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Canada’s Arctic Journal

JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2012 • $ 5.95

Arctic Navigator Bernier

The Amazing Aurora

PM40050872

A Cascade of Arctic Change Featured on

www.arcticjournal.ca


Pita Aatami / „b ≈bu President, Makivik Corporation & Chairman, First Air xzJ6√6, mrF4 fxS‰nzk5 x7m w4y?sb6, {5 wsf8k5 Président, Corporation Makivik et président du conseil, First Air

Setting the stage for 2012 We ring in this New Year with momentum and anticipation for what lies ahead in 2012. Together with our partners Qikiqtani First Aviation and Sakku First Aviation, we are looking forward to another successful year of providing superior customer service while providing tangible benefits to the people in the communities we serve. Our focus on being the primary sponsors in many sporting, educational and cultural events continues, starting the year off with two of the most significant and highly recognized events. We are proud to be the exclusive airline for the Northern Lights 2012 (NL2012) Tradeshow taking place from February 1 to 4 at the Ottawa Convention Centre. This premier event is the biggest and most recognized event where North and South come together to strengthen partnerships and develop opportunities. As the third edition of the conference, NL2012 promises to be bigger, better and with a greater range of exhibitors and conference sessions. Topics such as resource development (energy, mining, fisheries), national sovereignty, northern infrastructure and transportation networks, tourism and culture, will be covered in the dynamic conference session lineup. The topics are timely and relevant to various key stakeholders as the regions of Nunavik, Nunatsiavut and the territory of Nunavut promote the vast opportunities for doing business in the North. We are also proud to be a key supporter of the Arctic Winter Games, which began with providing charter service and special fares on our scheduled flights for the Territorial Trials in December, and again for the second set of trials in January. Hosted in Whitehorse from March 4th to March 10th, 2012, the Arctic Winter Games is the world’s largest northern multi-sport and cultural event celebrating athletic competition, culture, friendship and cooperation between northern contingents. Teams from Alaska, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Alberta North, Nunavut, Greenland, Yamal, Nunavik and Sapmi will come together to participate in traditional Arctic Sports, Dene Games and common sports. Join us in cheering on our teams as they compete on the circumpolar stage. First Air, Qikiqtani First Aviation and Sakku First Aviation are looking forward to participating in these premier events and to engaging in the conversation about the North. Working together to promote northern interests is a key factor in building and sustaining a stronger future for us all. Thank you for your support.

ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᓂᖅ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓛᖅᑕᑎᓐᓂᑦ 2012−ᖑᓕᖅᐸᑦ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᑖᓵᖅᑲᐅᒧᑦ ᓂᕆᐅᓐᓂᖃᕈᑎᖃᖅᑐᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᕈᒪᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑕ ᓂᕆᐅᓐᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑕᓗ ᐊᑐᓛᖅᑕᑎᓐᓄᑦ 2012-ᖑᓕᖅᐸᑦ. ᑲᑐᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒋᕙᒃᑕᑎᒻᓂᑦ ᕿᑭᖅᑕᓂ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᒃᑯᒃ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᒃᑯᑦ, ᓯᕗᒧᐊᑦᑎᐊᕈᒪᕗᒍᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖁᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᔪᖅ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᑦᑎᐊᓛᖑᒍᓐᓇᕐᓂᓕᒫᕗᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᒍ ᐱᔨᑦᑏᓐᓇᕐᓗᑕ ᐃᑲᔪᕐᓂᖃᕈᑎᓂᓪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᔭᒃᓴᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᑲᔪᕐᓗᑕ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᒻᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᖅᐸᑦᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕇᓐᓇᖃᑦᑕᖅᑕᕗᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᓪᓗᐊᖑᓪᓗᑕ ᐊᒥᓱᓄᑦ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᖅᑐᖃᕐᓂᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᓂᕈᑎᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᕐᓄᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕈᑕᐅᕙᑦᑐᓂᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓂᑦ, ᐱᒋᐊᕈᑎᒋᓗᒍ ᐊᕐᕌᒎᔪᖅ ᒪᕐᕉᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᓛᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᓴᕆᔭᐅᓯᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑎᓪᓗ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕈᑕᐅᓛᖅᑑᒃ. ᐅᐱᒍᓱᑉᐳᒍᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᓛᕐᓂᑎᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐊᖅᓴᕐᓃᑦ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᓐᓂ 2012 (NL2012) ᕖᕝᕗᐊᕆ 1-ᒥᑦ 4-ᒧᑦ ᐋᑐᕚᑉ ᑲᑎᒪᕕᔾᔪᐊᕐᓂᕕᖓᓂ. ᑖᓐᓇ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕈᑎᒋᔭᐅᓛᖅᑐᖅ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᑎᑦᑎᔪᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐊᖏᓛᖑᕗᖅ ᐃᓕᓴᕆᔭᐅᓯᒪᓛᖑᓪᓗᓂᓗ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑦ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᓂᒥᐅᓪᓗ ᑲᑎᒪᓕᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᓴᙵᑦᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒌᓐᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᐱᕕᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖅᓴᐅᓕᖅᑐᑎᓪᓗ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᒍᑎᒃᓴᐅᔪᓂᑦ. ᐱᖓᔪᐊᓐᓂᑦ ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖃᕐᓂᐅᓴᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑲᑎᒪᕕᔾᔪᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᑎᑦ, NL2012 ᑲᑎᒪᕕᔾᔪᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖃᓛᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᖏᓂᖅᓴᒃᑲᓐᓂᒻᒪᕆᓐᓂᒃ, ᐱᐅᓂᖅᓴᒃᑲᓐᓂᒻᒪᕆᓐᓂᓪᓗ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᒡᒍᑕᐅᓂᖅᓴᐅᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᑎᑦᑎᒐᔭᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑲᑎᒪᔾᔪᑕᐅᔪᑦ. ᐱᔾᔪᑎᐅᔪᑦ ᓲᕐᓗ ᓄᓇᒦᙶᖅᑐᓂᑦ ᐃᒪᕐᒥᓗ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᒍᑎᒋᔭᐅᓂᖏᑦ (ᐆᒻᒪᖅᑯᑎᓕᕆᓂᖅ, ᐅᔭᕋᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖅ, ᐃᖃᓗᓕᕆᓂᖅ), ᑲᓇᑕ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᕆᔭᐅᓂᕋᖅᑕᐅᓂᖓ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐱᖁᑎᕐᔪᐊᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᔾᔪᑎᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᓪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒌᑦᑐᑦ, ᐳᓚᕋᖅᑐᓕᕆᓂᖅ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᓕᕆᓂᖅ, ᑲᒪᒋᔭᐅᒐᔭᕐᒪᑕ ᑲᑎᒪᔾᔪᑕᐅᓗᑎᑦ. ᐱᔾᔪᑏᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᓈᒻᒪᓈᖅᓯᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑐᕌᖓᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑎᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓄᑦ ᑎᒍᒥᐊᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᓲᕐᓗ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᓄᖓ ᓄᓇᕕᒃ, ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐱᕕᖃᕈᑎᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᔫᒥᑎᑦᑎᓇᓱᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᓇᓱᐊᕈᑎᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᑎᑦ. ᐅᐱᒍᓱᒃᐳᒍᓪᓗ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᐃᔨᓪᓗᐊᖑᒐᑦᑕ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᕐᓂᐅᓛᖅᑐᓂᑦ, ᐱᒋᐊᕈᑎᖃᖅᑐᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕐᒥᒃ ᓵᑕᑦᑐᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑭᑭᓪᓕᒋᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓪᓗᑕ ᖃᖓᑦᑕᐅᑎᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᕆᐊᕋᓱᐊᓛᖅᑐᑦ ᐊᑭᑦᑐᕋᐅᑎᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑎᓰᕝᕙᒥ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑭᖑᓪᓕᕐᒥ ᐊᑭᑦᑐᕋᐅᑎᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᒥᓗᑎᑦ ᔮᓐᓄᐊᕆᒥ ᐃᑲᔪᓛᕆᓪᓗᑎᒍᑦ. ᕙᐃᑦᕼᐅᐊᔅ−ᒥ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᓛᖅᑐᑎᑦ ᒫᑦᓯ 4-ᒥ ᒫᑦᓯ 10−ᒧᑦ, 2012−ᖑᓕᖅᐸᑦ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᕐᒥ ᐊᖏᓛᖑᕗᖅ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᙱᑦᑐᓂᑦ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᖅᑐᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᓪᓕᐅᓂᖅᓯᐅᖅᑐᑎᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᕐᓂᑦ ᐊᑭᑦᑐᕋᐅᑎᓪᓗᑎᓪᓗ ᓵᓚᒃᓴᕋᓱᐊᖅᑐᑎᑦ ᐱᙳᐊᕐᓂᒃᑯᑦ,ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᒃᑯᑦ, ᐱᖃᑖᖅᑐᒡᒍᑕᐅᓲᖑᓪᓗᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᖃᑎᒌᓕᖅᑐᑎᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐊᕕᑦᑐᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ. ᐃᓕᒌᑦ ᐊᓛᓯᑲ,ᔫᑳᓐ,ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ,ᐊᓪᕘᑕ ᐅᐊᓐᓇᖓ,ᓄᓇᕗᑦ,ᑲᓛᖡᑦ ᓄᓈᑦ,ᔭᒪᓪ, ᓄᓇᕕᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᑉᒥ ᑲᑎᓛᖅᑐᑦ ᐱᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᖅᑎᒍᑦ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᕐᓗᑎᑦ, ᐊᓪᓚᐃᑦ ᐱᙳᐊᕈᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᙳᐊᕈᓯᕐᓂᑦ ᐱᙳᐊᖅᑕᐅᓲᕐᓂᑦ ᑕᒪᐃᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᑭᑦᑐᕋᐅᑎᒻᒥᓗᑎᑦ ᓵᓚᒃᓴᕋᓱᐊᕐᓗᑎᑦ. ᐃᓚᐅᕕᒋᑎᒍᑦ ᓵᓚᒃᓴᕋᓱᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᖁᕕᐊᓲᑎᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᕐᒥ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑦ ᓵᓚᒃᓴᕋᓱᐊᖅᑎᓪᓗᒋᑦ. ᕗᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᕐ, ᕿᑭᖅᑕᓂ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔩᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᒃᑯᒃ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔩᑦ ᐃᓚᐅᖃᑕᐅᓛᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᓂᕆᐅᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓂᖓ ᐱᙳᐊᕕᔾᔪᐊᕐᓂᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᖅ ᐱᓪᓗᒍ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᔭᐅᒐᔭᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᖃᖃᑎᖃᕈᒪᕗᑦ. ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖃᑎᒌᓪᓗᑕ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑕᓕᒫᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᑦᑐᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᔭᐅᕗᖅ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᒍᑎᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᒪᑭᒪᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᓯᕗᓂᒥ ᑕᒪᐃᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᒻᓄᑦ.

