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2017 | 03 • $5.95

Where Grizzlies and Salmon Play

Surviving and Thriving in the Arctic

Nunavik Parks Sustainable Tourism

Enroute to the Arctic Circle NWT themed highway routes

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Brock Friesen / XÇ4 K‰n8

Jobie Tukkiapik / JW bexW4

ᑐᕌᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓄᑦ,

Dear Guest, With Spring in full swing, I’m looking forward to the many changes that are coming for First Air that I know will make our customers happy and will continue to make First Air their Airline of choice. As we continue to look for opportunities to enhance our service, I’m very pleased to announce that in the coming months we will be introducing a new In-flight entertainment system on our Ottawa-Iqaluit route. This system will let you enjoy a selection of movies, games and other exciting content directly on your portable electronic device. Customer feedback is critical to ensuring we remain on the right path to offer the best service possible. In May, as we begin the next chapter in our scheduled service, we have heard your feedback and are happy to announce some changes to our schedules. On May 17 we will begin daily non-stop service from Yellowknife to Inuvik and just one stop daily service between Edmonton and Inuvik. Inuvik is an evolving and growing market and we are excited to offer this service on our ATR42-500 aircraft that will bring a faster, quieter and more environmentally friendly option to our customers in Inuvik. In addition to the Inuvik changes, we are also excited to announce that, starting May 17, we will begin a six times weekly service to Cambridge Bay from Yellowknife, as well as six times weekly service between Iqaluit and Pond Inlet. Serving the Northern communities of Canada is a privilege for us at First Air. We continuously support the communities we fly to by being part of the events and projects that develop throughout the year, making sure we do our part to keep Canada’s Arctic as strong as possible. Thank you for choosing First Air for your flight today. I hope we made your journey a great one and we hope to see you onboard again soon. Brock Friesen First Air President & CEO

ᐅᐱᕐᖔᖅ ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᓂᕆᐅᓐᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᐳᖓ ᐊᒥᓱᐃᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᓯᒪᔪᖃᓕᕐᓂᐊᕐᓂᖓᑕ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂᑦ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᐅᓂᐊᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓂᐊᕐᓂᖏᑕ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖔᕈᒪᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᓐᓂᒃ.

President, Makivik Corporation & Chairman, First Air xzJ6√6, mr=F4 fxS‰nzk5 x7m w4y?sb6, {5 wsf8k5 Président, Société Makivik et président du conseil, First Air

Chers invités,

Avec l’arrivée du printemps, j’attends avec intérêt les nombreux changements qui s’annoncent chez First Air et qui rendront nos clients heureux. Ces changements contribueront à ce que First Air soit leur ligne aérienne de choix. ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᓕᕐᕕᒋᔪᓐᓇᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᐅᓯᒋᐊᕈᑎᐅᓇᔭᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᕈᑎᒋᕙᒃᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ, ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᒋ- À mesure que nous continuons de rechercher des ᐊᓐᓂᒃ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᖓ ᑕᖅᑭᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂ ᓴᖅᑮᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐊᕋᑦᑕ ᓄᑖᓂᒃ occasions d’améliorer notre service, je suis très ᖃᖓᑕᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᓐᓈᒐᔅᓴᖃᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᓕᕐᒪᑕ ᖃᖓ- heureux d’annoncer qu’au cours des prochains mois nous introduirons un nouveau système de divertisseᑕᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐋᑐᕙᒥᑦ ᐃᖃᓗᓐᓄᑦ. ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᑕᑯᓐᓈᒐᔅᓴᐅᓕᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᑦ ment en vol sur notre itinéraire Ottawa-Iqaluit. Ce ᐱᑕᖃᐅᕐᐸᓐᓂᐊᕐᒪᑕ ᑕᕐᕆᔭᒐᔅᓴᓂᒃ, ᐱᖖᒍᐊᕈᑎᔅᓴᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ système vous permettra d’apprécier un choix de films, ᐊᓯᖏᓂᒃ ᖁᕕᐊᓇᖅᑑᑎᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᑭᒪᓗᑎᑦ ᐃᒃᓯᕚᕐᕕᓐᓂ ᐅᐊᔭde jeux, ainsi que d’autre contenu intéressant ᒨᖅᑐᖁᑎᑎᒍᑦ. directement sur votre appareil électronique portable. ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᓂᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᒃᓴᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐱᓯᒪᓕᖅᐸᓐᓂᕗᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᒻIl nous est essentiel de recevoir les commentaires de ᒪᕆᒃᐸᒻᒪᑕ ᓈᒻᒪᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᑕᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᖅᐸᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋ- nos clients afin de nous assurer de rester sur la bonne ᕈᑎᒋᕙᒃᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᓂᒃ. ᒪᐃ ᑕᖅᑭᖓᓂ, ᐊᑐᕆᐊᓕᕐᒥ- voie pour offrir le meilleur service possible. Alors ᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒃᓴᖁᑎᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᑕᐅᕙᒌᖅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ que nous entamons le prochain chapitre de notre ᖃᖓᑕᕙᓐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ, ᑐᓴᖃᑦᑕᓚᐅᕋᑦᑎᒍ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᒃᓴᕆᔭᓯ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ service régulier en mai, nous en avons tenu compte ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᒍᑦ ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᒥᒃ ᐃᓚᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᓯᔾᔩᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐊᕋᑦᑕ et nous sommes heureux d’annoncer certains changeᐋᖅᑭᒃᑕᐅᕙᒌᒃᓯᒪᔪᖁᑎᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᒪᐃ 17-ᒥ ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᓄᖅᑲ- ments à nos horaires. Le 17 mai, nous lancerons le ᖖᒋᑕᐃᓐᓇᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᓕᕋᑦᑕ ᔭᓗᓇᐃᒥᑦ ᐃᓅᕕᖕᒧᑦ service quotidien sans escale de Yellowknife à Inuvik, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑕᐅᓯᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᕐᓗᑕ ᖃᐅᑕᒫᑦ ᓄᖅᑲᖃᑦᑕᓕᕐᓂᐊᕐᓗᑕ ainsi que le service quotidien ne comportant qu’une ᐃᑦᒪᓐᑕᓐᒥᑦ ᐃᓅᕕᖕᒧᐊᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ. ᐃᓅᕕᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᖓ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᐸᓪ- escale entre Edmonton et Inuvik. Inuvik est un ᓕᐊᓂᖃᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᐅᕝᕈᑎᒃᓴᕆᔭᐅᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᐊᖏᒡᓕᕙᓪᓕᐊ- marché croissant et en évolution, et nous sommes ᓕᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᒍᑦ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓂᖓ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᕈᑎᖃᕈᓐ- très heureux d’offrir ce service sur notre ATR42-500 ᓇᕐᓂᐊᓕᕋᑦᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦᑎᓐᓂ ATR42-500-ᒥ ᓱᒃᑲᓕᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᓂ, qui donnera à nos clients d’Inuvik une option plus ᓱᓇᖅᐸᓗᓗᐊᕋᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᕙᑎᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᑦᑎ- rapide, plus silencieuse et plus respectueuse de l’environnement. ᐊᖅᑑᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᑭᒪᕕᐅᔪᓐᓇᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᐃᓅᕕᖕᒥᑦ. ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓅᕕᖕᒥ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᓄᑦ, ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃ- En plus des changements à Inuvik, nous sommes ᑭᕗᒍᑦ ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ, ᐱᒋᐊᕐᓗᑕ ᒪᐃ 17-ᒥ, 6-ᖏᖅᑕᕐᓗᒍ aussi heureux d’annoncer qu’à partir du 17 mai, ᐃᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᖅᑕᒫᑦ ᐃᖃᓗᒃᑑᑦᑎᐊᕐᒧᑦ ᔭᓗᓇᐃᒥᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᐊ- nous lancerons un service six fois par semaine vers Cambridge Bay à partir de Yellowknife, ainsi qu’un ᓕᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ 6-ᖏᖅᑕᕐᓗᒍ ᐱᓇᓱᐊᕈᓯᖅᑕᒫᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦservice six fois par semaine entre Iqaluit et Pond ᑕᕐᓂᐊᓕᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᖃᓗᓐᓂᑦ ᒥᑦᑎᒪᑕᓕᖕᒧᑦ. Inlet. ᑲᓇᑕᒥ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᑎᐅᓂᕆᕙᒃᑕᑦServir les collectivités du Nord est un privilège pour ᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖃᑦᑎᐊᕋᑦᑕ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ. ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᒐᑦᑕ nous chez First Air. Nous continuons d’appuyer les ᐃᑲᔪᕐᓂᖃᕐᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᕝᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᑦcommunautés que nous desservons en participant ᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓚᖏᔭᐅᖃᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᑕ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ aux événements et aux projets qui se produisent ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᑲᐃᓐᓇᖅᐸᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑕᐅᕙᓪᓕᐊᕙᒃᑐᑎᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᖅ ᐊᑐᖅ- tout au long de l’année, et en nous assurant de ᐸᓪᓕᐊᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᖃᑕᐅᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᑲᓇᑕᐅᑉ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅ- contribuer à ce que l’Arctique canadien soit aussi ᑐᖓᓄᑦ ᓴᖖᒌᓐᓇᐅᔭᖅᑎᑦᑎᔪᓐᓇᖅᐸᒃᑲᑦᑕ. prospère que possible. ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖓᓂ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓐᓇᓚᐅᕋᕕᑦ ᐅᓪᓗᒥ. Merci d’avoir choisi First Air pour votre vol aujourᐃᓱᒪᒐᓗᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᓂᕆᔭᐃᑦ ᓈᒻᒪᑦᑎᐊᒻᒪᕆᒃᑑᔪᓐᓇᖁᓪᓗᒍ d’hui. J’espère que votre trajet sera agréable et nous ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᕆᐅᒋᓂᐊᖅᐸᑦᑎᒋᑦ ᑕᑯᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒫᕐᒥᒐᑦᑎᒋᑦ ᕿᓚᒥᐅᔪᖅ. espérons vous voir de nouveau à bord sous peu. ᐸᕌᒃ ᕗᕇᓴᓐ Brock Friesen ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᖓᔪᖅᑳᖅ & ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ Président-directeur général de First Air

srs6b6g3u4 czb˙oEp7mEst4vFs4. We value your support and thank you for making First Air The Airline of the North. Nous apprécions votre soutien et vous remercions de votre appui à First Air la ligne aérienne du Nord. Like us!

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Book online at firstair.ca or call 1 800 267 1247


From the Flight Deck What’s that flapping noise on the wings?

© Mark Taylor

The flaps on the aircraft move frequently during takeoffs and landings. You’ve likely noticed the extended flaps after the engines are started in preparation for takeoff. Once the aircraft is airborne, the flaps will be retracted, possibly in a series of steps. Likewise, as the aircraft prepares to land, the flaps will be extended in a series of steps and then be fully retracted after the aircraft has landed as we taxi to the gate. There are several, normal, noises you might hear while the flaps are being moved either up or down. You’ve probably heard all kinds of noises as the flaps move. On all our aircraft, the flaps are controlled by the hydraulic system. Whenever the flaps are extended or retracted, you can often hear the hydraulic motors and the various actuators that move the flaps. When the flaps are moving, the hydraulic pumps also must work harder to generate that power. You might also hear the pumps as they increase their output. The flaps also extend into the airflow and generate some turbulence behind the wing. (If you look at the flaps on the 737 shortly before landing on a humid day, you can see a mini horizontal “tornado” extending from the outboard edge of the flaps.) If you’re sitting in the right location on the aircraft, you may hear some of that turbulence. The flaps also generate a fair bit of drag, which tries to slow the aircraft down. You may also hear the engines increase power slightly as the flaps are extended to allow us to control our speed correctly. The flaps end up changing the shape of the wing and the shape of the wing is the reason an aircraft can fly. If you look closely at the wing, you will notice that the upper surface is curved slightly. When the flaps

are extended, the wing has an even more drastic curved shape. (We use the term ‘camber’ to describe how curved the wing is.) Depending on the performance that is desired, the engineers select the ideal camber for the wing when they design the aircraft. The challenge is to identify the performance to optimize. We would like the aircraft to take off and land at the slowest possible speed. Since we must accelerate to takeoff speeds and slow down and stop after landing, the slower we can go means we’re able to use smaller runways. Once we’re in cruise, however, we’d like to go as fast as we can, since this means we can arrive at our destination as soon as possible. The ability to fly slowly (for takeoff and landing) means that we need a wing with a great deal of curvature (or a very deep camber) but high speed cruise needs a wing with very little curvature (or a shallow camber). The flaps let us change the shape of the wing depending on what we want to achieve — effectively, they allow us to get three wings for the price of one: a wing with a very shallow camber (when

the flaps are fully retracted) to allow us to fly quickly in cruise; a wing with a very deep camber (when the flaps are fully extended) to allow us to fly as slowly as possible for landing; and an in between setting (when the flaps are partially extended) to allow us to takeoff at a slow speed but that also doesn’t generate too much drag to slow us down while we accelerate up to flying speeds during the takeoff roll. Ultimately, the flaps allow the wing to be optimized for several different phases of flight at the same time. They let us take as many passengers as possible from as short a runway as possible but still fly as quickly and safely as possible to our destination. We just may hear some interesting sounds from the flaps while we’re on our way. Captain Aaron Speer Vice President, Flight Operations First Air If you are curious about a specific topic regarding flying and aircraft operations, let us know what you’d like to learn about and we’ll try to include it in a future column. Email: editor@arcticjournal.ca

Dedicated to being first in service — and our commitment to the communities and people we serve!


ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᑉ ᐅᔾᔨᕆᔭᐅᑎᑕᐅᓂᖓ

Employee Spotlight | Iqqanaijaqtiup Ujjirijautitauninga ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᕗᐊᓕᔅ | Katherine Wallace

ᑲᒻᐸᓂᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓚᓕᐅᑎᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ 2007-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ, ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᕗᐊᓕᔅ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᒻᒪᕆᒃᑐᑎᒍᑦ 10-ᑲᓴᐅᓕᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᐅᓯᒪᓕᖅᐳᖅ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᓕᕆᕝᕕᐊᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᕝᕕᖓᓐᓂ, ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᓂᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᓄᑦ. ᐋᑐᕙᒥ ᐃᕐᓂᐊᖑᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᓂᑰᓪᓗᓂ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᖃᖃᑦᑕᖅᓯᒪᓕᕐᐳᖅ ᐊᒥᓱᐃᖑᔪᓂ ᓄᓇᓕᐸᐅᔭᕆᔭᐅᔪᓂ ᓄᐊᔅ ᐊᒥᐊᕆᑲᒥ, ᐋᑐᕙᒧᑦ ᓄᓇᒥᓄᑦ ᐅᑎᓕᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᕗᖅ 14-ᖑᓕᖅᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᑦ.

ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ ᐊᒥᓲᓕᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᖃᖅᓯᒪᓂᕐᒥᓂᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᓂᐅᕝᕈᑎᖃᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᕙᓐᓂᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓕᑦᑎᓯᓯᒪᓕᕐᒪᑦ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᖃᓪᓚᕆᒃᑑᓂᖏᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᖅᐸᒃᑐᑎᒃ, ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᖃᕆᐊᒥᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᓂᒃ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᑕᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᒻᒪᑦ — ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᖑᔪᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᕝᕕᐅᕙᒋᐊᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᑖᒃᑯᓂᖓᑦᓴᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᑐᓴᒐᔅᓴᖁᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᒃᑐᒥᒃ ᓂᐅᕝᕈᑎᖃᓕᕐᕕᐅᔪᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐃᓱᒪᔾᔪᓯᕆᔭᐅᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ, ᑭᓯᐊᓂᓗ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᖑᔪᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᖖᒋᐅᕐᓂᖃᕐᕕᐅᓂᖃᕐᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᐅᓪᓚᕆᒃᑐᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑎᖃᖅᐸᓐᓂᓕᕆᓂᕐᒥᒃᑎᒍᑦ, ᓈᒻᒪᒃᑎᐊᖅᑐᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᕋᓱᒃᐸᓐᓂᖅᑎᒍᑦ, ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᖅᑎᒍᑦ, ᐱᓯᒪᐃᓐᓇᕋᓱᒃᐸᓐᓂᖏᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᓐᓂ ᐃᓄᖁᑎᒋᔭᒥᓐᓂᒃ, ᐱᐅᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᒃᓴᖃᓕᖅᐸᒻᒪᑕ ᐃᖏᕐᕋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᐊᕈᑎᒃ ᐱᓯᒪᓕᖔᕋᓱᐊᖅᐸᓐᓂᐅᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᔭᒃᓴᖃᐅᖅᐸᒃᑐᑎᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᖃᕐᓂᕐᓂ. ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖃᐃᓐᓇᕐᐸᒃᑐᖅ ᐃᖅᑲᐃᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᖅᐸᓐᓂᕐᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᒪᓐᓇ ᓇᓂᑐᐃᓐᓇᖅ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᐊᓐᓄᑦ, ᓱᓇᑐᐃᓐᓇᐃᑦ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖖᒋᑦᑑᕙᒻᒪᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓕᕆᐊᖏᑕ. “ᐱᓯᒪᑐᐊᕈᓂ ᓈᒻᒪᒃᑐᒥᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᓕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓗᒥᒍᑦ, ᐱᐅᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐸᕐᓇᐅᑎᖃᖅᓯᒪᓗᓂ, ᓈᒻᒪᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᕐᕕᖃᓕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓈᒻᒪᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᖃᕈᑎᒃ ᐊᔪᕐᓇᖖᒋᒻᒪᑕ.” ᒫᓐᓇᓵᖑᓚᐅᕐᑐᒥ, ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᓯᒪᔭᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᑲᒻᐸᓂᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᕿᓂᓕᖅᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᒥᓱᖖᒍᕆᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᓕᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᑎᑦᑎᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᕐᓂ, ᓄᑖᖑᓪᓗᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᕆᓕᕋᓱᒃᑕᒥᓂ ᓂᕆᐅᖕᓂᖃᕐᕕᒋᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃᓗ. ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᔾᔪᑎᒋᕙᒃᑕᒥᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᖅᐸᒃᖢᓂ, ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᐱᓯᒪᓕᕋᓱᐊᕐᐳᖅ ᖁᑦᑎᖕᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᓯᒪᓕᕋᓱᐊᕈᑎᖃᖅᑐᓂ ᐃᓅᓯᓕᒫᒥᓂ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᒋᓯᒪᓕᕈᓐᓇᖅᑕᒥᓂᒃ, ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᔨᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕌᓂᒍᑎᓂᒃ ᐱᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᑐᓴᒐᔅᓴᓕᕆᕙᓐᓂᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᐅᔪᓂ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᕋᓱᐊᖅᐸᓐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓂᕈᐊᖅᖠᓂᐅᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓯᔾᔨᖅᑎᑕᐅᕙᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔾᔪᑎᐅᔪᓂ. ᒫᓐᓇᓵᖑᓚᐅᕐᑐᖅ ᒫᓐᓇᒧᑦ ᑎᑭᑎᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᖅᐸᖏᑦ ᐊᔪᖖᖏᓐᓂᕆᔭᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᒋᑦ ᑎᓕᔭᐅᓯᒪᓕᕈᑎᒋᔭᓂ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᒃᑯᑕᖅᑖᕐᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕌᓂᒍᑎᖃᖅᓯᒪᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᐅᓂᕐᒥ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ, ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒻᒪᕇᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᓂᐅᔪᓕᕆᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᖓᑎᒍᑦ.

ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᖓ ᑐᑭᖃᕈᑎᐅᒻᒪᑦ ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᔪᓕᕆᓂᐅᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᕙᓐᓂᕐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓕᓴᐃᔨᐅᕙᓐᓂᕐᓂ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᓄᑦ ᐱᕙᓪᓕᐊᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖓᓐᓄᑦ, ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᓂᖃᖅᐸᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᔪᖖᒋᓐᓂᕆᔭᓄᑦ ᐱᐅᓯᒋᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᓄᑦ ᓴᖖᒋᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᖅᑐᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᔨᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᖃᓕᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ LIFT-ᓄᑦ ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᔪᒧᑦ, ᑐᕌᕐᕕᒃᓴᖃᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᓯᕗᓂᕆᓂᐊᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᓯᕗᓕᖅᑎᐅᓕᕈᒫᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓄᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᒃᓴᒧᑦ.

ᑳᓱᕆᓐ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᖃᑕᐅᕗᖅ ᑕᕝᕙᓂ ᐊᕐᕌᒍᒥ ᓇᓄᖅ ᑐᓂᕐᕈᓯᐊᖅᑖᕐᑎᑕᐅᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᓵᓚᒃᓴᐅᑎᑖᕐᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᖅᑐᓄᑦ, ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓕᑕᖅᓯᓯᒪᓕᕈᑎᑖᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓄᑦ ᐅᖓᑎᒃᑲᓐᓂᐊᓄᑦ ᖁᓛᒍᓪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑎᒌᒃᑐᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᖅᓯᒪᔪᓂᒃ, ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᑦ ᓈᒻᒪᒃᓴᐃᑦᑎᐊᖅᐸᖁᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᔪᒧᑦ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᐸᐅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᕐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖅᑎᐅᕙᓐᓂᕐᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓚᖏᔭᐅᑦᑎᐊᖅᐸᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᑲᔪᓯᓯᒪᑏᓐᓇᖅᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᐅᓯᒋᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓇᓱᓐᓂᖏᑕ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒥᓐᓂᒃ.

ᑳᓱᕆᓐ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᖖᒋᓕᕌᖓᒥ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕈᑎᔅᓴᒥᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᖃᖖᒋᓕᕌᖓᒥ, ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕌᓂᒃᓯᒪᐅᑎᖃᕋᒥ ᐹᒻᕝᒥ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᓕᐅᖅᑎᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᖓᓂᑦ, ᑎᑎᕋᐅᔭᖅᑎᐅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐊᒥᐊᒐᓕᐅᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᓄᓇᓕᒋᔭᒥᑕ ᖃᓂᒋᔭᖓᓂ ᒥᐊᕆᒃᕕᐅᓪᒥ ᓇᓂᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᐸᒃᑐᖅ, ᖁᔭᖅᑐᕐᑎᓪᓗᒍᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᕇᑐ ᕆᕗᕐ ᑰᖓᓂ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᓱᕈᓯᕆᔭᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᕐᖑᑕᒥᓂᒃᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐃᓅᖃᑎᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᖃᑎᐃᒋᕙᒃᑐᓂᒋᑦ.

Joining the company in 2007, Katherine Wallace has been a key contributor for almost 10 years in a leadership role for the First Air Learning & Development Centre, as the Manager of Training and Development. Born in Ottawa, she has worked in many cities throughout North America, returning to her hometown of Ottawa 14 years ago. Katherine’s years in management, sales, training, and human resources © Danika Ward have taught her the value of engaged, well trained employees. She regularly instructs her students that — organizations have access to the same information and the same prospective market, however the organization that differentiates itself through superb customer service, effectively recruiting, developing, retaining and managing its people, is the best equipped to succeed in a competitive and challenged business environment. Katherine is always happy to remind employees at whatever First Air base she is visiting, that anything is possible. “All it takes is the right attitude, the right plan, the right opportunities and the right people.” Recently, Katherine’s services have been made available to other companies that are looking for a way to increase employee development, a new endeavour she is enthusiastically looking forward to. Practicing what she teaches, Katherine has continued to pursue a high level of qualifications through lifelong learning, acquiring training or certification in journalism, business administration, recruiting and selection, and change management. Most recently she has updated her skills and received her designations as a Registered Professional Trainer and a Certified Management Professional, through the Institute of Professional Management. Katherine’s position means she is the lead developer and instructor for First Air’s Management Development Program, which provides training and skills improvement to ensure strong management leadership and for the LIFT a Leader program, which focuses on the development of the next generation of First Air leader candidates. Katherine is one of this year’s Nanuq Award winners, a First Air award that recognizes employees who go above and beyond working as a team, ensuring customer satisfaction is a priority and committing to and actively participating in First Air's continuous improvement. When not teaching or studying, Katherine, an alumna of the former Banff School of Fine Arts, can be found sketching or painting the local scenery near her log home outside of Merrickville, kayaking along the Rideau River or happily spending time with her children or grandchildren.

