Issuu on Google+

CANADA’S ARCTIC JOURNAL

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2013 • $ 5.95

1989

Qajaqtuqtut KeepingTraditions Alive

Arctic Youth Expedition 2013 NorthWords Winners

On the Ledge PM40050872

Coats Island Murres at Risk?

o

Featured on

www.arcticjournal.ca

2013


Copper Inuit ‘Green Book’ Hymns 1 0 - Y E A R

A N N I V E R S A R Y

InnovatIve & ResponsIve CommunIty RadIo (2003 - 2013) This year is a special anniversary in Kugluktuk’s efforts to promote emotional health and well being; 2013 marks 10 years of Sam Kikpak’s legacy for helping people in Kugluktuk to independently reflect on their personal growth. In 2003 the Kugluktuk Radio Society (KRS) finished restoring the last known, near complete and nearly lost collection of recorded “Green Book” hymns, and launched the ‘Hymn Hour’ radio show. alice and don ayalik review production edits of the hymns. many of the final edits were done wherever it was most convenient for elders, sometimes out on the land while picking berries. © davId Ho

By 2002 many local recordings were preserved on a few cassette tapes located here, there and anywhere. Sam had the last known set of the hymns; he was concerned that attendance at the local churches was declining, and that fewer people were reading the Inuktitut version of the Green Book. At the time, Sam was the Deacon in Charge at Saint Andrew’s Anglican Church. Sam and Lena wanted easy access and mass promotion of the hymns. The Anglican Mission recorded the hymns between 1951 and 1969 with the Reverend John ‘Jack’ Sperry and his wife Betty (Maclaren). Hymn Hour became the first locally produced radio program in Kugluktuk (Coppermine). The show stands as the longest lasting radio show in Kugluktuk since community radio began in 1975. Mike Webster volunteered with KRS for 2 years to design and complete the project. Since 2003 there have been over 4,000 hours of Hymn Hour, airing regularly when Kugluktuk elders most wanted to hear the show at 6 am (and 2-3 pm on Sundays), 7 days a week. A decade later, the show remains popular among all ages. We are pleased to help commemorate Sam and Lena’s wish to promote self-care, language and to make the hymns as widely available as possible. By marking the 10th anniversary of this project, Healthy Kugluktuk hopes you enjoy the hymns during the quiet of the morning. Joseph Niptanatiak, President Society for Building a Healthier Kugluktuk

www.healthykugluktuk.ca

the Complete Collection of nearly all 200 ‘sperry’ hymns is made up of 3 album sets: Hymns for all seasons, Hymns for the soul and Hymns for every day. each album, or the Complete Collection with bonus hymns and readings by sam, is available to purchase at www.healthykugluktuk.ca where the spiritual Life page also has a feature for a free sample listen of the Hymns and prayer Readings. phone in your psas, ads & messages from anywhere in the world. Kugluktuk wants to hear from you! For details on getting a pIn go to www.CKUG.ca KRs specializes in 24/7 programming, with an emphasis on the production of content; for live content, KRs focuses on specialty shows. visit www.CKUG.ca for details about staying at the staff House while doing radio-related business.

youth in Kugluktuk helped build one of the most amazing broadcasting facilities in nunavut. mid-way through renovations, Rev. malcolm palmer blessed the youth volunteers, the workers and the KRs board. Rev. Captain andrew Robertson blessed the final outcome in 2011, giving positive recognition to all the youth and volunteers who kept the 6-year project moving forward. artists John and dearly departed Lena allukpik as well as Chantal dupas painted one of the largest indoor murals in nunavut, a traditional scene of when there was no caribou available to eat in the late 1940s. the painting interacts with the station’s theatrical lighting to give an effect of changing times of the day, and even changing seasons.

www.CKUG.ca


We fly more. You wait less. REPULSE BAY

YELLOWKNIFE

IQALUIT

BAKER LAKE

RANKIN INLET HAY RIVER

WHALE COVE

KUUJJUAQ

ARVIAT

OTTAWA

Enjoy new same-day connections to Ottawa every Monday and Friday 7F863

Iqaluit

16:55

>

Ottawa

20:00

New same-day connections available from Arviat, Baker Lake, Hay River, Kuujjuaq, Rankin Inlet, Repulse Bay, Whale Cove and Yellowknife

Like us!

/firstair

Book online at firstair.ca or call 1 800 267 1247


Brock Friesen / XÇ4 K‰n8

Bringing families and friends together across the north Since I joined First Air earlier this year, I have been visiting the communities we serve and meeting the residents. They may live in small communities dotting the vast Arctic landscape, but there is a real sense of connection. In each place I visit, I am struck by the level of unity and strength northerners possess and demonstrate. It is easy to understand the importance of providing reliable and dependable air services year round. I am very proud to be a part of First Air and supporting northerners in maintaining their sense of connection. This time of year is especially important to bring people together as they prepare to celebrate the holidays with family and friends. One of the ways we continue to strive in providing premier air services to northerners is investing in our aircraft. In December, we are introducing our first of the two Boeing 737-400 combi aircraft. It will replace the 737-200 currently servicing Kuujjuaq daily from Montreal. It will also continue on to Iqaluit on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. Just like the new 737-400 all-passenger aircraft we introduced in September, we’re pleased that our customers will notice more space and increased comfort in flight. This combi aircraft boasts additional cargo capacity which will also increase our ability to serve you better. The other 737-400 combi aircraft will be introduced in the New Year, at which time we will announce which route it will service. In the meantime, I wish you and your family health and happiness throughout this holiday season. I look forward to seeing you onboard and thank you for flying First Air, The Airline of the North. Brock Friesen First Air President & CEO

Jobie Tukkiapik / JW bexW4

ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᐅᓂᒃ ᐃᓚᒌᓂᒃ ᐱᖃᓐᓈᕇᖕᓂᒡᓗ ᑲᑎᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᑎᑦᑎᓂᖅ

ᑕᐃᒪᙵᓂᑦ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᖓ ᒥᕝᕕᒋᕙᑦᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐳᓚᕋᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓯᒪᔪᖓ ᓄᓇᓕᖕᒥᐅᓪᓗ ᑕᑰᑎᔪᒪᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᓄᓇᓖᑦ ᒥᑭᔫᒐᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᐊᓗᖕᒥᑦ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐊᒃᑐᐊᖃᑎᒌᖕᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᒃᐱᖕᓇᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᖅ. ᓄᓇᓕᖕᒦᓕᕌᖓᒪ ᐅᐱᓐᓇᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᐅᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᖏᑦ ᓴᙱᓂᐊᓗᖏᓪᓗ ᑕᑯᓐᓇᕐᒪᑕ.

ᑐᑭᓯᓇᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᖅ ᓱᒻᒪ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐊᓘᖕᒪᖔᑦ ᓈᒻᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᒪᐅᖏᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒡᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᕋᑦᑎᐊᕆᐊᖃᕐᓂᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᓕᒫᖅ. ᐅᐱᒍᓱᑦᑎᐊᕐᒥᔪᖓ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᒐᒪ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᐅᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᕋᓱᒃᖢᒋᑦ ᐊᒃᑐᐊᖃᑎᒌᖏᓐᓇᑦᑎᐊᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐅᑭᐅᑉ ᓄᙳᐊ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᓂᖅᐹᖑᓕᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᖅ ᑭᒃᑯᑐᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦ ᑲᑎᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᒍᖕᓇᖅᑎᒋᐊᒥᒃ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᖃᑎᒌᒃᐸᓪᓕᐊᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᓚᒌᓪᓗ ᐱᖃᓐᓈᕇᓪᓗ ᐃᓚᓐᓈᕇᑦ.

ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᓂᒃ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᑦᑎᐊᒻᒪᕇᓐᓇᕋᓱᒍᑎᒋᖕᒥᔭᕗᑦ ᓂᐅᕕᖃᑦᑕᖅᖢᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓂᒃ. ᑎᓯᐱᕆᒥ ᐊᑐᕆᐊᓕᕐᒥᔪᒍᑦ ᐱᑖᕆᓵᓚᐅᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ Boeing 737-400 ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓄᓪᓗ ᐅᓯᑲᖅᑕᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅ. ᐃᓇᖏᖅᓯᓛᖅᑐᖅ 737-200 ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᖅ ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᑰᔾᔪᐊᕐᒧᑦ ᒪᓐᑐᔨᐊᒥᑦ. ᑲᔪᓯᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓄᑦ ᓇᒡᒐᔾᔭ, ᐱᖓᔪᐊᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᓪᓗᑐᐃᓐᓇᕐᒥᑦ.

ᓯᑎᐱᕆᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᑐᓕᓵᓚᐅᖅᑕᕗᑎᑐᑦ 737-400 ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓄᐃᓐᓈᖅᑐᖅ, ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᑐᒍᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᑦ ᐃᓂᖃᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓛᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᖢᕐᕆᓂᖅᓴᐅᓗᑎᒡᓗ ᑕᒡᕘᓇ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑰᓕᕈᑎᒃ. ᑖᓐᓇ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓄᓪᓗ ᐅᓯᖃᖅᑕᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅ ᐅᓯᑲᖅᑕᕐᕕᖓ ᐊᖏᓂᖅᓴᐅᖕᒥᔪᖅ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᑦᑎᐊᕈᖕᓇᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓗᑕᓗ ᐃᓕᖕᓂᒃ.

ᐱᖃᑖ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᑦᑐᖅ 737-400 ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓄᓪᓗ ᐅᓯᑲᖅᑕᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅ ᐊᑐᕆᐊᓕᓛᕐᒥᔭᕗᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᕐᒥᑦ ᓄᑖᕐᒥᑦ, ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᔪᒫᕆᓪᓗᑕ ᓇᐅᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᖃᑦᑕᓛᕐᒪᖔᑦ. ᒫᓐᓇᓚᐅᑲᒡᓕ, ᐃᓚᑎᓪᓗ ᖃᓄᐃᙱᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᐊᖅᐳᓯᑐᖅ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᑦᑎᐊᕐᓗᓯ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᖕᓇᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ.

President, Makivik Corporation & Chairman, First Air xzJ6√6, mr=F4 fxS‰nzk5 x7m w4y?sb6, {5 wsf8k5 Président, Société Makivik et président du conseil, First Air

Réunir les familles et les amis dans le Nord Depuis que je me suis joint à First Air au début de 2013, j’ai visité les communautés que nous desservons et rencontré les résidents. Quoiqu’ils vivent dans de petites collectivités parsemées dans le vaste territoire arctique, on y trouve un sentiment de rapprochement bien réel. À chaque endroit que je visite, je suis touché par le niveau d’unité et de force que possèdent les habitants du Nord et dont ils font preuve. Il est facile de comprendre l’importance de fournir des services aériens fiables et sûrs tout au long de l’année. Je suis très fier de faire partie de First Air et de contribuer à ce que les habitants du Nord maintiennent leur sentiment de rapprochement. Ce temps de l’année est particulièrement important alors qu’ils se préparent à célébrer les Fêtes avec leurs familles et leurs amis. Afin de fournir des services aériens de premier ordre dans le Nord, nous visons entre autres à investir dans nos aéronefs. En décembre, nous allons introduire le premier de nos deux aéronefs mixtes, le Boeing 737-400. Il remplacera le 737-200 qui dessert quotidiennement Kuujjuaq à partir de Montréal et il continuera de desservir Iqaluit les lundis, mercredis et vendredis. Tout comme le nouvel aéronef 737-400 que nous avons introduit en septembre, nous sommes heureux que nos clients puissent profiter de plus d’espace et de confort en vol. Cet aéronef mixte a plus de capacité de chargement, ce qui nous permettra de mieux vous servir. L’autre aéronef mixte 737-400 sera introduit en 2014, et nous annoncerons la route qu’il desservira. En attendant, je vous souhaite ainsi qu’à vos familles, santé et bonheur tout au long de la période des Fêtes.

ᑕᑯᓛᖅᐸᒋᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᒐᕕᑦ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᑦ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᒻᒪᕇᑦ.

J’espère pouvoir vous rencontrer à bord et vous remercie d’avoir choisi First Air, la Ligne aérienne du Nord.

ᐸᕌᒃ ᕗᕇᓴᓐ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᖓᔪᖅᑳᖅ & ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ

Brock Friesen Président-directeur général de First Air

ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᑎᑦᑕᕗᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᓃᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᕘᔅᑎᐊ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᒻᒪᕆᐅᑎᒃᑲᕕᐅᒃ.

We value your support and thank you for making First Air The Airline of the North. Nous apprécions votre soutien et vous remercions de votre appui à First Air la ligne aérienne du Nord.


First Air Focus ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᒋᐊᕐᓂᖅ

Thomas Cousins: ᑖᒧᓯ ᑲᓴᓐᓯ:

In pursuit of aviation excellence ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᑦᑎᐊᕙᐅᔪᒪᔪᖅ Thomas Cousins is all smiles on the day of his first solo flight in Ottawa.

ᑖᒧᓯ ᑲᓴᓐᓯ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᖅ ᐃᓄᑑᓪᓗᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᐅᑲᐃᓐᓇᕋᒥ ᐋᑐᕚᒥᑦ.

Photo courtesy of Thomas Cousins

First Air is proud to sponsor Thomas Cousins of Iqaluit, Nunavut, with the Northern Aviation Scholarship this school year. He entered his first year of the Aviation Management Diploma program at Algonquin College in Ottawa in September. Before pursuing post-secondary education, Thomas could be found greeting our customers with his infectious smile at the Iqaluit ticket counter, where he served as a Customer Service Agent for three years. During his time at First Air, his colleagues quickly recognized his passion for aviation and showed tremendous potential for success in this career field. At First Air, Thomas received strong support for growth and his initiatives proved invaluable to the company. In his application essay, Thomas was proud to share his dedication to our airline and said, “First Air welcomed me from the start, and to this day continues to fuel my passion for aviation.”

To learn more about the Northern Aviation Scholarship program, visit dot.gov.nt.ca and go to the “Youth” section

Through his education, he hopes to realize his childhood dream of becoming a pilot. “I intend on becoming a First Air captain. Advancing in the company is the embodiment of success, and becoming a respected aviator of an admired airline is beyond compare.” We congratulate Thomas and wish him success in his studies, and we look forward to welcoming him onboard again when he takes to the skies as a licensed airline pilot.

ᑐᑭᓯᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒪᒍᕕᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᐅᑦ

The Northern Aviation Scholarship program (formerly the Aviation Career Development Program) supports full-time students from Nunavut and the NWT who are pursuing aviation-related studies.

ᐃᑳᔪᑎ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐊᕐᕕᒍᒃ

Scholarships worth $5,000 are awarded to 16 recipients annually. The fund is sponsored by the NWT Department of Transportation and its partners First Air, Nunavut Department of Economic Development and Transportation, Discovery Air (which owns Air Tindi and Great Slave Helicopters), Keewatin Air and North-Wright Airways.

ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ

dot.gov.nt.ca ᑕᑯᒋᐊᕐᓗ “Youth”.

ᕘᔅᑎᐊ ᐅᐱᒍᓱᒃᑐᖅ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᒥᐅᑕᕐᒥᒃ ᑖᒧᓯ ᑲᓴᓐᓯ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᕆᐊᒥᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᐅᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐃᑳᔪᑎᒥᒃ ᑕᒪᑐᒪᓂ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᐅᔪᒥᒃ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕆᐊᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔪᖕᓇᖅᓯᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᐅᑳᓐᑯᐃᓐ ᓯᓚᑦᑐᖅᓴᕐᕕᖕᒥᑦ ᐋᑐᕚᒥᑦ ᓯᑎᐱᕆᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ.