Préparer le terrain pour 2012 Nous entrons avec grande joie, énergie et anticipation dans l’année 2012. En collaboration avec nos partenaires Qikiqtani First Aviation et Sakku First Aviation, nous anticipons une nouvelle année de réussite par la prestation d’un service à la clientèle de grande qualité, tout en offrant des avantages réels aux résidants des collectivités que nous desservons. Nous continuerons d’être les principaux commanditaires de plusieurs activités sportives, éducatives et culturelles, en commençant l’année par deux événements des plus importants et des plus appréciés. Nous sommes fiers d’être la ligne aérienne exclusive du salon commercial Aurores boréales 2012 (AB2012) qui aura lieu du 1er au 4 février au Centre des congrès d’Ottawa. Cet événement est le plus grand et le mieux reconnu où le Nord et le Sud se réunissent pour renforcer les partenariats et exploiter les possibilités. La troisième itération de cette conférence promet de comprendre un plus grand nombre et une plus grande variété d’exposants et de séances. Les sujets traités lors de cette conférence dynamique porteront sur le développement des ressources (énergie, mines, pêches), la souveraineté nationale, l’infrastructure dans le Nord et les réseaux de transport, le tourisme et la culture. Ces thèmes sont opportuns et pertinents pour que les divers intervenants clés du Nunavik, du Nunatsiavut et du Nunavut soient en mesure de promouvoir les immenses possibilités de faire des affaires dans le Nord. Nous sommes également fiers d’être l’un des commanditaires clés des Jeux d’hiver de l’Arctique : nous avons offert un service nolisé et des tarifs spéciaux à l’occasion des épreuves territoriales en décembre, et nous le ferons encore pour la deuxième série d’épreuves en janvier. Les Jeux d’hiver de l’Arctique, qui se dérouleront à Whitehorse du 4 au 10 mars 2012, représentent la manifestation multisportive et culturelle du Nord la plus importante du monde entier. On y célèbre les compétitions athlétiques, la culture, l’amitié et la coopération entre les groupes nordiques. Des équipes de l’Alaska, du Yukon, des Territoires du Nord-Ouest, du nord de l’Alberta, du Nunavut, du Groenland, du Yamal, du Nunavik et du Sapmi se rencontreront pour participer à des jeux arctiques traditionnels, des jeux dénés et des sports communs. Venez encourager nos équipes pendant les compétitions sur la scène circumpolaire. First Air, Qikiqtani First Aviation et Sakku First Aviation anticipent avec plaisir de participer à ces événements d’importance et aux discussions sur le Nord. Il est essentiel de travailler de concert en vue de promouvoir les intérêts du Nord et de collaborer pour un meilleur avenir. Nous vous remercions de votre appui.

ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑐᕋᔅᓯ.

ᐱᒻᒪᕿᐅᑎᑦᑕᕗᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᓯ ᐊᒻᒪ ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᖅᑐᒍᑦ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐅᒃᑯᑦ, ᖃᖓᑕᔫᖁᑎᖓᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᑕᖅᑐᒥᑦ. We value your support and thank you for making First Air, THE AIRLINE OF THE NORTH. Nous apprécions votre soutien et vous remercions de votre appui à First Air, LA LIGNE AÉRIENNE DU NORD.


featuring Noreen Muckpaloo

ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᒪᒃᐸᓗ

First Air Focus ᕗᔅ ᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᑕᑯᒋᐊᕐᓂᖅ

Our team is the reason First Air excels at being The Airline of the North and we are proud to recognize and thank those who show such dedication. One exceptional First Air employee is Noreen Muckpaloo. If you travel within or around the East or Central Arctic Regions, you have likely met Noreen Muckpaloo – her friendliness and desire to make our passengers feel comfortable are unforgettable. Like many Nunavummiut, Noreen spent much of her life travelling across the North. Born in Iqaluit, Noreen spent her childhood in Arctic Bay, but returned to her place of birth to complete High School so that she might one day realize her dream of becoming a Flight Attendant. After working in customer service waiting tables and tending the Front Desk at Turaarvik Inns North in Rankin Inlet, Noreen decided to pursue her dream. She began Flight Attendant training with First Air in June, 2011, and worked very hard to learn the course material and pass the exams. “Training to become a Flight Attendant was difficult and challenging since English is my second language, but it was very interesting. It was a lot of work and reading in a short time but in the end it was worth it,” says Noreen. “I try and keep myself prepared and be aware of everything, following the procedures and safety regulations and have fun doing my job.”

ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᕗᑦ ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᐅᑎᑦᑎᕗᑦ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕆᔭᐅᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᒍᑦ ᐃᓕᓴᖅᓯᔪᓐᓇᕋᑦᑕ ᐊᒻᒪ ᖁᔭᓕᔪᓐᓇᕋᑦᑕ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᓇᓱᑦᑎᐊᖃᑦᑕᖅᑐᓂᒃ. ᑕᕝᕙᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᐱᓇᓱᑦᑎᐊᖃᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᖅ ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᒪᒃᐸᓗ. ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖃᑦᑕᕈᕕᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑑᑉ ᑲᓇᖕᓇᖓᓂ ᐅᕝᕙᓗ ᑭᕙᓪᓕᕐᒥ, ᑕᑯᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᔭᒃᓴᕆᕙᑦ ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᒪᒃᐸᓗ − ᐃᓄᑦᑎᐊᕙᐅᓂᖓ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᒪᓂᖓ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᓂᒃ ᑐᓐᖓᓇᕈᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᖃᑦᑕᖅᐳᖅ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐳᐃᒍᕋᑦᓴᐅᓐᖏᓚᖅ. ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥᐅᑕᒐᓚᒃᑎᑐᑦ, ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᓇᕈᓯᒪᒐᓚᒃᐳᖅ ᐃᓅᓯᕐᒥᓂ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᓕᒫᐸᓗᖕᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᖕᓄᑦ. ᐃᓅᓯᒪᔪᖅ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪ ᐱᕈᖅᓴᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᑉᐱᐊᕐᔪᖕᒥ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ ᐅᑎᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ ᐃᓅᕕᒋᓯᒪᔭᖓᓄᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖓ ᐱᔭᕇᕆᐊᖅᑐᖅᑐᓂᐅᒃ ᓯᕗᒧᑉᐹᓪᓕᕈᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑖᕆᔪᒪᓯᒪᔭᖓᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕐᒥ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ. ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᓂᕆᕕᖕᒥ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑭᐅᔨᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᑐᕌᕐᕕᒃ ᑐᔪᕐᒥᕕᖓᓂ ᑲᖏᖅᖠᓂᕐᒥ,ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᒪᓕᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᕆᔪᒪᓯᒪᔭᖓᓂᒃ ᓱᕈᓯᐅᓂᕐᒥᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᒪᓐᖓᓂᑦ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐱᒋᐊᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᔫᓂ 2011-ᒥ, ᐊᒻᒪ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᑦᑎᐊᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕆᐊᖃᖅᑕᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐃᓕᓴᕆᔭᐅᔾᔪᑎᑖᕋᓱᒃᑐᓂ. “ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᒃᓱᕈᕐᓇᒐᓚᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᑎᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᑐᖃᕆᓇᒍ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᕆᔭᕋ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᓚᐅᖅᐸᕋ. ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒃᓴᖃᒻᒪᕆᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᒐᓚᒋᐊᖃᖅᑐᑕ ᑐᐊᕕᐊᕆᓗᒋᑦ ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓕ

ᐱᔭᕇᓚᐅᕐᓂᓐᓄᑦ

ᖁᕕᐊᒋᕙᕋ,” ᓄᐊᕇᓐ

ᐅᖃᓚᐅᖅᐳᖅ. “ᐸᕐᓇᒃᓯᒪᑦᑎᐊᕋᓱᖃᑦᑕᖅᐳᖓ

ᐊᒻᒪ

ᑐᑭᓯᐅᒪᑦᑎᐊᕋᓱᒃᐸᒃᑐᖓ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᔭᕆᐊᖃᖅᑕᓐᓂᒃ, ᒪᓕᒐᓱᑦᑎᐊᖅᐸᒃᑐᒋᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᖅᑕᐃᓕᒪᔾᔪᑎᕗᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᕋ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᐸᕋ.” ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᐃᖃᓗᖕᓂ ᑐᑦᑕᕐᕕᖃᖅᐳᖅ ᐊᒻᒪ ATR-ᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖃᑦᑕᖅᐳᖅ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂ

Noreen is based out of Iqaluit and flies the ATR routes within Baffin Island and the Kivalliq region.

ᕿᑭᖅᑖᓗᖕᒥ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑭᕙᓪᓕᕐᒥ.

“What I like the most about being a Flight Attendant is that I get to meet new people, see friends and family, and travel to the communities.”

ᐱᖃᓐᓂᕆᔭᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᓐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪ ᖃᖓᑕᔪᓐᓇᖃᑦᑕᕋᒪ ᓄᓇᓕᖕᓄᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ.”

Noreen encourages anyone who wants to be a Flight Attendant to believe in yourself and keep on trying.

ᓴᐱᓕᖅᑕᐃᓕᒪᖁᔨᓪᓗᓂ.

We value training, personal development and encourage career advancement within First Air. If you share our commitment to safety and service, we encourage you to join our team. To learn more about employment opportunities within First Air visit firstair.ca/employment.

ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ.ᐱᓇᓱᑦᑎᐊᕈᒪᒍᕕᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᓐᖏᑦᑎᑦᑎᓇᓱᖕᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᑏ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓂ

“ᖁᕕᐊᒋᓛᕆᕙᒃᑕᕋ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕐᒥ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᔭᕆᐅᖃᑦᑕᕋᒪ, ᐊᒻᒪ ᑕᑯᔪᓐᓇᖃᑦᑕᕋᒪ ᓄᐊᕇᓐ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᖃᑦᑕᖁᔨᕗᖅ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᕐᒥ ᐱᔨᑦᓯᖅᑎᐅᔪᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᓇᒥᓂᖅ ᐅᑉᐱᕈᓱᑦᑎᐊᖁᔨᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒻᒪ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᒥᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ, ᓇᒻᒥᓂᖅ ᓯᕗᒧᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᓇᓱᖕᓂᕐᒥᒃ, ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᑎᑦᑎᕗᒍᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᖅᑖᕋᓱᒋᑦᓯ. ᑐᑭᓯᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒪᒍᕕᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᒃᓴᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᐅᕗᖓ ᑕᑯᓂᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᐳᓯ ᖃᕆᓴᐅᔭᒃᑯᑦ firstair.ca/employment.