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In the News Encouraging Northern youth Skills Canada made its way to Hay River, Northwest Territories, in March with a unique opportunity to instill leading skills in Canada’s Northern youth. First Air was happy to partner in this event.

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Contents 9

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above&beyond ltd., (aka above&beyond, Canada’s Arctic Journal) is a wholly owned subsidiary of First Air, and a media instrument intended solely to entertain and provide general information about the North. The views and opinions expressed in editorial content, advertisements, or by contributors, do not necessarily reflect the views, official positions or policies of First Air, its agents, or those of above&beyond magazine unless expressly stated. above&beyond ltd. does not assume any responsibility for any errors and/or omissions of any content in the publication. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited. We welcome contributions but assume no responsibility for unsolicited material. Send to editor@arcticjournal.ca.

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Features

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Where Grizzlies and Salmon Play

Within a sea of tundra and stunted black spruce you'll find the Ni’iinlii Njik (Fishing Branch) Territorial Park in the Yukon Territory. It’s an Arctic oasis where grizzly bears and salmon play out a symbiotic lifecycle thousands of years old. — Text and photos by Peter Mather

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Surviving and Thriving in the Arctic

In Nunavut, the Department of Environment’s Parks and Special Places Division’s “Learn to Camp” sessions introduce visitors to some of the traditional ways Inuit have survived and thrived for many centuries in the often-unforgiving Arctic environment.— Tana Silverland

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NWT Themed Highway Routes

Pack up your camping gear or RV and come and explore one (or more!) of NWT’s eight themed highway routes. A total of 32 territorial parks, including a mix of campgrounds and day-use areas, are speckled along the route to provide you with a place to rest and experience nature. — Tara Tompkins

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Nunavik Parks Sustainable Tourism

Nunavik’s National Parks: Pingualuit, Kuururjuaq, Tursujuq and Ulittaniujalik offer the best for everyone who wants to learn the Inuit culture, practice their favourite activities, or to experience the quiet vastness of the northern world. — The Kativik Regional Government

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13 Living Above&Beyond

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21 Resources

39 Science Can Arctic Char Adapt to a Changing North? — Cam Stevens

43 Education Spring Camp: Learning Inuit Traditions — Kate Kemp

46 Science Toward a Canadian Antarctic Research Program — Marina Cvetkovska & David Smith

48 Culture Polar Bear Sleep Over — Peter Autut 51 Bookshelf

53 Guest Editorial Indspire 54 Inuit Forum — Natan Obed President, ITK

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Ni’iinlii Njik Territorial Park Where grizzlies and salmon play Text and photos by Peter Mather

Fifteen hundred miles upriver from the Pacific Ocean and sitting dead centre on the Arctic Circle is

the most unusual of ecological reserves. Within a sea of tundra and stunted black spruce you'll find the Ni’iinlii Njik (Fishing Branch) Territorial Park in the Yukon Territory. It’s an Arctic oasis where trees grow three to six times higher than the little black spruce that dot the surrounding ecosystems and where grizzly bears and salmon play out a symbiotic lifecycle thousands of years old.

Two young grizzlies patrol the shoreline of the Fishing Branch river, searching for chum salmon to eat.

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A young grizzly with a freshly caught female chum salmon.

Chum salmon on a spawning, red in the crystal-clear waters of the Fishing Branch River. These salmon migrate upriver over 1,500 km to reach their spawning grounds.

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Through a bit of luck and good fortune, I spent 10 days at Bear Cave Mountain Eco-Adventures camp with guide Phil Timpany in Fishing Branch. The park was created in 2000 through Vuntut Gwich'in First Nations (VGFN) land claims. The park is the perfect model of local First Nations working with government and private enterprise to preserve and profit from healthy local ecosystems. Bear Cave Mountain’s camp is co-owned by the Vuntut Gwich’in and Phil. Bear Cave’s small camp, a collection of one room cabins just off the river and upstream from the main bear feeding zones, is designed to have a minimal impact on the landscape and the bears. The key to safely experiencing Grizzlies in an intimate manner is predictability, and Phil has found the right balance with the bears. I had grizzlies pass within 10 feet of me a dozen times in my week at camp and the bears showed no signs of stress or discomfort. We had a sow grizzly and cub nap within 100 feet of us. As Phil so succinctly puts it, “If you have areas of high ecological value, don’t hunt the wildlife, protect them...economically and morally, it’s the right thing to do.” The only access into the park is by helicopter and as you approach, the first thing you notice is the rainforest ecosystem. The trees are giants towering above a forest floor of green sponge moss. The forest is literally fed by the salmon, the nitrogen in the salmon enables the trees and plants to grow to enormous proportions, and the bear’s role is gardening the forest by spreading salmon and nitrogen throughout the watershed.

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A pair of grizzly bear tracks lead to the cabins at the Bear Cave Mountain eco-lodge. The movement of the guests is very controlled to ensure the safety of the people and the bears.

The Gwich’in people call it Ni'iinlii Njik, meaning “where salmon spawn,” and it is sacred to their people. The park is the result of their efforts to preserve this area. Before heading into the park, I spent time talking with Gwich’in elder Robert Bruce in the nearest community of Old Crow. He told me Ni’iinlii Njik was dangerous for the old people (referring to people from long ago), as the Grizzlies would develop a thick layer of ice over their fur that would serve as armour, that could not be penetrated by bow and arrow. He also talked of visiting the park as a young man: “We went there a long time ago. We hiked down from that mountain. Big mountain. We walk down there…sixteen grizzlies just playing in the river. They playing with fish. They never eat one. They just play. I think they play with it to see which one is the fattest one. Then they take that fat one into the bush. They just take the skin off, and eat it. I never see that from a Grizzly...they always eat everything. Grizzly always eats everything.” While the world’s most famous Grizzly Sanctuaries and viewing lodges are located within ten miles of the Pacific Ocean, the Fishing Branch River is over a thousand kilometres upriver from its outlet in the Pacific. A combination of a late-season salmon run, a limestone mountain littered with bear caves, and groundwater that percolates up through the limestone keeping the river open well into winter, have created the bear viewing opportunity that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. If you’re looking for unique, you’ll find it at Bear Cave.

Early morning fisherman on the Fishing Branch River.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND Peter Slavin (Pennsylvania) and Chris Swarbrick’s (Wisconsin) ice sculpture “Lake Song” won first prize at the 2017 NWT Ice Carving Championship March 23-26 in Yellowknife. Photo courtesy of De Beers Canada

Carving the sound of the frozen lake

De Beers was proud to host some of the finest ice carvers in North America at the annual Long John Jamboree in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, during the De Beers Inspired Ice NWT Ice Carving Championship, March 23-26. After 30 hours of carving over three days, Peter Slavin from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Chris Swarbrick from Hudson, Wisconsin, took home the top prize with their work, Lake Song, “Lake Song to us means that when you walk on the lake at night and see the Aurora (Borealis), this is our interpretation of the sound the frozen lake makes,” explains Slavin. Sponsor De Beers Canada contributed $25,000, which helped bring teams to Yellowknife from across Canada and the U.S.. Ten teams took part in the event, including three from the Northwest Territories, carving amazing works out of big blocks of natural ice cut from Great Slave Lake, that measured nearly two metres tall by 60 cm square. Entrants also came from South Carolina, Ohio, Minnesota, Indiana, Alaska, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Alberta. First Air was also once again the official airline of the Yellowknife Long John Jamboree.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Fishing quotas increased

MV Sivulliq fishing turbot off the coast of Baffin Island, Nunavut. © Henning Flusund

Nunavut’s fishing industry is expecting a multimillion dollar boost in revenue over the next two years, thanks to an increase of turbot quotas. In March, the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans increased the total allowable catch for 2017 and 2018 by 575 tonnes in each of the two fishing areas adjacent to Baffin Island. The increase to turbot quotas off Baffin Island will be allocated to Inuit fishers in Nunavut and Nunavik. The limits on turbot in zone 0A, northeast of Baffin Island, was increased to 8,575

Hoping they can eventually receive 100 per cent of the fish quota available in what is now a dwindling fishery on Great Slave Lake, a new program at the Soaring Eagle Friendship Centre in Hay River, Northwest Territories, is training the next generation of Great Slave Lake fishermen. Together with the British Columbia Institute of Technology, the free course is helping

prepare students for the commercial fishing trade with in-class and on-the-job training in Hay River, teaching skills you don’t learn in high school but are essential for working on a fishing boat. Designed to give students a leg up into the industry, the goal of the Program is to build up the workforce and help expand the industry.

Helping to expand an industry

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tonnes, with Nunavut fishermen receiving all the increase. The limit in zone 0B, off Baffin Island’s southeast coast, was increased to 7,575 tonnes. Nunavut will receive 90 per cent of that increase, with Inuit fishers in Nunavik receiving the other 10 per cent. The increase in quotas will also mean more jobs throughout the year. The Baffin Fisheries Coalition (BFC) is mandated to use some of its offshore fishing profits to help develop inshore fisheries. The BFC is working with the local hunters and trappers’ organization to develop new cold storage — a community freezer — and possibly a fish processing area that would meet national standards. The goal is to develop a fishery that offers cash to seasonal harvesters.

Yukon fishers: Take note of changes to regs

The latest edition of the Yukon Fishing Regulations Summary is now available on the Environment Yukon website. There are some important changes to the regulations this year so take note of them before heading out to fish. Studies show depleted lake trout populations in Fox Lake, Frenchman and Twin Lakes. Recent studies of Kusawa Lake show a healthy lake trout population, but also early warning signs of the fishery tipping towards being unsustainable. New Conservation Water Regulations are intended to limit harvest to sustainable levels, protect large fish, and allow the populations to recover. In all these areas, anglers are requested to use barbless hooks, and will be required to do so in future. Environment Yukon will continue to monitor harvest and fish populations in all these waters to understand how the populations change with revised regulations. Printed copies of the booklet are available from Environment Yukon offices and anywhere fishing licences are sold. www.env. gov.yk.ca/hunting-fishingtrapping/fishingregulations.php

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Celebrating dark skies

The Annual Dark Sky Festival takes place this

year from August 17-20, 2017. It is a celebration of the return of dark skies to the northern

latitude 60°N and is hosted by the Thebacha

and Wood Buffalo Astronomical Society during the third weekend of August. Festival activities

take place in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, in the world’s largest Dark Sky Preserve, Wood

Buffalo National Park. It's the first publicly-

accessible rolling-roof observatory north of 60.

The Dark Sky Festival is not just for gazing at

stars. For kids, there is the Circus of Science and

the Science Academy events which include a model rocket making session. As well, fun and

interactive science activities include Stellar Seminars and other practical workshops such

as remote drone assembly and instructions, a

rocket launch, drone races, Fireside Chat, Wood

Buffalo National Park nature excursion: “Impact of light pollution on Nocturnal critters,” a Glow

Stick Jamboree, Telescope viewing, constella-

© astrosystem / fotolia.com

tion identification and more. Lee Johnson, avid

astronomer and published author, will host workshops at the festival.

To best manage the logistics of the festival

activities and the capacity at the Pine Lake Dark Sky Observing Site, there is a 125-person

maximum registration limit.

Important dates to keep in mind are June

21, 2017: Last day for “Early-Bird” registration

and August 15, 2017: Last day to register. www.tawbas.ca

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

Seal imports exempted The European Union (EU) has recognized the Inuvialuit qualify for an exemption to its ban on the importing of seal products. The EU’s realization that Inuvialuit are harvesting seals on a

sustainable basis, primarily for food and to maintain their culture, re-opens a market of at

least 400 million people. The territorial government will market

Inuvialuit fur products as part of its Genuine Mackenzie Valley Fur (GMVF) marketing program. The GMVF Program provides Northwest Territories trappers with “one window” access to the international fur auction market for fur harvested in the NWT. In addition, the Program actively markets and promotes fur at international venues through partnerships with other harvesting jurisdictions and the private sector. The territorial government is also developing a certification program for Inuvialuit seal products to give European visitors confidence they can take home any seal fur products they purchase

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© GNWT-ITI

in the Northwest Territories. The certification program is being developed with increasing cruise ship tourism in mind. Any fur product bought in the NWT that carries the distinctive label, depicting a traditional

Dene snowshoe, guarantees the buyer a single source of high quality authentic NWT-harvested fur. The GMVF label is only available to documented buyers of exclusive GMVF fur bundles.

