production of ICT

Consumer Devices (TV, Computers, Mobile Phones)

Datacenters

20

2022

Autonomous Territory

2024

2026

2028

93


94

Autonomous Territory


UNDER THE SEA

Project Natick’s 40-foot long Northern Isles datacenter is loaded with 12 racks containing a total of 864 servers and associated cooling system infrastructure. The datacenter was assembled and tested in France and shipped on a flatbed truck to Scotland where it was attached to a ballast-filled triangular base for deployment on the seabed. Photo by Microsoft

ORKNEY ISLANDS, SCOTLAND Project Natick, Northern Isles datacenter

Autonomous Territory

95


96

Autonomous Territory


OPPOSITE WORLD

Benefits from advanced computer technology, high-speed networking and artificial intelligence, the next generation data center can be close to the most advantageous external factors and develop to the most effective form for itself. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

97


VISION PART FOOTPRINTS AND OBJECTS


REDESIGN DATA CENTERS

The Agbogbloshie slums of Ghana (pictured) have been used as an e-waste landfill by illegal exporters https://www.edie.net/news/5/techUK-calls-for-tougher-e-waste-policies-after-illegal-exportsfound-to-be-contaminating-food-chains/

100

Autonomous Territory


RESEARCH OUTCOME

In the research, three main positions have been put forward, which are: 1. In the foreseeable future, global data demand will grow exponentially, just like what happened in past few years. 2. The necessity of more intensive (hyperscale, etc.) and automated datacenter typology due to efficiency reasons. 3. Energy and environment issues that massive datacenters bring will affect our world and datacenters themselves. As a relatively new human invention, datacenter seems to be incompatible with the natural environment and living environment in many ways. A typical example of this is e-waste. Those non-degradable or even toxic parts are the unavoidable consequence of the earth hidden behind the Internet we use. NEW SYSTEMS

These trends make us start to think about new possibilities of datacenters. Is it possible to make the datacenter better integrated into the universal or some specific natural systems or even industrial systems? How the datacenter can benefit from these nature or artificial environment, such increase efficiency or reduce adverse effects, and even make a mutually beneficial relationship with them?

A. Under the Atlantic Ocean B. The outskirts of a city in southern China C. The depths of the Svalbard mountains. The primary consideration in choosing these three locations is that they all have an existing Internet connectivity on Earth to Internet submarine cables which connect the United States and Europe pass through the Atlantic Ocean; South China is an important hub for the Pacific Rim; Svalbard has a submarine cable directly connected to Norway in the remote Arctic. Except for Internet connectivity, they have distinct characteristics, such as natural environment, population density, industrial composition, political attributes, and so on. These bring about different discussion topics at each location which can be used to explore the different possibilities and potential adaptability of the datacenter. But what needs to be added is that we chose these three specific locations not only we are going to stick to some exact plots. We hope to use these three types as representatives to abstract into a global scene for greater universality.

Our attempts begin with three specific locations for the datacenter:

Autonomous Territory

101


north atlantic ocean Population = 0 Connectivity US - EU

102

Autonomous Territory


svalbard

Population = 2667 Political - Remote Safe Zone (?)

THREE LOCATIONS

The Atlantic Ocean, Svalbard and South China Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

south china

Population = 20 000 000 Terrain

Autonomous Territory

103


Svalbard

South China The Atlantic Ocean

104

Autonomous Territory


THREE SYSTEMS

A brief analysis of the natural or artificial systems in three locations (left), and new systems after introducing the data center (right) Images by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Svalbard

South China The Atlantic Ocean

Autonomous Territory

105


DC1: THE ATLANTIC OCEAN/ECO-FRIENDLY

Reef Design Lab’s newest 3-D printing Modular Artificial Reef Photo by Reef Desifn Lab, https://www.reefdesignlab.com/mars

106

Autonomous Territory


“The sea is everything. It covers seven tenths of the terrestrial globe. Its breath is pure and healthy. It is an immense desert, where man is never lonely, for he feels life stirring on all sides.� Jules Verne, Writer The resources and energy contained in the sea are extraordinary. If we make the most of this, it is entirely possible to generate a datacenter system that is independent of the land and be self-sufficient. Within the system, every element has its genuine aspects and correlation with others. The main demand for energy provided by clean and sustainable offshore wind and ocean currents. and seawater provides natural cooling by heat exchange. Internet connection comes directly from the submarine cable. Although an offshore platform or artificial island is situated for a small number of staff and researchers, most of the time there will be underwater drones for routine maintenance and repair work.