TA B L E O F C O N T E N T S

above&beyond Publisher & Editor Tom Koelbel Advertising Doris Ohlmann (Ottawa) 613-257-4999 Circulation Patt Hunter Design Robert Hoselton, Beat Studios Inuktitut translation Innirvik Support Services Ltd. Read online: www.arcticjournal.ca email: info@arcticjournal.ca Toll Free: 877-2ARCTIC (227-2842) PO Box 683, Mahone Bay, NS B0J 2E0 Volume 24, No. 1

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Arctic Navigator Joseph Elzéar Bernier Bernier was recognized as being the youngest fully licensed sea captain in the world, racking up a life total of over 250 crossings of the Atlantic including ten arctic expeditions and three government trips to protect Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic. — Gerard Kenney

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Camera on a Mission Capturing the Amazing Aurora Electric curtains of radioactive green swirl, undulate and dance across the diamond flecked night sky, as I set up my camera gear for my first great show of the season. I’m with close friends on a small island just outside Yellowknife, one of the best places on earth to witness the Northern Lights. — Nigel Fearon

ANDY HUGHES, ARCTIC BAY, NUNAVUT. © MICHELLE VALBERG

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arcticjournal.ca Celebrating 24 years as the popular in-flight magazine for First Air, The Airline of the North.

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Special Arctic Change by above&beyond

15 About the North 24 Client Profile Huit Huit Tours Ltd.

41 Arts, Culture & Education Cape Dorset Art 43 Climate Change and Natural Rhythms by Pierre Dunnigan 47 ACTUA by Elizabeth Gray-Smith

55 Northern Bookshelf 57 Inuit Forum Get the Data Bug by Mary Simon 58 Exotica Mush! by Pierre Dunnigan

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7


Arctic

Change

I

© MICHELLE VALBERG

t feels like it has taken a while, a long while — especially so to those who call the North their home and those involved in one or more of the many community, territorial, or national organizations, governments, or policy advisory groups dealing with northern issues — for substantive interest in the Arctic to take hold in the wider public domain, interest enough to command serious engagement and debate calling for the creation of a new northern era, a new way of doing things, a new approach to the rapidly changing economic, environmental and social challenges facing the Arctic.

January/February 2012

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Up to and including the final decades of the 20th Century, those enthralled or engaged in all things Arctic were comparatively few. Most people were understandably pre-occupied with embracing southern concepts of urban, suburban and rural opportunity, development, and renewal. This was especially true during the mid 1900s post Second World War era. A great deal has been accomplished since. New models for governance that promote indigenous participation in the evolution of Canada’s northern regions, now numbering five (Yukon, NWT, Nunavut, Nunavik and Labrador), continue to mature and take hold in mainstream thought and social development.

© MICHELLE VALBERG (3)

International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2008 (celebrating 125 years since the inception of IPY) provided a further catalyst for more robust exchanges of scientific information and ideas promoting national and global discussion on the Arctic. Topics such as climate change and Arctic resource management and sustainability have leapt to the fore. Indigenous groups across the circumpolar world and Inuit, First Nations and Métis here at home are now finally able to add their inherent knowledge and ideas to the discussion. In 1999, Inuit, after close to 30 years of lobbying and negotiation, finally achieved full territorial status along with the right of self-governance and control over a vast swath of northern Canada with the creation of Nunavut. In Nunavut, the concept of Qaujimajatuqangitat (IQ) — a compendium of Inuit traditional knowledge gained and passed down through the generations — is now being applied in areas of social and economic development, governance and education, based on the principle that

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better, far more relevant and palatable solutions to some modern issues can and will flow out of closer adherence to ancient Inuit wisdom. Concrete engagement, even activism too, are today more acceptable, assisted by a burgeoning social media component and information exchange conferences and think tanks that draw on expertise from a broad range of disciplines, governments, across academia and circumpolar governments. Last January, for example, The Canada Centre for Global Security Studies, at the University of Toronto’s prestigious Munk School of Global Affairs, in association with the highly respected Walter and Duncan Gordon Foundation (WDGF), hosted a day-long Arctic sovereignty and security forum to present the results and attendant expert analysis of the Ekos Research Associates poll jointly commissioned by the Centre and the WDGF titled, Rethinking the Top of the World: Arctic Security Public Opinion Survey. The opinion sampling of some 9,000 respondents in Canada and across the balance of the eight member states that form the international Arctic research and advisory body known as the Arctic Council (Canada, United States, Russia, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands and Finland) polled the general populace of those nations on a wide spectrum of concerns in order to broadly quantify the level of general knowledge of circumpolar issues and gauge personal views and attitudes. One noteworthy (and telling) aspect of the Ekos survey’s methodology for this particular study was relative to the specific questions posed to Canada’s respondents (only). For the purposes of their survey, Canadian respondents were split into two distinct geographic groups — those living in the North and those living in the South. The response aggregates of each group ultimately enabled researchers to define a clear comparative between similarities or differences in opinion on a wide range of topics including not only sovereignty and security issues but also a broad range of social concerns.

January/February 2012

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© MICHELLE VALBERG (2)

concerns about Arctic sovereignty, security, the environmental impacts of climate change, education and social development and the ever growing resource demands of world economies. Destined it seems to forever be a fragile, changing frontier, the North needs to quickly grow capacity and capability, not only militarily, but more urgently in the realm of education, opportunity and the ongoing development of healthy and sustainable economic and social programming that will prepare people for change within the context of their own self-determination and the needs and expectations of future generations of northerners, non-indigenous and indigenous alike.

Working groups on a wide variety of topics ranging from military and security needs to enabling greater indigenous participation in Arctic issues, facilitated broad discussion and opened the door to an appreciation that Canadians, of course, are not entirely alone in having to come to grips with the many challenges or threats all northern nations are facing. Looking beyond the robust protectionist tone in Canadian responses the survey exposed — not only in the answers of respondents, but in our national media too — further analysis clearly indicates that we and neighbouring Arctic nations are in the main fair-minded, level-headed and essentially altruistic when it comes to our many 12

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Though our own attitudes and views may differ slightly due to geography, culture and circumstance, the door has never been so open to foster inclusive and enlightened discourse. That our own concerns about the environment and social responsibility here at home are generally shared by many of our Arctic neighbours and allies gives real hope for the future. The Ekos survey also left no doubt whatsoever that in the minds of average Canadians, the North is an integral part of our heritage and our identity as a nation. With no let up in sight of climate change’s relentless assault on the North, developing new and effective social and economic frameworks for the circumpolar regions call for ongoing dialogue, extensive consultation, goodwill and action on the parts of communities, governments and the corporate sector. The Arctic deserves our nurture. It deserves our respect, support and protection. Northern indigenous groups are now at long last able to participate on a more equal footing. They are sought-after partners in shaping the evolution of their homelands and Canada as a whole. They are actively involved, their voices are strong, they are listened to. From them new organizations and social programming promoting better more knowledgeable approaches and beneficial alignments in the management of social, economic and political issues dealing with future sustainability and responsible stewardship are thriving here at home.

above&beyond


Bases in Iqaluit, Rankin Inlet, Churchill and Winnipeg ᐊᒡᕕᓖᑦ ᐃᖃᓗᒡᓂᑦ, ᑲᖏᕐᖠᓂᕐᒥᑦ, ᑰᒡᔪᐊᓗᒻᒥᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᐃᓂᐲᒡᒥᑦ

www.keewatinair.ca

CHARTERS

MEDEVACS

PH: 888-831-8472 charters@keewatinair.ca

KIVALLIQ - 888-760-4344 QIKIQTANI - 877-440-8244

January/February 2012

RESERVATIONS & CARGO PH: 877-855-1500

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Do you have a story about the North? The 2012 Great Northern Canada Writing Contest Fiction or non-fiction prose up to 1,000 words about life in Canada’s North. Entries should be typed and double-spaced with the title, but not your name, on each numbered page. Please submit a separate cover sheet with your name, address, phone number, email address, word count and whether your piece is fiction or non-fiction. Mail entries to: Great Northern Canada Writing Contest, Box 1256, Yellowknife NT X1A 2N9 Deadline: Postmarked by April 30, 2012. Sponsored by:

THE OFFICIAL AIRLINE OF THE NORTHWORDS WRITERS FESTIVAL

First Prize: $500 and publication in above&beyond, Canada’s Arctic Journal. Emerging Writer Prize: $250 and publication in above&beyond, Canada’s Arctic Journal, for writers who have never been published for payment. (Please indicate “emerging writer” on entry.) Winners announced at the 7th Annual NorthWords Writers Festival in Yellowknife, NWT, May 31 - June 3, 2012

Full contest details at:

www.northwordsfestival.ca 14

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About the North

Nunavut’s Skilled Artisans Dress Award Winning Toy In an age where technology and mechanized gadgets dominate the children’s toy market, Saila Qilavvaq is a refreshing alternative that encourages imagination and cross-cultural understanding. Saila, from Iqaluit, Nunavut, is the newest in a line of dolls that provide children with wholesome, contemporary role models from all over Canada. © KYRA FISHER

The doll has just been named one of the Top Ten Toys of 2012 in the Canadian Rhoda Nuvaqiq of Pangnirtung crochets a doll sized ‘Pang’ hat at the Uqqurmiut Centre for Arts and Crafts in Pangnirtung.

Toy Testing Council’s ‘Children’s Choice Awards’. According to the

Council’s report, it was ‘the quality of (her) beautiful clothing’ that won toy testers over. With that in mind, the award might truly belong to a handful of Nunavut’s skilled artisans who hand make some of the more traditional items in Saila’s wardrobe. Her miniature white and blue amauti is made at Arviat’s Kiluk Ltd. while a woollen crocheted ‘Pang’ hat is made at The Uqqurmiut Centre for Arts & Crafts in Pangnirtung. © AVONLEA TRADITIONS

Pangnirtung is already known for producing the hats in sizes suitable for real life folks but this project has been a great way to get younger members of the community involved. Making the miniature hats provides experience and for some a way of earning income while still in school according to Art Centre Manager Kyra Fisher before noting the doll has become a source of pride in the community as ‘she represents (Inuit) culture’.

January/February 2012

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About the North

Left: Norway’s Ambassador to Canada, Her Excellency Else Berit Eikeland presents a gift to Manitoba Premier Greg Selinger during the opening of Cold Recall: Roald Amundsen’s Reflections from the Northwest Passage at the Manitoba Legislative Building in Winnipeg.