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Fifth generation musher wins derby

LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

The Canadian Championship Dog Derby is the main event at the Long John Jamboree that took place, this year, March 24-26 in Yellowknife, Northwest Territories. 10-dog teams from all over North America race in a 150-kilometre race, held over three days. Further to the main event, the Canadian Championship Dog Derby Association hosted six additional races this year. The additional races reflect the Association’s commitment to develop young mushers and involve a wide range of racers. Several races are designed for youth who are looking to build their experience, while others allow kennels to enter shorter distance competitions. Congratulations to Jaden Daniel Grant Beck who wins the 2017 Canadian Championship Dog Derby with a time of 7:49:26 for the final race. Jaden led the race from the beginning of Race 1 to pull off the win this year. Cole Lizotte came up the winner in this year’s first Annual Ava Lizotte Memorial twodog race, with a completed race time of 3:16. Dominion Diamond Corporation was once again the Title Sponsor of the Dog Derby race.

Top: Jaden Beck of Yellowknife, followed closely by Annie Malo of Quebec and Rachael Scodoris of Oregon. Mass start Day 2. Jaden pulled off the win this year.

Bottom: Competitors in the Ava Lizotte Memorial 2 Dog Race. Winner Cole Lizotte holds his large trophy. © Fran Hurcomb (2)

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

A beautiful specimen of a polar bear will be on view at The Canada Goose Arctic Gallery. © Ottawa Tourism

Museum celebrates centennial with new Arctic exhibit

This Muskox, and her calf, will be part of the new Arctic Gallery at the Canadian Museum of Nature to open in June. © Canadian Museum of Nature

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The Arctic’s rich natural diversity and its important connections to humans will be the focus of the newest permanent gallery at the Canadian Museum of Nature in Ottawa, Ontario. The Canada Goose Arctic Gallery opens its doors to the public on June 21, 2017 — National Aboriginal Day — and is the museum’s key contribution to celebrate Canada’s 150th anniversary. This 8,000-square-foot exhibition will feature authentic specimens and artefacts from the Arctic, stunning multimedia and indigenous perspectives. Visitors will feel an emotional connection with the Arctic as soon as they enter the gallery through a unique ice installation developed in collaboration with the National Film Board. The engaging multimedia experience will depict Inuit visual art as well as a soundscape of natural Arctic sounds mixed with traditional and contemporary music and sounds from Arctic communities. In the second part of the gallery — the wing — visitors will immerse themselves in the Arctic’s natural history and human connections through four broad themes: climate, geography, sustainability and ecosystems. Each of the four zones will have “star objects” that represent the themes. There will be a projection of the Aurora Borealis and a 3-D circumpolar map in the geography zone. A bowhead whale skull covered by lichens will lead into the sustainability zone, which examines how Arctic peoples have used, and continue to use, natural resources — from interactions with animals and plants for food, clothing and tools, to the extraction of energy resources, to the continuing connections to the land. Other artefacts include a beautiful real specimen of a polar bear, a muskox and her calf, a colony of Thick-billed Murres and much more. The Northern Voices Gallery will be curated by Inuit or Northern-based organizations. Exhibits will reflect past and current responses of northern peoples to their environment and landscapes. The inaugural show, “Inuinnauyugut: We are Inuinnait” will be presented by the Kitikmeot Heritage Society, based in Cambridge Bay on Victoria Island. It examines the centennial anniversary of Inuinnait contact with the western world. Follow the museum on Twitter (@museum ofnature), Instagram (museumofnature) and on facebook.com/canadianmuseumofnature.

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LIVING ABOVE&BEYOND

The 2017 champions hoisted up, a tradition of Ivakkak. © Pierre Dunnigan

Inuit tradition alive and well at Ivakkak 2017

All 13 teams with 153 dogs began the 15th Annual Ivakkak 2017 race in Umiujaq, Nunavik, March 28. Community stops included Inukjuak, Puvirnituq, and Alulivik, with the finish line in Ivujivik. Winners this year were Team #10, Aisa Surusilak and his partner Aipilie Qumaluk from Puvirnituq, completing the race with a total time of 60:19:33 on April 15. "We are proud to continue to take the lead in the race as it is in line with one of our corporate objectives, which is to enhance the Inuit culture. We continue to see the youth and the elders active in this lifestyle and we believe we are reaching our goal to ensure the return of the qimmituinnaq, the Inuit sled dog, which was vital to Inuit survival across the North,” says Andy Moorhouse, Vice President of Makivik Corporation. For photos of the race, visit www.ivakkak.com.

AIP announces new prize categories Nominations are now open for the 2017 Arctic Inspiration Prize (AIP). In its sixth year, the total prize amount has been increased to up to $3 million and will be awarded through three categories: 1) $1 million awarded to one team; 2) up to $500,00 awarded to up to four teams; and 3) up to $100,000 for up to seven youth teams. Nominations will be accepted until October 23, 2017. “The growth of the AIP is a testament to the remarkable innovative thinking and ideas that remain across the Arctic, and this year’s changes and improvements will benefit more projects and regions,” says Kevin Kablutsiak, Executive Director of AIP. Potential AIP projects include those that address opportunities or challenges that are relevant and important to the people and communities in Canada’s Arctic. A project can have one or more focus areas including, but not limited to, education, training, health and wellness, environment and climate change, recreation, tourism, culture and economic development. AIP’s $1 million prize will be awarded to only one exceptional team, for a project that will lead to an immediate and long-term impact across a large geographical area or a profound

impact in a smaller Northern area. For the other two prize levels, smaller scale projects are encouraged as much as larger ones. The scale of a project will not influence selection as the AIP is awarded on merit and potential impact. Teams that are unsure about their team’s and/or project’s eligibility have the option of submitting a Letter of Intent. The submission deadline for the optional Letter of Intent is June 30, 2017. Teams need to be nominated by arms-length third parties and have to be diverse in nature. Teams are encouraged to choose an official AIP Ambassador as its Nominator; however, any-

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one may act as a Nominator for a team they see as worthy of the AIP. More information about the AIP, the Nomination process and the new prize categories are available on the AIP website at www.arcticinspirationprize.ca. The AIP was founded in 2012 by two immigrants, Arnold Witzig and Sima Sharifi. The Arctic Inspiration Prize Selection Committee is composed of distinguished individuals known for their commitment to Canada’s Arctic and its peoples. Committee members from North and South, represent aboriginal and non-aboriginal organizations, the private sector, media as well as the scientific community.

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RESOURCES

NWT

MacMillan Award presented at PDAC

The Gahcho Kué Mine received the Viola R.

MacMillan Award in March during the Prospec-

tors and Developers Association of Canada Awards Gala, held in conjunction with its annual international convention.

The award recognizes leadership in manage-

ment and financing for the exploration and

development of mineral resources. Gahcho Kué Mine General Manager Allan Rodel, on behalf of De Beers Canada, and Patrick Evans, CEO of

Mountain Province Diamonds, accepted the award.

an Integration Study including assessment

wind down. The company will, however,

ultimate objective of the project will be to

add to their resource estimates and extend the

of greenhouse gas emission reductions. The determine if the incorporation of wind power

into the baseload diesel power supply at the

Consultations to begin this spring

the support of the ÉcoPerformance grant

it has staked two highly prospective gold

The project will be partially funded through

provided by the Ministère de l’Énergie et des Ressources naturelles du Québec.

NUNAVUT

in the Northwest Territories. Comprising three

historical surface grab samples to 89 g/t Au.

at least 5.3 million ounces of gold. They’ll use phase, about 75 of whom will be Inuit. During

production.

tion at the Whale Tale pit area at Amaruq by

Energy Co. to complete a definitive assessment

on the use of wind energy to satisfy part of the

Silver Range intends to conduct community

programs at the properties thereafter.

workers, 350 of whom will be Inuit.

Memorandum of Understanding with TUGLIQ

of gold mineralization which has returned

years, during which time it expects to produce

mine will provide $5.3 billion to the NWT econ-

Commerce Resources Corp. has signed a

The Noomut Property is 15 km southwest

consultations in the Kivalliq region this spring

Agnico estimates Meliadine’s mine life at 14

the mine’s operation, they’ll use about 900

Can wind energy help the Ashram project?

up to 16 g/t Au were collected from a zone of

schedule.

in/two-week out rotation. The Gahcho Kué

NUNAVIK

Numerous historical grab samples grading

commercial production in the third quarter of

about 300 workers during the construction

omy now that it has reached commercial

host to Agnico Eagle’s Meliadine Deposit.

of Yandle and covers a 1.9-kilometre-long zone

open pits, the mine will employ 530 people full-

time, with the majority working a two-week

the emerging Ennadai-Rankin Greenstone Belt,

will invest $900 million US to construct a mine

In February, Agnico Eagle announced they

2019, one year ahead of their previous

approximately 280 km northeast of Yellowknife

targets — Yandle and Noomut — located in

arsenopyrite and pyrite at the Yandle property.

Mountain Province. The mine officially began

The fly-in/fly-out remote mine site is situated

Silver Range Resources Ltd. has announced that

Gold mines moving toward production

at Meliadine, near Rankin Inlet, and begin

commercial production on March 2, 2017.

mine life if possible.

mine-site is cost-effective.

Gahcho Kué Mine is a joint venture between

De Beers (51 per cent as the Operator) and

continue to explore around the Amaruq area to

Agnico also announced they'll start produc-

and apply for land use permits to conduct drill

YUKON

Mineral property changes hands

Benz Mining Corp. has offered to purchase

the Mel zinc-lead-barite property in the Yukon

Territory from Silver Range Resources Ltd.

The Mel property is located within a belt of

the third quarter of 2019, and use existing

sedimentary exhalative zinc-lead deposits,

mental impact statement with the NIRB is

Chihong Canada Mining., the Tom and Jason

infrastructure at Meadowbank. An environ-

presently working its way through the regulatory system, with a public hearing expected in the

which include the Howard’s Pass deposits of

deposits of HudBay Minerals, the Cirque deposit of Teck Resources/Korea Zinc, and

third quarter of 2017 and a project certificate

the Akie deposit of Canada Zinc Metals. It is

They’ll invest about $330 million US to develop

north of the Alaska Highway and consists of 538

production of about 1.98 million ounces of gold

Under the terms of the Agreement,

expected by the third quarter of 2018.

situated 80 km east of Watson Lake and 40 km

Ashram Rare Earth Project’s energy require-

the satellite mine at Amaruq and forecast the

Project”).

over a mine life of about six years.

Silver Range has agreed to sell a 100 per cent

site could start producing ore around the same

$2,700,000 in cash and shares, payable over a

ments at the mine-site (the “Wind Energy The Wind Energy Project will be comprised

of three main components: Wind Resource Assessment, Electrical System Engineering, and

If the Amaruq project stays on schedule, the

time the aging Meadowbank mine starts to

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

2017 | 03

mineral claims.

interest in the Mel Property to Benz Mining for

five-year period.

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Surviving and thriving in the Arctic with Traditional Practices By Tana Silverland

Parks heritage appreciation manager Leesee Papatsie explains how the shape and placement of an inuksuk can convey important information to Inuit out on the land. © Tana Silverland

Do you know how many different ways you can use a rock in the Arctic? This was one of many questions that the Government of Nunavut’s Department of Environment set out to answer during their “Learn to…” program, a weekly series of events held throughout the summer of 2016. The idea for the program originally came from an initiative created by Federal, Provincial and Territorial Parks Ministers. The Ministers were concerned that Canadians were becoming disconnected from the amazing nature that surrounds them, and wanted to encourage people — young and old — to get outdoors and enjoy Canada’s natural environment. And so the “Learn to Camp” program was born – a program that has been highly successful across many parts of Canada.

