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2016 | 03 • $5.95

UKKUSIKSALIK: The People’s Story

Tursujuq’s Hidden Treasures



Circumpolar Ar sts

Art in the Kivalliq

In the News

Flying you to Nuuk and back

Manuel Dussault and Nathalie Burlone, winners of First Air tickets at the Loonie/Toonie contest at the ATOTA.


Welcome home Arctic Winter Games participants, coaches and spectators. As The Airline of the North, we would like to congratulate all and are proud to bring you home after this wonderful experience. Thanks to the organizers, volunteers and a large team of dedicated First Air staff, working around the clock to make this happen.

In February, adventurers Ray Zahab (CAN), Jen Segger (CAN) and Stefano Gregoretti (Italy) travelled from -50°C to 50°C over 1,500 km, on mountain bikes and foot from Baffin Island in the Arctic to the Atacama Desert in South America. On their first leg, the team journeyed, unsupported, using a combination of fat tire mountain bikes and on foot to cross the Arctic Ocean from Qikiqtarjuaq (Island) to Baffin to Pangnirtung. First Air was happy to partner with the Arctic2Atacama team for the beginning of their trip. For more info, visit

Arctic Winter Games participants prepare to return home.

Left: First Air ATR crew. L to R: First Officer Patrick Fyfe, Flight Attendant Nathalie Champagne and Captain Michael Strader.

First Air employee Billie Jo Barnes serves up special coffee at the event.

A tasty evening of entertainment A Taste of the Arctic, capped off with a special coffee for everyone! Thank you to Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami’s President Natan Obed and his team for a wonderful evening.



Supporting adventure across the miles

Jobie Tukkiapik / JW bexW4

Brock Friesen / XÇ4 K‰n8

Dear Guest, We are pleased to inform you that we are another step further along in our $110M fleet enhancement and modernization program. At the beginning of April we welcomed the latest addition to our fleet, a 156-seat all-passenger Boeing 737-400. This aircraft is more modern, comfortable, and fuelefficient and provides improved performance, as well as numerous technical advantages. We are very excited to offer an enhanced customer service experience with our newest fleet addition. It is now operating scheduled flights to Iqaluit and is available for charter services throughout North America. With the introduction of this new aircraft into our fleet in 2016, we commemorate our 70th anniversary by placing our anniversary logo on the nose of the airplane. As Bradley Air Services Ltd. (operating as First Air), we’re one of the oldest airlines in Canada. This anniversary is a major milestone and a triumph for our customers, shareholders, and employees. From our humble beginnings, we have grown to carry approximately 230,000 passengers and more than 22 million kilograms of cargo each year. We believe that four words best describe the 70 years of First Air: Adaptable, Devoted, Reliable, and Trusted. Every two months, we will be elaborating on the significance of each of these words to both you and us. Firstly, we will be highlighting Adaptable. First Air has continually adapted in order to provide the best possible service to our customers. Join us on social media to share your experience, as we steadily move toward our anniversary date in November. To learn more about our history and the celebration of our 70th anniversary, please see pages 28-29 in our current issue of above&beyond. Our continued investment in modernizing our fleet is a testament of our adaptation. Our new ATR 42-500s are a prime example. These newer ATRs are gradually being introduced to our fleet to replace the older generation. This month, we will be adding our second ATR 42-500 with several more to come. Today, we are just as committed to providing you with a first-rate experience each time you travel with us or have us ship your cargo, as we have been since 1946. Thank you for flying First Air, The Airline of the North — we are happy to have you aboard!

Brock Friesen First Air President & CEO

ᑐᕌᖅᑐᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓄᑦ,

ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᐳᒍᑦ ᐃᓕᑦᓯᓐᓂᒃ ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᒥᒃ ᓯᕗᒻᒧᒋᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᕋᑦᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᐱᐅᓯᒋᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᕙᓪᓕᐊᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓄᑕᖖᒍᖅᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᓕᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐊᑭᖃᓪᓗᐊᕐᓂᐊᖅᑐᓂᒃ $110-ᒥᓕᐊᓐᑖᓚᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᒥ. ᐊᐃᐱᕆ ᑕᖅᑭᖓ ᐊᑐᓕᓵᖅᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒍᑎᖃᓚᐅᕋᑦᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᓕᕐᒥᔪᒥᒃ, 1-ᓂᒃ ᐃᑭᒪᕝᕕᖃᖅᑑᓪᓗᓂ ᐃᓄᓐᓄᑦ ᐳᐃᖕ 737-400ᒥᒃ.

ᑖᓐᓇ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑖᕆᔭᕗᑦ ᓄᑖᖑᓂᖅᓴᐅᒻᒪᑦ, ᐃᖢᐊᖅᑑᓪᓗᓂ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᖅᓱᖅᑐᐊᓚᐃᓐᓂᖅᓴᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᓴᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᑦᑎᐊᖅᑑᓪᓗᓂ, ᐃᓚᖃᖅᑐᒋᑦ ᓴᓇᕐᕈᑎᓕᕆᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᓂ ᐊᒥᓱᑲᓪᓚᖕᓂᒃ ᐃᑲᔪᕈᑎᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ. ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒍᑎᒋᓪᓚᕆᒃᐸᕗᑦ ᐱᐅᓯᒋᐊᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᐸᒃᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᑎᑦᑎᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᐊᓕᕋᑦᑕ ᓄᑖᖑᓂᖅᐸᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑖᕆᓚᐅᖅᑕᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ. ᖃᖓᑕᕝᕕᒃᓴᒥᒃᑎᒍᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦᑕᓕᕐᑐᖅ ᐃᖃᓗᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᑎᑕᐅᒋᓪᓗᓂ ᓵᑐᕐᒋᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᑐᓂ ᓄᐊᔅ ᐊᒥᐊᕆᑲᓕᒫᒥ. ᐃᓚᐅᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᓄᑖᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖓᓂ 2016, 70-ᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ ᓇᓪᓕᐅᓂᓯᐅᕐᓂᖃᓕᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᓇᓪᓕᐅᓂᓯᐅᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᑯᑕᓕᖅᓯᓯᒪᑎᑦᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦ ᓯᕗᐊᒍᑦ. ᐳᕌᑦᓕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᓕᕆᔨᖏᑎᒍᑦ (ᐊᐅᓚᑦᓯᓂᖃᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᕘᔅᑦᔅ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑎᒍᑦ), ᑲᑎᓐᓂᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓕᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᐊᑯᓂᑲᓪᓚᒻᒪᕆᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓂᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥ. ᑖᓐᓇ ᓇᓪᓕᐅᓂᓯᐅᕐᓂᕆᔭᕗᑦ ᐊᖏᔫᑎᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᕆᓯᒪᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᔾᔪᑎᐅᒻᒪᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᓂᒍᐃᓯᒪᔾᔪᑎᖃᓕᖅᓯᒪᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᕐᕕᒋᕙᒃᑕᕗᑦ, ᑎᒍᒥᐊᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᑦ. ᒥᑭᑦᑐᒻᒪᕆᐅᓪᓗᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖅᑎᐅᓕᓚᐅᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᑦ, ᐱᕈᖅᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᒻᒪᕆᓕᕋᑦᑕ ᐃᑭᒪᕝᕕᐅᕙᓕᖅᑐᑕ 230,000-ᓗᐊᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᖓᑖᓄᑦ 22 ᒥᓕᐊᓐ ᑭᓗᒍᕌᒻᓂᒃ ᐅᓯᕙᓕᖅᑐᑕ ᐊᒃᔭᖅᑐᒐᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᑕᒫᑦ.