and cables are distributed directly in a large floating network structure in a discrete way. COEXIST WITH FISH

The degradation of coral reefs caused by global climate change has threatened the biodiversity of certain parts of ocean life. As a referecnce, inspired by artificial coral reef projects, using specially designed underwater datacenter as artificial coral reefs stand as a viable option. This required some research to placement position and depth, local currents, temperature, and light to achieve the desired results. The unique composition of the design is supposed to include suitable surface materials and biologic shapes that can be adapted to fish life. A modular design that allows the combination of elements is adopted, from a single industrial production into complex shapes while it is easy to assemble and disassemble underwater.

The vital characteristics of seawater bring about the elimination of the datacenter building envelopes, which will avoid unnecessary support structures. The servers

Autonomous Territory

107


108

Autonomous Territory


UNDERSEA RACKS

A former concept vision Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

“Regardless of construction method, artificial reefs are generally designed to provide hard surfaces to which algae and invertebrates such as barnacles, corals, and oysters attach; the accumulation of attached marine life in turn provides intricate structure and food for assemblages of fish.� Science Daily

Autonomous Territory

109


HOT CURRENTS

COLD CURRENTS SUBMARINE CABLES

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

110

4°C

8°C

12°C

16°C

20°C

Autonomous Territory


DEPTH OF SEA WATER

A brief analysis of seawater properties at different depths Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

“Currents exist at all depths in the ocean; in some regions, two or more currents flow in different directions at different depths. Although the current system is complex, ocean currents are driven by two forces: the Sun and the rotation of the Earth.� Ocean current, Waterencyclopedia

Autonomous Territory

111


1

2

3 8 6

7

9 10

12

112

Autonomous Territory


SERVER DESIGN

Modular servers are connected in series by cables on different branches connected to submarine cables. Images by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

4

5

11

1. Articial Reef Server Array, Aggregation-I 2. Articial Reef Server Array, Aggregation-II 3. Articial Reef Server Array, Aggregation-III

14

13

2

15

4. Insulating tube 5. Connecting ring 6. Electrical & Internet cable assembly 7. Sub module, Tier-I 8. Sub module, Tier-II 9. Shell 10. Triple-cone server 11. Water drone 12. Capture port 13. Transport route 14. Server dock 15. Battery and Turbine

Autonomous Territory

113


114

Autonomous Territory


SYSTEM DRAWING

Eco-friendly data center vision that relies on marine resources. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

115


116

Autonomous Territory


OVERALL SCENARIO

Eco-friendly data center vision that relies on marine resources. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

117


DC2: SOUTH CHINA/EFFICIENCY

Growing greenhouse industry in Tianjin, China

http://www.priva-asia.com/en/discover-priva/stories/2013/giant-greenhouse-in-china/

118

Autonomous Territory


TRADE OFF

As one of the fastest growing regions in Asia, South China is a high-density area with a population of 700 million. Adequate water resources and subtropical climate make some of these locations become China’s main crop producing areas, making it possible to feed such a large population. But the more automated and systematic modern agricultural industry has yet to be developed. According to the system, the main principle is trading datacenter heat for energy. Not only data racks supply heat, but also CHP (Combined Heat and Power) provides heat to greenhouses. The excess energy of greenhouse used as an additional power source for datacenters. Contemporary datacenters have already associated with agriculture in recent years to develop these kinds of relationships.. (see Microsoft Datacenter in Middenmeer) More research and experiments have been implemented. U.S. companies are researching and developing bio-powered computer datacenters due to the availability of local feedstocks and the resulting competitive power pricing for consumers. Vineyards LLC has developed a shovel-ready datacenter campus in Colorado Springs, Colo., and intends to use local municipal waste and mountain pine beetle-killed timber as fuel. HP Labs, an advanced research group for Hewlett Packard, has released research on datacenter facilities powered by dairy farm waste. The Vineyards Data Center Park will utilize a 50-megawatt plant that will be built on a 100-acre development south of downtown

Autonomous Territory

Colorado Springs. Developers are in the process of selecting a capital partner and expect datacenter units will be available for occupancy by the spring of 2012. Matt Soberg, Biomass-Powered Data Centers We believe that this kind of cooperation can be more thorough. An automated production landscape around the city can be formed to combine industries such as forestry, agriculture, botanical gardens and biogas plant with some information industries such as datacenters. This new automated landscape has the potentiality to act as a threshold between human society and the natural environment. PROGRAMMER AND FARMER

A new hybrid typology of datacenter and greenhouse is designed as the center of the new system. Based on some research and our own simulation, the pyramid-type multi-story greenhouse proved to be more suitable for crop growth in terms of sunlight gain, and we integrated the common server rack layout to this. An interesting phenomenon here is that robots do not have professional barriers like human workers, so as long as they have a universal physical structure and appropriate programmes, they are able to perform some completely different tasks at the same time with high precision and consistency.