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Participants could clean their fish in the clear waters of the Sylvia Grinnell river as part of the “Learn to make pitsi (dried char)” workshop. © Tana Silverland

In Nunavut, however, the Department of Environment’s Parks and Special Places Division decided to go one step further. The “Learn to Camp” sessions were still there — learn to set up a tent, learn to cook out on the land — but some of the most popular sessions of the whole summer were those that introduced people to some of the traditional ways that Inuit have survived and thrived for so many centuries in the often-unforgiving Arctic environment. Having learned how to light a modern-day camp stove one week, the following week participants learned how to light and maintain a qulliq — the traditional stone lamp, fuelled by seal oil, that provided the only source of heat and light for many generations of Inuit out on the land. Another session brought together the traditional and the modern in a single day. Partnering with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans for a thoroughly fishy afternoon, two federal fisheries scientists first explained the techniques they use to sample Arctic char in order to assess the viability of potential commercial fisheries in the territory. Participants had the opportunity to not only weigh and measure the specimens specially provided for the activity, but also to try their hand at finding and extracting fish otoliths — the tiny bone inside a fish’s ear that can tell scientists the age of the fish in much the same way as tree rings record the age of a tree. Then, staff from the Parks and Special Places division took over to demonstrate the traditional way to make pitsi, or dried Arctic char. This was one of the best-attended sessions of the summer — maybe because of the gloriously sunny weather, and maybe because participants went home with their carefully prepared fish! Also extremely popular was the traditional plant walk. A local elder led an enthusiastic group of learners on a walk just outside of town, stopping to talk about the traditional uses of the plants that grew along the route. The Arctic tundra may not look particularly diverse at first glance, but there is a surprising wealth of plant life that takes advantage of the short snowfree season — and those plants have many uses. Most people on the walk knew about the abundance of wild blueberries that ripen each fall, but other edible plants were less familiar: the crunchy, nutty bistort roots, or the refreshing sweet-and-sour of mountain sorrel leaves. It wasn’t just food the plants provided. Participants learned about the important medical benefits of the local flora as well, such as moss for heartburn, or puffball mushrooms to stop bleeding. Even beauty treatments were covered, although participants were warned that the smell of the skin-softening mushroom treatment might not be so good for their noses! 24

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Parks summer student Jennifer Kilabuk helps participants build a small rock shelter. © Tana Silverland

The afternoon came to a very pleasant close with a cup of freshly brewed tea — prepared from local plants, of course. Partnerships with other people and organizations were a hallmark of the program, bringing together expertise from a variety of sources to cover a varied selection of topics. Nunavut Tourism ran a tasty session on cooking in the great outdoors, while the Inuit Heritage Trust led participants in a hands-on introduction to the traditional way of making an ulu (the half-moon-shaped knives that are used for many different purposes, such as fleshing sealskins). Before the advent of trade with the West, these iconic knives were made from stone, and although metal hand tools were provided for this workshop, those who attended also had the opportunity to experience first-hand the effort involved in drilling a hole through a piece of flint using only a sharpened piece of stone and a hand-powered bow drill. Once again, participants were able to take home the proud, and surprisingly sharp, fruits of their labours. Members of the public also got involved, volunteering their particular areas of knowledge and expertise to expand and deepen the learning for everyone who attended. Reaching out to the whole community was an important part of the program, and the success of this aim was evident in the wide range of people attending the sessions — young and old, local residents and visitors, all had the chance to learn something new. Local community member Mary Wilman shows an attentive participant in the “Learn to light a qulliq” workshop how to keep the flame burning bright. © Department of Environment

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Participants in the “Learn to make a traditional ulu” workshop try their hand at drilling through slate with a hand-powered bow drill. © Tana Silverland

Which brings us back to those rocks. What looked like nothing more than random piles of stones to the untrained eyes of those attending, turned out to be a wealth of different, quite deliberate, constructions. In this land, far above the treeline, rocks are the primary building resource and, over the years, Inuit have refined and developed the techniques for using them for everything from fox traps and kayak stands to graves and, of course, the world-famous inuksuit. Parks staff explained how the different shapes and forms of inuksuit provide important way-markers and navigational aids for people out on the land, the arms pointing to good hunting grounds, or perhaps a food cache (which would, naturally, also be built from stone). Participants then had the opportunity to try building a stone structure of their own, but in keeping with their new-found understanding that an inuksuk built without a purpose can do more harm than good. All the inuksuit were dismantled again at the end of the session… except for one, which proudly pointed to the excellent fishing spot by the falls in Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park, where most of the sessions were held. Although the program is still in its infancy, the Government of Nunavut has big plans for their “Learn to…” sessions. In light of the success of the Iqaluit pilot project, they hope to roll out similar activities to other territorial parks in the future, helping yet more Nunavummiut and visitors to connect with the great northern outdoors. Two strong helpers carry a tub full of char to the banks of the Sylvia Grinnell river for the “Learn to sample fish and make pitsi” workshop. © Tana Silverland

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Schedules and details of the program can be found on the Department of Environment’s website at www.gov.nu.ca/environment or http://nunavutparks.com/ A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Enroute to the Arctic Circle NWT themed highway routes By Tara Tompkins

Some of the best memories are made while sitting around the campfire, exploring new trails, catching a fish or dipping your toe in water. In the Northwest Territories (NWT), where open spaces are plentiful and wanderlust rules, your next great camping experience is just around the corner.

Stunning waterfalls are easily accessible along the Waterfall driving route, such as Louise Falls at Twin Falls Gorge Territorial Park.© J.F. Bergeron/NWT Tourism

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The fall colours on the Dempster Highway continuously wow you with every turn. © Terry Parker/NWT Tourism

ack up your camping gear or RV and come and explore one (or more!) of NWT’s eight themed highway routes. A total of 32 territorial parks, including a mix of campgrounds and day-use areas, are speckled along the route to provide you with a place to rest and experience nature. By road, there are three ways to enter the NWT — via Alberta, British Columbia and the Yukon. Alberta’s Highway 35 becomes NWT Highway 1 and the beginning of the majestic Waterfalls Route. As you enter the North, make sure you commemorate your journey with a “selfie” at the iconic 60th Parallel sign. Here you will also find a welcoming visitor centre and an opportunity to look at Aboriginal arts and crafts displays and visual presentations of the North. Most of the waterfalls along this route are located in the territorial parks (except Wallace Creek). The waterfalls are easy to access and most of them are a short walk from the park’s parking lot or campground area. The awe and the sounds of these waterfalls will not disappoint you. Pack a picnic and enjoy lunch with a front-row seat to the waterfalls — even five-star restaurants can’t compete with these impressive views.

Waterfall Checklist • Alexandra Falls • Lady Evelyn Falls • Coral Falls • Wallace Creek Falls

• Louise Falls • Sambaa Deh Falls • McNallie Creek Falls

Continue along Highway 1 to experience the Heritage Trail Route. Free vehicle ferries will take you across the scenic Liard River to Fort Simpson and across the Mackenzie River to Wrigley, the most northern part of Highway 1’s all-weather road. Once you set up your RV or tent in the Fort Simpson Territorial Park campground, take your camera and go for a stroll through the community and enjoy views of the A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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A colourful display of beaded moccasins show the skills of local artisans. © George Fischer/NWT Tourism

confluence of the Liard and Mackenzie Rivers. The 55-foothigh teepee in the historic Papal Site was built by the stars of the hit reality-TV show Timber Kings in 2016 and makes a great photography subject. During the fur trading years, Fort Simpson was an important location for the Northwest Trading Company (subsequently, Hudson’s Bay Company). Today, it is a destination to start a fly-in trip to experience the stunning Nahanni National Park Reserve. Entering the NWT from British Columbia, your journey begins on the Liard Trail Route (Highway 7) you will be travelling northeast from Fort Liard to Checkpoint. Blackstone Territorial Park provides great scenic views of the Liard River and Nahanni mountains. Its proximity to the South Nahanni 29


The Slave River in Fort Smith is a whitewater paddler’s paradise. © Darren Roberts/NWT Tourism

Wood Buffalo Route travels through Wood Buffalo National Park, the largest National Park in North America, to the Town of Fort Smith. Some unique must-sees along this route include: • Bison (drive with caution, as they can be on the road) • Salt Plains • Pelicans at the Slave River rapids in Fort Smith • Whooping Cranes • Fort Smith Mission Heritage Park

On Saturdays throughout the summer enjoy local fish, produce, and yummy treats at the Fisherman’s Wharf in Hay River. © Tara Tompkins/NWT Tourism

and Blackstone Rivers makes it a great location for the start or the end point for canoeists, boaters, or anglers. The Great Slave Route begins on Highway 2 and travels along Highways 5 and 6. It takes you to the communities of Hay River and Fort Resolution. Make sure you visit the Great Slave Lake beaches in Hay River. The sandy shores are dotted with drift wood and are a great spot to spend the day swimming, reading a booking and watching barges and fishing vessels go by. The Hay River Territorial Park is located on one of these beaches and is a perfect spot to relax on your journey. Try to schedule your summer trip to this area around a Saturday to make sure you can visit the Hay River’s Fisherman’s Wharf for fresh filets from Great Slave Lake, local produce and crafts. 30

Queen Elizabeth Territorial Park is located just outside of Fort Smith. The park connects with trails to views of the Slave River, whose rapids provide a world class venue for white water kayaking and rafting. If you are a whitewater enthusiast, coordinate your trip with Paddlefest, a thrilling summer paddling event that takes place in Fort Smith. The Frontier Trail Route spans the north side of Great Slave Lake as you travel on Highway 3. Interesting communities along this route are Fort Providence, Rae, Edzo, N’Dilo, and Yellowknife. Your trip will take you across the Mackenzie River via the Deh Cho Bridge. Built in 2012, the bridge provides all-season road travel to a route that was previously serviced only by ferry and ice road. For about 80 km from the bridge is an area set aside for free roaming wood bison. Be on the lookout and use caution as bison will often be on the highway. Several parks on this route allow you to connect with nature. The Fort Providence Territorial Park provides an opportunity to camp and fish to further experience the Mackenzie River. Nature’s wonders continue with a stop at Chan Lake Territorial Park Day Use Area where you can pull out your binoculars to look for Sandhill cranes and waterfowl. North Arm Territorial Park provides a great stopping point and viewpoint of Great Slave Lake. Fred Henne Territorial Park, located in Yellowknife, is the busiest of all the parks. Here you can enjoy a swim in Long Lake or a hike on Prospector’s Trail. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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Keep your eyes out for Sandhill Cranes as you travel along Highway 1. © Terry Parker/NWT Tourism

Yellowknife is the capital of the NWT and contains approximately half (20,000) of the territory’s population.Here you will again have access to Great Slave Lake. Great views of the city and the houseboats that dot Great Slave Lake can be found from Pilot’s Monument. Some key sites to visit include the Prince of Wales Northern Heritage Centre to view cultural and historical displays and the Legislative Assembly building that has tours explaining one of the most unique legislatures in Canada.Informative tours highlight NWT's consensus style government and the traditional values of the people of NWT, which is also explained in the design of the building. As you travel east from Yellowknife you will head down the Ingraham Trail Route — a location that is a very popular recreation area for locals. Approximately 10 km down this route, you will find the access road to the Dene community of Dettah, which, during the winter time, is also serviced by an ice road across Great Slave Lake. The Ingraham Trail Route contains campgrounds and many day use parks that provide waterfront settings and easy access to water for swimming, boating and canoeing. Hiking on the Cameron River Falls Trail in Hidden Lake Territorial Park is a popular hike with locals and visitors. You can enter NWT through the Yukon by travelling along the epic Dempster Highway Route. The “Dempster” encompasses a 740-km adventure that begins 40 km east of Dawson City, Yukon, and ends in Inuvik, NWT.This route takes you on the only public highway in Canada that crosses the Arctic Circle! It is a bucket list trip for sure and people come from all over the world to complete the journey. If visiting from mid-June through early August, you will enjoy 24 hours of daylight which further adds to the memories of this trip.

Park campground and other tourist accommodations and services are located along the Dempster Highway (in both the Yukon and NWT sections). Before you begin your journey, it is recommended that you stop in at one of the NWT visitor centres located in Dawson City or the Town of Inuvik to find out more about current road conditions. Both visitor centres have amazing displays to help introduce you to the region. Also worth a visit is a stop at the Nitainlaii Territorial Park interpretive centre, approximately 75 km past the NWT/Yukon border, to learn more about the Gwich’in people.