ᐅᒃᐱᕈᓱᒃᑲᑦᑕ ᓯᑕᒪᑦ ᐅᖃᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᐹᑎᒍᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᔾᔪᑎᐅᓯᒪᒻᒪᑕ 70-ᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂᑦ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖑᓯᒪᓕᖅᑐᓂᒃ: ᐋᖅᑭᒋᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ, ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑏᓐᓇᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ, ᖁᓚᕐᓇᖖᒋᑦᑐᑦ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᔭᐅᑦᑎᐊᕈᓐᓇᖅᑐᑦ. ᑕᖅᑭᒃ ᒪᕐᕉᒃ ᐊᓂᒍᖅᓯᒪᓕᑐᐊᕌᖓᑕ, ᓇᓗᓇᐃᔭᐃᓯᒪᓕᖅᐸᓐᓂᐊᖅᑐᒍᑦ ᖃᓄᖅ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᐅᖃᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᐃᑦ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᑎᐅᓂᖏᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᑦᓯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᕙᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖅ. ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕐᒥᒃ, ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᓯᒪᓂᐊᖅᐳᒍᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒋᐊᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐱᔾᔪᑎᖃᖅᑐᓂᒃ. ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒋᐊᖅᑎᑦᑏᓐᓇᐅᔭᖅᐸᒻᒪᑕ ᐱᐅᓂᖅᐸᐅᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᑎᐅᕙᓐᓂᕐᒥᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ. ᐊᑏᓕ ᐃᓚᒋᓕᓚᐅᖅᑎᒍᑦ ᐃᓅᖃᑎᒌᑦᑐᓄᑦ ᑐᓴᒐᔅᓴᓕᕆᔨᑎᒍᑦ ᐊᒥᖅᑲᖃᑎᖃᕐᓂᐊᕐᓗᑎᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᓯᒪᓂᕐᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂ, ᓯᕗᒻᒧᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᓂᖃᖅᑎᓪᓗᑕ ᓇᓪᓕᐅᓂᓯᐅᕈᒫᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᓄᕕᐱᕆᐅᓕᖅᐸᑦ. ᑐᓴᖅᑎᑕᐅᒋᐊᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒪᒍᑦᓯ ᐱᓕᕆᓂᕆᓯᒪᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᓇᓪᓕᐅᓂᓯᐅᕈᒫᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ 70-ᓄᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ, ᖃᐅᔨᒋᐊᕐᕕᒋᓗᒋᑦ ᒪᒃᐱᕋᖏᑦ 28-29 ᐅᖃᓕᒫᒐᓕᐊᕆᓯᒪᔭᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᑖᒃᑯᓇᓂ above&beyond ᑕᐃᔭᐅᔪᓂ.

ᑲᔪᓯᑎᑦᑎᓯᒪᓂᕗᑦ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᓂᒃ ᕿᑐᕐᖏᐅᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᓄᑕᐅᓕᕆᐊᖅᑎᑦᑎᔾᔪᑎᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓄᑦ ᓇᓗᓇᐃᖅᓯᔾᔪᑎᐅᒻᒪᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒋᐊᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᑦᑎᓐᓂᒃ. ᓄᑖᖑᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᕗᑦ ATR 42-500-ᐃᑦ ᐱᓗᐊᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᐆᒃᑐᕋᐅᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᓐᓇᖅᐳᑦ ᑕᒪᑐᒧᖓ. ᑖᒃᑯᐊ ᓄᑖᖑᓂᖅᓴᐅᔪᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᑦ ATR-ᖑᔪᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑕᐅᕙᓪᓕᐊᓕᕐᒪᑕ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᒋᔭᑦᑎᓐᓂ ᐃᓇᖏᕈᑎᐅᓂᐊᖅᑐᑎᒃ ᐱᑐᖃᐅᓂᖅᓴᓄᑦ. ᑕᕝᕙᓂ ᑕᖅᑭᒥ, ᑐᒡᓕᕆᔭᖓᓂᒃ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒥᒃ ATR 42-500 ᐊᑐᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᐊᓕᕆᕗᒋᒍᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᓚᔭᐅᓯᒪᓕᒃᑲᓐᓂᕈᒫᕆᓪᓗᑎᒃ ᑖᒃᑯᐊ.