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© JOSH PEARLMAN


Warm Welcome for Norway’s Cold Recall With the High North as its highest foreign

journal entries and hand-tinted photographs

policy priority, Norway has set an admirable

by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen offer

example of peaceful and responsible develop-

a glimpse into his 1903-1906 groundbreaking

ment in the North. This, says Her Excellency

expedition through the fabled Northwest

Else Berit Eikeland (Norwegian Ambassador to

Passage. Two years of this journey were spent

Canada), has resulted largely from an insistence

with the Inuit around present day Gjoa Haven.

on meticulous scientific research and a strong

It is from these people that Amundsen

emphasis on cooperation with other Arctic

adopted an understanding of the survival

nations.

skills required to endure the harsh Arctic

...[J]ournal entries and hand-tinted photographs by Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen offer a glimpse into his 1903-1906 groundbreaking expedition through the fabled Northwest Passage. Two years of this journey were spent with the Inuit around present day Gjoa Haven. It is from these people that Amundsen adopted an understanding of survival skills required to endure the harsh Arctic climate. Recently, the Ambassador visited Winnipeg in a gesture that looks toward a bright future © above&beyond

for Canadian-Norwegian cooperation by celebrating its historic beginnings forged by polar explorers and the Inuit people. She spoke at the University of Manitoba on Norwegian policy in the High Arctic where

Norway’s iconic polar explorer stands guard over Tromsø.

she emphasized increased international

climate. This invaluable traditional knowledge

collaboration as the key to understanding and

has been credited in the success of his 1911

adapting to the current and future impacts of

achievement of planting the first flag at the

climate change in the North.

South Pole. The exhibit also celebrates the

She made additional stops at the University’s

centennial of this epic achievement.

Thorlakson Gallery and Manitoba Legislative

Cold Recall runs until January 13 before

Building to open the exhibit Cold Recall: Roald

moving on to the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit

Amundsen’s Reflections from the Northwest

Museum in Iqaluit in February, The MacBride

Passage, an exhibit she calls “a celebration of

Museum in Whitehorse in April and to Gimli,

the indigenous people of Canada.” Here,

Manitoba, in June. January/February 2012

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About the North

© NATIONAL ABORIGINAL ACHIEVEMENT FOUNDATION

Aboriginal Achievement in Canada Recognized

National Aboriginal Achievement Foundation CEO, Roberta Jamieson (centre), poses with award recipients Minnie Grey (left) and Violet Ford (right).

to empowering aboriginal people in Canada,

having exhibited high achievement and

especially youth, to achieve their goals through

excellence in their chosen careers.

education, administers the awards. To date,

Congratulations to the recipients of the

February

24, the

NAAA

officially

NAAF’s development and funding of educa-

honours three remarkable Inuit women: The

tional programs, workshops and scholarships

Honourable Leona Aglukkaq (Nunavut),

have helped over 34,000 students.

Violet Ford (Newfoundland/Labrador) and

National Aboriginal Achievement Awards

Each year the organization honours the

Minnie Grey (Nunavik) for their accomplishments

2012! The National Aboriginal Achievement

accomplishments of 14 outstanding individuals

in the fields of politics, law and public service.

Foundation (NAAF), an organization dedicated

of First Nations, Inuit or Métis heritage for

The official awards ceremony will take place in Vancouver and be televised at a later date.

18

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January/February 2012


Yellowknife Catholic Schools

Where Learning Lights the Spirit! Où l’apprentissage refléte l’esprit! Yedài Nezįᶖ T’à Hoghàgoetǫ

École St. Joseph School

École St. Patrick High School

Weledeh Catholic School

Grades K–8 English Grades K–8 French Immersion Principal: Gillian Dawe-Taylor Ph: (867) 920-2112 Fax: (867) 873-9207 489 Range Lake Road, Box 728 Yellowknife, NT X1A 2N5

Grades 9–12 English/French Immersion Principal: Coleen McDonald Ph: (867) 873-4888 Fax: (867) 873-5732 5010–44th Street, Box 2880 Yellowknife, NT X1A 2R2

Grades K–8 English Principal: Simone Gessler Ph: (867) 873-5591 Fax: (867) 873-8578 5023–46th Street, Box 1650 Yellowknife, NT X1A 2P2

Our district provides a strong, moral, ethical environment for our students. We encourage a loving, Christian perspective which supports Catholic principles and thought.

Central Services Office: Claudia Parker, Superintendent Box 1830 5124–49th Street, Yellowknife, NT X1A 2P4 Ph: (867) 766-7400 Fax: (867) 766-7401

Years 0 6 g n i t a r b Cele ucation d E c i l o h t a of C www.ycs.nt.ca

STUDENTS FROM ALL RELIGIOUS BACKGROUNDS ARE RESPECTED… AND WELCOMED! January/February 2012

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About the North

Pushing Pop Cans for Polar Bears Predictions on the speed and scope of Arctic sea-ice melt are indicating that an ice-free summer is not far away. However, there are a few regions where summer sea ice is anticipated to persist, if not permanently, than longer than most. As a crucial habitat for many Arctic animals, the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) has pinpointed these pockets for the creation of a protected Last Ice Area. The proposed regions lie off the Northern tips of Greenland and Canada’s Ellesmere Island. WWF intends to work with government and local communities to create a conservation strategy for the areas, one that protects vital habitat while accommodating the priorities of the local people who depend on that habitat for their economic and cultural survival With polar bear conservation at the helm of their campaign, the WWF has teamed up with corporate giant and marketing engine Coca Cola to raise both awareness and funds for the initiative. Making an initial donation of $2 million dollars to the cause, the company is also printing white labels on 1.4 billion of its normally red soda

visiting www.arctichome.com. Is this a bold step in the right direction or is it just good marketing? Let us know what you think! Email us at: editor@arcticjournal.ca

20

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January/February 2012

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IQALUIT, NUNAVUT January/February 2012

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About the North Elisapie Isaac treats the crowd to a lively performance at the 6th Annual Aboriginal Peoples Choice Music Awards in November.

Northern Female Artists Showcased © MANITO AHBEE FESTIVAL/ SCOTT BENESIIAABANDAN 2011

The red carpet was unrolled in Winnipeg over

stress is no stranger to accolades having

Former JUNO winning Montreal-based Inuk

November 3 and 4 to honour North American

received numerous awards for her creative

singer Elisapie Isaac was nominated for the

aboriginal artists from Inuvik to Albuquerque

prowess, including a 2007 JUNO for Aboriginal

same award. Inuvik’s Leanne Goose was up for

at the 6th Annual Aboriginal Peoples Choice

Recording of the Year and a 2010 APCMA for

best country CD for the boot stomping Got You

Music Awards (APCMAs). Northern talent was

Best Folk Album Calling All Warriors. Of the

Covered while Yukon born Diyet emerged with

represented in force with Yellowknife’s own

win Gilday stated, “it just means that I have

a nomination for Best New Artist.Treat your ears

Leela Gilday taking home the prize for Aboriginal

the support of my people so that’s a really

to these and more artists on the APCMA website

Female Entertainer of the Year. The Dene song-

awesome thing”.

at www.aboriginalpeopleschoice.com.

Canada’s Leading Retailer of Inuit Arts & Crafts northern images A Division of Arctic Co-operatives Ltd.

Yellowknife 867-873-5944

Inuvik 867-777-2786

Churchill 204-675-2681

www.northernimages.ca 22

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January/February 2012

“Moving Forward” by Temela Aqpik, Kimmirut, Nunavut


January/February 2012

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CLIENT PROFILE

Huit Huit Tours Ltd. here is no doubt that Nunavut accommodations are unique and anyone who has travelled to a Northern community typically understands how hard it can be to locate a place to stay. Except when travellers go to Cape Dorset. Since 2007, Dorset Suites, owned and operated by Huit Huit Tours Ltd., has proudly welcomed visitors to Cape Dorset with an inviting, homey and modern choice of accommodations. It all began in 1989 when Northerners, Timmun and Kristiina Alariaq, established Huit Huit Tours to provide a variety of guided on-the-land tours to visitors interested in learning and experiencing the traditional Inuit way of life. As business and tourism increased, the Alariaq’s realized that proper accommodations were needed in Cape Dorset to help sustain this growth. As a first step, they built a new ‘beach-house’ style home for themselves and rented rooms to visitors needing a place to stay. Over the next 10 years, they purchased several other houses

and transformed them into visitor accommodations. This allowed them to expand their tour business and provide a higher standard of accommodations to tourists, business travellers and construction workers who visited this picturesque community. In the early 2000’s, the couple realized a quality hotel was desperatley needed in order to promote tourism and assist in in the long-term prosperity of their community. They envisioned a distinctive building that resembled traditional stone houses (qummaq) and reflected the artistic talent of their community. So in 2002, they began to prepare a thorough and progressive business plan to bring to life their vision of a new hotel. The result was Dorset Suites, which would be favoured by tourists, travellers and locals alike. As the Alariaq's found out, dreaming the dream and making it a reality are two very different things. Locating funding partners proved to be a challenge as the cost of construction in the North can be daunting –

24

January/February 2012

T

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not impossible, but daunting nonetheless. Their business plan outlined a budget, which in the end doubled due to the high cost of construction in Nunavut. They revised the design of the building to be more economical, while remaining true to their vision of quality and comfort. Even with the Alariaq’s substantial personal investments in the project, traditional banks were not interested in taking on the perceived financial risk. They approached the Nunavut Business Credit Corporation (NBCC) for business loans and Aboriginal Business Canada for grants. After securing some funds, they consulted Atuqtuarvik Corporation, which not only financed the remainder of the project, but also provided sound financial advice that helped the project overcome challenges and allowed it to thrive and succeed. Atuqtuarvik Corporation provides loans and equity investments to Inuit-owned businesses in order to develop and grow the Nunavut economy.


CLIENT PROFILE Once the doors were open in 2007 and the business began operating, the Alariaq’s set up an accelerated repayment plan resulting in the company paying off their loan and being debt free within three years. Through this process, they established a respected business relationship with Atuqtuarvik Corporation. When they set their sights on expanding their business in 2010, Atuqtuarvik Corporation welcomed their new business plan and agreed to help finance this multi-million dollar hotel expansion project (along with some funding from the Government of Nunavut’s Strategic Investments Program). Construction began in the spring of 2011 for the eight-room hotel. Atuqtuarvik Corporation saw the construction of Dorset Suites as a valuable long-term investment for the community of Cape Dorset. Not only would the rooms provide much needed lodging for visitors, but the original building has a sizable executive meeting room with conferencing capabilities. The new facility will even include a commercial kitchen and dining room! Dorset Suites employs three full-time people with additional seasonal workers to

fulfill increased tourism and catering needs. The architectural design of these projects has been supported and appreciated by the community, and have inspired future projects to follow this initiative. The couple continues to operate Huit Huit Tours, which employs

January/February 2012

local residents to help with tours and introduce visitors to Inuit traditional knowledge. For more information, contact huithuit@magma.ca or dorsetsuites.com.