Did you know you can see Aurora during mid-August? The teepee in Fort Simpson makes a great photography subject beneath the Aurora! © Todd Noseworthy/NWT Tourism

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Lots of water and fish combined with long daylight hours equals ample opportunities for great fishing memories! © Terry Parker/NMC

Stunning mountain ranges will awe you, as will the changes in the landscape and opportunities to see wildlife. Free vehicle ferries will take you across the Peel River to Fort McPherson, and the Mackenzie River and Arctic Red River to the Community of Tsiigehtchic and onward to Inuvik. Make sure you let ferry personnel know you want to go to Tsiigehtchic, so they make that stop! Gwich’in Territorial Park (approximately 277 km past the NWT/Yukon border) connects visitors to two campgrounds, two day-use areas and a scenic lookout. Natural wonders make up and surround this park: limestone cliffs, rare Arctic plant communities, migratory bird staging areas, and Campbell Lake, an example of a reversing delta. Reaching Inuvik, you will have driven the iconic Dempster! Check out the Igloo Church — Inuvik’s best known landmark and the Community Greenhouse, a former arena and now a gardener’s paradise. Your adventure doesn’t stop at Inuvik, as there are opportunities to explore other Western Arctic communities through various tour operators. And, of course, your trip back down the Dempster will provide you with a whole new perspective of the route. Shortly visitors will be able to explore the Western Arctic further with the new all-weather highway from Inuvik to Tuktoyaktuk scheduled to open in the fall of 2017. This road will connect road travellers to the Arctic Ocean year-round! The Northwest Territories provides an opportunity to explore and build new camping memories. What are you waiting for? Pack the marshmallows, grab your camera and get ready to be inspired. One of the most popular tourist attractions in Inuvik is Our Lady of Victory Church, often called the Igloo Church. © Colin Field/NWT Tourism

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Visit nwtparks.ca and download or request a copy of the Northwest Territories Road and Campground Guide for more information about themed routes, parks, communities and other attractions and services. Tara Tompkins is the Manager, Park Operations, Government of Northwest Territories. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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On the way to Nastapoka Falls in parc national Tursujuq and its beluga sanctuary. © Steve Deschenes

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Nunavik Parks A sustainable tourism network Since the early 1990s, large areas of unspoiled landscapes in northern Québec have been protected to

acknowledge the importance of nature and wildlife. Following the inauguration of the new Ulittaniujalik Park

in 2016, it now comprises four National Parks covering a total of 37,000 km2 (25 per cent more than the size of Belgium). Inuit are acting as protectors and ambassadors of those representative wilderness regions, allowing them to thrive and evolve in the most ideal way as in the past. These natural areas are regarded as an expression

of the Inuit’s rich natural and cultural heritage. By offering services and initiatives, Nunavik Parks makes such natural treasures an opportunity to discover and to preserve for future generations.

Camping on the George River Plateau in parc national Ulittaniujalik. © François Léger-Savard

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D'Iberville base camp, parc national Kuururjuaq. © Marie-Andrée Fortin

A Unique and Tailored Experience

Ulittaniujalik, a New Park Joins the Family

People come from everywhere to visit the Parks in Nunavik. The National Parks Pingualuit, Kuururjuaq and Tursujuq offer all visitors exceptional outdoor adventures. Activities include: kayaking, canoeing, river descent, hiking, trekking, rock climbing, Nordic cross-country skiing, alpine snowshoeing, camping, paraskiing, landscape and wildlife observation, fishing, cultural activities and more. With adapted stays (long, short or weekend) Nunavik Parks strives to offer the best for everyone who wants to learn the Inuit culture, practice their favourite activities, or to experience the quiet vastness of the northern world. One of the key aspects of Nunavik Parks organization lies in the active participation of the nearby community’s members as guides but also during cultural activities like throat singing, stone carving, berry picking, visits to archeological sites, construction of igloos, tales and legends telling, etc. Furthermore, this kind of engaging initiative allows the younger generations to take back traditional methods and knowledge from elders who share their knowledge. Over the past years, wide efforts have been made to encourage inhabitants of Nunavik (Inuit and non-Inuit) to enjoy more of the Parks’ territory and its infrastructures. Weekends in the Parks answer the call of family and friends seeking a comfortable cabin from which to go snowshoeing, Nordic skiing, fishing, hiking and enjoying the expansive and breathtaking landscapes. The number of visitors to Nunavik Parks has doubled since 2015, reaching 500. This is a testament to the implementation of appropriate Parks programming. Parks staff hopes this success will translate into even more visitors coming to share the beauty of the landscapes in future years. “Preserving our living environment in a responsible manner is essential. It harbours a great part of our culture and history, a place we live in and belong to, for generations to come,” says Markusi Qisiiq, director of Renewable Resources department at the Kativik Regional Government (KRG).

Now the second-largest National Park in Québec, covering a surface of 5,293 km2, Ulittaniujalik encompasses all the wealth of the George River Plateau. Following the creation of the parks Pingualuit (2004), Kuururjuaq (2009) and Tursujuq (2013), the region's attention is now focused on Ulittaniujalik. Set in a unique environment, this protected territory and its mountains were created by the gradual retreat of an ancient glacial lake: the positions of former shorelines are still visibly etched across the landscape. It is these rock streaks that have lent the park its name, known by Inuit and Naskapi as ‘the place where there are shorelines’. First Nations and Inuit have shaped the identity and history of Northern Québec, as witnessed by the many archeological sites catalogued in the north and south of the region. In Nunavik, Inuit are largely present. The Mount Pyramid area also shows traces of more than 3,000 years of Amerindian occupation by Cree, Innu and Naskapi. The occupation of the territory by local populations continues today. The creation of Parc national Ulittaniujalik opens a new chapter for nature, historical, outdoor and genuine-experience enthusiasts.

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Sustainability and Accessibility to the Territory The concept of sustainable tourism is at the heart of the concerns raised by Nunavik Parks. It is the only network of national parks in Canada to be managed and developed by Inuit. “In terms of representation within the parks’ team,

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Snowmobiles on their way to Tasiujaq Lake in parc national Tursujuq. © Michel Harcc Morissette

Trekking to the parc national des Pingualuit crater. © Heiko Wittenborn

85 per cent of staff and 100 per cent of guides-Park wardens are from Inuit roots,” explains Qisiiq. By involving local people and organizations for their knowledge, it increases support to Park activities and has direct and positive social, economic and cultural benefits on a local and regional scale, as well as fostering the sustainability of the network. Moreover, activities take place in respect and with the will of neighbouring communities. Therefore, visitors are assured to have an authentic experience and participate in sustainable touristic activities while contributing to increase the accessibility to the territory. By taking a plane from an Inuit company, staying at the CO-OP Hotels, buying local crafts and using Nunavik Parks services, visitors contribute to the economic development of the region.

An Initiative for Beneficiaries A new initiative, the Nunavik Park Beneficiary Access Initiative (NPBAI), was launched in March 2017. Beside the economic benefits for the communities (CO-OP, jobs, handicraft, services), the initiative hopes to bring more Beneficiaries of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) to the parks annually. NPBAI helps those who are eligible with airfare and offers 50 per cent off the costs of packages. The A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

program is designed to encourage groups as well as individuals to stay and participate in one of the numerous activities offered by the network. The word “park” is known to Inuit as a “resting or relaxing place”. With this new financial support and the great offer of activities and packages, the network expects more Nunavimmiut beneficiaries to visit the Parks for the “relaxing” experience.

Submitted by the Kativik Regional Government For more information, please visit www.nunavikparks.ca 2017 | 03

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SCIENCE

Can Arctic Char adapt to a changing North?

Arctic Char (Salvelinus alpinus), one of the most interesting freshwater fish species in Canada, is an important

cultural, subsistence, and economic resource for inhabitants of Canada’s Arctic. Arctic Char are prized for their

tasty flesh and have provided an important food resource for Inuit communities for centuries. Historically, harvesting occurred at stream mouths, in shallow streams, or below small waterfalls during char migrations from

sea to freshwater. The Canadian Arctic Expedition (1913 to 1916) observed large harvests of char by the Copper Inuit

at Bernard Harbour (Nulahugyuk) in the Coronation Gulf. Inuit-constructed rock weirs were observed near the mouth of Nulahugyuk Creek to direct char into rock traps where they could be easily speared using a ‘kakivak’. The extent to which small Arctic streams, such as Nulahugyuk Creek, are important for present day char populations is poorly understood. It is known that char are limited to specific freshwater habitats and the successful journey to and through the freshwater habitat

is vulnerable to changes in water levels. The timing of migrations would be expected to be specific to, and synced with, local climates and flow regimes. The char population at Bernard Harbour is particularly unique in that the population relies

on a small watercourse to connect the foodrich marine environment to the freshwater spawning and wintering lake (Hingittok Lake). The spawning population migrates from the ocean to the lake in early summer rather than continuing to forage in the ocean until late

An Arctic Char navigates the shallow water of Nulahugyuk Creek. © P. Vecsei, Golder Associates Ltd, for Sabina Gold & Silver Corp.

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SCIENCE

Traditional Knowledge and science describe char as a remarkably adaptable species, inhabiting waters farther north than any other freshwater fish, and displaying diverse behaviours, body forms, and habitat selection across their range.

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summer like other populations in the region. Adults then spawn later that fall, overwinter in the lake, and return to the ocean in spring when the creek is ice-free and flows are highest. They do not spawn every year, and during a non-spawning year, the Nulahugyuk Creek char overwinter in the Coppermine River, as discovered using information collected during a tagging study by the Kugluktuk Hunters and Trappers Organization. Why would spawning adults not use the predictable conditions in the nearby Coppermine River to access spawning lakes instead of Nulahugyuk Creek? The simple answer could be that the reproductive benefits of Hingittok Lake outweigh the potential risks of failing to reach the lake or dying on their journey. However, the char run at Bernard Harbour has declined markedly since the 1980s, according to residents of the nearby Hamlet of Kugluktuk. Low returns have been particularly evident in

recent years and are thought to be the result of several related factors, including climate change and resulting low water in the creek. A reduction in flow, for example, exposes barriers, increases the likelihood of mortality by stranding, increases exposure to the elements and predators such as gulls and bears, and causes various physiological stresses. This is the reality for char struggling to navigate Nulahugyuk Creek, and has been the subject of recent investigations by a unique partnership led by the local community (Kugluktuk Hunters and Trappers Organization), private sector, and industry in an effort to provide a ‘made in the North’ solution to conserve this historically significant fishery. The close proximity of historical Inuit settlements to char waters in the North highlights an important connection to the land that remains strong today. Indeed, both Traditional Knowledge and science describe char as a remarkably adaptable species, inhabiting waters farther

Arrival at Bernard Harbour with first load of gear for research program. © P. Vecsei, Golder Associates Ltd, for Sabina Gold & Silver Corp.

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SCIENCE Inuit running to fish for salmon at Nulahugyuk Creek, Northwest Territories (Nunavut). © Diamond Jenness, Canadian Museum of History, 37078.

north than any other freshwater fish, and displaying diverse behaviours, body forms, and habitat selection across their range. As for other species in the North, climate change means new challenges for migrating char, and although some local populations may adapt to such change, others may not. The North is one of the final frontiers in biology in Canada where new expeditions will certainly yield new discoveries. Research in remote locations in the Arctic brings with it logistical and financial challenges; with perseverance, as the Bernard Harbour char are demonstrating, inhospitable conditions and long distances can be overcome. Efforts are underway to combine current data with historical records and Traditional Knowledge, which will hopefully lead to successful management and conservation of this remarkable species.

Cam Stevens

The North is one of the final frontiers in biology in Canada where new expeditions will certainly yield new discoveries.