ᐅᓪᓗᒥᐅᓕᖅᑐᖅ, ᐱᐅᓂᖅᐸᐅᑎᑦᑎᔪᒪᒐᑦᑕ ᐃᓕᑦᓯᓐᓄᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᕙᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᐅᕝᕙᓘᓐᓃᑦ ᐅᓯᑎᑦᑎᕙᓐᓂᑦᓯᓐᓄᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᑦᑎᓐᓂ, ᑕᐃᒪᖖᒐᓂᑦ ᓲᕐᓗ 1946-ᒥᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᖃᑦᑕᓕᕆᐊᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᒐᑦᑕ. ᖁᔭᓐᓇᒦᒃ ᐃᑭᒪᓚᐅᕋᑦᓯ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖓᓂ, ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᒥᐅᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᖁᑎᖓᓂ - ᖁᕕᐊᓱᒃᑐᒍᑦ ᐃᑭᒪᔪᓐᓇᓚᐅᕋᑦᓯ!

ᐸᕌᒃ ᕗᕇᓴᓐ ᕘᔅᑎᐊᒃᑯᓐᓄᑦ ᐊᖓᔪᖅᑳᖅ & ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᔨᒻᒪᕆᒃ

President, Makivik Corporation & Chairman, First Air xzJ6√6, mr=F4 fxS‰nzk5 x7m w4y?sb6, {5 wsf8k5 Président, Société Makivik et président du conseil, First Air

Chers invités, Nous sommes heureux de vous informer que nous avons franchi une autre étape dans notre programme d’amélioration et de modernisation qui s’élève à 110 M$. Au début d’avril, nous avons pris livraison du tout dernier ajout à notre flotte, un Boeing 737-400 tout passager de 156 sièges. Cet aéronef est plus moderne, plus confortable et plus économique en carburant. Il fournit un meilleur rendement et possède de nombreux autres avantages techniques. Nous sommes très heureux d’offrir une amélioration en matière de service à la clientèle grâce à ce plus récent ajout. Il assure à présent des vols réguliers vers Iqaluit et offre des services nolisés partout en Amérique du Nord. Avec l’introduction de ce nouvel aéronef à notre flotte en 2016, nous célébrons notre 70e anniversaire en plaçant notre logo d’anniversaire sur la tête de l’avion. Sous le nom de Bradley Air Services ltée (exerçant ses activités sous la marque de commerce de First Air), nous sommes l’une des plus anciennes lignes aériennes au Canada. Cet anniversaire constitue une étape importante et un triomphe pour nos clients, nos actionnaires et nos employés. Depuis nos modestes débuts, nous avons prospéré et nous transportons environ 230 000 passagers et plus de 22 millions de kilogrammes de fret chaque année. Nous estimons que les quatre mots suivants décrivent le mieux les 70 ans de First Air : adaptation, dévouement, fiabilité et confiance. Tous les deux mois, nous nous pencherons sur l’importance de chacun de ces mots autant pour vous que pour nous. Nous allons d’abord souligner le mot « adaptation ». First Air s’est en effet continuellement adapté afin de fournir le meilleur service possible à ses clients. Joignez-vous à nous dans les médias sociaux pour partager votre expérience, tout en approchant progressivement de la date de notre anniversaire en novembre. Pour vous renseigner davantage sur notre histoire et sur la célébration de notre 70e anniversaire, veuillez consulter les pages 28 et 29 de notre publication courante, above&beyond. La poursuite de notre investissement dans la modernisation de notre flotte témoigne de notre adaptation. Nos nouveaux ATR 42-500 en sont un excellent exemple. Ces ATR plus récents sont introduits graduellement dans notre flotte pour remplacer l’ancienne génération. Ce mois-ci, nous ajouterons notre deuxième ATR 42-500 et plusieurs autres suivront. Nous nous sommes aussi engagés à vous fournir une expérience de première classe chaque fois que vous voyagez avec nous ou que vous nous confiez l’expédition de votre fret, comme nous le faisons depuis 1946. Nous vous remercions d’avoir choisi First Air, la Ligne aérienne du Nord — nous sommes heureux de vous accueillir à bord!

Brock Friesen Président-directeur général de First Air

srs6b6g3u4 czb˙oEp7mEst4vFs4. We value your support and thank you for making First Air The Airline of the North. Nous apprécions votre soutien et vous remercions de votre appui à First Air la ligne aérienne du Nord.

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Employee Spotlight | Iqqanaijaqtiup Ujjirijautitauninga

ᓄᐊ ᒨᓯᓯ | Noah Mosesee

ᓄᐊ ᒨᓯᓯ ᓄᓇᓕᑦᑎᐊᕚᓗᐊᓂᑦ ᐸᖕᓂᖅᑑᖅ, ᓄᓇᕗᑦᒥᐅᑕᐅᕗᖅ, ᑕᐃᑲᓂ ᐊᑕᐃᓐᓇᖅᑐᒥᒃ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᑦ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᖓᓂ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᔨᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ.

ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᑖᕆᔭᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᔪᖅ 2009-ᖑᑎᓪᓗᒍ ᐅᓯᔭᐅᔪᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᐅᓯᓕᖅᑐᐃᔨᒋᔭᐅᓪᓗᓂ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᕆᔭᖓ ᖁᕝᕙᓯᒃᓯᒋᐊᖅᓯᒪᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᐅᑉᓗᑉ ᐃᓚᑐᐃᓐᓇᖓᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᒋᔭᐅᕙᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂᒥᑦ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓱᐃᔨᒋᔭᐅᑲᓕᓚᐅᖅᑐᓂ ᐸᖕᓂᖅᑑᒥ ᖃᖓᑕᓲᒃᑯᕕᖕᒥ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᓪᓗᒥᒧᑦ ᐃᓂᒋᓕᖅᑕᒥᓄᑦ. ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖅᑎᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᖓᓄᑦ ᐊᔪᖖᒋᓐᓂᕆᔭᖏᑦ ᐃᓚᖃᖅᐳᑦ ᐱᓕᒻᒪᒃᓴᔭᐅᓚᐅᖅᓯᒪᓂᖓᓂᑦ ᓴᐃᐳᕐ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕐᒥᒃ ᖁᕝᕙᒃᓯᒃᑐᓄᑦ ᓈᓴᐃᔾᔪᑎᓕᕆᔨᓄᑦ (ᐅᓯᔭᐅᔪᒃᓴᓂᒃ). ᓄᐊ ᐃᒃᓯᕙᐅᑕᕆᔭᐅᒻᒥᔪᖅ ᓄᓇᓕᐅᔪᒥ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᒃᑏᑦ ᒥᑭᒋᐊᖅᑎᒃᑯᓪᓗ ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᒋᔭᖏᓐᓂ, ᑖᓐᓇᓗ ᐃᓂᖃᕐᕕᒋᓕᖅᑐᓂᐅᒃ ᐅᑭᐅᓄᑦ ᑕᓪᓕᒪᓄᑦ (5). ᑖᓐᓇ ᐃᒃᓯᕙᐅᑕᕆᔭᐅᓂᖓ ᓈᒻᒪᑦᑎᐊᕐᐳᖅ ᐱᓯᒪᒻᒪᒍ ᐃᓚᒋᔭᐅᖃᑕᐅᑦᑎᐊᕐᒪᑦ ᐊᖑᓇᓱᐊᖃᑦᑕᕆᐊᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᖃᓪᓕᕿᔭᖅᑐᖃᑦᑕᕆᐊᒥᓂᒃᓗ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐅᐊᔭᖃᑦᑕᕆᐊᒥᓂᒃ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖃᓪᓚᕆᖕᒪᑦ. ᐱᔨᑦᑎᕋᖅᑕᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐱᓕᕆᐊᖃᖃᑎᖃᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᕐᒥᓂᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕘᔅᑦ ᐃᐊᒃᑯᓐᓂ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔭᖃᑎᒥᓂᒃ ᖁᕕᐊᒋᔭᖃᕈᑎᒋᕙᖏᑦ ᐃᖅᑲᓇᐃᔮᕆᔭᒥᓂᒃ. ᐃᓕᑦᓯᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᒋᐅᕆᐊᑦᓴᒥᓂᒃ ᐸᖕᓂᖅᑑᓕᐊᕈᑦᓯ ᓂᕆᐅᖕᓂᖃᑦᑎᐊᕐᐳᖅ!

Noah Mosesee is from beautiful Pangnirtung, Nunavut, where he is based as a full-time First Air station coordinator. He began his career with First Air in 2009 as a casual cargo attendant and worked his way up from part-time to acting coordinator for the Pangnirtung base to his present position. His qualifications include training on Sabre initial advanced counter and Skyline (cargo) systems. Noah is also chairman of the local Hunters and Trappers organization, a role he has held for five years. It pairs well with his passion for hunting and fishing as well as travelling. Working with customers and his fellow First Air co-workers makes Noah’s job enjoyable. He looks forward to meeting you in Pangnirtung! © Sebastian Schmitz

Dedicated to being first in service — and our commitment to the communities and people we serve!

2016 | 03 • $5.95

UKKUSIKSALIK: The People’s Story

Circumpolar Arsts

Art in the Kivalliq

Tursujuq’s Hidden Treasures



LocaL guide Johnny KaSudLuaK SteerS hiS freighter canoe near the foot of the thunderouS naStapoKa faLLS. © Steve deSchêneS / nunaviK parKS

Publisher: above&beyond ltd. Managing Editor: doris ohlmann Advertising: 613-257-4999 toll free: 1-877-2arctic 1 877 227 2842 Design: robert hoselton, Beat Studios

above&beyond ltd.,(aka above&beyond, Canada's Arctic Journal) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of First Air, and a media instrument intended solely to entertain and provide general information about the North. The views and opinions expressed in editorial content, advertisements, or by contributors, do not necessarily reflect the views, official positions or policies of First Air, its agents, or those of above&beyond magazine unless expressly stated. above&beyond ltd. does not assume any responsibility for any errors and/or omissions of any content in the publication. Reproduction in whole or part without permission is prohibited.

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Above&Beyond online: Canada’s Arctic Journal Read online:

Contents 7 22 Features


uKKuSiKSaLiK the people’s Story

Excerpt: A Legacy ukkusiksalik remains a special


place in the hearts of the families in the Kivalliq region. — David F. Pelly


circumpolar artists

portraying Life through art

in reykjavik, iceland, the spotlight was on the circum-arctic art Show. — Lynn Feasey

art in the Kivalliq

a panorama of inuit creativity

in the Spring of 1979, i was honoured to have

arrived at a time considered by many to be the


most creative and prolific in the history of inuit arts and artists in the Kivalliq. — Jim Shirley


a giant amongst Quebec’s national parks tursujuq reveals its hidden treasures

on the eastern coast of the mighty hudson Bay,

through a narrow channel etched in spectacular cuestas lies a vast expanse of land and water. — Isabelle Dubois

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May | June 2016 Volume 28, No. 3


11 17 28 34 36 39 43 46 48 51 53 54


Living Above&Beyond Resources Celebrating First Air’s 70th Youth northern youth Leadership camp — Laurie Sarkadi Sport team nunavik-Quebec at the aWg — Kativik regional government Education pirurvik — tessa Lochhead Culture piqalujaujaq — chris grosset History the 5th thule atlas — Brendan griebel Science Missing Link found in the arctic ocean — david Smith Bookshelf Guest Editorial — dwight Ball, premier of newfoundland and Labrador Inuit Forum the pursuit of inuit Self-determination in research — natan obed, president, itK


From the Flight Deck How does windshear affect takeoffs and landings? Windshear occurs when the wind speed or direction suddenly changes. You can think of it like a very strong wind gust. Normally an aircraft’s speed isn’t affected by the wind since we’re just floating in the air currents like a boat floats down a river. That isn’t the case during a windshear encounter. The whole issue relates to inertia and acceleration. Wind is just moving air and air molecules don’t weigh all that much when you compare them to the weight of an aircraft. As a result, the air (and consequently the wind) can change speed or direction much faster than the aircraft can. That difference between the time that it takes for the nearly weightless air to accelerate and the time that it takes for the much heavier aircraft to accelerate is what makes windshear impact a flight. If the airplane is flying into the wind and the wind suddenly gets much stronger, there will be extra air blowing over the wings while the aircraft takes its time to catch up. As a result, the wings will generate extra lift and the aircraft will tend to