ᓯᓚᑦᑐᖅᓴᕐᕕᖕᒨᓚᐅᙱᑎᓪᓗᓂ ᓱᓕ, ᑖᒧᓯ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓂᑦ ᒥᕝᕕᖕᒥᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᒋᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᑭᒍᓐᓇᐅᑎᓕᕆᔨᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᑐᙵᓱᒃᑎᑦᑎᑦᑎᐊᖃᑦᑕᖅᖢᓂᓗ. ᑕᐃᑲᓂ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐱᖓᓱᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᓂᒃ. ᕘᔅᑎᐊᑯᓐᓃᑎᓪᓗᓂ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖃᑎᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᑕᕆᔭᐅᑲᐅᑎᒋᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲ-ᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᔫᒥᒍᓱᖕᓂᒻᒪᕆᖓᓂᒃ ᓇᓗᓇᙱᖦᖢᓂᓗ ᐊᔪᙱᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᐊᕐᒪᑦ. ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓃᑎᓪᓗᓂ,

ᑖᒧᓯ

ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖓ

ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᖅᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᒻᒪᕆᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ

ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᔭᖏᓪᓗ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᐃᓱᒪᓕᐊᕆᓯᒪᔭᖏᑦ ᐊᑑᑎᒋᔭᐅᒻᒪᕆᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᑦ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᑯᓐᓄᑦ. ᐃᑲᔫᓯᐊᕐᒥᒃ ᐆᒃᑐᖅᑎᓪᓗᓂ, ᑖᒧᓯ ᑎᑎᕋᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐅᐱᒋᔭᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᒪᐃᓕᓪᓗᓂ, “ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᑐᙵᓱᒃᑎᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᒻᒪᕆᓚᐅᖅᑐᖓ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓕᑐᐊᕋᒪ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᒧᑦ ᓱᓕ ᐱᔫᒥᓱᒍᑎᒋᒻᒪᕆᒃᑕᕋ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ.”

ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕇᖅᓯᒪ���ᕈᓂ ᑖᒧᓯ ᓄᑕᕋᐅᓂᕐᒥᓂᒃ ᐱᔪᒪᐃᓐᓇᖅᓯᒪᔭᖓᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᙳᕈᒪᔪᖅ. “ᕘᔅᑎᐊᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᑳᑉᑕᓐᖑᕈᒪᔪᖓ. ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᖅ ᐊᔪᙱᓂᒻᒪᕆᐅᒐᓱᒋᔭᕋ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᑦᑎᐊᖑᓕᕐᓂᕈᒪ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᑦᑎᐊᕙᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᐱᓐᓇᓗᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕋᔭᖅᑐᖅ.”

ᑖᒧᓯ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒍᑎᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑕᕗᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔪᙱᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖁᓪᓗᒍᓗ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ, ᓂᕆᐅᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᑕᓗ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᓛᓕᕐᒥᒍᑦᑎᒍ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᒋᓗᑎᒍᑦ. ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᐅᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐃᑳᔪᑎ ᑐᕌᖓᔪᖅ ᓄᓇᕗᑦᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕐᒥᐅᓄᓪᓗ ᐅᓪᓗᓕᒫᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓕᓂᐊᕈᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃ. $5,000 ᐃᑲᔫᑎᑦ ᑐᓂᔭᐅᕙᒃᑯᑦ 16-ᓄᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᑕᒫᑦ. ᐃᑲᔫᑎᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕐᒥᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒋᔭᖏᓐᓄᓪᓗ ᕘᔅᑎᐊ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔪᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᓪᓗ, ᑎᔅᑲᕗᕆ ᐃᐊ (ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖃᖅᑐᖅ ᐃᐊ ᑎᓐᑎ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᒍᕋᐃᑦ ᓯᓚᐃᕕ ᖁᓕᒥᒎᑦ), ᑭᕙᐃᑎᓐᓂᐊ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᐊᑦᕙᐃᑦ ᐃᐊᕙᐃᔅ.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

14 Arctic Youth

Expedition 2013

Publisher & Editor Tom Koelbel

— Photos by Lee Narraway

Contributing Editor Teevi Mackay Inuktitut Translation Kevin Kablutsiak Advertising Doris Ohlmann (Ottawa) 613-257-4999

29

Circulation Patt Hunter Design Robert Hoselton, Beat Studios

Keeping Kayak Traditions Alive

email: editor@arcticjournal.ca

Qajaqtuqtut, aka Expedition Q, was the brainchild of Eric McNair-Landry. His dream was to build traditional Inuit kayaks and paddle them across an ancient portage route connecting one side of Baffin Island with the other. He recruited his sister Sarah as well as Katherine Breen and Erik Boomer to embark upon the journey.

Toll Free: 1 • 877 • 2ARCTIC Volume 25, No. 6

November/December 2013

CANADA’S ARCTIC JOURNAL

NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2013 • $ 5.95

1989

Qajaqtuqtut

2013

34

KeepingTraditions Alive

Arctic Youth Expedition 2013 NorthWords Winners

On the Ledge PM40050872

Coats Island Murres at Risk?

o

Featured on

www.arcticjournal.ca

THICK-BILLED MURRES OF COATS ISLAND, NUNAVUT. © ORLA OSBORNE

Cover Price $5.95 SUBSCRIPTION RATES Within Canada 6 issues $27.00 12 issues $52.00

US/Foreign 6 issues $40.00 12 issues $78.00

(Prices Include applicable taxes)

Read online:

arcticjournal.ca Celebrating our 25th year as the popular In-flight magazine for First Air, The Airline of the North.

November/December 2013

Qajaqtuqtut: AKA Expedition Q

On the Ledge of Destruction?

The Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) of Coats Island, Nunavut (northern Hudson Bay), may give the impression that everything may be black and white, but don’t be fooled, the unknown, the grey of global warming, casts a warning light over their low lying Arctic colony. It’s not just the weather that is changing and unpredictable — the animals are too. Human intrusions and scarcity of prey is causing some Arctic predators to alter their normal patterns of behaviour, leading to changes in long-established interspecies relationships. — Text and Photos by Orla Osborne 9

above&beyond Message

10 NORTHERN YOUTH Inuktitut: A Rich Cultural Imperative by Teevi Mackay 21 LIVING ABOVE & BEYOND 23 RESOURCES

25 PROFILE Jimmy Akavak by Nick Newberry 41 COMMUNITY Johnny May’s Candy Drop by Isabelle Dubois 44 Nunavik Hockey Program 46 NorthWords Contest Winners

48 ARTS, CULTURE & EDUCATION Southern Teachers for the North 51 NORTHERN BOOKSHELF 53 INUIT FORUM Strength in Numbers by Terry Audla 54 EXOTICA Arctic Flora by Lee Narraway

PUBLICATIONS MAIL AGREEMENT NO. 40050872 RETURN UNDELIVERABLE CANADIAN ADDRESSES TO: CIRCULATION/ABOVE&BEYOND P.O. BOX 683 MAHONE BAY, NS B0J 2E0 Email: info@arcticjournal.ca

above & beyond

7


above&beyond message

Into the Future based on their inherent curiosity and sincere desire to build a better, safer, and friendlier world for themselves, their peers, their communities, and the wider world. Going forward into the future, the outlook from our point of view is a positive one. Young people and those teachers, trainers, elders, mentors, and organizations dedicated to working with youth to encourage, to help, and to inspire them to forge new ways to health, prosperity and security for themselves and others in the North and beyond, continue to feed our optimism for the North’s prospects down the road, Š LEE NARRAWAY

despite the many serious challenges all circumpolar Arctic nations face. Next year, with particular respect to the editorial mantra Students on Ice Arctic Youth Expedition 2013 participant Joseph Kirkoot (Gjoa Haven) navigates the rope course high in the tree tops at Camp Fortune.

T

that has served us and our readers for a quarter of a century, above&beyond will continue to give special prominence to

he focus of this issue, our last of 2013, is a youthful one,

those stories that highlight and promote the endeavours of

providing a window on the power of knowledge and

active and inspired northerners, young and old, and to those

education and the real-time engagement by youth that is

November/December 2013

who share in their dreams and aspirations.

above & beyond

9


NORTHERN YOuTH

I

have been writing this youth column for almost a year now. I have received feedback from people about it, one of which included that they liked the fact that I share my own personal stories. This is interesting because that was the toughest part when writing — the internal debate I would have — about whether I was being too personal, but I think it has proven to be very powerful for readers. I am about to write about my personal Inuktitut (learning) journey. I am not fluent in Inuktitut but I am able to understand more than I can speak. Definitely in the last five years I have become better at understanding and

ᒪᒃᑯᒃᑐᕐᓄᑦ ᑐᕌᖓᔪᖅ ᑎᑎᕋᕈᑎᒋᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑕᕋ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᑲᓴᒃ. ᑭᒃᑯᑐᐃᓐᓇᕐᓄᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᑖᑉᓱᒪ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ ᑐᓴᕐᕕᐅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᖓ, ᐊᒡᓛᑦ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᖅ ᐅᖃᓚᐅᖅᖢᓂ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᓪᓗᓂᐅᒃ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᓯᒪᔭᓐᓂᒃ ᐅᓂᒃᑲᐅᓯᖃᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᓐᓂᒃ. ᐅᔾᔨᕆᑦᑎᐊᓚᐅᖅᑕᕋ ᓲᖃᐃᒻᒪ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᕆᒐᓱᒃᖢᒋᑦ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᕐᓂᖅᐹᖑᖃᑕᐅᖃᑦᑕᕐᒪᑕ — ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᓇᓗᒍᑎᒋᓯᒪᔭᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓱᒪᓕᐅᕈᑎᖃᕋᓱᒃᖢᖓ — ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᓗᐊᙱᒃᑲᓗᐊᕐᒪᖔᕐᒫ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐊᒃᑐᐃᓂᖃᒻᒪᕆᒃᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᓱᓇᐅᕝᕙ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᓄᑦ. ᐅᓂᒃᑳᓚᐅᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᒐᓱᖕᓂᓐᓂᒃ. ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᒻᒪᕆᒍᖕᓇᖏᑦᑐᖓ ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᖓ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖏᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᖓ. ᑕᓪᓕᒪᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᑦ ᖄᖏᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᔪᖕᓇᖅᓯᓯᒪᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑐᖓ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᖓᓗ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᒃᓲᕈᑎᒋᓂᖅᓴᐅᕙᓪᓕᐊᓕᕋᒃᑯ.

T

aanna makkukturnut turaangajuq titirarutigittaqsimaliqtara atausiq ukiukasak. Kikkutuinnarnut isumagijanginnik taapsuma miksaanut tusarviusimaliqtunga, aglaat atausiq uqalauq&uni quviagilluniuk nangminiq atuqsimajannik unikkausiqaqattarninnik. Ujjirittialauqtara suuqaimma tamakkua titirausirigasuk&ugit ajurnarniqpaanguqatauqattarmata — nangminiq nalugutigisimajannik isumaliurutiqarasuk&unga — uqausiqaluanngikkaluarmangaarmaa nangminiq, kisiani aktuiniqammariksimajuq sunauvva uqalimaaqattaqtunut. Unikkaalaurniaqtunga Inuktitut uqarungnaqsigasungninnik. Inuktitut uqammarigung-

Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ:

A rich cultural imperative

© VINCENT L’HÉRAULT

ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐊᓘᔪᖅ

speaking Inuktitut because I have made more of an effort in this area. I was born in Arctic Bay, Nunavut, and moved to Iqaluit when I was just three-yearsold — in the midst of my formative years. I am sure that I was able to understand and speak Inuktitut before moving to Iqaluit. Almost instantaneously after moving to the mostly English-speaking community of Iqaluit, I lost the ability to speak Inuktitut. My gears at this age quickly switched to speaking English. It is incredibly difficult and heartbreaking to be unable to speak your own language. This is something that I struggle with and yet I know that if I tried hard enough I could learn it and become fluent. I have sought encouragement from family to learn Inuktitut and I remember my late cousin Nigel telling me “try your best.” These words of encouragement have always rung strong with me and still do today. I know that many Inuit have strong opinions about Inuktitut, as we should. I have had discussions in the past with classmates who believe that understanding and speaking Inuktitut is a fundamental part of our culture and identity as

10

arcticjournal.ca

Inuktitut:

Iliqqusirmut Pimmarialuujuq by / unikkaaqtanga Teevi Mackay / ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑐᖅ ᑏᕙᐃ ᒪᑲᐃ

ᓄᓇᕗᑦᒥᑦ ᐃᒃᐱᐊᕐᔪᖕᒥᑦ ᐃᓅᓚᐅᖅᑐᖓ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓅᓕᖅᖢᖓ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓄᑦ ᐱᖓᓱᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖃᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᖓ — ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᒻᒪᕆᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᖓ. ᓇᓗᓇᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᔪᖕᓇᓚᐅᕋᒪ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᖢᖓᓗ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓄᑦ ᓅᓚᐅᙱᑎᓪᓗᖓ ᓱᓕ. ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓄᑦ ᓄᒃᑎᖅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᖓ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᓄᑦ, ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᐃᓕᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᖓ. ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᖅᖠᖔᖅ ᐅᖃᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᑐᐃᓐᓇᓕᖅᖢᖓ. ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓇᖅᑐᐊᓗᒃ ᐆᒻᒪᔾᔮᕈᑕᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᓪᓚᑦᑖᓐᓂᒃ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖏᓐᓂᖅ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕈᑎᒋᖃᑦᑕᖅᑕᕋ ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᒐᓗᐊᖅᖢᖓ ᐊᒃᓱᕉᑎᒋᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒃᑯ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᑦᑎᐊᕋᔭᕋᒪ. ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᖅᑕᐅᖁᓯᒪᔪᖓ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒍᒪᓪᓗᖓ ᐃᖅᑲᐅᒪᓪᓗᒃᑯ ᐊᕐᓇᖃᑎᒋᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔭᕋ ᓇᐃᔾᔪ ᐅᕙᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᖕᒪᑦ “ᐱᔪᖕᓇᕐᓂᓕᒫᕐᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᐆᒃᑐᖃᑦᑕᕆᑦ.” ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᕐᓂᕆᓯᒪᔭᖓ ᓴᙱᔫᑎᒋᓯᒪᐃᓐᓇᖅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑕᕋ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᒧᑦ. ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔪᖓ ᐅᓄᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓴᖑᔪᖕᓇᖏᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᒃᐱᒋᔭᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ, ᓲᖃᐃᒻᒪ ᓱᓕᔪᑦ. ᐅᖃᖃᑎᒋᓯᒪᖕᒥᔭᒃᑲ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖃᑎᒋᓯᒪᔭᒃᑲ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᐊ ᐅᒃᐱᕈᓱᒃᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᓂᖅ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᕐᓂᕐᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖓᓐᓂᒃ ᓴᖅᑭᐅᒪᔾᔪᑕᐅᖕᒪᑦ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᑭᓇᐅᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᐅᒃᐱᕈᓱᖃᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᕐᒥᔪᖓ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓪᓗᖓᓗ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐊᓘᖕᒪᑦ, ᑲᑕᒃᑎᕆᓂᖅᓴᐅᖏᓪᓗᑕ. ᐅᓄᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᑐᓴᖅᓯᒪᔪᖓ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᐅᒐᔪᒃᑐᒥᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᓂᒃ ᖄᖏᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᑲᙳᓱᖃᑦᑕᕐᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᑕᒻᒪᕈᒪᙱ-

nangittunga kisiani tukisianiqsaujunga uqarungnanginniqsaullunga. Tallimat ukiut qaangiqtunik tukisiajungnaqsisimaniqsauliqtunga uqarungnaqsiniqsaullungalu Inuktitut aksuurutiginiqsauvallialirakku. Nunavutmit Ikpiarjungmit inuulauqtunga, ammalu nuuliq&unga Iqalungnut pingasunik ukiuqaliqtillunga — uqarungnaqsivalliammariliqtillunga. Nalunanngittuq tukisiajungnalaurama uqarungnaq&ungalu Inuktitut Iqalungnut nuulaunngitillunga suli. Iqalungnut nuktiqsimaliqtillunga Qallunaatitut uqarniqsaujunut, Inuktitut uqarungnailiqpallialilauqtunga. Qallunaatituq&ingaaq uqarniqsautuinnaliq&unga. Aksururnaqtualuk uummajjaarutaullunilu uqausillattaannik uqarungnanginniq. Tamanna aksururutigiqattaqtara kisianilu qaujimagaluaq&unga aksuruutigigiakkannirukku Inuktitut uqarungnaqsittiarajarama. Ikajuqtuqtauqusimajunga ilagijannut Inuktitut iligumallunga iqqaumallukku arnaqatigilauqsimajara Nigel uvannut uqalauqsimangmat “Pijungnarnilimaarnik aturlutit uuktuqattarit.” Ikajuqturnirisimajanga sanngijuutigisimainnaqsimaliqtara ullumimut.