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© LAC, PA-118126

Atlantic the North in e r e h 2, 1924: mew nd, July 1 e Arctic so la th Is d r in a o ff b a A nd B oat a abrador a ve Bill Ch between L ck!’ He ga e d n o s d ll han ellowed ‘A SOS’! Bernier b roadcast misery. ‘B — r e d rror and r o te r e Officer e h s chilling f cold. First as one o y w ic s th a 2 w 1 ped him water of July other dum is was at d and the n e The night a ch t n u e b r , d e is wav y was hile the cr ome oard by a Everybod harmed. W ,s ept overb n d w u e s t y s a u r a b p w n Morin s. Some s shake y a a w w e re what s H u ca . io eck sick to in var o d e to v a e back on d r h e e b w ome the men despair. S its height ve way to a g e m o s cursed, nd back . is mess a th f o t u happened o us if you get , ‘Oh God, a again!’ e s to ailing o g … prayed never e years, s ll I’ , d n la r fifty-fiv fo only t in s to dry lo ta p He had en a ca e s. b ip d h a s h 7 e g 10 saved all ept. H mmandin d he had co n Bernier w a d n y a o v ld n r that his e wo ar I co around th s the fear a World W a w in s s e a y e w t a his one, but th ht tears to hat broug W . n e m . his iled r 1974 uld be spo ver Summe ea record wo B e h T – innie Richard F Radioman

Captain Joseph Elzéar Bernier, Hudson Bay, 1923 Expedition.

Arctic Navigator Joseph Elzéar Bernier by Gerard Kenney n the 12 of August 1869, Captain Joseph Elzéar Bernier, aboard the brigantine Saint-

O

Joseph, weighed anchor in Quebec City’s harbour, bound for England. The builder and owner of the ship was Bernier’s father, Thomas, but Thomas was not on board. Twenty-seven days later his son Joseph dropped anchor in the port of Teignmouth, Devon, England. The ocean crossing had been without incident. After unloading his cargo, Captain Bernier took on ballast and set a return course

for Sydney, Nova Scotia. The return crossing was faster, taking only 19 days, and again it was without incident. There was nothing particularly special about these crossings, except for one outstanding feature: Bernier, the captain, was only 17 years old, and these were his first two ocean crossings as a ship’s captain. Bernier was recognized as being the youngest fully licensed sea captain in the world. The captain was young, but he was blessed with a powerful build. It was important for the captain of a seagoing vessel to have a well-developed physique in those days. This was well illustrated by an incident that occurred on board ship when Captain Bernier was 21 years old. In his book, Master Mariner and Arctic Explorer, the captain described a potentially dangerous incident he faced on the Atlantic high seas when a mutinous member of his crew refused to carry out a task assigned to him: January/February 2012

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“The man was brought to me in my cabin, and before the second officer I noted his insubordination in the ship’s log as well as his punishment: he was to be handcuffed and locked up, and fed bread and water until he agreed to return to work. On hearing the sentence meted out to him, the man was beside himself with rage. Breaking loose from the men who held him he attacked me savagely. I secured a firm hold on him, pinioning his arms; but he tried to bite my arm and I was forced to strangle him into submission. “But this man was truly stubborn. He did not consider himself beaten by this punishment. During the night… he would begin hammering and kicking the door, renewing the noise often enough to keep anyone from sleeping. So I had him taken out, had a hole bored in the deck in the centre of the room and had a ringbolt fitted into it and the man was chained to this ring. Here he was locked up again and given his ration once a day of bread and water. The second day he told the sailor who brought him his ration that he wanted to see the captain. So the mate and I went in with the logbook and his statement that he was ready to do his work was duly entered. He was then released with the warning that if he made any further attempts to arouse the men to mutiny he would be put in irons for the remainder of the trip and handed over to the police on arrival in port. In this way was incipient mutiny checked in those days of “wooden ships and iron men”.

Sailor of the Seven Seas

© MASTER MARINER AND ARCTIC EXPLORER, JOSEPH ELZÉAR BERNIER, LE DROIT, OTTAWA, 1939

In 1852, Joseph Elzéar Bernier was born in L’Islet, Quebec, a village on the south shore of the mighty Saint-Laurence River. His was a family of seafaring sailors who were said to have salt in their veins. Young Joseph Bernier would not disappoint them. At the tender age of two years and three months, the babe began his apprentice under his father Thomas, the captain of the brigantine Zillah, on an extended trip with his wife. In the following months, the Zillah dropped anchor in the following places: Cuba, Boston, the Dardanelles, Bosphore, the Black Sea, Boston (again), Lévis (Quebec) and back home to L’Islet. Not a bad start for a young lad destined to sail the seven seas. Early on, young Bernier became a sailor, first as a hand on his father’s vessels, eventually as captain of his father’s ships and the vessels of other ship owners as well. In 1887, after 16 years of ploughing the furrowed sea in all corners of the globe, Bernier was offered a job ashore as port manager in Lauzon, near Quebec City. He accepted, writing in his log, “And so ended my career as a seaman”. Time proved him wrong. On land, he was like a fish out of water. During his time ashore, which included a period as Governor of the Quebec City Prison, Bernier read all he could about the Arctic and he became impassioned with that part of Canada. At the end of the winter of 1898, he wrote, “I came to the conclusion that the time had come to mount a polar expedition.”

Captain Bernier, 1869, at 17 years of age.

Captain Bernier’s calling card showing a Canadian Beaver gnawing the North Pole while protecting it from a Russian Bear, under a British eagle, with a German Hawk on the right. Note the Arctic in the distance.

© GERARD I. KENNEY

1904 – 1905 Bernier’s first expedition

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Bernier’s reputation as an excellent marine navigator was spreading widely in government circles in Quebec, Ottawa and even Europe. In 1904, he convinced the Canadian Government to finance him to the tune of $200,000 for an arctic expedition to be commanded by himself. Bernier had ideas about eventually reaching the North Pole, and this expedition would be an important first step toward that goal. In Germany the Captain found a suitable, full-rigged motor vessel for the expedition. The Gauss had been built especially for polar service so, Bernier bought her in Canada’s name. She had proven herself in south polar service and now in the service of Canada she became the Arctic. Over many years of sailing in arctic waters, mariners had come to the conclusion that ships for polar service had to have hulls shaped like a bowl. The straight up-and-down sides of conventional hulls could not withstand the crushing, horizontal pressures that build up in ice fields. With a rounded hull, the tremendous pressures exerted by arctic ice on the sloping

January/February 2012


sides of a bowl-shaped hull would merely squeeze a ship upward, thus relieving the great crushing horizontal pressures without damage. The Arctic had such a hull. When Bernier arrived in Quebec City in May of 1904 with the Arctic, he set about fitting her and provisioning her for a three-year arctic expedition with a goal of eventually reaching the North Pole. Finally he would be testing his ideas about reaching the Pole that were so close to his heart. Then, in Parliament, on July 29, 1904, Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier dropped a bombshell. He announced that,

It was understood that the officer of the mounted police would be the Commander of the expedition while Bernier would only be the Captain of the ship who took his orders from the Commander. In simplified terms, the Commander of a marine expedition decides where the expedition is to go and what it is to accomplish, while the Captain decides how to sail the expedition to achieve the Commander’s goals, taking into account the safety of the ship, the crew and the members of the expedition and, most importantly, the weather. Bernier’s orders, as laid down by Laurier, were far from the orders to go to the North Pole he expected. Bernier was furious. A local newspaper reported that Bernier resigned in a huff from undertaking the expedition under such conditions. After a short cooling off period though, Bernier did finally acquiesce and he grimly accepted his orders as laid down by Laurier, although with great disappointment. He then ordered the ship to be refitted and re-provisioned with food and equipment more in line with a relatively simple trip to Hudson Bay. The expedition, under the leadership of Major J. D. Moodie of the RCMP, spent the winter of 1904-05 frozen in the ice of Fullerton Harbour in the far north-western reaches of Hudson Bay. Moodie’s task was to ensure that whalers, sealers and fishermen, both Canadian and foreign, respected Canadian laws and regulations, and that they paid the required fees for licences and for quantities of animals harvested. In July, the Arctic was finally released from her icy prison and Bernier sailed his ship south to Quebec City, dropping anchor in several places along the way.

© LAC, PA20904

“…the Arctic…is to sail on August 15. This boat will carry an officer and ten men of the mounted police, apart from the crew of the ship…Their instructions are to patrol the waters, to find suitable locations for posts, to establish those posts and to assert the jurisdiction … of Canada…”

The Arctic moored at Quebec City, 1904.

1906 – 1911 Three expeditions to Solidify Canada’s Sovereignty In the beginning of the twentieth century, there was an increasing presence of foreign ships sailing Canada’s Arctic for a number of reasons, such as whaling, sealing, fishing, and exploration, among others. Concern was increasing in the Canadian Government that the

© LAC, C-01198

Captain Bernier and crew at Winter Harbour, Melville Island, July 1, 1909 when Bernier invoked the “Sector Principle”. (Note young musk-ox nuzzling Captain Bernier).

January/February 2012

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country was not exercising sufficient presence and control over her northern waters, and that Canada’s sovereignty there could be challenged by a number of countries. To prevent that happening, over the period of 1906 to 1911, Canada sent the Arctic, with Bernier as both Commander and Captain this time, to land on various islands of Canada’s northern archipelago, and with the proper pomp and circumstance, raise the British flag, leaving the required documentation and photographs to claim these lands for the British Crown. In the first of the three expeditions, 1906 to 1907, 17 arctic islands were thus taken into the British fold. In the second expedition of the three, on the first of July 1909, with the support in Ottawa of Senator Pascal Poirier, Bernier decided to invoke the so-called sector principle that would allow a country to claim a pie-shaped wedge north of its mainland and extending all the way to the North Pole. There was no more need to land on each island individually. However, the sector principle has never been legally challenged nor affirmed. The third and last of these government sovereignty expeditions took place in 1910 to 1911.

© LAC, C-89350

1912 – 1917 Three Private Expeditions

Inuit pig-tails at Fullerton Harbour, Hudson Bay, 1904-05.

© LAC C- 01516

Community igloo, at Fullerton Harbour, Hudson Bay, 1904-05.

In the fall of 1911, a new Borden Conservative Government took over in Ottawa and put an end to the Arctic’s yearly expeditions under Bernier. During previous years, the Captain had put in place a private enterprise in Pond Inlet based on trapping and trading with the local Inuit. If he wanted to carry on with this business, he would now have to reach the Arctic by his own means. In 1912, he was particularly anxious to go North as there had been rumours of gold being found near the Salmon River on Baffin Island. The Captain could only afford the Minnie Maud, a sailing vessel with no motor, to reach the Arctic that year. The Minnie Maud was certainly no Arctic, but she served Bernier’s purpose of getting to Baffin Island to manage his trading enterprise. Bernier established two trading posts on Baffin Island and operated a satisfactory business trading with the Inuit for their pelts. The “gold rush,” however, did not live up to expectations.

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Author Notes: Captain Joseph Elzéar Bernier is a true hero of Canadian history, but one who has yet to receive the accolades that are rightly his due for the important work he accomplished in protecting Canadian sovereignty in the Arctic. * Arctic refers to the geographical area (except in the title); Arctic means the ship; arctic is an adjective.

Arctic “Bells” at Fullerton Harbour, Hudson Bay, 1904-05.