119


120

Autonomous Territory


AGRICULTURAL RELATED INDUSTRY

Above: Biomass factory Middle: Muttart Conservatory in the North Saskatchewan river valley, Canada Below: Dairy farm Photos from Internet

“... a 10,000-head dairy farm could supply enough bioenergy to power a 1-megawatt data center along with satisfying additional farm electrical needs. The methane produced from the dairy waste through anaerobic digestion is used to produce electricity for the center.” SUSTAINABLE IT ECOSYSTEM LAB of Hewlett Packard

Autonomous Territory

121


122

Autonomous Territory


SHAPE AND RADIATION

The image shows the difference in annual radiation for greenhouses of different shapes of the same footprint and height. Proves that the pyramidal multilayer structure can balance the total radiation and the uniformity of radiation per unit area. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Total radiation: 134000 kwh/yr Radiation per unit area: 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 0 kwh/m2/yr

539 kwh/m2/yr

1079 kwh/m2/yr

539 kwh/m2/yr

1079 kwh/m2/yr

539 kwh/m2/yr

1079 kwh/m2/yr

Total radiation: 122300 kwh/yr Radiation per unit area: 15% 10% 5% 0% 0 kwh/m2/yr

Total radiation: 133500 kwh/yr Radiation per unit area: 15% 10% 5% 0% 0 kwh/m2/yr

Autonomous Territory

123


Greenhouse

Datacenter

Forest

Sawmill

Farm

124

Autonomous Territory


SYNERGIES

Technical, economic and social synergies between greenhouse and data centers that can establish a mutual relationship. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

“The technical and socio-economic conditions for using waste heat from data centers for year-round cultivation in the sub-Arctic climate are investigated. In this way, create a more sustainable society where waste heat is used to make locally produced and organic vegetables.� MATTIAS VESTERLUND, Senior Researcher at RISE

Autonomous Territory

125


4 1

6

5

8

7 9

10

126

Autonomous Territory


SERVER DESIGN

The multi-storey greenhouse with servers and crops, and robots on the slide rails take care of both of them. Images by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

2

3

11

12

13 14 1. Greenhouse Data Array segment 2. Crops 3. Supporting structure 4. Gantry robot 5. Robot arm 6. Slide rail 7. Server shell 8. Heat outlet 9. Server with cold corridor 10. Electrical and Internet cable 11. Facility tower 12. Crops-server ring 13. Supporting structure 14. Glass curtain

Autonomous Territory

127


128

Autonomous Territory


SYSTEM DRAWING

A data center collaborate with forestry, agriculture and bio-energy industries on the periphery of the city to form an automated landscape as the threshold between human society and natural environment. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

129


130

Autonomous Territory


OVERALL SCENARIO

A data center collaborate with forestry, agriculture and bio-energy industries on the periphery of the city to form an automated landscape as the threshold between human society and natural environment. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

131


DC3: SVALBARD/POLITICAL SECURITY

Barentsburg coal mine

Photo by Thomas Nilsen, https://thebarentsobserver.com/en/node/4314

132

Autonomous Territory


Svalbard is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. Situated north of mainland Europe, it is about midway between continental Norway and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya. Administratively, the archipelago is not part of any Norwegian county but forms an unincorporated area administered by a governor appointed by the Norwegian government. The islands were first taken into use as a whaling base for the Danish Empire as DanoNorwegians travelled north in hunt of whale fat in the 17th and 18th centuries, after which they were abandoned. Coal mining started at the beginning of the 20th century, and several permanent communities were established. The Svalbard Treaty of 1920 recognizes Norwegian sovereignty, and the 1925 Svalbard Act made Svalbard a full part of the Kingdom of Norway. They also established Svalbard as a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone. The Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugol remain the only mining companies in place. Research and tourism have become important supplementary industries, with the University Centre in Svalbard (UNIS) and the Svalbard Global Seed Vault playing critical roles. No roads connect the settlements; instead snowmobiles, aircraft and boats serve inter-community transport. Svalbard Airport, Longyear serves as the main gateway.