November/December 2013


NORTHERN YOuTH Inuit, and rightly so. I also believe strongly today and know that encouragement is so important in this area, rather than discouragement. I have heard a common dialogue from many Inuit over the years about being shy to speak it in fear of making mistakes and embarrassing themselves. I even had a childhood friend say to me that it would sound strange if I were to speak Inuktitut fluently which I feel today was a form of discouragement because I know that it did, indeed, discourage me because I then felt insecure in that area. However, recently I have heard quite the opposite from a close friend of mine who is fluent in Inuktitut and who has been instrumental in being that encouraging voice and mentor in the area of my Inuktitut acquisition. Part of maturing is becoming aware of these social nuances between yourself and your peers. I have become attuned to who genuinely encourages and aware of those who either directly or indirectly discourage you to become better. I have listened to the Inuktitut radio as a friend of mine suggested it as it helps with learning Inuktitut. Learning Inuktitut songs while I was enrolled at Nunavut Sivuniksavut (an eight-month training program for Nunavut Inuit) was also an important part of becoming better at speaking Inuktitut. I do know that immersing yourself in the language within a community where Inuktitut is strong is probably the best way to learn it. A childhood friend of mine from Iqaluit, Franco Buscemi, told me about his experience regaining Inuktitut fluency. He said that he had to “overcome a few myths that have presented themselves as obstacles and fear” of becoming fluent in Inuktitut. The first myth: he is not good at learning languages. However, he was able to do it anyway. Buscemi says, “Speaking publicly or speaking with people who prefer to use Inuktitut has been effective in building my fluency.” The second myth against Inuktitut acquisition, according to Buscemi, is having no time to learn Inuktitut. He says, “this is a validation [to not learn Inuktitut]; there is always time — I determine how I allocate it.” Buscemi says that you will always be criticized but “there are far more people who will support and foster the development of learning Inuktitut than there are critics.” Additionally, you should not be discouraged to learn Inuktitut because of the dominance of English because that is just an excuse. My uncle told me once that when you are fluent in Inuktitut then you become more attuned and closer to the land as Inuit are

November/December 2013

Kingulliqpaaq ukpirijaq sulinngittuq Inuktitut iligasungnirmik Buscemi-up uqausirilauqtanga uvannut: “Inuktitut iligasuk&ugu ajurnaqtualuk.” Kisianili Inuktitut ajurnaqtualuunngittuq iligasuk&ugu. Iitaujungnaqtuq, ilitaujuksattiaq, ammalu ilitaujariaqaqtuq. ᓗᐊᕐᓂᑯᒧᑦ. ᓄᑕᕋᐅᖃᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᖃᓐᓇᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖓ ᐊᒡᓛᑦ ᐅᕙᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐊᔾᔨᐅᖏᐊᓗᒐᔭᕐᒪᒡᒎᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᑦᑎᐊᕈᒪ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᑲᑕᒃᑎᕆᓂᐅᓱᒋᔭᕋ ᓲᖃᐃᒻᒪ ᑲᑕᒃᑎᑕᐅᔫᔭᕈᑎᒋᓚᐅᕋᒃᑯ ᑐᓐᓂᐊᓕᕈᑎᒋᓪᓗᒃᑯᓗ. ᑭᓯᐊᓂ, ᐱᖃᓐᓇᕆᔭᒻᒪᕆᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᒧᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᔾᔭᐅᓵᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖓ ᐊᓯᐊᓂᒃ, ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᓯᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᓂ ᐅᕙᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᓕᕋᓱᖕᓂᓐᓂᒃ. ᐱᕈᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓪᓗᓂ ᑐᑭᓯᓕᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓇᖅᑐᖅ ᐅᔾᔨᕈᓱᓕᕐᓇᖅᖢᓂᓗ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓂᖓᑦ ᐃᓅᖃᑎᒌᒃᖢᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᖃᑎᒌᖕᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᖃᓐᓈᕆᒃᖢᑕ. ᐅᔾᔨᕈᓱᖕᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑐᖓ ᑭᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᑦᑎᐊᖃᑦᑕᕐᒪᖔᑖ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑕᐃᒃᑯᓇᙵᑦ ᑲᑕᒃᑎᕆᓂᖅᓴᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᔪᙱᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᑦᑕᐃᓕᓪᓗᑎᒃ. ᓈᓚᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᔪᖓ ᓈᓚᐅᑎᒥᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑑᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᖃᓐᓈᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᔾᔭᐅᓚᐅᕐᒥᒐᒪ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᑕᐅᖕᒥᖕᒪᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᒃᖢᓂ. ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑑᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᙱᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᕙᓪᓕᐊᓚᐅᕐᓂᕋ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᓯᕗᓂᒃᓴᕗᑦᒥᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᖓ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᓂᖃᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᔪᓴᓕᖅᐸᓪᓕᐊᓂᓐᓄᑦ. ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔪᖓ ᓄᓇᓕᖕᒦᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᑲᐅᓂᖅᐹᖑᔪᒃᓴᐅᖕᒪᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ. ᓄᑕᕋᐅᑎᓪᓗᖓ ᐱᖃᓐᓈᕆᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᖕᒥᔭᕋ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓂᑦ, ᕗᕋᐃᖕᑯ ᐳᓴᒥ, ᐅᕙᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᒪᓂᖓᓂᒃ. ᐅᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ “ᑐᓗᕈᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᕋᓇᕈᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒡᓗ ᐅᖓᑕᐅᑦᑎᒋᐊᖃᓚᐅᕐᒪᑦ” ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᒃᑎᓪᓗᓂ. ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᔭᖅ ᓱᓕᙱᑦᑐᖅ: ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᓂᒃ ᓄᑖᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᒍᓐᓇᖏᓐᓇᒥ. ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᐃᓕᒍᓐᓇᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ. ᐳᓴᒥ ᐅᖃᖅᑐᖅ, “ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᓯᕗᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐅᖃᖃᑎᖃᖅᖢᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᒪᓂᖅᓴᐅᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᑲᔪᕐᓂᖃᒻᒪᕆᒃᓯᒪᖕᒪᑕ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᓐᓂᒃ.” ᐳᓴᒥ ᐅᖃᓚᐅᕐᒥᔪᖅ ᑐᒡᓕᐊ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᔭᖅ ᓱᓕᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᔪᓴᓂᐅᑉ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ ᐱᕕᒃᓴᖃᑦᑎᐊᖏᒐᓱᒃᖢᓂ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᖕᓂᕐᒥᒃ. ᐅᖃᖅᑐᖅ, “ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᐃᓕᒍᒪᙱᓂᐅᔪᖅ; ᐱᕕᒃᓴᖃᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᖅ — ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᐃᓱᒪᓕᐅᕈᖕᓇᖅᑐᖓ ᖃᓄᑎᒋ ᐱᕕᒃᓴᖃᓛᕐᒪᖔᕐᒫ.” ᐳᓴᒥ ᐅᖃᓚᐅᖅᑐᖅ ᑕᒻᒪᖃᑦᑕᖅᑕᕐᓂᒃ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᔪᖃᐃᓐᓇᐅᔭᕐᓂᐊᕐᒪᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂ “ᐅᓄᕐᓂᖅᓵᓗᐃᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᖕᓂᕐᒥᒃ.” ᐊᒻᒪᓗᑦᑕᐅᖅ, ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᒻᒪᕆᖕᓂᖅᓴᐅᒐᓗᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᓂ ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᓄᖅᑲᕈᑎᒋᑦᑕᐃᓕᔭᕆᐊᖃᒃᑲᑦ. ᐊᑕᐅᓰᖅᖢᓂ ᐊᖓᖕᒪ ᐅᖃᐅᑎᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔮᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᑦᑎᐊᕈᕕᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᕋᔭᕋᕕᑦ ᖃᓂᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅ-

Qaujimajunga unuqtut Inuit sangujungnangittunik ikpigijaqarmata Inuktitut miksaanut, suuqaimma sulijut. Uqaqatigisimangmijakka ilinniaqatigisimajakka taikkua ukpirusuktut Inuktitut tukisianiq uqarungnarnirlu Inuit iliqqusingannik saqqiumajjutaungmat pimmariullunilu kinaunittinnut. Ukpirusuqatauttiarmijunga qaujimallungalu ikajuqtuittiarniq pimmarialuungmat, kataktiriniqsaungilluta. Unuqtunik Inungnik tusaqsimajunga uqausiugajuktumik ukiunik qaangiqtunik kanngusuqattarmata Inuktitut tammarumanngiluarnikumut. Nutarauqatinnik piqannaqalauqtunga aglaat uvannut uqalauqsimajuq ajjiungialugajarmagguuq Inuktitut uqarungnattiaruma. Tamanna kataktiriniusugijara suuqaimma kataktitaujuujarutigilaurakku tunnialirutigillukkulu. Kisiani, piqannarijammarinnut Inuktitut uqarungnattiaqtumut uqaujjausaalaurmijunga asianik, ikajuqtuisimattiaq&uni uvannik Inuktitut uqarungnalirasungninnik. Piruqpallialluni tukisiliqpallianaqtuq ujjirusulirnaq&unilu tamakkuningat inuuqatigiik&uta qanuiliuqatigiingnittinnik piqannaarik&uta. Ujjirusungniqsauliqtunga kikkut ikajuqtuittiaqattarmangaataa ammalu taikkunanngat kataktiriniqsauvaktunik ajunngiliqtittittailillutik. Naalaqattaqsimajunga naalautimik Inuktituuqtunik piqannaannut uqaujjaulaurmigama ikajurutaungmingmat Inuktitut iligasuk&uni. Inuktituuqtunik inngiutinik ilivallialaurnira Nunavut Sivuniksavutmit ilinniaqtillunga pimmariuniqalaurmijuq Inuktitut uqajusaliqpallianinnut. Qaujimajunga nunalingmiilluni Inuktitut uqaqattarniqsaujunik akauniqpaangujuksaungmat uqarungnaqsinirmut Inuktitut. Nutarautillunga piqannaarilauqsimangmijara Iqalungnit, Franco Buscemi, uvannut unikkaalauqtuq Inuktitut uqarungnaqsimaninganik. Uqalauqtuq “Tulurutauvaktunik iliranarutauvaktuniglu ungatauttigiaqalaurmat” Inuktitut iligasuktilluni. Sivulliq ukpirijaq sulinngittuq: Uqausirnik nutaanik iligunnanginnami. Kisianili iligunnalilauqtuq. Buscemi uqaqtuq, “Inuit sivuninginnik uvvaluunniit uqaqatiqaq&uni Inuktitut uqarumaniqsauqattaqtunik ikajurniqammariksimangmata Inuktitut uqarungnaqsivallianinnik.” Buscemi uqalaurmijuq tuglia ukpirijaq sulinngittuq Inuktitut uqajusaniup miksaanut piviksaqattiangigasuk&uni Inuktitut iligasungnirmik. Uqaqtuq, “tamanna iligumannginiujuq; piviksaqainnaqtuq — nangminiq isumaliurungnaqtunga qanutigi piviksaqalaarmangaarmaa.” Buscemi uqalauqtuq tammaqattaqtarnik nalunaiqsijuqainnaujarniarmat kisiani “Unurniq-

above & beyond

11


The last myth associated with Inuktitut acquisition that Buscemi shared with me: “Inuktitut is a hard language to learn.” Actually Inuktitut isn’t a difficult language to learn. It can be learned, should be learned, and must be learned. closely connected to our land, animals, and one another through communities and ultimately through our language. This is something that really intrigues me. I also feel an incredible connection when I speak in Inuktitut — a connection to myself, Inuit, Inuktitut-speakers, and ultimately, to my culture. The ways in which Inuktitut expresses thought and thinking is powerful and crucial to who I am and where my family comes from. I feel more encouraged than ever to learn Inuktitut and I want to encourage others to feel that same confidence. It is paramount for our cultural livelihood and for our own personal identity. I also want to encourage non-Inuit to learn Inuktitut as well. Tapping into the richness of Inuit culture is a beautiful thing and is likely to make a difference in your life. The last myth associated with Inuktitut acquisition that Buscemi shared with me: “Inuktitut is a hard language to learn.” Actually Inuktitut isn’t a difficult language to learn. It can be learned, should be learned, and must be learned.

12

arcticjournal.ca

ᑭᖑᓪᓕᖅᐹᖅ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᔭᖅ ᓱᓕᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᖕᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐳᓴᒥᐅᑉ

ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓ ᐅᕙᓐᓄᑦ: “ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ

ᐃᓕᒐᓱᒃᖢᒍ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖅᑐᐊᓗᒃ.”

ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖅᑐᐊᓘᙱᑦᑐᖅ

ᐃᓕᒐᓱᒃᖢᒍ. ᐃᓕᑕᐅᔪᖕᓇᖅᑐᖅ,

ᐃᓕᑕᐅᔪᒃᓴᑦᑎᐊᖅ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᑕᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᖅ.