suddenly climb. This kind of windshear is called ‘performance increasing’ windshear since it leads to the wings making more lift than before. Likewise, if that headwind were to suddenly stop, there would be much less air flowing over the wings until the aircraft catches up to the change. That reduced airflow will result in less lift and the aircraft will descend. In this case it is called ‘performance decreasing’ windshear. As the name implies, performance decreasing windshear is something that we would rather avoid. During an approach it could cause the aircraft to descend more quickly towards the ground than desired. Likewise, on takeoff it will reduce the climb and may not allow us to clear any obstacles as expected. Performance increasing windshear can also have negative effects. We plan our approach to have us touch down at a specific point on the runway. A sudden, unexpected increase in lift will cause the aircraft to descend slower and may lead to us touching down further along the runway. In an extreme case, this would potentially not leave us enough room to stop. As a result, windshear, whether performance decreasing or increasing, is something pilots want to avoid. Regardless of the type of windshear,

our immediate response is to carry out a missed approach and climb away. This is a manoeuvre that we train for and practice in the simulator on a regular basis. Part of the challenge is that since wind is invisible, we can’t see a sudden wind change — windshear — until after we’ve encountered it. As a result, the weather forecasters do their best to forecast conditions that are conducive to windshear. Likewise, any time pilots encounter windshear, we are quick to relay that information to other pilots in the area. Even if windshear hasn’t been forecast or reported, during all takeoffs and landings pilots are always vigilant for any indications of windshear. It’s constantly in the back of our mind and we’re ready to respond and climb away at all times, if necessary. Captain Aaron Speer Director Flight Operations and Captain ATR First Air If you are curious about a specific topic regarding flying and aircraft operations, let us know what you'd like to learn about and we'll try to include it in a future column. Email

A 767 on short final to runway 34 in Iqaluit, Nunavut, a very vulnerable place to be for wind shear. © Baffin photography/Jason Miller

Dedicated to being first in service — and our commitment to the communities and people we serve!


a Legacy


kkusiksalik remains a special place in the hearts of the families in the Kivalliq region, on the west side of Hudson Bay, whose ancestors lived

The People’s Story By david f. pelly

there. Some still hunt there, though not nearly as much as their forefathers did. Some see it as a tourism opportunity, knowing the landscape’s intrinsic appeal as they do. In the mid-1980s, three men with family connections to Ukkusiksalik opened Sila Lodge on the north shore of Wager Bay, to attract naturalists and provide employment, but the economics of the operation could not be sustained. Even at that time, there was already talk that one day, aer the land claims were settled, the federal government would establish a national park there. Wager Bay

Theresa Kopak (left) and Sarah Sivaniqtoq — each of their grandfathers was a valued informant — visiting the land of their ancestors around Ukkusiksalik in 1996. © david f. pelly

a B ov e & B e yo n d — c a n a da’ S a rc t i c J o u r n a L

had been selected in 1978 as a potential site for one of five proposed national parks north of sixty (north of the provincial boundary across the top of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta).


“reading your words is like travelling on a well built sled skimming across the deep blue sea ice on a bright spring day.”— norman hallendy, arctic researcher, writer, photographer and fellow traveller

Top & Right centre: Tuinnaq and Mikitok’s great-grandchildren during a 1996 family visit to the old post where their great-grandmother grew up. © david f. pelly (4)

e process accelerated in the 1990s, especially aer the Nunavut land claim was settled in 1993 following many years of negotiations between the Inuit of Nunavut and the federal government. e settlement allowed developments of all sorts to move forward, from mines to national parks, and gave Inuit a measure of self-determination within the new territory. In 2003, Parks Canada signed the Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement, which provided the green light to begin operation of Ukkusiksalik National Park, one of Canada’s most remote. Nevertheless, it means that a few local Inuit now have jobs with Parks Canada and others may in the future find opportunities in guiding and outfitting. Inuit retain their right to hunt for subsistence purposes within this and other national parks in Nunavut. Francis Kaput, an elder in Rankin Inlet, said, “I would like to see Ukkusiksalik become a national park. Every bay, every point around Wager Bay has a name because this is where so much happened. It is important to preserve that knowledge. Ukkusiksalik is us. It’s part of our culture.” Guy Amarok of Chesterfield Inlet added his support: “If it becomes a national park, Mikitok Bruce telling stories during a 1996 visit to the old post where his wife grew up.


then there will be no development that will destroy the land.” ese are ringing endorsements which, while not universal, are widely shared among Inuit of the region. Such is the emotional attachment to Ukkusiksalik still today.

2016 | 03

Elizabeth Aglukka at Nuvuk&it in 1996 sitting with an old cooking pot she recalled being used by her mother there, now sunk into the ground with tiny flowers growing out of it.

ere is a reverence among Ukkusiksalingmiut toward their homeland. Yet, when asked, there was nowhere that any of its former residents thought should be off-limits to visitors, but always with the important proviso that visitors not harm the land or the old sites, and that they not interfere with Inuit use of their traditional hunting grounds. During a return visit in 1996, her first in nearly thirty years, Elizabeth Aglukka sat on the ground at the site of her family’s old spring camp in Nuvuk&it*, examining the artifacts they had le behind, and she said, “I would like these things le here, alone, untouched.” It’s acceptable in her eyes (though against the law that protects archaeological sites) for someone to pick up an item to look at it, she offered, so long as they “put it back where it belongs” aerward. “I would not like to see someone take something from here to put in a museum or to sell. I’d rather leave all the things here.” Even Elizabeth le the site of her childhood home without taking a souvenir. Today, Wager Bay is one of those spots, found frequently in the North, where a wild and rugged landscape opens the visitor’s eyes to a new sort of beauty and appreciation of natural splendour, yet which somehow remains in complete harmony with its depth of historical occupation by other humans. e duality is a difficult one for the typical visitor from southern Canada or the United States or Europe, where the experience of human occupation has typically meant the destruction of the natural setting. Here in Ukkusiksalik history is everywhere, and yet it is apparent only upon close inspection. As with a wildflower, you can’t see it from the air, but once standing on the shores of Ukkusiksalik, when you look down at the ground beneath your feet, the colour and detail and enduring nature of that tiny flower — and the history of that land — will enter your soul. Once discovered, it is captivating. As Marc Tungilik said only weeks before he passed away in 1986, reflecting back on his life, “People are always happy to go to a plentiful land — that is how I felt about going to Ukkusiksalik.”

a B ov e & B e yo n d — c a n a da’ S a rc t i c J o u r n a L

* The ampersand symbol “&” is used to mark the so-called voiceless lateral fricative in writing Inuktitut. Designated ɬ in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), the ampersand, combined with Inuktitut vowels, results in the approximate sounds: &u = “-shlu-”; &i = “-shli-”; &a = “-shla-”.