© LAC, C-01155

After three expeditions to Baffin Island on his own resources, the Canadian Government again got worried about sovereignty, especially in her lightly populated arctic reaches. To show her presence in the North, Canada instituted annual Eastern Arctic Patrols. Based on his experience and his knowledge of the aging Arctic, Captain Bernier was a natural choice for commanding these marine expeditions from 1922 to 1925. In particular, the 1925 trip demonstrated the wisdom of executing these sovereignty expeditions. In that year, the Americans were preparing an aerial expedition that would violate parts of the Arctic belonging to Canada. They were planning to land aircraft on Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg in the Sverdrup group of islands. The Americans were considering building supply bases on those islands to service the planes that they planned to fly over the North Polar region. A marine/air expedition led by the famed American explorer Richard E. Byrd and Donald B. MacMillan was already launched to explore those islands before Captain Bernier in the Arctic sailed for the North that year. He caught up with the American expedition in the Etah harbour of Northern Greenland. Byrd tried to bluff by saying that he had received permission from the Canadian Government to proceed with his exploration, which was patently false. Captain Bernier informed Byrd in diplomatic, but no uncertain terms, that it would not be to his advantage to carry on with an expedition to the Canadian islands. These American plans were abandoned and Canadian sovereignty over her northern Archipelago remained intact. Byrd stopped flying over Ellesmere and he soon departed for the United States. So ended the American Byrd – MacMillan episode of 1925. The 1925 arctic expedition turned out to be the last for both Bernier and the Arctic. This did not mean that Bernier retreated to his rocking chair. Far from it. In fact, he still sailed to foreign ports, finally racking up a life total of over 250 crossings of the Atlantic including ten arctic expeditions in the name of the Canadian Government. Bernier had served his country well. Joseph Elzéar Bernier died at home of a stroke on December 26, 1934, just five days shy of his 83rd birthday.

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The igloo in the new Tamaani logo consists of 14 blocks representing the strength and unity of Nunavik’s 14 communities.

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The Internet plays a key role in the positive development of our youth and Tamaani takes great pride in being a part of that.

Faster and More Reliable:

Meet Tamaani 2.0 By the time you read these lines, some of Tamaani’s more than 2000 users will already be taking advantage of the leading Internet service provider’s new speeds: up to three times faster than before. Beyond any doubt, Tamaani is set to make Internet use even more practical for Nunavimmiut. Along with higher speeds, Tamaani is also strengthening the reliability of its network in all Nunavik communities by adding redundant systems. Redundancy means that if one machine fails, another is automatically set to take over, avoiding Internet downtime until support technicians can fix the problem without affecting customers. These improved Tamaani services are made possible with more than $7.4 million in funding invested by Industry Canada and $3 million by the Québec government. Telesat and the Kativik Regional Government (KRG) have also earmarked $2 million and $2.4 million, respectively, towards the project. Weather permitting, work will be completed in all the communities before March 2012. Look for us in your community as we travel around the region in the coming months to promote Tamaani’s new plans and videoconferencing services. Tamaani is not only improving its services, great efforts have gone into redesigning the Internet service provider’s corporate image, working closely with Thomassie Mangiok of Pirnoma Technologies Inc. in Ivujivik. Among other things to come, Tamaani will introduce a new website where customers will be able to monitor their usage, view invoices and check emails. Since the KRG launched Tamaani Internet in 2004, it has become an indispensable communications tool in the region. Most recently, Tamaani now links CLSCs and the health centres in Kuujjuaq and Puvirnituq with health care professionals in the South.


Camera

on a Mission

Aurora Text and photos by Nigel Fearon

Electric curtains of radioactive green swirl, undulate and dance across the diamond flecked night sky, as I set up my camera gear for my first great show of the season. I’m with close friends on a small island just outside Yellowknife, one of the best places on earth to witness the Northern Lights.

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t’s still summer and we’re camping. The night is just starting to get dark enough to see some stars and, more importantly, the Aurora. The chase begins as I lock down my tripod, pointing my camera west, opening the shutter and the lights quickly flutter to the other side of the sky. Sometimes slow moving, sometimes as fast as lightning — no two nights are ever the same. As we quickly approach 2012, our eyes turn North to gaze into the night sky, awaiting a natural wonder that is beyond imagination — Aurora Borealis, the Northern Lights. Over the next two years we can expect a show that is more intense and more active than it has been in recent memory — certainly than has been recorded by digital photography. Welcome to the maximum of Solar Cycle 24, ultimately peaking in the summer of 2013 when the Aurora may be seen as far south as California or Florida. Currently we are two years into the solar cycle and heading into the solar maximum — the most active period of the 11-year solar cycle. This international event has captured the interest of the scientific communities, shown by the creation of the AuroraMax research project, a partnership between the Canadian Space Agency, University of Calgary, City of Yellowknife and Astronomy North. AuroraMax is a great effort to study the lights, but also an excellent resource for people around the world to share in our experience, thanks to the AuroraMax camera. To some, the Northern Lights are phenomena veiled in mysticism, an unearthly spectacle only understood by scientists. But the explanation of the lights is really not that complicated. The sun constantly emits highly charged particles, called solar wind, streaming at the Earth at speeds around 1 million miles per hour, yet still taking 40 hours to reach Earth.

When these particles reach Earth’s magnetic field, the electrons and protons are hurled towards the Polar Regions where they react with atoms and molecules in the ionosphere, 100 to 600 kilometres above Earth. As energized electrons collide with oxygen atoms, energy is released in the form of an electric green light, the Aurora’s most common colour. On nights of higher activity, the solar particles will react somewhat differently with oxygen in the upper ionosphere, creating reds in the Aurora. In my experience, this is often seen at the top edge of a band of green. I have yet to witness the stunning completely red Aurora I have seen in some photographs... but I am keeping my fingers crossed for this year. At the peak of activity, the Aurora will also come alive with blue, purple and violet colours as particles interact with nitrogen 80 to 100 kilometres above Earth. These reactions all take place along the Auroral Oval, a band that encircles the Earth at the North (Aurora Borealis) and South (Aurora Australis). The bands are centred around the Earth’s magnetic poles and expand or contract according to the magnitude of the solar wind. The incredible dance that we witness is due to the fluctuations in atmospheric current. Predicting the imminent arrival of the Aurora and anticipating their possible shapes and intensities is tricky business indeed, not unlike predicting the weather. However, a number of signs indicate a great night of Aurora. One is the occurrence of a sunspot facing Earth. Another is a solar flare or a coronal mass ejection (CME). Once these events occur, the activity on Earth can roughly be expected 40 hours later. Many resources are available for Aurora predictions.

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In Yellowknife, we have our very own forecaster, thanks to dedicated Aurora and astronomy enthusiast James Pugsley: astronomynorth.com. Like the weather, I take these predictions with a grain of salt. Each evening I watch for the Aurora (I am lucky enough to see them from my back window and deck). Then, if I see the faintest hint of Aurora, I grab my gear and head out of town away from light pollution. The first job is to find an interesting spot to take photos of the Northern Lights out on the land. Really this means finding a location that is facing the right direction — Aurora typically follow a line from east to west — that also has something else interesting in the foreground. In the summer and fall, water is a favourite element to include in a photograph, since it magnifies the presence of the lights with a stunning reflection. Other favourites include trees, which are more typical, and cliffs, to create interesting geometry with various shapes. Houseboats, old vehicles, the city or even an ice-castle are great elements to include, in Yellowknife anyway. Once a stunning foreground element is chosen to anchor the image, I set up my tripod, the first crucial ingredient to successful Aurora photography. Next is the camera. Unfortunately, capturing the Aurora often requires a high-end digital SLR for the best results and always have the quality set to RAW. This allows your photos to retain the most information and quality. JPEG is possible, but you basically loose the ability to edit the photos. Film is certainly possible, but at ISO speeds of 1600 or greater, results are often grainy and of lesser quality. With RAW photos, white balance is easy to adjust on the computer, but if you’re shooting JPEGs, then setting your white balance to “tungsten” is a good starting point.

With camera mounted securely, you’ll want to go for a good wide-angle view, ideally 24 mm and wider. Personally my preference is a regular wide-angle over the fisheye, since it distorts the land less, but the benefit of a fisheye is that you can capture the whole sky with the 180º field of view. In terms of aperture control, your setting should be wide open. For the DSLR crowd, an aperture of f2.8 is ideal. Any less than that, focusing precisely is difficult. More than that and you are not letting in enough light. Actual exposure time and best ISO rating can vary from night to night. Typically I start out at ISO 800 with a 30-second exposure, then adjust according to the strength of the lights. I prefer to not go over 30 seconds for the exposure time because once you do, the stars begin to leave trails and I think they look much better as sharp points of light. Manually focusing your camera is often the hardest task when it’s dark and below -30ºC. There are two methods that I’ve used with relative success. The first works well if your lens has a distance scale on it. During the day, find something that is quite far away and focus on it. Take note of where the focus is, relative to the ∞ (infinity) mark. You’re essentially looking for the hyperfocal distance (there are many tutorials available for help determining this focus point). Once you find this sweet spot on your lens, then you can easily find it again at night. The other method is to use “live view” on your camera to focus. Once in live view, set your focus point on the brightest star in the sky that you can see, then manually focus until the star is the smallest, most defined point possible. Of course the most important step is to be daring and press that shutter. For best results a cable release is recommended, but if you don’t have one of those, then simply use the timer setting on your camera. Exposure times can range from 1 to 60 seconds, so just get out there and play around. With the longer exposures you can often enjoy watching the lights more than looking through the lens, which is the best part of Aurora photography — just enjoying the spectacular show unfolding above! Nigel Fearon is a photographer, based out of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, and has been photographing the Aurora Borealis for three years. You can follow his adventure into the AuroraMax on his blog and more of his work can be found at www.nigelfearon.ca.

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A R T S , C U LT U R E & E D U C AT I O N

Ningeokuluk Teevee, Sea Goddess, 2010. Coloured pencil, black ink on paper. Collection of the Winnipeg Art Gallery; Acquired with funds from the Estate of Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Naylor, funds administered by The Winnipeg Foundation. 2011-93.

Cape Dorset’s Unceasing Creative Evolution

f you find yourself in Winnipeg between now and April 8, 2012, be sure to take in the glowing exhibit, New Art from Cape Dorset at the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Pieced together by Inuit Art Curator Darlene Coward Wight, the show turns the spotlight on two of Cape Dorset’s promising and prolific young artists, Ningeokuluk Teevee and Tim Pitsiulak. Dorset’s Kinngait Studios have taught us to expect the unexpected in recent years as artists diverge from the traditional subjects that we know and love to express their very modern and often very personal Northern experiences. In keeping with this, the show includes only sculptures and drawings, indicative of a shift away from printmaking that Wight says is increasingly common with the younger generation of artists. Among the most striking works here are Teevee’s myth inspired Sea Goddess and serenely defiant Tattoed Woman, both of which double as mesmerizing, abstract meditations on human hair rendered in coloured pencil. Pitseolak doesn’t fail to deliver with modern subjects executed in a refined realist style that whispers of Mary Pratt and Alex Colville. Filling every square inch of paper, his work often reads like massive snapshots documenting day-to-day life in Dorset. The show also includes a number of breathtaking sculpture works by Goota Ashoona, Joe Jaw Ashoona and Jamesie Pitseolak, negotiating with confidence the freedom that comes with stepping out of the shadows of the great Dorset artists that have come before. Don’t miss it! For more information, visit www.wag.ca or head to the gallery at 300 Memorial Boulevard, Winnipeg, MB; (204) 786-6641.