ᓕᕐᓗᑎᓗ ᓄᓇᒧᑦ ᓲᖃᐃᒻᒪ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐊᒃᑐᐊᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᕐᒪᑕ ᓄᓇᒧᑦ, ᐆᒪᔪᕐᓄᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᒃᑐᐊᖃᑎᒌᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᑎᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᒃᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓗᐊᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖃᖃᑎᒌᖕᓂᖏᑎᒍᑦ. ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᑐᑭᓯᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒪᒍᑎᒋᒻᒪᕆᒃᑕᕋ. ᐊᒃᑐᐊᖃᑎᖃᕐᓂᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᒃᐱᒋᔭᖃᒻᒪᕆᒃᐸᖕᒥᔪᖓ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᓕᕌᖓᒪ – ᐊᒃᑐᐊᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᖓ ᐅᕙᓐᓄᑦ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ, ᐃᓄᖕᓄᑦ, ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᑐᓄᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓗᐊᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᓐᓄᑦ. ᖃᓄᖅ ᐃᓱᒪ ᐊᐅᓚᕙᖕᒪᖔᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᖅᖢᒍ ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᑭᓇᐅᓂᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓚᒃᑲᓗ ᓇᑭᙶᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᖅ. ᐱᔫᒥᓱᖕᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑐᖓ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᐅᔪᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒍᒪᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᔪᖓ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᐅᒃᐱᕈᓱᑦᑎᐊᖁᓪᓗᖓ. ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᓂᖅᐹᖑᔪᖅ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᒐᓱᖕᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ ᑭᓇᐅᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᒍᒪᖕᒥᔪᖓ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᒻᒪᕆᐅᙱᒃᑲᓗᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᖕᓇᖅᓯᒐᓱᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖓᓐᓂᒃ ᑐᑭᓯᐊᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖅ ᐱᐅᔪᐊᓗᒃ ᐃᓅᓯᕆᔭᕐᓄᑦ ᐱᕚᓪᓕᕈᑕᐅᔪᖕᓇᕐᒥᖕᒪᑦ. ᑭᖑᓪᓕᖅᐹᖅ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᔭᖅ ᓱᓕᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᖕᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐳᓴᒥᐅᑉ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᖓ ᐅᕙᓐᓄᑦ: “ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᒃᖢᒍ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖅᑐᐊᓗᒃ.” ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖅᑐᐊᓘᙱᑦᑐᖅ ᐃᓕᒐᓱᒃᖢᒍ. ᐃᓕᑕᐅᔪᖕᓇᖅᑐᖅ, ᐃᓕᑕᐅᔪᒃᓴᑦᑎᐊᖅ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᑕᐅᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑐᖅ.

saaluit ikajuqturniaqtut Inuktitut iligasungnirmik.” Ammaluttauq, Qallunaatitut atuqtauttiammaringniqsaugaluaqtilluni tamanna nuqqarutigittailijariaqakkat. Atausiiq&uni angangma uqautilauqsimajaanga Inuktitut uqarungnattiaruvit tukisianiqsaulirajaravit qaninniqsaulirlutilu nunamut suuqaimma Inuit aktuaniqattiarmata nunamut, uumajurnut, ammalu aktuaqatigiittiaq&utik nunaliktigut ammalu piluaqtumik uqausiqaqatigiingningitigut. Tamanna tukisigiakkannirumagutigimmariktara. Aktuaqatiqarninnik ikpigijaqammarikpangmijunga Inuktitut uqaliraangama — aktuaniqattiaq&unga uvannut nangminiq, Inungnut, Inuktitut uqarungnaqtunut, ammalu piluaqtumik iliqqusinnut. Qanuq isuma aulavangmangaat Inuktitut uqaq&ugu tamanna kinauninnut ammalu ilakkalu nakinngaarnittinnut pimmariujuq. Pijuumisungniqsauliqtunga ullumiujuq Inuktitut iligumanirmik ammalu asinginnik ikajuqtuijunga nangminiq ukpirusuttiaqullunga. Pimmariuniqpaangujuq iliqqusittinnik kajusitittigasungnirmut ammalu nangminiq kinaunittinnut. Ikajuqtuigumangmijunga asinginnut inummariunngikkaluaqtunut Inuktitut uqarungnaqsigasuqullugit. Inuit iliqqusingannik tukisialikkannirniq piujualuk Inuusirijarnut pivaallirutaujungnarmingmat. Kingulliqpaaq ukpirijaq sulinngittuq Inuktitut iligasungnirmik Buscemi-up uqausirilauqtanga uvannut: “Inuktitut iligasuk&ugu ajurnaqtualuk.” Kisianili Inuktitut ajurnaqtualuunngittuq iligasuk&ugu. Iitaujungnaqtuq, ilitaujuksattiaq, ammalu ilitaujariaqaqtuq.

November/December 2013


Top: Joshua Kalluk (Resolute Bay) examines a petrie dish of pond water and algae. Above: Zodiacs transport students and staff to the workshops on shore. Right: Enthusiastic SOI participants wave from the bow of the Sea Adventurer.

14

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


Cruising through a wonderland of ice.

STUDENTS ON ICE

ARCTIC YOUTH EXPEDITION 2013 Photos by Lee Narraway

The Students on Ice Arctic Youth Expedition 2013 represented a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for young people to expand their knowledge about the circumpolar world, and to gain a new global perspective on the planet, its wonders, and its present and future challenges. As with all Students on Ice expeditions, Arctic Youth 2013 brought together environmental and civic education, cultural immersion, personal leadership development, and plenty of polar adventure.

Ian Tamblyn entertains students during an SOI song-writing workshop.

November/December 2013

above & beyond

15


A student stands in silence and awe before the breathtaking beauty of the icebergs formations at the Unesco World Heritage site, the Ilulissat Ice Fjord, Greenland.

Timothy Crow (Kuujjuarapik) practices some mind-expanding, finger-dexterity moves with ship's Captain, Sergey Nesterov.

Running 14 days, July 14-28, the ship and land-based journey explored the eastern Canadian Arctic and western Greenland. The expedition hosted 89 international high school students, 14 to 18 years old, and a team of 49 world-class scientists, historians, artists, explorers, educators, leaders, innovators and polar experts. This year, 39 young people from across the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut and Greenland brought their own unique, indigenous perspectives to the trip. Fostering education and youth development this year’s Arctic journey provided opportunity to expand the areas of knowledge, skills, perspectives and practices that undoubtedly will help those who participated become Arctic ambassadors and environmentally responsible citizens.

Yasmine Bournissa and Joy Aragutak from Kuujjuarapik play chess in the ship's library.

16

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


The spirit of cooperation helps everyone safely cross a rushing stream in Auyuittuq National Park.

(L-R): Hovak Koaha-Laube (Cambridge Bay), Hilary Pauloosie (Gjoa Haven) and Joseph Kirkoot (Gjoa Haven) proudly display their first passports.

Jolly Atagooyuk shows students some of his work in the Uqqurmaiut Print Shop, Pangnirtung, Nunavut.

November/December 2013

above & beyond

17


Below: SOI Arctic Youth Expedition 2013 gathered on deck to rehearse an Ian Tamblyn song written for the town of Uummannaq's 250th Anniversary celebration. Bottom: Learning traditional sewing from Annie Petaulassie (Iqaluit) on a Greenland hillside.

Vaniita Weetaltuk (George River) Nunavik, enjoys the high rope course.

Students learned a great deal about the changes taking place in the Arctic environment and how these are linked to broader global environmental changes by exploring how human and natural systems are inextricably connected; affording each team member the opportunity to consider how they personally relate to the natural world.

18

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


Uummannaq, Greenland, is named for the heart-shaped mountain that towers over it.

Throughout their journey participants were afforded the chance to closely examine how personal and societal transformations can take place. They were then asked by team leaders and mentors to consider how their own unique skills and interests could help to bring about positive change to their own lives, communities and the world around us. Expedition activities included extraordinary wildlife encounters, educational day excursions, visits to remote Arctic communities and archeological sites, and opportunities to acquire first-hand knowledge and insight into the dynamics of climate change.

November/December 2013

above & beyond

19


20

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


Clayton Ungungai.

Alain Maktar Heritage Scholarship recipient announced Inuit Heritage Trust has awarded Clayton Ungungai as this year’s recipient of the Alain Maktar Scholarship Award. Clayton Ungungai is enrolled at Algonquin College, Ontario, and he has been working for a number of years on the Inuit Sign Language (ISL) project. ISL will enable deaf Inuit from Nunavut, and according to Clayton’s dream from all across the circumpolar world, to use one universal sign language to communicate with each other. ISL is rooted in Inuit culture. With the development of ISL, Inuit with impaired hearing can more easily access information, can network with each other and with the public, and increase their participation in the community, which will open new worlds for socializing and also economic participation, e.g. through jobs that offer ISL support.

November/December 2013

Kuururjuaq National Park near Mont D’Iberville.

New Nunavik park opens

As part of her Nunavik tour in September, Quebec Premier Pauline Marois officially opened Kuururjuaq National Park, located east of Ungava Bay near the Inuit community of Kangiqsualujjuaq. “This national park ensures conservation and showcases the vast landscapes and outstanding natural ecosystems that characterize Nunavik,” stated the Premier. Covering 4,461 km 2, the park possesses some of the most spectacular landscapes, including the Torngat Mountains with the highest peak in Québec, Mont D’Iberville stretching to an elevation of 1,646 m. Kuururjuaq National Park was established through close collaboration between the Québec government, the Inuit village of Kangiqsualujjuaq, the Makivik Corporation, the Kativik Regional Government and the Qiniqtiq and Epigituk (Taqpangayuk) landholding corporations.

Policies for Arctic sacred sites call for protection and management More than 70 sacred sites custodians, officials from indigenous organizations, scientists and government policy makers gathered in Finland in September to draft a joint declaration with recommendations for policy-making related to sacred sites in the Arctic. They called for better recognition, legal protection and management for the sacred sites and sanctuaries of indigenous peoples in the Arctic region. They also asked to be able to enforce measures to protect the land and its sacred natural sites against possible damage and destruction caused by development.

above & beyond

21

© STÉPHANE COSSETTE

LIVING ABOVE & BEYOND


LIVING ABOVE & BEYOND

This year is a special anniversary in Kugluktuk’s efforts to promote emotional health and well being; 2013 marks 10 years of Sam Kikpak’s legacy for helping people in Kugluktuk to independently reflect on their personal growth. In 2003 the Kugluktuk Radio Society (KRS) finished restoring the last known, near complete and nearly lost collection of recorded “Green Book” hymns, and launched the ‘Hymn Hour’ radio show. Hymn Hour became the first locally produced radio program in Kugluktuk. The show stands as the longest lasting radio show in Kugluktuk since volunteer, communitybased radio began in the mid-1980s. Healthy Kugluktuk marks the 10th anniversary of this project by promoting the “Green Book” hymn collection. To get your copies, visit www.healthykugluktuk.ca.

KIKIAK

CONTRACTING LTD.

General contractors serving the North since 1999 Inuit owned and operated General construction, remediation work, plumbing and heating, heavy equipment rental and service, earthworks, vehicle service and rental, expediting, ice road construction, cat train work

#56 Kugluktuk Dr., Kugluktuk, NU Ph: 867-982-4713 F : 867-982-4718 Email: kikiak_gn@netkaster.ca 22

arcticjournal.ca

© ALLAN FLOOD

Kugluktuk radio program celebrates 10 years

The Chinese cargo ship, the Yong Sheng, successfully transited the Northeast Passage this September.

Chinese ship navigates new transit route In an effort to successfully travel an alternative and safer sea route from China to Europe, a Chinese cargo ship crossed the top of Arctic Russia by the Northeast Sea Route for the first time, reaching the port of Rotterdam in the Netherlands on September 10. The trip on the Northeast Passage was about two weeks shorter than the current route. At 5,437 kilometres, the Northeast Passage is gaining more popularity as a transit route, with 372 permits granted in 2013, up from four in 2010. The Yong Sheng’s successful trip is a first for a commercial ship from China and is expected to open the door to more shipping between China and Europe along that route from July to November.

Manitoba-Nunavut road link a step closer Mayors of the Kivalliq region and the town of Churchill, Manitoba, want to develop a winter road between their communities as a “first step” toward building a permanent road link. The mayors agreed to a two-stage plan of action for the road at this year’s Kivalliq Mayors’ Forum and Hudson Bay Regional Roundtable in Rankin Inlet in September. The first step is to develop a winter road to connect Nunavut and Manitoba. A permanent,

year-round connection must then be made with an “all-weather” road, which would be built after the winter road and cover the same roadways. A 1,200 kilometre permanent road between the two regions is estimated to cost about $1.5 billion. Set-up costs for the winter road are about $24 million, for a road that would last just three months of the year.

Greenhouses for Nunavut A former Pangnirtung resident, Nathan Lawlor, wants to build greenhouses in Nunavut to bring down the cost of food. The construction

of two geodesic greenhouse domes, each measuring 42 feet in diameter, would house a 2,500 square-foot garden and produce about 7,000 pounds per year of fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, houseplants and flowers. Start up costs for the project would be $29,000, which includes construction materials, shipping costs, and manpower. Upgrades needed for Pangnirtung’s Arctic climate bring costs up to $40,000 each. Lawlor is looking for funding and support through an online awareness campaign through FundRazr.com. The project is listed as Pangnirtung Greenhouse Corporation. Lawlor hopes to begin construction in June next year. November/December 2013


RESOuRCES

The Diavik Diamond Mine is reducing its environmental impact and saving on power costs with a wind farm. The 100-metre structures were the first wind turbines in the Northwest Territories. On a windy day, the four turbines produce enough electricity to cover about half of the mine’s needs. Every year, Diavik trucks in about 1,200 loads of fuel to operate the mine.The turbines have reduced that by about 100 truckloads, a million litres of fuel during the first six months in operation. Diavik says the project, which cost $31 million, will pay for itself in about eight years, with the goal to reduce the mine’s greenhouse gas emissions by about six per cent a year.

Nunavut’s GEM program heads into second phase Between 2013 and 2020, Ottawa will spend $100 million to promote resource exploration in Nunavut, particularly in the Kivalliq region. These new funds will help finance the second phase of Natural Resources Canada’s Geo-Mapping for Energy and Minerals or GEM program in the North.The program uses various methods and tools to explore the geology of an area and establish which geological formations have the highest likelihood of containing mineral resources. Since 2008, the GEM program has produced more than 700 maps and reports. In this second phase, GEM will develop geological maps and data sets that will completely cover Canada’s North by 2020.

© MARC PIKE

Diavik uses wind power to reduce power costs and environmental impact

Baffinland gives the go ahead for the Mary River iron mine Baffinland Iron Mines Corp. and Qikiqtani Inuit Association (QIA) signed an Inuit impact and benefit agreement and a commercial production lease in September in Iqaluit that will pave the way for the Mary River iron mine in northern Baffin Island. Sealift deliveries for the mine will be completed this year with work on construction of the mining camp and fuel storage facilities beginning late 2013 and continuing into 2014. The project, which has been in negotiation for seven years, will initially produce 3.5 million

Mary River mine site with Deposit 1 in the background.

tonnes of iron ore a year through a port at Milne Inlet. Future plans also include the construction of a railway to a port at Steensby Inlet by early 2019 and the shipment of up to 20 million tonnes of ore annually from the site by 2020. QIA representatives will be visiting the entire Baffin region to explain the agreement to communities and how Inuit will benefit from the mine, including providing information on extensive training and recruitment initiatives to help Inuit from the region get jobs with the project.

Drill results from Sabina’s Back River look promising Sabina Gold and Silver Corp.’s summer drilling results on the George property at its western Nunavut Back River project have been encouraging. Forty-three holes were drilled on the George property at the “Lone Cow Pond South” deposit. The results clearly showed the presence of persistent shallow, high-grade mineralization over a strike length of approximately 200 m.

The project, which would produce 300,000 to 400,000 ounces of gold a year, would also include open-pit and underground mines. Sabina will spend $80 million on exploration at the Back River Project in 2013. The Back River gold mine, which would take two years to build and operate for 10 to 15 years, would hire 1,600 workers during the construction phase and 900 during the mine’s operations.