THE END OF COAL MINNING ERA

With the mining sites closed, Svalbard’s more than a hundred years of mining have come to an end. The Global Seed Vault and the Arctic World Archive, which opened in Svalbard’s abandoned mines in recent years, seem to bring Svalbard into public view. The main parameters to attract such archives industry are the low temperature of the Arctic permafrost, the physical defensive nature of abandoned coal mines in the depths of the mountains, and the political stability of Svalbard. These make it a doomsday information resource. On the basis of Global Seed Vault and Arctic World Archive, abandoned coal mine reconstructed as a secret underground database, and the server also follows the layout of the mine in the form of a sense of ceremonial.

Svalbard, Wikipedia

Autonomous Territory

133


Svalbald

[Abandoned Coal Mine] Permafrost Layer

77.8750° N 20.9752° E

134

Autonomous Territory


SVALBARD

Former mining sites and some other facilities in svalbard. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

“There’s a lot going on in the privacy and data protection world. The Trump Administration has been given an ultimatum: comply with Privacy Shield, or risk a complete suspension of the EU-U.S. data sharing agreement.” HAYLEY EVANS, SHANNON TOGAWA MERCER, Lawfare (Privacy Shield: The framework governing the flow of data between the EU and the U.S.)

Autonomous Territory

135


136

Autonomous Territory


ARCHIVE IN ARCTIC Above: Global Seed Vault Below: Arctic World Archive Photos from Internet

“ ... the proprietary film format will store data safely for at least 500 years, and maybe as long as 1,000 years, with the assistance of the mine’s climate” RUNE BJERKESTRAND - founder of Piql

Autonomous Territory

137


138

Autonomous Territory


COAL MINING

Above: Diagram of Room and pillar mining Below: Roof bolting process Photos from internet

“In the room-and-pillar mining system a series of parallel drifts are driven, with connections made between these drifts at regular intervals. When the distance between connecting drifts is the same as that between the parallel drifts, then a checkerboard pattern of rooms and pillars is created. The pillars of ore are left to support the overlying rock.� Room-and-pillar mining, Encyclopaedia Britannica

Autonomous Territory

139


1

4 6

5

7

9 8

140

Autonomous Territory


SERVER DESIGN

A confidential data center is set up in the reinforced structure of an underground coal mine Images by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

2

3

10

11

1. Archive Arch 2. Reinforced concrete arch 3. Articial Reef Server Array, Aggregation-III 4. Slide rail 5. Gantry robot 6. Robot arm 7. Arch rack 8. Cables and hot corrider 9. Servers 10. “Pillar“: Remained coal 11. “Room“: Server

Autonomous Territory

141


142

Autonomous Territory


SYSTEM DRAWING

The doomsday database in the mountains of Svalbard. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

143


144

Autonomous Territory


OVERALL SCENARIO

The doomsday database in the mountains of Svalbard. Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

145


146

Autonomous Territory


GLOBAL SCENARIO

Connected there systems Image by Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu

Autonomous Territory

147


BIBLIOGRAPHY articles -Google Throws Open Doors To Its Top-Secret Data Center https://www.wired.com/2012/10/ff-inside-google-data-center/ -Data Volume of Global Consumer IP Traffic from 2017 to 2022 https:/www.statista.com/statistics/267202/global-data-volume-of-consumer-ip-traffic/ -Global Data Center IP traffic from 2012 to 2021, by data center type https://www.statista.com/statistics/227268/global-data-center-ip-traffic-growth-by-data-center-type/ -How Data Centers Work https://computer.howstuffworks.com/data-centers2.htm -How Much Of The World Population Is Online – Statistics And Trends https://www.invespcro.com/blog/world-population-online/ -How to find out where Apple stores your iCloud data (spoiler: you can’t exactly) https://www.macworld.com/article/3274584/where-does-apple-stores-your-icloud-data.html -Edge computing: The state of the next IT transformation https://www.zdnet.com/article/edge-computing-the-state-of-the-next-it-transformation/ -State Of The Dutch Data Hub Report 2018 https://www.dutchdatacenters.nl/en/publications/state-of-the-dutch-data-hub-report-2018/ -Microsoft’s €2bn Netherlands data center revealed https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/news/microsofts-2bn-netherlands-data-center-revealed/ -Temple of the 21st Century: Data Centers Equinix In Amsterdam https://benthemcrouwel.com/projects/datacenter-am4-amsterdam-2/ -IIoT Edge Computing vs. Cloud Computing https://openautomationsoftware.com/blog/iiot-edge-computing-vs-cloud-computing/ -Computing on the Fringes: How Edge Computing and Fog Computing Are Changing How We Use the IoT https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/news/computing-on-the-fringes-edge-computing-fog-computing/ -IHS Markit: Video to Drive Demand for Edge Computing Services https://techblog.comsoc.org/2018/10/15/ihs-markit-video-to-drive-demand-for-edge-computing-services/ -Blockchain and cryptocurrency may soon underpin cloud storage https://www.computerworld.com/article/3250274/blockchain-and-cryptocurrency-may-soon-underpin-cloudstorage.html -EdgePod https://edge-pod.com -Next Generation of Connected Devices https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/02/20/1738424/0/en/MobiledgeX-and-SK-Telecom-toDemonstrate-the-Next-Generation-of-Connected-Devices-and-Edge-Enabled-Application-Experiences-atMWC.html -What is Data Center Security? https://www.forcepoint.com/tr/cyber-edu/data-center-security -The World’s Most Secure Data Center https://www.forbes.com/forbes/2010/1025/technology-wikileaks-stockholm-bahnhof-bombproof-bits. html#73a7b12716d4 -Google Brings Liquid Cooling to Data Centers to Cool Latest AI Chips https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/google-alphabet/google-brings-liquid-cooling-data-centers-coollatest-ai-chips -Microsoft CEO Nadella: Underwater data centers are the future https://www.zdnet.com/article/microsoft-ceo-nadella-underwater-data-centers-are-the-future/ -Why Microsoft Thinks Underwater Data Centers May Cost Less https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/microsoft/why-microsoft-thinks-underwater-data-centers-may-costless -Gartner analyst predicts doom for on-premises data centers https://www.networkworld.com/article/3240992/gartner-analyst-predicts-doom-for-on-premises-datacenters.html -Rackable CloudRack operates in 104-degree data centers https://www.zdnet.com/article/rackable-cloudrack-operates-in-104-degree-data-centers/ -Energy Hogs: Can World’s Huge Data Centers Be Made More Efficient? https://e360.yale.edu/features/energy-hogs-can-huge-data-centers-be-made-more-efficient -Under the sea, Microsoft tests a datacenter that’s quick to deploy 148