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E D U C AT I O N

Spring Camp

Learning Inuit Traditions How amazing would it be to participate in an Arctic adventure for a week, to live off the land? What about learning Inuit traditions such as hunting, fishing and sewing? This is the reality for children in Pangnirtung, Nunavut – not only is this a school trip but it’s an experience that will be remembered for a lifetime. The annual Spring Camp in Pangnirtung, Nunavut, takes place in April, running for about a month. The camp was started 15 to 20 years ago, and its mission is to educate children about Inuit traditions. Children from Kindergarten to Grade 12 participate in the camp. Younger children attend a day-trip while senior students stay for five days and four nights. The younger children attend their trip during the earlier days of the month while the older kids travel later in the month. Conditions tend to be worse later in the month. Throughout the month guides have to chisel paths in order to get in and out, as the

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Driving in through the tidal ice trail. © Michael H Davies

Michael Davies scratching for seal at the floe edge. © Michael H Davies

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E D U C AT I O N The whole group as we arrive at the fishing lake. © Michael H Davies

On the shore of Pangnirtung loading up early in the morning and heading out on the sea Ice out to Camp. © Michael H Davies

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tide comes and creates impassible mounds of ice. Travel to the camp location is 45 minutes out of town by snowmobile. Qamutiit, wooden sleds, are attached onto the back of snowmobiles. There is no electricity at the camp; everything is cooked on Coleman stoves and water is gathered from a frozen river. Activities include seal hunting, ice fishing, traditional sewing and in the past caribou hunting. Whatever is hunted is eaten and Elders who attend the camp show students how to prepare the seal. Every day the Guides announce which location they are going to and the kids jump in the Qamutiit and are taken to a daily activity. The students sleep in tents and cabins, Government funding aided in building cabins for the younger children. Guides sleep with rifles to protect camp as the threat of polar bears is very real this far North. Guides also bring dogs, as they are sensitive to sound and the smell of bears. Elders from the village join in to share traditional Inuit stories about the Northern A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

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E D U C AT I O N The camp as seen from the sea ice. © Michael H Davies

Lights and the Qalupalik. The Qalupalik is an ancient Inuit legend about a creature that is human-like and lives in the sea. If children disobey their elders, the Qalupalik may take them away. The legend behind the Northern Lights is as follows: If you whistle, they will come closer and if you clap, you will scare them away. When shimmering in the night sky you might hear the airy sounds of people in the town whistling to get them to come closer. Some students can receive credits toward their schooling by attending this camp, but, more importantly, the whole experience tends to inspire and educate the children who attend.

Julie Alivaktuk preps a seal skin as was shown to her moments before by an Elder. © Michael H Davies

Lots of graduates from high school go on to become guides for the camp. The students then become the teachers and get to be involved in something so important and critical to the preservation and appreciation of Inuit culture. Inuit tradition is very important and having younger people involved will only help to keep the tradition going from generation to generation. Children are very receptive to the whole experience and get to learn valuable traditions that will continue with the younger generations. Kids often don’t want to go home and ask if they can stay for a few more days. They also ask if they can partake in classes out on the land.

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The Spring camp has been a great event for everyone involved and is a spectacular hands-on learning experience for the children. The value of this camp goes beyond school credits; the immaterial value of the Inuit tradition is important to keep alive and thriving. The children will become teachers of these old ways and go on to show their own families the way of life in Nunavut.

Kate Kemp

www.michaelhdavies.com

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SCIENCE

Pole to pole

Positive steps towards a Canadian Antarctic research program Canada is the second largest polar nation, and among the wealthiest, giving it a responsibility to lead in scientific research and knowledge dissemination of the circumpolar regions. In keeping with this, Canada has invested a significant amount of resources in Arctic science, culminating with the establishment of a worldclass Canadian High Arctic Research Station (CHARS) in Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. In contrast, Canada’s activities in the Antarctic up to now have been sporadic and lacking in government support, oversight, and organization. Polar Knowledge Canada (POLAR), the federal government organization that oversees Canada’s involvement in the polar regions, convened a

workshop in October in Ottawa, Ontario, which brought together prominent Canadians working in the Antarctic. The aim of this workshop was to garner ideas from the scientific community on the formation of a Canadian Antarctic Research Program. The Canadian Antarctic Research Workshop was the first time scientific researchers, educators, investors, and policy makers, had come together to discuss the future of Canadian science in the southern polar regions. More than 80 participants from academia, government, and industry sat down in the beautiful Rotunda Room at the Canadian Museum of Nature and shared their visions of how Canada could

establish itself as a leader in all things polar. Canadians are strong players in the field of international Antarctic research, having published hundreds of peer-reviewed papers on the topic in leading scientific journals, but further advancements in this field need to be backed by a government-supported Antarctic Research Program.

Challenges and opportunities: two sides of the same coin

Biologists studying unusual organisms thriving in frozen environments, geophysicists working on Antarctic ice sheets, and astrophysicists interested in the South Magnetic Pole all agreed

Lake Bonney is a permanently ice-covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. It is home to a diversity of cold-adapted microbes, including several species of green algae. It is one of many sites that Canadian researchers are using to carry out Antarctic research. © Kat Cuthriell

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SCIENCE

that Canadian polar scientists need more funding to advance their research. While the Arctic is in Canada’s backyard, significant logistical support and money is required to get Canadians to the opposite end of the globe. Once there, researchers need access to sophisticated equipment for immediate and remote data collection, state-of-the-art research stations, well-equipped laboratories for scientific work, and polarworthy ships and aircraft for field work and surveying. The costs associated with such ventures can be staggering: at the lowercost end of the spectrum (in the hundreds of thousands of dollars) is data collection and analysis, and at the higher end (tens of millions of dollars) is the establishment of permanent infrastructure, such as ships and stations. Despite the massive price tags and major challenges that accompany Antarctic research, the outlook for Canadian Antarctic science remains positive. Technological advancements can come from the pooling of resources, establishing partnerships, and sharing facilities and technologies. Canadians working in the Antarctic have had to be clever and resourceful when searching for ways to support their work, and many team up with researchers from other countries or organizations with longstanding traditions of Antarctic Research, including the U.S. Antarctic Research Program and the British Antarctic Survey. There are at least 30 countries that maintain seasonal or year-round research stations on the Antarctic continent, many of

which welcome collaboration with Canadian scientists. So, what does Canada have to offer in such partnerships? Quite a lot, in fact. For one, Canadians have extensive expertise and experience working in the extremely cold climates of the Far North — skills that can be easily translated and harnessed to the southern polar regions. One of Canada’s strongest suits is its ability to build and maintain equipment that can withstand harsh winter conditions. For example, the Calgary-based airline Kenn Borek Air boasts the largest fleet of ski-equipped Twin Otter airplanes routinely commissioned for scientific, exploratory, and rescue missions in the Antarctic. Canadians know how to keep warm too. Canada Goose apparel is not only popular on city streets, it is also the official clothing of the U.S. Antarctic Research Program.

What to do with the money?

One of the key questions posed to the participants of the Canadian Antarctic Research Workshop was: What can Canadians accomplish if provided with government funds for Antarctic studies? Well, when it comes to research, a little can go a long way. Even with small grants, Canadian researchers can train students and technical staff, and get them into the field to collect and analyze data. The next crucial step is to use the money for constructing and maintaining valuable equipment for cold-weather environments. Finally, funds can be employed to obtain

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biological or geological samples from the Antarctic, and invested in Canada-based facilities for further experimentation, such as the Biotron Experimental Climate Change Research Centre at the University of Western Ontario. Larger grants will ultimately lead towards the establishment of major research groups and centres of excellence, the construction of remotely operated survey systems, and the formulation of strategic questions and goals for Canadian polar scientists. “Cautiously optimistic” was the term David J. Scott, the President of POLAR, used to describe the atmosphere at the meeting during his closing remarks. The number of Canadian researchers interested in the Antarctic has reached a critical mass that can support the establishment of a Canadian Antarctic Research Program; however, a big challenge will be to ensure that this program is independent, both financially and conceptually, of Canada’s efforts in the Arctic. The better we understand the Antarctic, the better we will understand all polar environments.

Marina Cvetkovska and David Smith

Dr. Marina Cvetkovska is a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Western Ontario, where she studies the evolution of Antarctic algae in Lake Bonney (see photo). David Smith is an assistant professor at Western; he can be found online at arrogantgenome.com.

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C U LT U R E

Polar Bear Sleep Over Choosing a Camp Site A polar bear decided to have a sleep over while I was a 15-year-old boy on a summer outing in a canvas tent with my parents. My parents were elders at the time and my dad was working the last several years as a janitor at our school (Victor Sammurtok Iliniarvik) before he retired. As long as I can remember, Pops would take the summer off and we’d load up the boat with everything we’d need for several weeks and off we went. We’d bring enough bug spray for several families. Often, we would fish for char or catch a couple of caribou. Every time we went, nets were put out first and things laid out and the tent put up. Mom would start making bannock. I’d get the rod out and start casting. It wouldn’t be long before I had a nice little pile of fish. When Arctic Char go down to the sea water, they are as skinny as a twisler and as hungry as a sumo wrestler. I remember one time when I

cast my rod and a black blurb followed my lure. I was in the ocean with tall hip waders and at first, I didn’t know what it was so I backed up to the land. On second look, I saw thousands of Arctic Char following my lure. I still back up to the land it; it just doesn’t feel right otherwise. As my parents got older, we started camping closer to our hometown of Chesterfield Inlet (Igluligarjuk). We still caught char, just not as much caribou. When my parents were younger, we’d go further up the inlet where there was less chance of spotting polar bears. This time we were close to Chesterfield Inlet and we weren’t going to do a long stint like we did years ago. We were only 25 km from home. There was another family close by the tent who my parents hung out with, playing cards all evening after all the chores were done. The kids made sure the scopes on the guns were set to kill a game animal at 350 yards and we’d

sharpen the knives to make them ready for the next use. Inuit have this saying: Never wish to see a Polar Bear as it can hear you! Growing up from very early on we respected the white beast and, to some degree, feared it. My dad always told me that when coming into a new area, look around and view the surroundings. Sometimes you may not see him sleeping slumped down in a couple of rocks and he won’t wake up from his dream world of sun tanning ring seals right away. So never wish to see a Polar Bear as he may come say hello when you are defenceless! Most of the time polar bears have very little interest in humans. Then again, they are unpredictable, or, like us, sometimes they may have had a bad day, so they will attack. I’ve had a polar bear walk by me 20 metres away barely even look at me and he didn’t look too well fed. I was lucky.

© David Reid

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C U LT U R E The author in Resolute Bay in 2009. © Peter Autut

I had my Bro’s pup with me for the weekend one time and was on the way back home. It was late spring and my adopted puppy for the weekend had a 20-foot rope on it. I wasn’t sure if I would be able to catch him so I had purposely done this. We were doing about 10 km an hour as there were many cracks and holes near Chesterfield Inlet. The rope got tangled in a piece of ice. I got off the snowmobile and walked about a hundred yards behind me to untangled the rope. As I was walking back, I saw the white beast no more than 20 metres in front of my snowmobile and my sled was still at least 30 metres away with my rifle. It looked at me and kept walking like it was on a mission to get somewhere. The further it got from my sled, the faster I walked to mine. I’ve never been so happy to grab hold of my rifle. After that, it was slung on my back and almost all the time I do this now. That day could have easily turned out different. The polar bear just walked by and was gone, going towards the ocean. When we camp, Pops always made sure the tent was set up in an area with gravel, not moss or sand. One, it’s cleaner and there are less little critters, but, more importantly, when you walk on gravel, you make noise, so if unwanted company approaches, then we are sure to hear it coming. This one time our neighbours shot a seal and they decided they were going to dry the seal skin within the camping area. Guess whose favourite food is seal? Yes, the Polar Bear. My mom cautions us that a visit is highly probable now. We had a bigger tent and my dad always slept near the edge with his rifle always loaded and easy to get to. I was at the opposite end of the tent. It was a long tent. I snore. That night I was snoring away to the point my mother threw a boot at me to wake me up. I was like, “what!” She smiled and said come over and have some breakfast. I grumpily put on my shoes and sat on a plastic grub box yawning and drinking tea and eating hot bannock. A minute into our moment of happiness, my mom starts looking at me weird and looking to where I was sleeping. I was still trying to wake up and was confused when she looked at me again and then back at the corner where I had been sleeping. The third time she looks at me, I was annoyed and said, “WHAT!” She shushes me. Dad was right beside her and he looks at mom

and she points to the corner where I was sleeping minutes ago. We all went quiet. Outside the tent, we could hear someone or something snoring. Dad sprung up like a jack in the box but very quietly. I was wondering, “who’s the idiot sleeping outside the tent?” Growing up, I was taught not to sleep exposed to the wilderness and I was wondering why dad wanted to take his rifle to see whoever was out there. My dad was in his birthday suit, rifle in his hand, looking out the flap of the tent. Bang! Bang! That’s about the time I realize it was the unwanted visitor who we were advised of the day before! It turns out, it was a mother and two cubs but these cubs were as big as momma and I guess coming into camp the one pup and mom decided to pick away at the drying skin seal and the other cub thought it was nice and warm here and my snoring sounded like his brother or mom and he decided to sleep with me. The only thing separating us was the canvas tent! After a couple of shots in the air, the bears jump into the ocean and swim to the next

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island. That was the end of the trip. The gravel tent site didn’t help that time!