Ekati kimberlite deposit could extend mine life Dominion Diamonds is preparing to expand its operations at the Ekati Diamond Mine. The company has applied for a land use permit and water license to mine the Lynx pipe. The Lynx kimberlite deposit is about 30 kilometres from the existing main facility of the mine. Developing the deposit will require draining a small lake, building the open pit mine and an access road. The pipe isn’t huge but it’s expected to produce high quality diamonds with a value of $267 million. November/December 2013

above & beyond

23


24

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


PROFILE

T

he Legislative Assembly of Nunavut is the territory’s public forum, its stage-in-theround, usually reserved for elected officials as the venue to discuss government policy and to make laws. But on September 12, 2013, after the day’s official business was concluded, the political theatre was re-set to recognize three Nunavummiut: Jimmy Akavak, Louis Angalik Sr. and Davidee Arnakuk, who had been selected to be the 2013 recipients of the Order of Nunavut, the most prestigious award that an individual can receive from the territorial government. Recognition of outstanding citizens is an important factor in shaping a community. It not only provides an example of the type of behaviour society deems desirable but is also an expression of appreciation to people for their contributions in a way that cannot be adequately achieved in any other fashion. In a new territory such as Nunavut, the recognition of individuals and the standards they represent are particularly significant at a time of major social and cultural change when even the very definition of modern Inuit values is up for discussion. So the ceremony at the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut was not just a public November/December 2013

Territorial government honours Nunavummiut nakurmiik (thank you) to the three recipients but also a message to the territory’s citizens from its government about what it considers exemplary behaviour as defined by today’s inumariit. The ceremony started shortly after the house sitting had ended, with the MLAs returning to their seats to honour the three recipients.

Family and friends of those to be invested in the Order of Nunavut had taken up their positions in the chamber, bringing with them a sense of pride, love and quiet excitement. The Speaker formally handed over the ceremony to the Commissioner of Nunavut, Edna Ekhivalak Elias, who then officially presided over the proceedings. One by one, she introduced each

© NICK NEWBERY (2)

The 2013 Order of Nunavut (L to R): Jimmy Akavak, Davidee Arnakuk and Louis Angalik Sr.

Jimmy addresses the Legislative Assembly after receiving the award.

above & beyond

25


PROFILE

Jimmy Akavak: A profile In Jimmy Akavak’s case, the Government of Nunavut (GN) press release of June 18, 2013 stated: “Jimmy Akavak of Iqaluit served in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police for approximately 30 years in a number of Nunavut communities prior to his retirement from the force in 2012. Mr. Akavak has been recognized on numerous occasions for his pioneering work in the fields of community policing, victim support and crisis management.”

© NICK NEWBERY (2)

Jimmy on a spring hunt near the floe edge on Frobisher Bay.

Jimmy's extended families, the Akavaks and the Hansons!

of the three recipients, read his citation, hung the award around his neck and presented him with his official certificate of the Order of Nunavut. Each individual then made a short speech of thanks to his family and friends and for the honour of being given the award. Assembly staff, who had ensured that the proceedings were a successful cross-cultural blend of what might be termed ‘low-key formal,’ had also arranged that the event be broadcast live on television across the

26

arcticjournal.ca

territory for all Nunavummiut to enjoy. When the official ceremony ended, the pride and delight of the three recipients’ families and friends bubbled over into laughter and hugs and of course the inevitable photo ops. Everyone then streamed out into the Great Hall where the staff had put on a reception, providing a feast of northern food and the chance for everyone to informally mingle with the Commissioner and the MLAs.

Jimmy Sandy Akavak was born on the land in South Baffin to Sandy and Anneak Akavak on January 13, 1965. After attending school in Kimmirut, Pangnirtung and Iqaluit, he followed the example of his grandfather, father and uncle and joined the RCMP as a special constable. Almost immediately his language skills and ability to relate to the public saw him serving as a crisis and hostage negotiator which earned him an RCMP commendation not long after. Over the years he served in Regina, Yellowknife, Kimmirut, Cape Dorset and Iqaluit. His rise through the ranks began in 1990 when he became a regular RCMP member. In 1998 he became the first Inuit RCMP corporal and in 2007 he crowned that achievement by becoming the first Inuk to reach the rank of RCMP sergeant. In 2003 he received a commendation from Prince Philip for his involvement in the delivery of the Duke of Edinburgh Award in Nunavut and in 2012 he received the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee medal for his policing services. Shortly afterwards he retired, having become the longest-serving Inuit RCMP officer in Nunavut with 28 years in uniform. Later that year he was appointed director of marketing for Nunavut with Nunavut Eastern Arctic Shipping. For many years Jimmy was the Inuit face of policing in Nunavut, having served as police officer, interpreter, police-community liaison person, youth counsellor and crisis negotiator. As such, he became an example of how two cultures can be successfully meshed while promoting Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) in dayto-day program delivery. He pioneered new approaches to community-police relations by emphasizing co-operation, by helping Inuit to understand the legal system and to see the good side of police work. Within the RCMP itself, he worked to sensitize southern officers to Inuit cultural differences, stressing education before enforcement. As a crisis/hostage negotiator dealing with events that usually involved fireNovember/December 2013


PROFILE arms, he showed his cross-cultural skills in defusing dangerous situations by way of patience, sensitivity and courage, often at risk to himself. Much of this was done before being formally trained, frequently as the only Inuit negotiator available, often on after-duty hours and away from family. All these bridging concepts were drawn on when asked to contribute to RCMP planning when V Division was being developed in preparation for the creation of Nunavut in 1999.

Akavak dedicated to his community Akavak also used these skills to help his community in other ways. He volunteered for almost 20 years with at-risk Inuit youth in Iqaluit by helping them to understand the legal system, by teaching hunting and survival skills and by serving as an example for them through his modeling of IQ. In 2009 he provided advice to Katimavik (the pan-Canadian youth volunteer organization) when it sought community input before establishing its volunteer services in Iqaluit. Perhaps most significantly, he served as a Search-and-Rescue co-ordinator for many years, drawing on his organizational skills, his ability to work with people and his personal knowledge of the land as an Inuit hunter. When stress is a common feature of one’s lifestyle (particularly when caused by concern

November/December 2013

for personal safety), some form of balance in life has to be found. Jimmy found that balance by learning to live comfortably in both Inuit and southern cultures, by maintaining his interest in other areas such as land activities and soapstone carving and by drawing on the support of his family. Jimmy and his wife, Mary, have together successfully reared three daughters, all of whom attended high school, are fluently bilingual and are all now holding down jobs in Iqaluit. It should not be forgotten that in many cases the families who share the joy of their relative being publicly honoured at an occasion such as this should also be given credit for their contribution in the earning of that award. In Jimmy’s case, Mary and the girls were only too aware of the stress and danger he had to undergo due to the sort of police duties he was often involved in. Not only could the demands of his work linger on well after the day was over but the family never knew when he might be called out to deal with yet another crisis situation involving firearms. This could mean travel to anywhere in the territory at any time of the day or night, leaving his wife and children wondering at times if he would even come home safely.

Jimmy is well regarded in all circles in the North, respected for his courage and generosity of spirit, his knowledge of the land, his artistic skills, his willingness to think outside the box, his humility and his easy-going sense of humour. He has pioneered new ideas and approaches, taking the concept of ‘bridging’ to a new level both as an individual and as a police officer, trying to balance both worlds in Nunavut for the benefit of all. In the process of nominating Jimmy for this award, Ed Picco (Director of Government Affairs and Sales for First Air Ltd.) and Marty Cheliak (former C/O of RCMP V Division Nunavut) both agreed to serve as references, fully aware of the broadbased contribution that Jimmy has made to Nunavut. Jimmy Akavak is relatively young compared to many previous recipients of this award. Perhaps his example will serve to encourage younger Inuit to consider working as RCMP officers in Nunavut at a time when a larger Inuit presence in the police force would enhance its effectiveness.

Nick Newbery Nick Newbery submitted the nomination proposal for Jimmy Akavak for the 2013 Order of Nunavut.

above & beyond

27


www.pittarak.com Qajaqtuqtut, aka Expedition Q, was the brainchild of Eric McNairLandry. His dream was to build traditional Inuit kayaks and paddle them across an ancient portage route connecting one side of Baffin Island with the other. He recruited his sister Sarah as well as Katherine Breen and Erik Boomer to embark upon the journey. Together, the foursome settled on a design and began the building process in March 2013. The team wanted to involve the community as much as possible and was able to host a series of workshops at the high school © ERIK BOOMER

in Iqaluit. Keeping kayak building and paddling traditions alive in Nunavut is an important part of the team’s mission. The team hopes to continue its work by facilitating kayak-building workshops in the future.

© ERIC MCNAIR-LANDRY

QAJAQTUQTUT AKA EXPEDITION Q

The landscapes and scenery were ever changing as the paddlers made their way across Baffin Island. Pictured here are Sarah, Kate, and Boomer near the shores of Amadjuak Lake. This area was a traditional gathering place for Inuit from Pangnirtung and Cape Dorset. It is also a summer feeding grounds, calving grounds, and migration route for the Southern Qikiqtaaluk herd of Barren-ground caribou.

November/December 2013

** qajaq (Inuktitut word for kayak) ** above & beyond

29


© COURTESY PITTARAK EXPEDITIONS

Expedition Q route.

© ERIK BOOMER

© ERIK BOOMER

Boomer: People were really excited to see our kayaks. The fact that we built them ourselves added a special element to this expedition.

© ERIC MCNAIR-LANDRY

Building the kayaks was the first big challenge of this expedition. Using a traditional “Baffin” design which the team selected for its large volume and stability in the open water, each kayak was made according to its paddler’s own specifications. With a length roughly three times the paddler’s arm-span, the longest kayak measures nearly 19 feet. Around 200 hours of work went into each of the kayaks which were constructed using the workshop at Inuksuk High School in Iqaluit.

© KATHERINE BREEN

Expedition Q team members (L-R): Eric McNair-Landry, Katherine Breen, Sarah McNair-Landry, Erik Boomer.

Sparking the interest of young people and getting them interested in kayak building was an important part of the team’s overall mission. While their kayaks were under construction at the high school workshop, the team dropped in on several classrooms. Incorporating math, history, and woodworking, students were given the opportunity to build their own customized scale-model kayak. Here, Sarah and Eric help some students put the finishing touches on their nearly completed models.

30

arcticjournal.ca

Setting out from Qikiqtarjuaq, the first section of the expedition involved traversing over the Penny Ice Cap and descending into the Weasel River in Auyuittuq National Park. Here, the four adventurers haul a sled and a kayak up Coronation Glacier en route to the Penny Ice Cap. Crossing the crevassed sections of the glacier in mid-July can be a dangerous undertaking. The team used a rope and harness safety system for much of the traverse.

November/December 2013


© ERIK BOOMER

© SARAH MCNAIR-LANDRY © ERIC MCNAIR-LANDRY

Eric: The expedition brought many challenges including some that we hadn’t expected. We’ve heard from many people that this is the coldest summer that they have experienced in over 30 years. The temperatures hovered around zero degrees for the last few weeks of the expedition and staying dry and warm took some creativity. Top left: After descending into Akshayuk Pass in Auyuittuq National Park, Erik Boomer tackled many rapids on the Weasel River which have never before been kayaked. Here, he is pictured in the Shadow of Mt. Thor as he prepares to descend the next section of river. The rest of the team portaged around the larger rapids and paddled the smoother sections in small inflatable packrafts.

Above: Following a traditional route that connects the communities of Pangnirtung and Cape Dorset with the interior of Baffin Island, the team portaged from the ocean to a series of lakes and rivers and back to the ocean again. Inuksuks were a regular sighting and often proved to be highly useful when it came to selecting the most efficient portage routes. Here, Sarah carries her kayak over a section of rocky terrain.

November/December 2013

© SARAH MCNAIR-LANDRY

Top right: Where the Weasel River empties into Pangnirtung Fiord the team switched to their traditional Baffin Kayaks, which carried them the rest of the way across Baffin Island to Cape Dorset. They stopped by the community of Pangnirtung to show off their newly launched boats. There, they heard stories and many warnings about the tidal rapids that they might encounter on Nettiling Fiord.

above & beyond

31


On expedition you appreciate all the little things like the warm soup at the end of the day. So arriving at the food cache felt like Christmas for the team. Packed the winter before, they had made sure to add lots of extra treats. In April, Sarah and Boomer had dropped off the food cache on the shores of Amadjuak Lake via snow machine. There was always a concern of the possibility that the cache would be damaged by animals or weather. Luckily it was intact, chips, fudge, toilet paper, peanut butter and all.

© ERIK BOOMER

© KATHERINE BREEN

© SARAH MCNAIR-LANDRY

© SARAH MCNAIR-LANDRY

Sarah: Stone cairns, Inuksuit and tent rings were reminders that people have been traveling on this land for thousands of years.

Expedition Q team pauses for a rest.

© ERIK BOOMER

Kate: Arriving in Cape Dorset was an overwhelming experience. We were touched to see that so many people had come to welcome us and were excited to see our kayaks.

Above: After meeting some local boaters on the day before their arrival, word spread that the paddlers were getting close to reaching their destination. More than 200 people turned out to welcome them as they arrived in Cape Dorset. Fireworks, honking horns, and happy faces greeted them as they pulled their kayaks onto the beach. Later that evening the celebrations continued with a lively square dance.

32

arcticjournal.ca

Above right: Modern tents and old tent rings mark a good camping spot along the ocean’s shore. When the team would locate a suitable campsite they would often find signs of previous habitation; tent rings, graves, old food caches, animal bones, and even a few kayak stands. It seemed that nearly every place that could be inhabited had been inhabited.

November/December 2013


On the ledge of destruction? Studying the Coats Island Murres Text and photos by Orla Osborne

The Thick-billed Murres (Uria lomvia) of Coats Island, Nunavut (Northern Hudson Bay), may give the impression that everything may be black and white, but don’t be fooled, the unknown, the grey of global warming, casts a warning light over their low lying Arctic colony. It’s not just the weather that is changing and unpredictable — the animals are too. Ecosystem changes and scarcity of prey are causing some Arctic predators to alter their normal patterns of behaviour, leading to changes in long-established interspecies relationships. Rising temperatures appear to benefit some species and harm others. Some may be coping successfully with the changes occurring in their surroundings. For others, a new predator may move into the neighbourhood or parasitism may increase for the less fortunate. In 2011, the Thick-billed Murres of Coats Island, in Northern Hudson Bay, Nunavut, were found to be dealing with both. When the bears and bugs moved in to take over dining privileges at the colony, their former predators, the gulls and foxes, took a back seat though they in paradox actually benefited from the devastation inflicted upon the colony because the visiting polar bears had killed more birds than they could possibly eat, while mosquitoes had driven parenting murres to abandon their young.

Thick-billed Murres migrate from a solitary offshore existence. During the winter they ride the whitecap waves of the mid-North Atlantic braving winter storms to reach land and perch on a bustling, crammed [estimated 30,000 pairs] cliff-face during summer to breed. 34

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


November/December 2013

above & beyond

35


The Thick-billed Murres, a foot-tall, tuxedo-clad, predator and prey species, have been nicknamed the Penguins of the North. However, unlike penguins, they fly, resembling black and white footballs zooming through the air overhead at outrageous speeds reaching 75 kilometres per hour; flapping madly as they struggle to stay airborne. In stark contrast to their aerial manoeuvres, Murres will dive to depths of up to 150 metres in search of prey. Their narrow wings that are

Incredibly they will nest, on average, less than five metres away from the exact patch of bare rock they themselves hatched! Given that their first three years are spent entirely out at sea, that is a phenomenal accomplishment of spatial memory. During the fledging period, when the chicks are ready to leave the comforts of their bare rock ledge, they apprehensively step off the edge and proceed to flutter (or if unlucky tumble) to the water a few 100 metres below. Dad, who had been coaxing the chick to undertake such a daunting venture, waits patiently. A dialogue between the father and offspring is strengthened in the upcoming days to the event, and from the moment the chick leaves the ledge, to their reunion in the water below, this dialogue must be constant, otherwise the chick is unlikely to find their father when its surroundings look like a swirling kaleidoscope of black and white.