© WINNIPEG ART GALLERY (2)

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Ningeokuluk Teevee, Tattooed Woman, 2010. Coloured pencil, black ink on paper. Collection of the Winnipeg Art Gallery; Acquired with funds from the Estate of Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Naylor, funds administered by The Winnipeg Foundation. 2011-97.

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A R T S , C U LT U R E & E D U C AT I O N

A Long Hot Summer

Text and photos by Pierre Dunnigan It’s mid-July and the telltale signs of the early morning were pointing to a beautiful cloudless summer day. Any day the thermometer is predicted to top 20 Celsius up North, you can be assured that it is going to be “a hot one!” I’ve been told it has something to do with the intense strength of the Arctic summer sun’s rays relative to the thinner, clarified atmospheric layer hovering over the Earth above the 60th parallel. It is almost as if one is situated closer to the sun. That can make for a scorcher on the land, often exacerbated by the buzzing hoards of mosquitoes the high summer heat seems to awaken in the North. Lugging hundreds of pounds of film gear around is difficult enough without having to deal with the humbling effects wrought on the human condition while under attack by ravenous swarms of mosquitoes. was up North again. Every time I go I feel it is an adventure. This time my adventure is starting at Naujaat, Nunavut. On occasion I’d also be camped on a small island not far off the Hudson Bay coast. This year my visit would not be solely in my usual role as an assignment photographer. The summer of 2011 was going to be very different for me. I would be spending six glorious, educational weeks in a region I loved, catering to the voracious,

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sometimes demanding appetites of a hardworking feature film crew. I had no false illusions that life would be relaxed and easy over the six weeks. Each new day in the wee hours I would have to roust up my body and fire up my enthusiasm well in advance of everyone else, to prep the day’s meals, starting with early morning breakfast. No problem, that’s why I was there. Willing and able to contribute and participate in

January/February 2012

With Lawrence at the helm, Devin Hedrick, is at the flight controls of his 3D camera-mounted UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle).

my own small way in an adventure-filled summer. A Long Hot Summer is the “working title” for a future big screen feature film being produced and directed by wildlife cinematographer and Arctic environmentalist Adam Ravetch and his company, Arctic Bear Productions. The final product, I expect, is going to be a feel-good, Disney-style cinematic treatment featuring a lone young polar bear. The main premise

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A R T S , C U LT U R E & E D U C AT I O N going about their business in their natural environs. Our polar bear’s arduous search for food would be documented on the land and water and below the sea’s surface. What will make these two projects so special and engaging for audiences is that the final products will ultimately be viewed around the world in 3D! New methods, miniaturized remote control gear and advances in digital technology and gear in the hands of experienced filmmakers would show the way. But first things first. Our film star and supporting cast however would have to be located before any filming could begin. of the story is that a young polar bear’s difficult hunt for food during a long, hot Arctic summer is progressively becoming more challenging each subsequent summer, in large part due to climate change. Global warming trends (heightened in the North) are changing migratory patterns of the young bear’s usual food sources. Additional footage would also be shot for a future documentary. The subject of climate change and how it is negatively impacting northern landscapes, coastal waters and wildlife habitats plays a significant and very timely supporting role in both projects. Global warming is changing the face of the Arctic. There is a growing, undeniable body of evidence that dramatic temperature increases make for longer, hotter summers in the Arctic. But back to the film(s). The storyboard plan, simply put, was that the cameras would — in the most in-obtrusive and respectful manner possible — capture the habits of our chosen star and other Arctic wildlife calmly

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John Nakoolak (Coral Harbour) looks on as Mario Cyr readies his camera for an underwater shoot.

On those days the shooting schedule called for a crew move from land to sea, there is a chorus of relief. The chance to escape from the of the heat and the mosquitoes is welcomed by all. Good fortune smiled often. Many a day the film shoot took us away from the mosquito infested coastline onto the refreshing swells of Hudson Bay. After breakfast and with clean-up done and all the paraphernalia and camera gear stowed on the boat, off we all

January/February 2012

Adam Ravetch confirming 3D camera set-up and position.

went, cruising the coastal waters, bow to gusty wind and sea spray — in search of willing, hopefully cooperative film stars. I’m sharing a berth with one of only a handful of cold water, sub-surface cinematographers in the world. Mario Cyr, from the Magdalen Islands, Quebec, has travelled and filmed in over 60 different countries. His return North this year after a long absence held significant personal meaning for him. He and Ravetch first met 25 years ago to work together on a film project in the Arctic. That collaboration brought the award-winning feature “doc” Toothwalkers: Giants of the Arctic Ice, to the big screen and earned them international recognition and kudos when it was named “Best Documentary” at the renowned Cannes Film Festival. No stranger to Adam and Mario is Inuk Steve Mapsalak, from Naujaat. Ten years ago Steve had provided the vital guiding expertise and boat transportation services for the making of Toothwalker. It was no surprise then that again this year, Steve and friend, fellow Nunavummiut, Lawrence Kringayark chose to take their summer vacations so they could


With the Natsiak looming in the foggy distance, Mario points his camera below the depths to capture murres cavorting under water.

provide transportation support to Ravetch and his crew on this project. A Long Hot Summer also featured other Arctic creatures. Later working further up along the coast we had our own little cruise ship all to ourselves. Joe Netser’s Natsiak was perfect. Big enough to hold many hundreds of pounds of camera gear, camping equipment and groceries for a few weeks. After a few days anchored safely in front of cliffs filled with nesting Arctic Murres, Joe put us ashore. One day visiting the cliffs, a lone, quite skinny polar bear (as if scripted) was preying on eggs and newborn chicks. Sadly, they never seemed to satisfy his hunger. Come late summer, walruses start migrating to an island in Hudson Bay, in search of slippery rocks onto which they will lounge

for hours on end. These strange lumbering creatures look so awkward and out of place on land. They were unperturbed by our presence. These creatures are at their best in the water. They swim and dive effortlessly with a ballet-like grace. The island was about one kilometre long and not more than 300 metres wide — a wild and rugged composite of tundra and jagged rock that in reality only takes about an hour to explore. There are other rewards. The historic remnants of Thule tent rings on its small land surface are evidence of its significance to the Inuit nomads who carved out their existence in the Arctic over the centuries. It was fun to imagine what life might have been like for them. The island is now a regular stopover for many cruising

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tourists. They come to view the animals from the comforts from ship in relative safety. For all its splendour the Arctic summer in terms of real time is short. For the animals that live there though, those that so depend on seasonal cycles and climate norms such as our polar bear and his co-stars, summers now must seem much longer than in the past — different and more difficult due to the changing weather patterns and shifts in nature’s natural rhythms, their rhythms. I suppose in a way they will speak to us through Ravetch’s films, in the hope that we all have a chance to better understand how climate change is affecting the Arctic — a place that I continue to love.

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A R T S , C U LT U R E & E D U C AT I O N

Innovators of Tomorrow Results from a Hydraulics Engineering Challenge were on display in Arviat. Campers designed and constructed a simple machine using hydraulics.

n his bike ride home, Ben wears the surgical mask and gloves given to him at camp. Dressed the part, he declares, “I really want to be a dentist when I grow up.” Ben is one of many young participants attending Actua’s Health Careers Camp, now famous among Pangnirtung youth. Campers analyze real x-rays of the human body, listen to a baby’s heartbeat and remove plaque from realistic teeth moulds with genuine dental instruments. During this weeklong, hands-on experience, Ben is not just roleplaying, he is starting to think about his own career in health sciences. He can’t wait to learn more.

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January/February 2012

“They kept asking me when the science camp was coming back,” recalls Chris Heide, coordinator for Making Connections for Youth for the Hamlet of Pangnirtung, describing the explosion of enthusiasm that came from campers. “They were excited about learning during the summer, when school is actually out.” The Health Careers Camp is a relatively new program, in a long list of topics covered by Actua’s Science, Engineering and Technology camps, and is proving to be wildly successful. The programming combines cultural learning, delivered through community partners, with critical and creative thinking and allows youth to connect to their community in new and above & beyond

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A R T S , C U LT U R E & E D U C AT I O N Campers designed and constructed shoes that met anatomical requirements and functional needs in Iglulik.

exciting ways by shining a spotlight on the science that exists at the very core of their everyday lives. “Through this unique programming, campers are challenged to approach their immediate environment through a scientific lens,” says Jennifer Flanagan, President and CEO of Actua. “We want to ignite a love of learning and unleash the incredible curiosity youth possess.” With a wealth of career choices in the resource-rich regions of the North, the programming is designed to leave a lasting impression on the participants they engage, with sustained results in the communities they reach. Each community-tailored science activity allows campers to connect with regional Learning how to test blood pressure (Vital Signs Activity) at the Rankin Inlet camp.

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economic development opportunities. They begin looking at possible career paths in a whole new light. Many kilometres away in Repulse Bay, campers piece together a labyrinth of pipes and watch the water flow through their plumbing creation. They talk about water delivery systems and the challenges presented by permafrost and they collaborate on the most appropriate community planning strategies. In one afternoon, they begin thinking like civil engineers. Meanwhile, in Whale Cove, young participants are taking in the marvels of earth sciences. With their hands, they pick up samples of minerals, rocks that come from the ground in their community. It doesn’t take long to see it all differently. Using some simple chemicals and a UV light, they uncover the surprising properties the rocks possess. They now see the top layer of earth under their own feet as


prosperous in science, an opportunity to ask questions and to dig deeper. They are gaining the skills to become geologists. The activities, whether focused on engineering, technology or health sciences, seem to have something for everyone — the creative thinker, the community leader, the math lover, the caregiver, the builder. “We use a really wide diversity of activities to make sure that we connect science to what is important in the lives of youth. We want them to see that science is all around them and is present in the things they are interested in whether that is music, sports, art or hunting. With each experiment they do, problem they solve, or idea they generate, they discover skills they may not even know they have and they start to connect the dots between who they are and what they can be when they grow up,” says Flanagan. “We want them to know there is a place for them in science and, most importantly, we want science to empower them.” As Heide contends, the imprint on the campers is detected immediately in the burst of motivation he sees in those wanting to continue with science learning. “The camps produce children with a heightened sense of curiosity about the world around them,” he notes. “A week is not a long time in a child’s life, but the effects of this camp are long-lasting.” While many of these communities do have strong economic development opportunities, they also witness alarming high school dropout rates. “Actua’s programs are making an impact in narrowing this gap,” says Kim Warburton, Vice-President Communications and Public Affairs of GE Canada, a national supporter and long-time fan of Actua. “The way they are designed, they have the capacity to pave a very positive path for youth as they look ahead, to the next school year, to graduation, to postsecondary educational options and to the career opportunities that abound around them.” The camps are highly integrated with the community. Working with community leaders and local Elders to identify the most appropriate subject matter, Actua focuses on delivering activities that are culturally and locally relevant. Local experts — scientists, engineers and sometimes, technologists — are invited to visit the camps to provide extra inspiration. Trained instructors, many students themselves who share a love for learning science, are mobilized to serve as science role models and act as facilitators. While the local Elders and

Learning plumbing and pipefitting skills in Chesterfield Inlet.