Peter Autut

Peter Autut grew up in the community of Chesterfield Inlet, located on the western shore of Hudson Bay in the Kivalliq Region, in Nunavut. Population 405.

867-873-4444 P.O. Box 686 483 Range Lake Road Yellowknife, NT X1A 2N5

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BOOKSHELF

Indigenous Writes A Guide to First Nations, Métis & Inuit Issues in Canada Chelsea Vowel High Water Press August 2016

The Arctic Guide: Wildlife of the Far North Sharon Chester Princeton University Press October 2016

The Arctic Guide is an authoritative guide to the flora and fauna of the most northern regions of the world. Featuring superb colour illustrations, this book covers the complete spectrum of wildlife — more than 800 species of plants, fish, butterflies, birds, and mammals — that inhabit the Arctic polar deserts, tundra, taiga, sea ice, and oceans of Norway’s Svalbard archipelago, Siberia, the Russian Far East, islands of the Bering Sea, Alaska, Canada’s Arctic, and Greenland. Detailed species accounts describe key identification features, size, habitat, range, and scientific name. A colour distribution map accompanies each account, as well as alternative names in German, French, Norwegian, Russian, Inuit, and Inupiaq.

In Indigenous Writes, Chelsea Vowel, legal scholar, teacher, and intellectual, opens an important dialogue about many concepts and social beliefs associated with the relationship between Indigenous peoples and Canada. In 31 essays, Chelsea explores the Indigenous experience from the time of contact to the present, through five categories: Terminology of Relationships; Culture and Identity; Myth-Busting; State Violence; and Land, Learning, Law, and Treaties.

Care, Cooperation and Activism in Canada’s Northern Social Economy

Frances Abele and Chris Southcott, Editors University of Alberta Press September 2016

People across Canada’s North have created vibrant community institutions to serve a wide range of social and economic needs. Neither state-driven nor profit-oriented, these organizations form a relatively under-studied third sector of the economy. Researchers from the Social Economy Research Network of Northern Canada explore this sector through case studies, encompassing artistic, recreational, cultural, political, business, and economic development organizations that are crucial to the health and vitality of their communities. Care, Cooperation and Activism in Canada’s Northern Social Economy shows the innovative diversity and necessity of homegrown institutions in communities across Labrador, Nunatsiavut, Nunavik, Nunavut, Northwest Territories, and Yukon.

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ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᐃᒎᓯᓕᐅᖅᑏᑦ Inuit Uqausinginnik Taiguusiliuqtiit Inuit Language Authority Office de la langue inuite ᐃᓕᓴᕆᔭᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓰᑦ ᐱᖁᔭᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᑦᑎᐊᖅᖢᓂ ᐃᒫᒃ ᑕᒪᓐᓇ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᓇᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐃᓄᖏᑦ ᓄᓇᕗᑦ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐊᑐᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖓᓂᒃ • ᑲᑎᖅᓱᐃᔩᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓴᖅᑭᑎᑦᑎᓲᑦ ᑐᑭᓯᐅᒪᖃᑎᒌᒍᑕᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᓂᒃ, ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ; • ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᓲᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕐᒥᒃ ᐊᑐᕈᓐᓇᑦᑎᐊᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕈᑎᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ; • ᐃᑲᔪᓲᑦ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂᓪᓗ ᑕᒻᒪᖅᓯᒪᙱᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔭᕆᐊᓕᖕᓂᒃ; • ᑲᒪᒋᔭᖃᓲᑦ ᐊᒻᒪ ᑐᑭᒧᐊᒃᑎᑦᑎᔨᐅᓲᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ; • ᑎᑎᖅᑲᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᓯᐅᔾᔭᐃᖅᓯᓲᑦ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᑐᖃᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪ ᓄᓇᓖᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᓐᓂᒃ; • ᑐᒃᓯᕋᕐᕕᐅᓲᑦ/ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᖃᓲᑦ ᑎᒥᖁᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᓄᓇᕗᒻᒥ ᓯᓚᑖᓂᓗ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᖏᑕ ᒥᒃᓵᓄᑦ

Ilitariyauhimayut Uqauhiinni Maligaq Nunavut Kavamatkunnit nalunairutauyuq Inuit Nunavunmiut pilaarutiqaqtut aturiamikku uqauhiqtik Inuinnaqtun • Havaktut ilitturipkaiyullu nalaumayunik taidjutinik, atuqpauhiinik, titirauhiiniinullu; • Havaktut uqauhiit ayunnginnikhaagut, uuktuutikhaagullu; • Ikayuqhugit nanmiuyut havagviit aallallu ihuaqtunik atuqpauhikhaagut; • Havaariliqhugu tiliuqhugit ihivriuqhiyut uqauhikkut; • Titraqhugit ilitturipkatigiblugit taimani atuqtauvakut tainiit aallatqillu uqauhiit inuktut; • Tuhaqtittivaktut/ havaqatigivagait katimayiuyut Nunavunmi ahinilu Inuit uqauhiannut.

Exquisite Sealskin Garments Gifts & Accessories phone: +1 867 979 3183 info@rannva.com 661 Pitsi/Mattaq Iqaluit, Nunavut 52

Official language Act within the Government of Nunavut affirming that the Inuit of Nunavut have an inherent right to the use of the Inuit Language • Develops and promotes standard terminology, usage & orthography; • Develops language competency levels & testing; • Assists businesses and others with correct usage; • Undertakes or supervises research about the Inuit Language; • Documents and promotes traditional terminology and dialects; • Shares & collaborates with organizations in Nunavut and abroad on Inuit Language Issues. Loi sur les langues officielles du gouvernement du Nunavut affirmant le droit inhérent des Inuit à l’utilisation de le langue inuite • Élabore la terminologie, les usages et les expressions normalisés, et en assure la promotion; • Élabore les niveaux de compétences et les tests permettant de mesurer ces niveaux; • Aide les entreprises et d’autres organismes à offrir des services de qualité en langue inuite; • Entreprend ou supervise des recherches au sujet de la langue inuite; • Consigne et fait la promotion des expressions et des dialectes traditionnels; • Partage et collabore avec des organismes au Nunavut et ailleurs vis-à-vis les enjeux ayant trait à la langue inuite. ᐃᑲᔪᖅᑕᐅᔪᒪᒍᕕᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᕝᕕᒋᔭᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᒃᑐᑦ ᐊᑎᖅᑖᖁᒍᖕᓂ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᖃᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑎᑦ Ikayuqtiqariaqaqqata nanminiit havagviit atiliuriarni Inuinnaqtun uqarvigittaaqtaptigut If you need help with creating your business name in Inuktitut contact us Si vous avez besoin de l’aide pour traduire le nom de votre entreprise en inuktitut, veuillez prendre contact avec nous

www.taiguusiliuqtiit.ca ᑐᕌᕈᑖ ᐸᕐᓇᐃᕕᒃ ᑎᑎᖅᑲᒃᑯᕕᒃ 1000, ᑐᕌᕈᑎᖓ 810, ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦ X0A 0H0 Parnaivik Bldg 2nd floor P.O. Box 1000 Station 810, Iqaluit, NU X0A 0H0 (: 1 855 232 1852 | 867 975 5539

IUT@gov.nu.ca

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GUEST EDITORIAL Maatalii Okalik receives congratulations from her mother for receiving an Indspire award at the 2017 Indspire Awards Celebration in March. © Indspire

Helping Indigenous youth achieve their dreams

Indspire is an Indigenous-led registered charity that invests in the education of First Nations, Inuit, and Métis people for the long-term benefit of these individuals, their families, communities, and Canada. With the support of its funding partners, Indspire disburses financial awards, delivers programs, and shares resources with the goal of closing the gap in Indigenous education. Each year, the organization presents the Indspire Awards, a celebration of the successes achieved by Indigenous people. The 24th Annual Indspire Awards were held in Ottawa at the National Arts Centre in March, with 13 recipients, including three youth recipients and one lifetime achievement honouree. They were acknowledged by over 1,700 attendees, including 500 Indigenous youth from across Canada. The Canadian Screen Award-nominated show will be broadcast nationally by media partners

Global Television and the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network. The Indspire Awards are made possible by the generous support of individual, government, and corporate supporters, including Presenting Corporate Sponsor, CIBC. In the Inuit youth category, Maatalii Okalik was selected for 2017 as a role model for all youth across the country. She is a proud Inuk with a solid grounding in tradition and moves seamlessly between the tundra and Canada’s cities. In addition to her volunteer role with the National Inuit Youth Council, she works full-time with the Government of Nunavut, as the Chief of Protocol with the Department of Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs. Indspire will further showcase several youth recipients in 2017 through their Youth Laureates Cross Canada Tour, to be held in seven Canadian cities — Calgary, Montreal, Ottawa, Saskatoon, Vancouver, Winnipeg and Yellowknife.

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The objective of the Tour is to encourage dialogue between youth award recipients and local Indigenous students, educators, parents and community members, to reinforce the importance of education and to highlight how Indspire can help students achieve their dreams for a brighter future. In addition to funding from the Government of Canada, TransCanada Corporation and Shaw Communications Inc. are supporting the Tour as part of a series of initiatives in celebration of Canada’s 150th Anniversary of Confederation. To learn more about how you can get involved with Indspire, call 1-855-463-7747 or write communications@indspire.ca.

Indspire

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Inuit leaders met with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau in Iqaluit in February to sign the Inuit Nunangat Declaration on Inuit-Crown Partnership. © Adam Scotti/PMO

INUIT FORUM

Inuit imagination helps define a renewed relationship © Letia Obed

On February 9, Inuit leaders met in Iqaluit with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to discuss Inuit priorities and sign the Inuit Nunangat Declaration on Inuit-Crown Partnership. The Declaration commits the Government of Canada, as well as Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Makivik Corporation and the Nunatsiavut Government to work together to identify and act on shared priorities through a process called the Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee. The federal government was represented by the Minister of Health, the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs, and the Minister of Families, Children and Social Development. Together, Inuit and government identified six broad priority areas for partnership that will constitute the first Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee work plan: land claims agreement implementation, Arctic policy, housing, Inuktut revitalization and promotion, health and wellness, and reconciliation measures. This meeting was the end result of over a year of Inuit advocacy about how the federal government could work with Inuit to systematically renew the Inuit-Crown relationship. ITK first proposed the Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee to Prime Minister Trudeau in December 2015 in a meeting with other national Indigenous leaders. Inuit advocated for this practical structure because we believe a strong respectful process is the only way to create sustained and coordinated policy action on the issues our people care about. We understand federal government policies shape our everyday lives, yet we have lived with the reality that Inuit policy priorities have often been of little to no consideration in federal budgets, absent in terms and conditions of many federal programs dedicated to Indigenous issues, and hardly ever considered when federal government departments imagine their own success. Many of the infrastructure, health, and economic gaps that persist between Inuit and most other Canadians stem from this federal

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marginalization and ignorance. As elementary as it might seem, we regularly educate federal departments who still do not understand the distinctions between Inuit, First Nations, and Metis. The creation of the Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee allows us an excellent and long overdue opportunity to affect policy, legislation, and programs as a rights-holding Indigenous people within the federal system. The Committee will meet next on May 18, at which time we will agree on the initial work plan that will commit us to specific scopes of work within the priorities agreed upon in February. The work plan is intended to create accountability and action within a defined timeframe. Our efforts will build on rather than take away from existing Inuit-federal/provincial/territorial work underway. The success of the Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee will ultimately depend on how much time and effort both government and Inuit put into the efforts necessary to create systemic, long lasting, positive change in the lives of Inuit. I recognize and understand the fears that people may have in another political process being born out of government rhetoric, but I have reason to be optimistic because of the partnership nature of this structure. I hope

the creation of this Committee is a significant positive milestone for Inuit, and that its positive influence will be felt throughout Inuit Nunangat for years to come, and I will do my best to translate the potential we have today into true progress. The Inuit-Crown Partnership Committee is co-chaired by the Prime Minister and ITK President. The Inuit participants on the ICPC also include the Chair and CEO of Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the President of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, the President of Makivik Corporation, and the President of Nunatsiavut. The Presidents of the National Inuit Youth Council, Inuit Circumpolar Council-Canada and Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada have observer status. Government of Canada Ministerial participants may vary from time to time, but it is imagined that no fewer than four Federal ministers will participate in every committee meeting and that the Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs will be a permanent member.

Natan Obed

President, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami

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Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2017 | 03  
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