At the best of times, the Murres make but a small sacrificial contribution towards sustaining the gull and fox population of Coats Island. At the worst of times they have hungry polar bears to contend with. The bears are not restricted by wind or limited by a fear of heights. They are deceivingly agile rock climbers.

fin-like in appearance are adapted for flight and also for underwater propulsion. Their body is sleek and streamlined, unhindered by a long tail, with short overlapping feathers that provide a perfect waterproof seal, having been treated with a special waterproof sealant secreted from an oil gland above their tail and applied to every feather through meticulous preening. Their webbed feet are positioned as far back as possible — to reduce drag while diving without compromising their ability to stand upright and clumsily shuffle about the rock ledges. They, along with other members of the Alcidae family (Puffin, Auk, Razorbill, and Murrelets), are the champions of diving seabirds, matched in water only by their non-flying Antarctic brethren, the Penguin. Thick-billed Murres migrate from a solitary offshore existence. During the winter they ride the whitecap waves of the mid-North Atlantic braving winter storms to reach land and perch on a bustling, crammed [estimated 30,000 pairs] cliff-face during summer to breed. During their migration, they travel thousands of kilometres, to the exact spot on the same rock ledge on the cliff face of the same colony they’ve chosen every year since they found their lifetime partner, a routine that, for many birds, can last for over 30 years and is broken only by death of its partner or its own demise.

36

arcticjournal.ca

And for the same reason these chicks are prevented from gracefully taking to the air as they depart their nest for the first and last time, they also make their very first migration by webbed foot, as they paddle the first 1,000 km southward. Why? Well, they can’t fly yet, they’re only three weeks old. In 2011, it was obvious that these birds were caught between a rock and a hard ledge, on a treacherous cliff face - fending off flesh feeding predators. In the average day of a breeding murre, foxes patrol the upper cliff boundaries, while pirate-like gulls ride the updrafts on windy days in search of unguarded eggs and tiny chicks. When desperate, they drag a dutiful parent off their ledge and away from their vulnerable progeny. At the best of times, the Murres make but a small sacrificial contribution towards sustaining the gull and fox population of Coats Island. At the worst of times they have hungry polar bears to contend with. The bears are not restricted by wind or limited by a fear of heights. They are deceivingly agile rock climbers, which due to their waddling pigeontoed gait does surprise. Not being overly familiar with this unlikely predator, the resting birds sit side by side the intruding bear, looking slightly bewildered by its great white fuzzy mass and its wide gaping jaws. For those particular birds and their eggs it is already too late; there was never enough time to even contemplate the significance of this beast’s presence. Only in recent years, since 2000, have scientists been occasionally seeing these bears clamber with ease about the ledges of the colony. Within a matter of minutes, ledges once full of tightly knit birds standing shoulder to shoulder, each incubating an egg or protecting a small fluffy chick, lay bare and exposed, as adults and chicks alike are scattered, mauled or eaten as a bear passes through. During the 2011 breeding season, the destruction caused by the intruding bears led to a massive increase in the death rate of the Murres; 1.25 per cent (about 500 birds) of the breeding Murre population was killed and an estimated 30 per cent of breeding attempts failed in consequence. The bears not only confounded many of the ongoing research projects at the colony, but they also posed a personal safety problem for the scientists. The rules were strict in the summer of 2011, a loaded and safety off ready shotgun was to be carried at all times. No exceptions. Prior field expeditions had not warranted such extreme safety measures, November/December 2013


a can of bear spray was sufficient, but things had changed. It wasn’t until the end of the field season that it was realized that two bears were actually living on the colony, one at either end. Not your ideal summer getaway, for bird nor human. Mosquito parasitism of the Murres has become more intense since the 1990s as well, and the swarms are emerging up to 30 days earlier than two decades ago. Consequently, the bug-free grace period that the Murres once enjoyed had vanished, a crucial time when the birds diligently incubate their one and only egg of the season, protecting it from the elements, predation and from rolling off the cliff edge. With an increase in mosquito attacks, more incubating adults are driven from the cliffs to seek respite away from land. This can spell disaster for the developing, unhatched chicks. Not only are predators in greater numbers on the prowl, but also UV rays from the sun are harmful enough to cause embryonic death. It takes only one day of exposure. Some birds, however, are not so easy to deter, and apparently they would sooner die than give up the chance to raise a little one. These are the ones that have finally figured out what parenting is all about. Those above the age of 18 years old, these birds are the ‘oldies’; they have a much higher rate of reproductive success than the younger parents at the colony and these little warriors were amongst the hardest hit. It would appear that, under the circumstances, ‘Survival of the fittest’ has been flipped upside down and spun 180 degrees, a trait such as being better at incubating than other birds would ordinarily have led to more offspring, but now it leads to an increased risk of death, while abandonment may decrease reproductive success but increases the chance of living to see another sunset. The balance? A faster rate of population decline. How mosquitoes are affecting the birds is not so clear-cut. They don’t seem to be poisoning the birds as such. However, they are stressing the birds, causing dehydration, weight loss and a compromised physiological condition, all of which leads to the desertion of eggs and chicks, or the eventual death of breeding adults. You are likely wondering what business the bears had harassing these defenceless relatives of the beloved “Happy feet” penguin family, and why the bugs were so much worse in 2011? As Tony Gaston and Kyle Elliott, my companions on Coats Island, explain in a published scientific paper, a succession of higher-than-average summer temperatures led to an escalated November/December 2013

above & beyond

37


Nature never really is in perfect balance, and the Murres can’t rely on perfect conditions every year, but it is the ability of this species to buffer itself from deviations from the ideal that sustains this colony.

growth rate and early emergence of the mosquito population on Coats Island. It was also the record-breaking temperatures that caused the early break up and reduced extent of sea ice in Northern Hudson Bay. It was thought that the polar bears were likely driven from their icy feeding grounds and into a terrestrial existence much earlier than usual. This finding is significant. It counters what many ecologists had been predicting about the effects of global warming on animals feeding at different levels of the food web (i.e. trophic level). To many scientists, it seemed logical that top predators would respond more slowly. This apparently is not the case. There are many predictions for how species will react to global warming, and which factors will impact the natural order the most. For Gaston and Elliott it is clear that changing species interactions is having a much stronger impact on the Murres than either a direct physiological effect or a shift in range. Based on what has been observed at Coats, Gaston warns that predicting how species will react to global warming is likely to be a lot more complex than what we currently believe. In other words the only certainty is uncertainty. The results of Gaston and Elliott’s research demonstrate that the Thick-billed Murre colony witnessed an increase in the reproductive failure and mortality rate by an order of magnitude. In the 30 years that the colony has served as a research station, never has it seen so much devastation by polar bears or mosquitoes. Should these conditions persist, the colony will be faced with a 50 per cent decrease in population size over the next 25 years. That’s a drop from 30,000 breeding pairs to 15,000. They point out that the “potentially catastrophic effect of increasing predation and parasitism” at Coats Island demonstrates how changing species interactions are a direct consequence of increasing global temperatures. As for the Murres of Coats Island... perhaps one might venture to say they are perched on the ledge of destruction?

My return to Coats When the opportunity arose to return for another field season at Coats in 2013, I initially rejected the idea. My alter ego self was warning me against such poor reasoning. Was I not lucky enough to have survived the 2011 season? In the end my sense of self-preservation was defeated by my burning curiosity and gameness for adventure. I was going back to Coats. Our bear guide, Joe Nakoolak, a resident of Coral Harbour who has been working on Coats with scientists for about 25 38

arcticjournal.ca

years, set us all at ease during the flight with his predictions of a relatively bear free season ahead of us. His reasoning, more ice means less bears on the colony. That made sense to me, I felt immediately better about my decision to return. A quick survey around the colony and camp, confirmed our suspicions. There were no bears; the mosquitoes, however, seemed to be out in full force to welcome us back. As for the Murres, they seemed not to be doing as well as usual, many nest sites were vacant and most of the birds were well behind in their breeding schedule. It appeared that what was causing the Murres to lay their eggs so late in the season was also keeping the bears at bay. The summer of 2013 had been late in coming, and with it, a late break up of sea ice, a boon for polar bears whose primary prey are seals hunted over sea ice. So, as Joe explained to us previously, with bellies full of seal meat, the bears had no need to risk their lives clambering around cliff faces scrounging for eggs and birds. This may seem like a saving grace for the Murres, no bear and less bugs, but the effect of a shortened breeding season likely came at a cost too. As I wandered around the colony taking all of this in, it became immediately apparent how finely tuned species are to their environment, and also how two Arctic species can respond so differently to the same change within their shared environment. It takes only two offspring, out of numerous attempts, to replace their parents in order for the population to be sustained. What fascinated me the most about the stark contrast of my two experiences at Coats was that although the odds seemed against the birds in being able to reproduce and raise a chick to fledging, the majority of the colony were successful both years. Scientists have warned that climate change is likely to result in unpredictable weather patterns and environmental conditions. Our climate has always been in a constant state of change, and yet many species have persisted for millions of years nonetheless. Climate change, as we are currently experiencing it, is thought to be occurring at a perilously accelerated rate, and this poses one of the biggest challenges facing species that may not have enough time to adapt. On the brighter side however, the resilience that species have evolved in order to buffer themselves from such events will hopefully see many through the direct and indirect hardships climate change may throw at them. Nature never really is in perfect balance, and the Murres can’t rely on perfect conditions every year, but it is the ability of this species to buffer itself from deviations from the ideal that sustains this colony. How resilient a species or population or individual might be in the future is unknown and hard to predict — the very facts that give us cause to pause and consider the impacts of climate change. Can we afford to ignore the potential consequences? I certainly couldn’t ignore it on Coats Island, and hopefully as you’re reading this you’re giving it some consideration too. Born in and raised in Ireland, Orla Osborne moved with her family to Iqaluit as a young teenager and has been living there on and off ever since. During and after completing her degree in marine biology and ocean science at the University of Victoria, she has worked for the Canadian Wildlife Service, World Wildlife Fund, and the Department of Environment for the Government of Nunavut doing contract work as a field technician and research assistant. November/December 2013


40

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


COMMUNITY ach autumn in the Far North, as snowflakes begin to fall and slowly cover the once colourful tundra with winter’s glistening white coat, it’s beginning to look a lot like Christmas. Walking in this winter wonderland, I find myself humming Christmas carols, looking forward to Santa’s visit, seeing that in Nunavik (Northern Quebec), he really does exist. His beloved reindeer are now retired, roaming free of any rein, grazing amongst caribou, close cousins of Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner, Blitzen and Rudolph. They were relieved of their duties in the mid ’60s, when the big man decided to upgrade his ride, leaving his sleigh behind to become a museum relic. Now, Mr. Claus rides in style, dashing through the sky carried by the horse-powered turbine engine of Johnny May’s airplane, a roaring de Havilland Turbo Otter DHC-3, sporting the region’s airline, Air Inuit’s bright colours, in a paint finish as shiny as Rudolph’s red nose. No jingle bells needed here!

Every year around noon on Christmas day, Santa comes out of hiding to distribute his gifts in broad daylight. So you better watch out, I’m telling you why: Santa Claus is coming to town! Dressed in his best suit, he boards Johnny May’s plane. Sitting in the co-pilot’s seat, he lets a couple of “elves,” often lead by Johnny May’s son Junior, drop sweets and presents of all sorts in the sky above a crowd of hundreds, big and small, gathered for the occasion in a field across from the town hall, ready to run and jump in the snow to catch a Christmas treat. Whether it’s candy, cash, a teddy bear, a nice fur, a ball of yarn, a parka, mitts, underwear or socks, there’s plenty to go around for everyone, naughty or nice. If you get lucky, you might even go home with a flat screen TV, an oil stove or an embroidery sewing machine. Of course, those bigger and heavier prizes don’t actually fall from the sky, but if you happen to catch an envelope, it might just be your lucky day!

Kuujjuamiut run towards the trail of Christmas gifts dropped from above by Johnny May and his co-pilot Santa.

© GILLES BOUTIN - NUNAVIK TOURISM (2)

E

Johnny May’s candy drop A Kuujjuaq Christmas carol Ready or not, here comes Santa Claus!

November/December 2013

above & beyond

41


COMMUNITY

Santa, along with Johnny May, distributes Christmas gifts in Kuujjuaq in style.

A legendary Inuit bush pilot, Johnny May got this idea from his childhood memories living at Fort Chimo, where the Hudson’s Bay Company used to throw candies from the roof of their buildings on Christmas day for children to rejoice, up until the community moved across the river to what is now known as Kuujjuaq. So in 1965, he decided to try and do it from his plane, a little Piper at the time, which he loaded with candies that he had bought from his own pocket money, flying low over the village. Needless to say, this act of kindness brought joy to the world below, bringing out the kid even in the eldest of folks. The affair soon came to Santa’s attention, who didn’t hesitate to join Captain May to deck the halls each year thereafter, soon joined in by the community’s recreation committee who are now Santa’s little helpers, providing the goodies, as the tradition continues to this day to bring holiday magic each Christmas. And if Mother Nature should choose not to be of service, not to worry, Johnny May has never let the Grinch steal Christmas, as only a few numbers of “candy drops” have had to be postponed to Boxing Day, but never cancelled. Sadly, even the best of things eventually come to an end. Johnny May, now 68, plans to 42

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


COMMUNITY 'Tis the season to be jolly when gifts fall from the sky.

© GILLES BOUTIN - NUNAVIK TOURISM (3)

retire at 70 with one last candy drop, at which time he will rock his wings for the last time as Santa wiggles his big black boots outside the hatch to say goodbye, as he has done for nearly 50 years. But until then, all of us in Kuujjuaq will keep counting the days ’til Christmas, looking forward to the event that we hold so dear in our hearts. Fore more information about the Candy Drop, contact Nunavik Tourism at 1 855 NUNAVIK or info@nunavik-tourism.com, or book your northern Christmas holiday in Kuujjuaq with Voyages FCNQ at 514-457-2236 or 1 800 463-7610 toll free, or voyagesfcnq@fcnq.ca.

Isabelle Dubois

The Wings of Johnny May Born in 1945 at George River, in Nunavik (Northern Quebec), Johnny May is the eldest of eight children born to Inuit mother Nancy Angnatuk and white father Bob M. May, an outfitter and former manager of the George River Hudson’s Bay Company trading post. Having spent most of his life in Kuujjuaq, Nunavik —formerly Fort Chimo— in Quebec’s Arctic region, in 1962, he was the first Inuk in all of eastern Canada to become a pilot. During his long career, he worked for various small airlines such as St-Félicien Air Services and Wheel-Air, before returning home to found Johnny May’s Air Charters, now owned by Air Inuit. This well-known bush pilot has dedicated his life serving northern communities, delivering much needed supplies and flying countless medevacs and rescue missions over the years, with over 35,000 hours of flight under his wing. Also famous for his Christmas Candy Drop, this discreet and good-natured fellow is a true living legend and an inspiration for his people. Inducted into the Québec Air and Space Hall of Fame in 2010, it is not surprising that Johnny May became the subject of a National Film

November/December 2013

Johnny May and his famous co-pilot, Father Christmas himself, get ready for another Candy Drop.