“To hear a seven-year-old say the word phosphorescent with enthusiasm is pretty incredible.” — Danielle MacMillan, Actua Outreach Coordinator and former camp instructor Evaluations of Actua’s Northern programming consistently show an increased awareness and interest in science careers. The health sciences camps have produced a large number of participants — 87 percent — who strongly agree with the statement “I am excited about the career opportunities I learned about” while 70 percent note wanting to study health sciences at college or university. Actua is a national, charitable organization that provides life-changing experiences to youth through the delivery of science camps and school workshops. Known as a leader in breaking down barriers to science and technology, they annually engage over 230,000 youth, ages six to 16, throughout every province and territory, including 5,000 eager participants across the North.

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A R T S , C U LT U R E & E D U C AT I O N

Dentistry skills also proved to be popular at the Rankin Inlet camp.

experts provide much of the traditional knowledge on which the activities are based, the instructors help the campers apply scientific practices and thinking skills. This for-youth by-youth delivery model is key to the success of the programming. Danielle MacMillan is an Outreach Coordinator for Actua, where she supports curriculum development and delivery. Her passion for the program comes from her own experiences in knowledge sharing with youth, when she worked as an instructor for two years in the science camps throughout Nunavut. MacMillan remembers walking campers through the simulated dental appointment in Iqaluit and seeing the participants soak in all the health information presented to them. “You see these curious minds exploring health questions in smaller communities that don’t necessarily have access to health professionals.

Through hands-on activities, they begin to understand that health can be simple, that they can make changes in their lives through health decisions and that they could perhaps one day be a dentist in their community.” Heide witnessed the same results in Pangnirtung. “The camps allow them to demystify the health care system and help them understand the health practices in their everyday lives. Demystifying the health system is very valuable here, in a place where many of the doctors come from the south, where we are expecting our population to be our own health advocates. The more we can do to demystify the health system, the better.” At the end of each camp session, parents, teachers and community members are invited to an Open House, to see for themselves what these campers have been raving about all week. “The youth are so excited and have

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gained so much information, they can’t wait to talk about and show their parents what they’ve learned,” say Flanagan. MacMillan recalls her own experience at an Open House in Iqaluit and what she calls one of many “wow factor” moments she witnessed. “We set up stations that the kids have full ownership over. The kids were ready to become teachers, leaders. They were excited to share their own knowledge. You can see the pride they have in what they’ve learned in their community. To hear a seven-year-old say the word phosphorescent with enthusiasm is pretty incredible.” Actua has been delivering experiences like this one in Iqaluit to Northern communities for over ten years. Success of the programming is credited to strong relationships with community organizations, Inuit associations and through partnerships with the Nunavut Arctic College, the Nunavut Research Institute, Yukon College and DiscoverE at the University of Alberta. We are also pleased to have First Air as our Official Airline Sponsor of our Northern programming. Through the generous support of GE Canada, the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency, the Suncor Energy Foundation, the Canadian Institute of Health Research, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council, Shell Canada and the Government of Nunavut, Actua will continue to invest in relationships with communities in the North, develop new curriculum, and inspire the next generation of scientists and innovators.

Elizabeth Gray-Smith


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NORTHERN BOOKSHELF

Great reads for all ages Polar Bears: A Natural History of a Threatened Species (Revised Edition) Ian Stirling, Fitzhenry & Whiteside, 2011 Dr. Ian Stirling, the best-known polar bear scientist in the world, compresses the major new discoveries of the last 40 years of research on this iconic Arctic mammal into a major, easily readable, and scientifically comprehensive book about the ecology and natural history of polar bears. In a non-technical style, he explains how polar bears evolved, how researchers study them, aspects of their behaviour, how they prey and live on various marine mammals for their very survival, how the seals and bears have evolved in response to each other, and how they have come to be threatened by climate warming. Maps, tables and graphs throughout the book illustrate the distribution of polar bears, where they originated, the status of populations, critical differences in ice conditions and how they impact the survival of different populations of bears. As well, the most diverse and extensive collection of spectacular photographs of polar bears by some of the world’s most experienced polar bear photographers is included making this book an incomparable treasure of understanding of this amazing mammal.

Arctic Adventure: Starlight Snowdogs 2

The Ice Pilots: Flying with the Mavericks of the Great White North

Skye Waters, HarperCollins, 2011

Mike Vlessides, Douglas & McIntyre, 2012

Ella returns to the Arctic for more adventures with Frosty and the magical dogsled team. There she must guide the sled and help overcome environmental problems caused by global warming. But can one girl and her dog team really make a difference or will the Arctic habitat of polar bears and seals be lost for good? Recommended for ages 12 and up.

Based on the top-rated TV show, airing on the History Channel and Global TV, The Ice Pilots follows a group of pilots in Yellowknife in the Northwest Territories, and the extraordinary adventures of the most unorthodox flyboys on Earth. Renegade Arctic airline Buffalo Airways defies the cold and the competition by using Second World War era propeller planes to haul vital fuel, supplies and passengers to remote outposts across the world’s last great wilderness of northern Canada. From rookie pilots trying to earn their wings in dangerous conditions to vintage planes that flew over Normandy on D-Day, The Ice Pilots brings its readers on an engaging romp through Arctic skies. Author Michael Vlessides braves bone-chilling temperatures, treacherous landings and iconic owner “Buffalo” Joe McBryan’s famous temper to capture behind-the-scenes stories about the ice pilots, the crew, the passengers and the communities they serve. Weaving in history about bush pilots, plane crashes and the North, he has crafted an entertaining, informative narrative about aviation: the lifeline of this remote and icy world.

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ŠHeiko Wittenborn

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Get the Data Bug wo years ago in January 2010, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami launched the Inuit Qaujisarvingat – the Inuit Knowledge Centre. We had two people on staff at the start, and now there are seven, including full and part-time staff. Most are Inuit. The mission of the Centre is to ensure that Inuit knowledge advances sustainable Arctic science and policy. North American society is being transformed from a manufacturing economy to a knowledgebased economy. The Arctic is rich in traditional Inuit knowledge. As attention to Arctic issues increases, we want to ensure that scientific research is guided by Inuit knowledge, and that the results of this research are shared with Inuit. Knowledge is power. And knowledge in our contemporary society frequently takes the form of data. In our political and business world, to make a political argument, or a business case, sound and credible data is needed. One of the projects the Inuit Qaujisarvingat has brought to life is one of the most remarkable data sets among Aboriginal peoples in Canada called Naasautit. The data is based on the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey and the Aboriginal Peoples Children’s Survey. All Inuit regions participated in the collection of data for these surveys in a formal agreement with Statistics Canada. It was funded by Health Canada from the Aboriginal Health Transition Fund. I encourage readers to go online and explore this remarkable data collection and “Get the Data Bug”. On the surface, Naasautit is a collection of Inuit Health Statistics, however it covers a broader range of data than simply health statistics. Let me give an example. In my role as Chair of the National Inuit Committee on Education, we spent months developing the National Inuit Education Strategy, launched in June 2011 on Parliament Hill in

SOURCE: ABORIGINAL PEOPLES SURVEY, 2006.

© PATRICIA D’SOUZA / ITK

T

Ottawa. The Naasautit data complements our report by providing data on key indicators, such as language use. Using the Naasautit website, I was able to produce the chart used to illustrate this article. The data is organized in 10 categories. I clicked on “Culture and Language,” scrolled down to “Language,” and selected “Ability to read Inuit language, aged 6-14”. Only 32 percent of this age group can read very well. 16 percent can read relatively well. The figures are broken down region to region. These facts are generally well known, however this data collection brings it to life for me as a leader, and it is publicly available for you regardless of your occupation or area of interest. As a student, explore this data collection and do a project based on it. As a teacher, assign a project based on the Naasautit data. If you are in media, the wealth of information supports a number of stories in the Arctic. If you are engaged in crafting policy

for Inuit in the Arctic this is an important tool for you. The 10 categories show the many factors that contribute to Inuit health and well-being. All data is exportable to Excel. You can print colour charts directly from the website, and create statistical charts within minutes for a PowerPoint presentation. I am proud of the people who have developed the Naasautit data collection. As with many Inuit endeavours, it is a joint effort with many organizations involved. They include the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, the Nunatsiavut Government, the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services (for Makivik Corporation), the Inuit Tuttarvingat Centre of the National Aboriginal Health Organization, and ITK.

Mary Simon

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami 75 Albert Street, Suite 1101 Ottawa, ON K1P 5E7 t. (613) 238.8181

January/February 2012

above & beyond

57


arctic exotica

Enthusiastic or what? Š PIERRE DUNNIGAN

Once near extinction and thought a lost tradition, the Inuit sled dog is seeing a popular resurgence in some Inuit communities, particularly in Nunavik. Valued by Inuit as a working dog and close partner in winter survival, the breed has long been prized for their boundless strength and reliable stamina. And oh yes, their‌ ENTHUSIASM! 58

arcticjournal.ca

January/February 2012


ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓅᖓᔪᖅ, ᐊᑲᕐᕆᓇᖅᑐᖅ, ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑐᖅ

Nunallaat, Ihuarniq, Atuttiarniq Community, Comfort, Convenience

ᑲᓲᑎᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᖄᖓᒍᑦ

Haniliriikhutik Hilarjuap Qulaani Spanning the Top of the World

© MICHELLE VALBERG

ᓴᐊᓂᖅ ᑐᔪᕐᒥᕕᒃ, ᒥᑦᑎᒪᑕᓕᒃ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ Sauniq Hotel, Pond Inlet, Nunavut

www.InnsNorth.com ☎ 1-888-To-North ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓂ- ᓇᒻᒥᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᑐᔪᕐᒥᕖᑦ, ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᓕᒫᒥ.

Nunalinni-namminirijaujut tujurmiviit, kajjiqatigiittut upiuqtaqtulimaami. Locally-owned hotels, working together across the Arctic.


First in Customer Service Every day our team of 1000 dedicated employees puts YOU FIRST with our commitment to exceptional customer service and the best northern flight schedule to 30 Northern destinations. ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ 1 000 ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᕗᑦ ᐊᖏᖅᓯᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᒃ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᐅᑎᑦᑎᕗᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕈᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᐹᖑᔪᒥᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᐊᑲᐅᓂᖅᐹᖑᔪᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦᑕᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᔪᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓄᑦ 3 0- ᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒦᑦᑐᓄᑦ.

Baker Lake Team Left to Right: Tracy Nateela, Ryan and Emily Tapatai, Adrienne Iyago and in the back Abraham Iksiraq

Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal January/February 2012  
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