Hiking in the hills overlooking the Paliak Islands along the south shore of Wager Inlet. © nunavut government/donna Barnett



2016 | 03

Living aBove & Beyond

Cannon from HMS Erebus: Gun metal: typically an alloy of copper, tin, zinc, and lead (1812) Designed to fire a six-pound projectile, this “brass six-pounder” was listed among the three guns which sailed with HMS Erebus in 1845. It is in excellent condition and its many markings are surprisingly easy to read. The inscription “I&H King – 1812” reveals that it was cast by John and Henry King at the Royal Brass Foundry at Woolwich in 1812, while the inscription “6-0-8” indicates that the gun weighed a total of six hundredweight plus eight pounds or 680 pounds (309 kg) in total. © parks canada

funding announced for national historic Site

the honourable catherine McKenna, Minister

of the environment and climate change and Minister responsible for parks canada, has announced $16.9 million over five years to

support the ongoing investigation of the wrecks of hMS Erebus and the continuing search for

hMS Terror, and for the development of multi-

purpose infrastructure. the funding will also

contribute to economic development in the Kitikmeot region, and create employment opportunities in local inuit communities.

the government of canada and Kitikmeot

inuit association will work together to develop

a franklin visitor and field research centre in gjoa haven, nunavut, that will support the

conservation, research and presentation of the franklin expedition’s history and artifacts.

Left: The large “M” crest stands for Henry Phipps, First Earl of Mulgrave, Master General of the Ordnance. © parks canada Right: The letters “GR” encircled by the motto “HONI SOIT QUI MAL Y PENSE” topped by a crown is the cypher of King George III. © parks canada

a B ov e & B e yo n d — c a n a da’ S a rc t i c J o u r n a L


Living aBove & Beyond Map of the Land, Map of the Stars. © gwaandak theatre

yukon artists featured at festival

canada’s Magnetic north theatre festival will run from

June 9 to 18, 2016 in Whitehorse at the yukon arts centre, in partnership with the national arts centre.

the festival’s theme this year is about seeking new experiences or “navigating new dimensions”.

the festival will offer opportunities for local and

visiting artists to network and develop connections

with theatre industry leaders and presenters from across the country and the globe.

international presenters are coming from australia,

austria, england, finland, germany, iceland, india, ireland, norway, Scotland, the united States and Wales.

over 100 artists and crewmembers from across the

country will also participate in festival performances. performers hail from halifax, toronto, calgary, and vancouver.

participants from the yukon include nakai theatre’s

dogtown: the Musical, based on the life and fate of trevor the dog; gwaandak theatre’s Map of the Land,

Map of the Stars, about yukon’s rivers, trails and the people who travel them; ramshackle theatre’s inter-

active theatre in the Bush, set in the yukon’s boreal forest; and My Brain is plastic, from the Whitehorse independent theatre.

health risks to be studied

the arctic council’s “one health” project was

highlighted at the arctic council meeting in fairbanks, alaska, March 15 to 17, 2016.

it’s a big, circumpolar project that is looking

at the health risks for humans, animals and

plants. these risks include potential changes to diseases or new ones, effects on drinking

water quality and availability, environmental contamination, effects on the quality and availability of food, and changes in animal species distribution.

the “one health” project will see specialists

from circumpolar nations and indigenous groups evaluating those climate-driven health

risks and providing community-based strategies to identify, prevent and adapt to those health


risks in human, animals and the environment.

2016 | 03

Living aBove & Beyond

Winner of the GreenhouseHack competition was Mark Lefsrud from McGill University in Quebec, for his proposal on developing a farm unit that housed many customizable greenhouse technologies that could fit in a transport truck bed and be shipped anywhere with road access. Here, Mark Lefsrud and student Yves Roy in a greenhouse where they work on a biomass heating system. © Mark Lefsrud

cold climate greenhouse technology focus of conference

the northern farm training institute (nfti) and the aurora research institute (ari) organized

the nWt cangrow greenhouse technology

conference and the greenhouse tech trade fair in March. researchers and innovators from

across canada met with nWt growers at the nfti campus in hay river to foster new research partnerships in the field of cold climate green-

house technology to solve challenges in northern growing.

presentations, panel discussions, and a

trade show connected researchers, industry

and northern food producers with products, systems, designs and research targeted at

developing innovative cold climate greenhouse operations.

favourite conference activities included

Participants at the NWT CanGrow Greenhouse Technology Conference were happy to have the opportunity to buy local whitefish and trout from McCallum Fisheries. L to R: Tang Lee from the University of Calgary; Marius McCallum of West Channel; Sam Mugo from MacEwan University; and Viliam Zvalo from Vineland Research, Toronto. © Kim rapati

a B ov e & B e yo n d — c a n a da’ S a rc t i c J o u r n a L

visiting alexandra falls, touring 2 Seasons campgrounds fishing derby grounds, checking

out West channel, and learning about ntcL at the public beach.


Living aBove & Beyond


new droning operations in the works a company in iqaluit, nunavut, is hoping to use unmanned aerial vehicles (uavs) or drones for more than recreational uses. arctic uav is

hoping to use drones equipped with infrared

and thermal cameras for applications like surveying, mapping, research and search and rescue operations.

the drones are designed for industrial use

and capable of carrying heavier specialized cameras than hobby drones. Some can fly up to 20 hours.

arctic uav will be looking to hire pilots,

technicians, and data managers capable of processing their videos, photos and data.