Board documentary. The original French and Inuktitut version of the film by Marc Fafard, Les ailes de Johnny May (The Wings of Johnny May), premiered at the Montreal First Peoples' Festival in August 2013. The English and Inuktitut version of The Wings of Johnny May, is to be released soon. With beautiful imagery, the documentary flies over the famous bush pilot’s daily life, whether up in the air, in town or out on the land with his lifelong partner, his wife Louisa; their children and grandchildren; accompanying May’s stories of times past with artistic 3D animation (see trailer on YouTube). A children’s book about this aviation idol’s Christmas Candy Drop is also in the making at the Canada Aviation and Space Museum in Ottawa. With a story told in rhymes by Linda Brand, decorated with delightful illustrations by François Gauvreau, it promises to spread Christmas cheer amongst the little ones, with both an English and French version, as well as an Inuktitut one, in time for the 2014 holiday season.

above & beyond

43


COMMUNITY

Nunavik Hockey Program helps build future leaders makes. I can hardly imagine what a few more years of the NYHDP will allow for. What kind of leaders these kids are going to grow to become... give these kids ideas of what is possible when you are willing to learn, grow and apply yourself to working towards your goals.” — Clara Hughes, Canadian Olympian

T

he Nunavik Youth Hockey Development Program (NYHDP) seeks to provide youth sport opportunities in Nunavik. Using hockey as a vehicle to enhance youth development, the NYHDP has set a number of objectives, which include encouraging Inuit youth to pursue education, develop life skills, and be physically active. The NYHDP is composed of two major components: the Community Program and the Select Program. This article provides a brief overview of the evaluation that was conducted in the past year in collaboration with the University of Ottawa. In addition to sport, the NYHDP also included a strong educational component that was initiated from the outset of the program through a working relationship with Kativik School Board (KSB). Until 2012, teachers were requested to complete reports related to the

youths’ attendance, behaviour, and effort in the classroom. It was recognized, however, that the 14 communities approached this process differently which led to inequality of how youth were chosen for the select program. As a result, the NYHDP has since ceased this partnership with the School Board for the time being. In recent months, much feedback from school administrators, teachers and parents show regret that the linkage of the program to education is no longer there.This change sparked interest in some schools around Nunavik who took the initiative to pass a resolution at the municipal level to reconnect hockey participation to school attendance, behaviour and effort.

Impact of the NYHDP The NYHDP encourages youth to play hockey and be physically active. For example, within the

© CLAUDE VALLIÈRES / NYHDP (2)

“What a difference three years

Above: Nunavik Nordiks Midget Girls Hockey Team wins gold in 2013 Kanata Girls’ Hockey Tournament. NYHDP youth participants stretching as a team during one of the select training camps in Kuujjuaq.

44

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


Select Program this year, 233 youth attended tryouts and approximately 400 youth participated at the community level. In 2010, regional tournaments were initiated into the program where over 400 youth from the Community Program had an opportunity to play against youth from other villages. To understand impacts on physical development, youth fitness testing was conducted on several occasions throughout the year. Results showed that many NYHDP Select participants improved their fitness levels as they improved on sit-ups, push-ups, and the beep test. Males, in particular, showed significant improvement in fitness while the females maintained or slightly improved their fitness levels.

NYHDP Atom team posing as a team — proud to represent Nunavik.

This evaluation looked at psychosocial development by examining youths’ perceived level of support from coaches and perceived impact on life skill development. From the evaluation, it was observed that recent changes to the NYHDP led to more life skill development through new activities that were added into the Select curriculum by the NYHDP instructors. More specifically, results from that data indicated that the youth from the Select teams improved on how to work as a team, to persist and not give up, to put forth effort to do their best, and have developed stronger relationships with their peers. Furthermore, the youth perceived the coaches as helpful in improving and gaining a sense of trust while the program

November/December 2013

as a whole was perceived to have helped them develop a positive sense of identity. Further, the program provided specific opportunities for the youth to transfer the life skills learned in the program to other areas of their life, including becoming a local hockey trainer, referee, or timekeeper, participating in the active recess program at schools or Le Grand défi Pierre Lavoie Bicycle Event. Finally, a current pilot study within the NYHDP is providing opportunities for participating youth to attend CEGEP. A big success of the past season was that the female NYHDP Select team won a gold medal at the Kanata Girls’ Hockey Tournament — the first gold for the NYHDP. This was quite an accomplishment as the teams they played against were organized clubs that practice and play together for seven months, whereas the NYHDP teams only have one week of practice as a team to prepare for these tournaments. The post-victory experience has been just as special for the girls, as the NYHDP and Nunavik as a whole are very proud — they have become role models for their younger peers. Changes have also been observed within communities. Over the past seven years the NYHDP has used diverse strategies to improve the conditions of the hockey arenas in Nunavik to enhance the organization and implementation of the NYHDP. For example, a number of renovations such as the installation of Eco Ice refrigeration systems were installed, which resulted in the arenas opening earlier than previous years.The NYHDP also helped a number of the communities to increase capacity by establishing stable, reliable, and hard-working staff who help sustain the NYHDP. Although some other communities have faced challenges in this area, it is important to recognize that within the past year, there were approximately 40 Local Hockey Trainers across Nunavik, the highest number since the program’s inception. This shows improvement in community adoption. In sum, over the past seven years, the program has grown to provide opportunities to hundreds of youth within the region of Nunavik

© COURTESY OF NYHDP (2)

COMMUNITY

Youth from Tasiujaq and Coach Matthew celebrate a victory together at the annual NYHDP Regional Tournament.

and seems to be having a positive influence on both the physical and psychosocial development of youth, and the community. As Kativik Regional Government (2013) stated:“the young age of the population could be a determining positive factor for Nunavik’s future, if efforts are made to raise youth in a healthy and stimulating environment” (p.2). Funders and administrators should continue to make a long-term investment in the NYHDP as this funding would ensure the continuation of a program that provides a positive and safe environment that encourages many Inuit youth in Nunavik to be physically active and develop life skills. The continued support would also allow for further improvement of the program through hiring and training of human resources, which would positively impact program sustainability. This published text formed the Program Evaluation: Nunavik Youth Hockey Development Program and was prepared and contributed to Canada’s Arctic Journal by: Corliss Bean, PhD student, Tanya Forneris, PhD and Alex Arellano, PhD, University of Ottawa.

above & beyond

45


NORTHWORDS: WINNER orthWords NWT would like to congratulate the winners of the 2013 Great Northern Canada Writing Contest. Winners are Gloria Song of Cambridge Bay, Nunavut, for The Mercy of the Loon (main prize) and Oli Anderson of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, for Paddling the Coppermine River with Hearne and Matonabee. Gloria receives the $500 first prize and Oli, the $250 emerging writer prize. In addition to honouring the winners, NorthWords congratulates all those who entered the contest. We would also like to thank De Beers for providing the prizes and First Air, the Airline of the North and above&beyond Canada's Arctic Journal for their continued support.

N

The mercy of the loon by Gloria Song

T

46

arcticjournal.ca

This loon was still alive, and fighting fiercely for its life. It stretched its neck and was just able to keep its beak above the surface. When the waves allowed the loon to raise its neck above the water, it would gasp desperately for air, only to be dragged under once again. He wondered how long the loon had been struggling this way. He tried to free it from the net. The loon hastily snapped at his fingers in frenzy, and he jumped back, surprised at its burst of antagonistic energy. It did not know that he was here to save him. It only knew that danger was all around. He considered breaking its neck to put the poor creature out of its misery. But as he continued to watch it gasp for air before the waves pulled it under again, he knew in his heart: this loon wanted to live. He grabbed at the bird again, but the loon only thrashed harder, pecking at his arms and chest, piercing his skin with its terrified beak. Its flailing body became further snarled in the wiry rope of the net. Blood dripped into the water — was it his or the loon’s? It was getting worse. Soon, extricating the loon would be impossible. Finally he lost his patience. “Stop biting me, you stupid bird!” he shouted. “Can’t you see I’m trying to save you?” At the loud clamour of his voice, the writhing loon suddenly fell limp. For a split second, he feared that it was dead. Or maybe it had forsaken all hope. Or had it listened to him? Either way, unshackling its body from the deadly net became a much simpler task. He dragged the top of the net out of the water and on top of his kayak skirt, cradling the body of the bird in his lap as he began the long process of peeling away the net from its little feet, its drenched feathers and its bloody face. Are you still alive, bird? Is this a pointless endeavour? Finally, the last tangle of the net was unwrapped. He held his breath, gently putting the bird back in the water. For a moment, there was no movement. Suddenly, the loon sprang to life and stood to face the kayak. It looked at him straight in the eye. The loon was bleeding from a small cut under its left eye. Then the loon turned away and began beating its wings furiously against his body. It skimmed along the water’s surface as though running and not flying, flapping its wings hard to leave the water. Finally the loon took off into the air without a single glance back. He sat motionless in his kayak, marvelling at the loon, soaring towards land as though it had not just narrowly escaped being drowned. Soon, the ripples in the waters smoothed over, and everything was still again. He glanced at the storm clouds settling in overhead, and decided to head back to town. © GLORIA SONG

hey were European tourists, waving from their canoe. He yearned to pretend not to see them from his kayak. He knew the tourists brought income into Ikaluktutiak during the short Arctic summers, but today he didn’t feel like talking to anybody. “Looks like a storm is coming,” remarked one of the tourists through a thick accent. He licked his lips, tasting the salty spray of the Arctic, but did not reply. “We have been looking for snowy owls,” the tourist continued. He sighed. He wanted to tell them they should be looking for snowy owls out on the tundra, but he didn’t want to invite further conversation. “There’s a storm coming in,” the tourist pointed to the ominous black clouds on the horizon. “We’re heading back now.” “I don’t speak English good,” he lied, conjuring up his best fake accent of indeterminate origin. The tourists shrugged and continued paddling for shore. “They’re just trying to be friendly,” his sister Samantha, chided. He did not answer her either. He saw the tip of the Point ahead of him. Past that, it was all open water. Once he reached that bend he would be alone at last. But his sister was still there. “You can’t continue,” Samantha insisted, staying close. “I know what you are planning to do, and you can’t do it.” He ignored his sister and focused on paddling his kayak. “You will bring such pain and sadness to the community,” his sister pleaded. The community has already been rocked by so many tragedies: fires, suicide, sickness. You must help them heal. You must give them hope, not more sadness. Have mercy on them.” Stroke left, stroke right. His sister lost her temper, her young body shaking. “You are being selfish,” she accused him, a small tear tracing the childhood scar on her left cheek. “After I died, it nearly killed our parents. This will surely break them now.” And with that, she left him, her ghost disappearing around the bend that was the tip of the Point. Oh, my dear Samantha, he thought quietly. Your death nearly killed me too. That’s when I began to wonder what it means to be happy. What do you do when you no longer know how to have hope? How can one be merciful then? He had brought his kayak around the bend of the Point, when he glimpsed something small bobbing in the ocean. It was black, and it disappeared beneath the surf with every swell. When the waves subsided it would pop up again. Curious, he approached it cautiously. It was a beak. Attached to the beak, below the surface, was a loon that was hopelessly tangled in a huge net dragging along the ocean floor. The net had already caught a dozen loons, clustering their drowned corpses together under the waves like a morbid bouquet of feathery flowers. He pictured the loons, one following the other into the trap. Some fisherman had evidently forgotten that he’d laid this net.

Gloria Song is a lawyer, writer, musician (Scary Bear Soundtrack), and kayaker based in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. November/December 2013


NORTHWORDS: EMERGING WRITER

Paddling the Coppermine River with Hearne and Matanobee by Oli Anderson

I

November/December 2013

When Hearne and Matanobee’s party hunted caribou, or “deer” as Hearne called them, they gorged. Matanobee once needed to be hauled in a sled all day, because of the “illness to have proceeded from the enormous quantity of meat that he had to eat.” We finally saw caribou too — the entire Bluenose-East herd, which reportedly numbers 100,000, making the annual crossing on a traditional point of the river. After more than a week of travelling through near silence, the air was suddenly filled with the sound of the herd — hooves clomping, branches swatting, babies whining, bucks huffing. We sat on a ridge in awe as the herd poured over the crest of a mountain. They gathered in huge groups at the river’s edge, then swam across its 150-foot width in waves. A large female came within 15 feet of us, huffing and clomping, trying to ward us away from her baby. As soon as one of us moved, it bolted off. Five hours later, the last stragglers pulled themselves onto the far shore and limped off. They left muddy roads and stripped willow bushes in their wake. On day 16, we were approaching the point where Hearne and Matanobee arrived at the Coppermine River: they had followed a tributary river. From a distance, we could see signs of life — our first since the start of the trip: a smattering of blue dome tents with smoke billowing out of one. The tents belonged to five rugged Swedes on a guided fly-fishing trip. The fishing was going well and they were hauling in the famous Arctic char, but they had a problem. Their outfitters sent them on the trip with sugar instead of salt, so their meals were bland. In this situation, the relative value of goods reverts dramatically from 2013 to 1771. We traded them a small bag of salt for two large char, and celebrated our first taste of this fish by making char sushi. This was the trip of a lifetime for our group of Yellowknifers. Hearne never wrote lyrically about the beauty of what he saw; he was more concerned with recording social traits of the Dene and observing the natural environment. Our trip seemed hard-core to us, but it was a vacation compared to Hearne and Matanobee’s journey. Nevertheless, paddling the Coppermine with their story in hand gave a new dimension to our trip. And the big spring floods will wash away our trail, for the next group to see an untouched landscape, just as Hearne, Matanobee and we had done. Oli has just moved to Ottawa to start his M.A. in Canadian history at Carleton University. Focusing on Aboriginal and fur trade history, he believes a strong sense of our past will always help guide our future. © OLI ANDERSON

n the late eighteenth century, Samuel Hearne took three years to reach the mouth of the famous Coppermine River, hoping to find a rich source of copper for his employer, the Hudson Bay Company. After twice being turned back, Hearne arrived thanks to the Chipewyan Dene leader Matanobee. He noted in his journal the long sought-after co-ordinates: 67.82° N, 115.09° W. Two hundred and forty-two years and one month later, I made the same note in my journal, after a three-week canoe trip with five friends. Six friends really… because Samuel Hearne’s A Journey to the Northern Ocean was another companion, and we could all marvel at his endurance as we watched the river’s gin-clear waters flow into the Arctic Ocean. What did Hearne find at the end? What he described as “no more than a jumble of rocks and gravel”. But the significance of his trip was not the prize at the end, but the journey itself. It was the same for our group. We flew the 270-kilometre distance from Yellowknife in a jam-packed Turbo Beaver, canoes lashed to the pontoons. Below us, we saw black spruce gradually giving way to bare esker ridges snaking through the flatness. We travelled down the river starting at a remote lake in the tundra called Grenville Lake. I grew up paddling lakes and rivers in Ontario and Quebec — the famous canoe routes of explorers and fur traders, which now thread their way through national parks populated by MEC-outfitted tourists. This Coppermine trip was very different. Never before had I felt like I was travelling in a land so undisturbed. Nature controls this landscape: this is a place that has barely been inhabited by humanity. Hearne notes in his journal that the Dene are well aware that these lands “are incapable of affording support to any number of the human race even during the short time they are passing through them.” Only half a dozen canoe groups descended the river this year, plus a few fishing and research expeditions. Crossing this environment was a very different experience for us than it was for Hearne. Hearne and Matanobee relied on hunting and fishing for daily sustenance. There were times their party nearly starved. Once he survived for seven days on cranberries, leather scraps and burnt bones. They lived on cycles of feast or famine, hoping to meet a herd of caribou. In contrast, we had five big blue tripping barrels packed with food. And then there were the fish. After only two casts on Grenville Lake, we pulled one of the dark-skinned muscular lake trout. That set the tone for the weeks to come: I soon swore by my lucky gold spoon lure. We fell in love with the feisty grayling. Hearne wrote of the grayling, which the Dene call the “saint eh,” that they are “most esteemed when broiled or roasted with the scales on.” We called them “river hot dogs,” because they were the size of foot long hotdogs and each one is best for one person, cooked right on the grill.

above & beyond

47


ARTS, CULTURE & EDUCATION

Come to the edge We might fall Come to the edge It is too high Come to the edge And they came And he pushed And they flew. Christopher Logue (1926-2011) © NICK NEWBERY

Recent group of MSVU graduates who had been part of the MSVU Nunavut Practicum Program, of whom three are now teaching in Nunavut: Jessica Isnor, Sara Guptill, Ryan Richards, Heidi Janes, Erin Van Dusen, Nick Newbery (teacher).