Autonomous Territory


https://news.microsoft.com/features/under-the-sea-microsoft-tests-a-datacenter-thats-quick-to-deploycould-provide-internet-connectivity-for-years/ -UK braced for tougher e-waste policies as impacts on human food chains revealed https://www.edie.net/news/5/techUK-calls-for-tougher-e-waste-policies-after-illegal-exports-found-to-becontaminating-food-chains/ -Modular Artificial Reef https://www.reefdesignlab.com/mars -Waste Heat Recovery In Data Centers https://www.smithgroup.com/perspectives/2018/waste-heat-recovery-in-data-centers -Svalbard Demilitarized https://www.historychannel.com.au/this-day-in-history/svalbard-demilitarized/ -Demilitarisation and neutralisation of Svalbard https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/polar-record/article/demilitarisation-and-neutralisation-ofsvalbard-how-has-the-svalbard-regime-been-able-to-meet-the-changing-security-realities-during-almost100-years-of-existence/907DA8BACCA9FE39204C7FBBFC6E1024 -Privacy Shield on Shaky Ground https://www.lawfareblog.com/privacy-shield-shaky-ground-whats-eu-us-data-privacy-regulations -Keep your data safe from the apocalypse in an Arctic mineshaft https://www.theverge.com/2017/4/4/15159148/norway-data-vault-svalberd-mine-storage -Failover Architectures: the Infrastructural Excess of the Data Centre Industry https://failedarchitecture.com/failover-architectures-the-infrastructural-excess-of-the-data-centre-industry/ -Eyes That Do Not See: Tracking the Self in the Age of the Data Center www.harvarddesignmagazine.org/issues/38/eyes-that-do-not-see-tracking-the-self-in-the-age-of-the-datacenter - Estonia to set up world’s 1st data embassy in Luxembourg www.rt.com/news/393272-estonia-first-data-embassy/ -The Future Of Data Centers https://www.cbinsights.com/research/future-of-data-centers/ - The Eight Trends That Will Shape the Data Center Industry in 2019 https://datacenterfrontier.com/the-eight-trends-that-will-shape-the-data-center-industry-in-2019/ -This is Europe’s Hottest Emerging Data Center Market https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/colocation/europe-s-hottest-emerging-data-center-market - Data centers are the new bedrock of the Dutch economy https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/news/report-data-centers-are-the-new-bedrock-of-the-dutcheconomy/ - Dutch Data Landscape https://www.laurabrouwer.nl/dutchdatalandscape.html https://www.laurabrouwer.nl/timelapse.html -Dutch Data Centers https://www.dutchdatacenters.nl/en/publications/ -State of the Dutch Data Hub 2017 https://www.thehaguesecuritydelta.com/media/com_hsd/report/156/document/Digital-Gateway-to-EuropeState-of-the-Dutch-Data-Hub.pdf https://www.dutchdatacenters.nl/en/publications/state-the-dutch-data-centers-2018/ - Google invests €500 M in Dutch Data Center https://nltimes.nl/2018/03/16/google-invests-eu500-million-dutch-data-center -Google Cloud Region in the Netherlands https://investinholland.com/business-operations/data-centers/ -Microsoft’s €2Bn Netherlands data center revealed https://www.datacenterdynamics.com/news/microsofts-2bn-netherlands-data-center-revealed/ -The Heliopolitics of Data Center Security http://blog.castac.org/2017/06/heliopolitics-security/ -Take a tour through a Google data center: https://www.google.com/about/datacenters/inside/streetview/ -Eternal 5D data storage could record the history of humankind https://www.southampton.ac.uk/news/2016/02/5d-data-storage-update.page -Liquid hard drive could store 1TB data in a tablespoon https://www.wired.co.uk/article/liquid-hard-drives

Autonomous Territory

149


documentaries -Bundled, Buried & Behind Closed Doors, short documentary https://vimeo.com/30642376 -Timo Arnall, Internet machine http://www.elasticspace.com/2014/05/internet-machine -Automated Landscapes, Het Nieuwe Instituut seminar https://automated-landscapes.hetnieuweinstituut.nl/data-centres-seminar?utm_medium=email&utm_ source=newslet-ter+111218&utm_campaign=rd&utm_content=data+centres+seminar -Data Centers Seminar Session 1. Stijn Grove (Dutch Data Center Association) https://vimeo.com/302837551 -Data Center Knowledge channel https://www.youtube.com/user/DataCenterVideos podcasts -Playboy’s First Data Center, or Birth of the Internet Colo https://www.datacenterknowledge.com/archives/2017/06/05/playboys-first-data-center-or-birth-of-theinternet-colo -#01 Data Space: The Architecture and Impact of Data Centres https://failedarchitecture.com/podcast/01-data-space-the-architecture-and-impact-of-data-centres/

150

Autonomous Territory


Autonomous Territory

151


PROJECT SUMMARY “... by the year 2020, about 1.7 megabytes of new information will be created every second for every human being on the planet. As the digital transformation of our society expands, data centers play the critical role of providing the technology backbone that supports our digital lifestyle. In fact, data centers are accommodating these needs by occupying almost two billion square feet of facility floor space across the world. “ Steven Carlini, Schneider-Electric

In this global context, we try to ask why and how data center will develop in the future and how it will influence our city and nature in a more profound way in this research. Due to the huge growth in data demand worldwide, the traditional data center model has shown its limitations. But from the trends in the data center typology evolution and geographical distribution we can see a possibility of a completely independent huge system. Benefits from advanced computer technology, high-speed networking and artificial intelligence, the next generation data center can be close to the most advantageous external factors and develop to the most effective form for itself.

• TUDelft • Complex Projects • Arda Ertan Yildiz, Yongyi Wu • 2018-2019 • 152

Autonomous Territory

Profile for Arda Ertan Yıldız

Autonomous Territory - Arda Ertan Yildiz, Wu Yongyi [updated]  

Produced for Complex Project - Datapolis - Datacenter, Delft, 2019.

Autonomous Territory - Arda Ertan Yildiz, Wu Yongyi [updated]  

Produced for Complex Project - Datapolis - Datacenter, Delft, 2019.

Advertisement