2016 | 03

Living aBove & Beyond

2016 arctic Winter games nuuk, greenland

hosted by 1,700 volunteers, the 2016 arctic Winter games were a success despite inclement weather delaying some of the events at the beginning while participants patiently waited to arrive. arctic Winter games is a sporting event primarily for youth between 13 to 18 years who

compete in 15 different sports disciplines, from badminton and wrestling to snowshoe running and the dene games and arctic Sports.

the arctic Winter games were very much an athletic and cultural showcase this year with the

nuuk Katuaq arts centre as the venue for the various performers who came to serve as cultural delegates for their respective regions during the games. Students from the local nuuk schools

were also able to take in workshops that included beadwork, drum dancing, kayaking, artwork, and media skills.

for more photos on the event, visit

© arctic Winter games international committee (6)

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Final Medal standings: Contingent


66 56 50


22 34 33


34 20 14





alberta north nunavut

nunavik, Québec yamal

23 27 20


172 89



4 16 25





6 19











Living aBove & Beyond

Winter fun in Long Johns

hot varieties of food, the Long John Jamboree included something for everyone.

for the first time this year, an outdoor curling

tournament (the “John”spiel) was held. Sixteen teams of novice and experienced curlers from around the territory signed up for an exciting the last weekend of March, easter weekend this year, offered the opportunity to bring the

weekend on a curling sheet expertly built by representatives of the yellowknife curling club.

the board of the Long John Jamboree

family out to visit the 5th annual Long John

wishes to thank those who visited; the hard-

izers report that this was the most successful

tainers and musicians who kept things rocking

Jamboree on the ice of yellowknife Bay. organLong John Jamboree yet!

once again, a crew of uber-dedicated

volunteers, board members and event organ-

izers worked their long johns off! from playing

working and energetic volunteers; the enter-

night after night; and, especially, our sponsors who without their generous support, the Long John Jamboree would cease to exist.

thanks for coming out and let the count-

volleyball in the snow to mini putt on ice, from

down begin to #LJJ2017! Keep checking our

music, from cool ice carving demonstrations to

next year’s festival.

physically challenging relays to foot-stomping

web site, for news about

© Kyle thomas (4)

Traditional Inuit art captures the beauty, truth and spirit of Canada’s Arctic

“Bear Mother and Child” by Norman Quamautuq, Pangnirtung Nunavut.

northern images A Division of Arctic Co-operatives Ltd.

Yellowknife 867-873-5944

Visit Our Website 16

Supporters and Promoters of Inuit and Dene artists and their art

2016 | 03



Operating mines will lose rebate

in March, the government of nunavut (gn) departments of economic development and

influence of local water chemistry on the responses of the unique biota to metals in these environments.

the reliable determinations of environmental

transportation and finance announced that

risk discovered through these studies will

once a mine becomes operational. the gn

natural resources sector and allow regulatory

the fuel tax rebate program should be cancelled

prevent unnecessary economic costs to canada’s


Gold claim won but on hold

placer miner darrell carey has won a bidding

contest for a group of 25 gold claims on the Midnight dome that overlooks dawson city in yukon’s Klondike region.

carey won’t be mining the Midnight dome,

agencies to target resources more effectively.

however, until he finishes working the Slinky

the fuel rebate program gives mining

Wilfrid Laurier university, université de Montréal,

government, he has until the end of 2017 to

they are obliged to pay in fuel tax. development

natural resources canada, centre d’expertise

collects fuel taxes from companies to reinvest

into infrastructure and programs in the territory.

companies, and others, a break on the amount

partnership agreements, which detail what nunavut gets out of the deal, such as jobs and

investment, must be signed before a company

can qualify for the tax rebate. to be eligible for

the rebate, a company or individual must be

involved in harvesting, outfitting, quarrying for

the project is a collaboration between

the institut national de la recherche scientifique, en analyse environnementale du Québec, environment canada, the ontario Ministry of

the environment and climate change, the

international Zinc association and avalon rare Metals inc.

development, extraction or reclamation.

Work continues on diamond project

companies to get a fuel tax rebate during the

under way at the redemption diamond project

carving stone, mineral exploration or mining the departments will still allow mining

exploration and development stage of their projects and are now working on developing a

replacement for the development partnership agreement.

ground geophysical surveys and drilling are

in 2016, alexco resource corp. plans to

incorporate re-engineering and optimizing of the mine plans for the flame & Moth and

Lucky Queen deposits and update mineral resource estimates on Bermingham and flame & Moth in canada’s yukon territory.

the company has planned a $3 million

to the South coppermine indicator mineral train.

high grade silver deposit this year and has

on the discovery of a kimberlite bedrock source north arrow, partner to arctic Star

offsetting the huge cost of launching mineral

arrow can earn a 55-per cent interest by


Silver exploration program continues

exploration program of at least 8,000 metres

exploration corp, is exploring the property

exploration programs in the arctic.

mine the Slinky properties.

in the northwest territories. drilling is focused

the rebate could still be helpful in enticing

junior mining companies to the territory by

Mine. under an agreement with the territorial

under an option agreement under which north incurring $5-million in exploration expenditures

of surface diamond drilling at the Bermingham received the amended QML for the flame &

Moth deposit and expects a Water License amendment hearing to occur in the second quarter 2016.

prior to July 1, 2017.

Metal mining impact to be studied

to make policy for canada’s environmentally sensitive north, we need to study the impact

of metal mining. a Wilfrid Laurier university

research team has been awarded $550,000

from the natural Sciences and engineering research council (nSerc) Strategic partnership grants program to do just that.

Working across northern ontario and the

northwest territories (nWt), the research team

will determine the toxicity of metals and the a B ov e & B e yo n d — c a n a da’ S a rc t i c J o u r n a L


Circumpolar Artists Portraying life through art By Lynn Feasey


here is something powerful about gathering a group of artists from across the circumpolar regions — not just for those who get to witness, but for the artists

themselves. Cultural preservation, language, the environment, and politics become profoundly meaningful when expressed through stories, film, dance and through the arts and cras inspired by, or made from the land from which these artists come. For five days in Reykjavik, Iceland, last October, the spotlight was on the Circumpolar Arctic. e Circum-Arctic Art Show presented over 30 visual and performing artists from across the Circumpolar regions to an audience of tourists, residents and, most

Cerny recently curated the exhibition “LINKED: When

profoundly, attendees of the Arctic Circle Assembly, the largest global assembly on the

contemporary art raises awareness about climate change,”

Arctic, held at the Harpa Concert Hall.

at the Musee Oceanographique de Monaco, in Monaco. e

is was the first Circum-Arctic Art Show, and although it was held independently

exhibit, which ran from November 2015 to February 2016,

from the events at Harpa, the exhibit opened the door to a different way of viewing the

strategically opened to join the discussion at the climate

issues that face our circumpolar regions.

conference in Paris, had well over 50,000 visitors.