Southern teachers for the North Building relationships F

or many years in the earlier part of the twentieth century, formal southern schooling for Inuit was colonial, spotty and limited at best. After the Second World War, Inuit children were sent to residential schools until the late 1950s and 1960s when Ottawa built small schools in the new settlements. After 1967, when the Government of the Northwest Territories (which at the time had jurisdiction over the Eastern Arctic) moved from Ottawa to Yellowknife, attempts were made to somewhat “de-colonialize” the approach to northern education. Community input was sought, curriculum

became more“northernized,”aboriginal teachers were trained and native languages began to be taught in territorial schools. With the signing of the Nunavut Land Claim Agreement in 1993 and the creation of Nunavut in 1999, Inuit saw education as a critical tool for both preserving their culture and preparing their youth for a rapidly changing world in the North. So further efforts were made by the Government of Nunavut (GN) through its policy of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit to train Inuit as teachers, to teach Inuktitut in the schools, to develop more parental and community involvement

and to include more Inuit culture in school programming. However, as in all education systems, Nunavut’s schools continue to face issues. Two-thirds of the teachers are from southern Canada, their turnover is relatively high and many Inuit youth are failing to complete their grade 12 for a variety of reasons. This leads to parental concern, Inuit youth struggling with low employment and identity issues and frustration for the GN in that it cannot hire enough Inuit to fill the ranks of the territorial civil service in numbers proportionate to their

© JESSICA ISNOR

Jessica Isnor one on one with a youngster in the Grade 5 class.

48

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


ARTS, CULTURE & EDUCATION

© HEIDI JANES

“My experience teaching in Nunavut has been like no other. Here students learn at a different pace from what I am used to and I have quickly learned to adapt my methods to meet their needs, creating lesson plans, which are of interest to the students and relate to their culture. I have faced challenging social issues and cultural differences but am grateful as I need to be aware of my students’ needs within the classroom and sensitive to their situations outside it.” — Heidi Janes, program participant 2012, currently teaching in Cape Dorset New teachers Heidi Janes and Jessica Isnor enjoy the outdoors in Cape Dorset.

population in Nunavut. So retention and crosscultural programs are taking on even more importance for the Nunavut education system. With this in mind, Qikiqtani School Operations (the GN’s department of education in the Baffin region) has partnered with Mount St. Vincent University (MSVU) in Halifax for the past seven years to help orientate would-be teachers prior to their applying on northern teaching positions. This is done through the offering of a university credit course on Nunavut via the department of education at MSVU and fieldwork through a northern practicum experience in the Baffin region for four weeks in March and early April each year. The northern practicum not only offers a hands-on, ESL, cross-cultural teaching experience but also helps these future northern teachers to later adjust more easily to their new environment so that they can more comfortably build relationships with their Inuit students and work with them to complete their high school education. The practicum is viewed as both a professional and cultural experience since it is important for the teacher

November/December 2013

trainee to understand that for a teacher in an Inuit community to be effective, schooling and local culture needs to be integrated. The goal of the program is retention of both teachers and students, to enable teachers through better orientation to stay longer in Nunavut, for them to be better able to deliver more attractive cross-cultural courses and to form good relationships with their students which in turn will hopefully encourage Inuit youth to stay in school and complete their education. In this way young Nunavummiut will find meaningful lives, the GN will find qualified Inuit to fill civil service positions, more Inuit will start their own businesses and overall the territory will retain a modern version of its aboriginal character as outlined in the policy of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit.

Tackling the challenges of northern education Bursaries of $7,000 each are offered to five would-be northern teachers in their final year in the MSVU education department to cover travel and accommodation expenses as part

of their four weeks in a Nunavut community. MSVU works with principals and staff in schools that are prepared to offer accommodation and mentoring, with the principal and co-operating teacher supervising and assessing the MSVU student in compliance with the latter’s B.Ed qualification requirements. This benefits both parties. The school gets an enthusiastic extra pair of hands in mid-winter, the chance to vet a possible teacher for the following year and some extra funding.The student gets the chance to taste what teaching and community life in Canada’s Arctic is really like. Most of the students discover this northern adventure can be a steep learning curve. Usually sent individually to different communities and finding themselves outside their usual comfort zone, they quickly learn to be flexible, independent and to think on their feet. They have to get used to living within another culture, to not understanding all that is going on or being said around them, to coming face-to-face with the impact of sometimes distressing social issues and putting up with a very cold environment. Nonetheless, they

above & beyond

49


ARTS, CULTURE & EDUCATION

“I have learned more in this short period of time than I had ever thought possible. This practicum experience has taken away a level of uncertainty that once lingered around the idea of my teaching in a community so far from home. I have learned that, though different in many ways, teaching is still teaching, wherever one goes.”— Mark MacKenzie, program participant 2013, currently teaching in Ft. McMurray

Top: Trevor Gibb engages his high school class in Pangnirtung. Bottom: Teacher Brittany Chappell with her Grade 5 class in Pangnirtung.

quickly find that they do have something to offer as individuals, despite the fact that they find themselves among people who look different, who speak a different language, who have different cultural priorities and who are not always convinced that formal education is always so important. Several students have commented that the experience can be exhilarating when faced with new personal and professional challenges, from appreciating the beauty of a totally unique landscape and its northern wildlife to being allowed to do things very differently in their classroom, to having the feeling that they are truly needed and that they can really make a difference in the lives of young people.

The students are given extra orientation sessions at the university prior to going, are expected to contribute towards the cost of their adventure, as well as having to write a report for their sponsors and to give a presentation to their final-year university peers upon their return. To date, the university course and practicum has produced 23 individuals who have either taught or are currently teaching with aboriginal peoples or in the North as a result of this project. The program is now building its own northern support network so that some current Nunavut teachers, who themselves once participated in this program, are now offering to host or mentor the new intake of MSVU students going North. The program has received support from several sources. It works in partnership with Qikiqtani School Operations and the staff of several of its schools, is endorsed by the Nunavut Teachers’ Association, has the encouragement and on-going financial backing of The TD Bank Group and Dr. Hans and Mrs. Annegret Uhthoff, while First Air Ltd. helps reduce costs by offering fares at discounted prices. All the sponsors are interested in the broader aim of improving literacy among northern youth, of helping them to stay in school and of enhancing their

Canada’s Leading Retailer of Inuit Arts & Crafts

© HEIDI JANES

© NICK NEWBERY (2)

Partners in common goals

Heidi learning to make sealskin mitts with local elder Sita Saila.

career prospects. They say it takes a community to raise a child. Certainly it takes the efforts of many to build an effective education system. If young teachers can be given the encouragement and opportunity to think outside the box and offer their talents in Nunavut and other parts of this country, then new ideas may find new solutions.

Nick Newbery Nick Newbery is the co-ordinator of the Nunavut Teacher Practicum Program at Mount St. Vincent University in Nova Scotia.

“Grazing Caribou” by Esa Kripanik, Igloolik, Nunavut

northern images A Division of Arctic Co-operatives Ltd.

Yellowknife 867-873-5944 | Churchill 204-675-2681

Visit Our New Website

www.northernimages.ca 50

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


NORTHERN BOOKSHELF

A Complete Guide to Arctic Wildlife Richard Sale with photographs by Per Michelsen and Richard Sale Firefly Books July 2012

Aboriginal Power Chris Henderson Why Knot Books Rainforest Editions June 2013 For the past two and a half decades, Chris Henderson’s professional focus has been on clean energy, sustainable development, environmental action, economic development and Aboriginal communities. He is Canada’s most respected commentator on Aboriginal clean energy opportunities, and acts as Clean Energy Advisor to over a dozen indigenous communities from coast-to-coast-to-coast. Aboriginal communities, governments, utilities, private corporations, independent power development companies and financing firms regularly seek Henderson’s strategic advice to catalyze clean energy projects and markets. Through long-standing relationships with First Nations, Métis and Inuit communities, he works to make hydro, wind and biomass projects a reality that can fuel sustainable prosperity for Canada’s First Peoples. His book, Aboriginal Power, presents new ideas about clean energy and how it is transforming First Nations, Métis and Inuit communities. Aboriginal Power contains evocative stories, public policy innovations and project snapshots from every region of Canada. The publication highlights why clean, green and sustainable energy is very important to the prosperity of Aboriginal communities and the economic and environmental future of Canada. The book will be of particular interest to First Nations, Métis and Inuit leaders, elected officials, business executives, finance companies, public policy makers and the country’s energy sector. November/December 2013

This is the ideal guidebook to the wildlife of the Arctic. Polar expert Richard Sale describes the ecological and human dynamics of the Arctic, with detailed information about the peoples of the region and their history. He also discusses the future for the region and its wildlife, severely threatened by both climatic change and the overwhelming pollution created by humankind. Following sections on Arctic geology, geography, speciation and biogeography, the book provides extensive field coverage of all the region’s mammals and birds. In-depth information on each species includes notes on identification, size, voice, distribution, diet, breeding, taxonomy and more. A Complete Guide to Arctic Wildlife is also packed with stunning photographs and includes maps of the entire circumpolar ranges of the various polar creatures.

Arctic Kaleidoscope: The People, Wildlife and Ever-Changing Landscape Michelle Valberg MV Photo Productions 2013 Vast, isolated and challenging, Canada’s Arctic has long drawn adventurers, explorers and stouthearted voyageurs to its wild expanses. Yet for every person who has experienced its inimitable wonders, walked its ancient terrain and come into contact with its people and wildlife, there are those who erringly think of it as a sterile, inhospitable wasteland. With Arctic Kaleidoscope: The People, Wildlife and Ever-Changing Landscape, Michelle Valberg shows the North in sweeping colour, with intense texture and vibrant life. Through her photos, taken over 27 trips in five years, she has captured the Arctic — from Kugluktuk to Greenland and Resolute to Churchill — with her signature style. Together with commentary that offers insight into her own personal experience and gives voice to Inuit artists, cultural advocates and guides, this photographic showcase brings the Arctic to life from every angle — the people, the places and the wildlife.

above & beyond

51


Devoted to excellence W5txoi3u4 WoExc6g5 Executive & Business Suites ˆmJo1i4 gJ3u8Fø5

Renowned Licensed Dining Listed in “Where to Eat in Canada”

Free Wireless Internet, Business Services In-room Coffee & Cable TV sçMstø5\hv5g4f5 Conference Facilities vtm4Fc6g5 Complimentary Shuttle

X˛yu4 x4/6gw0Jtø5

Tel: (867) 979-4433 Fax: (867) 979-6591

stay@discoverylodge.com www.discoverylodge.com 52

arcticjournal.ca

IQALUIT, NUNAVUT November/December 2013


INUIT FORUM

Strength in numbers ne of our key strengths as a people, whether domestically or in the circumpolar arena, is unity. Inuit have worked steadily over many decades to achieve and maintain unity among our people. We come to you today as a unified group of Inuit leaders representing 53 communities across the four Arctic regions of Inuit Nunangat. That’s how I opened a discussion with Prime Minister Stephen Harper this past summer in Rankin Inlet, during his annual Northern Tour. The “Arctic Leaders Working Meeting” included members of the ITK Board of Directors and some of the Prime Minister’s most senior members of cabinet around a single table at the Siniktarvik Hotel. The meeting had little in the way of ceremony. The Governor General did not attend, though Inuit would have welcomed him. There were no questions from journalists, though cameras were allowed for the first 10 minutes. Yet the five-hour meeting — longer than scheduled — was groundbreaking in many respects. We hope it is the start of a new process and an improved working relationship between the federal government and the Inuit of Canada. I have had the opportunity to meet with Prime Minister Harper a few times since becoming President of ITK last year. Inuit leaders have been meeting with Canadian Prime Ministers since our national organization was founded in 1971, and well before that. Still, there is something to be said for presenting a united front. We talked about the intersection of geography and policy-making, in particular, how Nunavik and Nunatsiavut are excluded from federal programs designed for the Arctic because those regions are in provinces not territories.We emphasized an Inuit-specific model designed to work with the four Inuit regions of Canada, an area we know as Inuit Nunangat.

© JASON RANSOM/PMO

© ITK

O

(From left) Bernard Valcourt, Leona Aglukkaq, Thomas (Anguti) Johnson, Duane Smith, Terry Audla, Nellie Cournoyea, Stephen Harper, Cathy Towtongie, Rebecca Kudloo, Joe Oliver, Sarah Leo, and Jobie Tukkiapik.

On the wall of the meeting room was a map of the four regions, and at one point in his comments, the Prime Minister himself explained the concept of Inuit Nunangat to the flickering cameras. The disadvantages of the current policy approach are easily seen in federal housing programs that outline funds for Nunavut, while funds designated for the provinces get eaten up by big-city social housing projects, rarely making it to Inuit regions. An Inuitspecific approach would earmark a portion of funds for Inuit regions to ensure annual progress in social housing construction, augmented by a home-ownership program to help develop a private housing market in Inuit Nunangat. We also advocated for the implementation of Inuit-first procurement policies, using the logic that government-funded projects in Inuit regions provide greater economic opportunities when executed in partnership with Inuit. Such agreements provide a balance between government’s procurement objective of having a competitive process and the Inuit objective of ensuring meaningful and significant participation by Inuit. In my closing remarks, I suggested that much of our discussion could be material for the Speech from the Throne (and as it turned out,

it was), and certainly, for the next federal budget. The Prime Minister visits the Arctic every year. My hope is that the process that began in Rankin Inlet this summer will also continue annually and that the Prime Minister’s Northern Tour will come to encompass the entire Arctic. Every trip provides an opening for discussion, like when the Prime Minister wonders why there aren’t more Inuit working in local hotels and retail stores or when the power and phone service goes out in the middle of the day. Big-city news crews get an education as well, with reporters making comparisons to time spent working in war-torn countries and being forced to improvise when the only restaurant in town runs out of food. Those experiences can set the tone for discussions on, say, employment and training or telecommunications or emergency preparedness or food security. Prime Minister Harper has travelled to Nunavik, and this year’s tour included a stop at the Raglan Mine. Next, we need to get him to Nunatsiavut. But there’s a problem: I don’t think his Hercules aircraft can land on the region’s short gravel runways. That’s the perfect opening for a discussion on infrastructure.

Terry Audla

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 75 Albert Street, Suite 1101 Ottawa, ON K1P 5E7 t. (613) 238.8181

November/December 2013

above & beyond

53


arctic exotica

Š LEE NARRAWAY

Arctic Flora During botany workshops, young people from around the world participating in the Students on Ice, Arctic Youth Expedition 2013 collected, pressed, dried and artistically mounted a variety of Arctic flora.

54

arcticjournal.ca

November/December 2013


ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓅᖓᔪᖅ, ᐊᑲᕐᕆᓇᖅᑐᖅ, ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑐᖅ

Nunallaat, Ihuarniq, Atuttiarniq Community, Comfort, Convenience

ᑲᓲᑎᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᖄᖓᒍᑦ

Haniliriikhutik Hilarjuap Qulaani Spanning the Top of the World

xmso4 yi5bF4, nirlx6, kNK5

Amaulik Motel, Sanikiluaq, Nunavut

www.InnsNorth.com ☎ 1-888-To-North ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓂ-ᓇᒻᒥᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᑐᔪᕐᒥᕖᑦ, ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᓕᒫᒥ.

Nunalinni-namminirijaujut tujurmiviit, kajjiqatigiittut upiuqtaqtulimaami. Locally-owned hotels, working together across the Arctic.


Introducing the 400 The newest addition to the First Air fleet, the Boeing 737-400 aircraft promises a greener, smoother, more comfortable ride. Serving flight 7F860/861 Ottawa – Iqaluit and return.


Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal Nov-Dec 2013