Martha Cerny, a well-known and respected Canadian-Swiss curator and collector

“When we are looking for pieces, we’re finding works that

travelled to Iceland to take part in the events. Cerny believes that high profile national

speak to a range of issues such as climate change, addiction

and international events are an integral way to address and identify these important

and social change. e work is out there, particularly in

common issues.

Canada, and it’s coming from the artists, not the market.”

Antler earrings, sterling silver, by Inuit artist Mathew Nuqingaq.

Above: Sculpture by John Sabourin, 2014, BC Chlorite, Yellowknife, NT.

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L


The Seasons. Lucy Nigiyok, 2015. Ulukhaktok, NWT

Penashue has been painting for over 20 years, but it wasn’t until recently that she fully committed herself to her art. “I lived on the land with my grandparents until I was 16 — my emotional tie to them is what brought me to express my culture in the way I paint. It’s natural for me to show traditional people doing traditional things and to show the aboriginal faces in my paintings. I want to preserve our ways of life as they continue to change.” e road to creating, marketing, selling and exhibiting works on an international scale is already an arduous one for northern artists. Cerny, who collects art from around the circumpolar regions, remarks on the import/export issues that northern artists face. “e use of some traditional materials, such as ivory and seal skin, can limit their possibilities to exhibit internationally, and to be part of the international art scene, especially in Europe.” It’s not just export laws that restrict artists; oen, it can be finding the materials to work with. e visual art spoke volumes on the gallery floor. Sculptures

Penashue remembers when caribou used to come from the north, around the

created from materials from the land, such as mammoth

Churchill Falls area, when people used to take their families and go hunting, but that’s

ivory, showed a wide range of subject matter. Textiles, paintings,

not happening now.

clothing, jewellery and hand forged knifes with intricately

“In my region, the caribou herd doesn’t come anymore — my personal feeling is

carved handles and hand tooled leather cases all portrayed

because of the activities happening further north, the herd changed their route and

a life rich with respect for the land, traditions, family, beauty,

have gone somewhere else instead of following their usual route to Labrador. I paint

and hardship.

caribou — it’s the main resource for aboriginal people; one caribou provides everything

Mary Ann Penashue, an Innu artist from Sheshatshiu, Labrador, attended the Circum-Arctic Art show in Reykjavik, something she never would have dreamed of years ago. And, indeed, it may not have been possible.

we need. So my art is my way of preserving my culture and expressing myself — and for people to see the importance and history of aboriginal people.” Penashue is not alone in her thoughts. “In Iceland, meeting the other artists, I was able to visualize what was happening in their world. Because they brought their art and their

“Remote communities have evolved so much. e Internet

stories with them, I could see we share the same challenges. I was just amazed. I have all

and roads have helped us stay connected and visit other

this knowledge that I came back with that I shared with my husband and my children.

places. Because of this, I had the courage to take my art to

Even though these cultures are so far away, we are so similar and it pushes me to want to

another level, and attend art school outside my community.

learn more. I want to see how the Saamis catch their reindeer and how they prepare

I wish I had the courage to do this 20 years ago.”

their meat, and make their clothing.”

Nenets artist Evgeniy Salinder works on the finishing details of his miniature reindeer antler carving. © Lynn Feasey


Performer and educator Johnny Issaluk drums on the streets of Reykjavik to welcome people to the Circum-Arctic Art Show at the Gamla Bio. © Christopher Porter

2016 | 03

Alexei Chuchanchar, Naganasans artist. © Christopher Porter

Traditional hand made knifes made by Sami artists Fredrik Prost and Per-Stephan Idivuomo. © Christopher Porter

Artists also graced the stage to share extra-

Igloo ring, sterling silver, by Inuit artist Mathew Nuqingaq.

ordinary sounds and stories, traditions and ceremonies, giving audiences a rare glimpse into

Overall, the experience for Issaluk was incredible. “e

their culture, leaving them utterly in awe of what

issues we all face are the same, and I felt hopeful that

they experienced and proving there is much to

we could be in unison, to work to preserve a way of life that

learn from the polar peoples.

is authentic to us.” e stories and traditions keep our

As a performer and educator based in Iqaluit,

ancestors alive. It keeps who we are alive.”

Nunavut, Johnny Issaluk speaks regularly about culture, traditions, and climate change. “Our art,

Lynn Feasey, of Points North Creative, promotes and presents

our stories, they will last forever. When I do my

northern arts and culture through national and international

presentations, I talk about the games I demonstrate; they have been around for

exhibitions, installations and events. She is most known for

thousands of years.”

her work as Creative Director for Canada’s Northern House

Issaluk took the stage several times during the Circum-Arctic Art show, but it

at the Vancouver 2010 Olympics, and worked with the

was at Harpa, during the Arctic Circle Assembly that he had a targeted and focused

Circum-Arctic Art Show to bring the Canadian artists to

audience, ready to receive the important message he was delivering through his


demonstrations and teachings. Innu artist Mary Ann Penashue and Sami artist Fredrik Prost share their culture. © Circum-Arctic

Khadry Okotetto, Nenets artist, demonstrates how to weave reindeer tendon. © Lynn Feasey

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

Artists L to R: Nenets Evgeniy Salinder, Inuit Mathew Nuqingaq, Nenets Inne Yadne, Nenets Victor Yadne, and Komi Vladimir Chuprov. © Christopher Porter


Art in the Kivalliq A Panorama of Inuit Creativity By Jim Shirley

In the Spring of 1979, I found myself stepping out of a Transair DC-3 and making my way across a tarmac of hardened earth to a crude but functional quonset hut which served as the airport terminal back then. I had just been hired by the Government of the Northwest Territories as an Arts and Crafts Development Officer. I was to work with artists, crafts-persons, and government created arts facilities that had become active in the region over the two decades prior to my arrival. As an artist who had spent most of my adult life committed to creative discovery, I was aware of the opportunity my job provided to me to interact and learn from some of the world’s most gifted natural artists. I was honoured to have arrived at a time considered by many to be the most creative and prolific in the history of Inuit arts and artists in the Kivalliq.


he Keewatin (or the Kivalliq, as it has come to be known) is a place in which artists experience the

balance and symmetry that links all living and non-living things. I grew up with the balance that one encounters in an urban setting. Here the balance was more visible. You could see the land in the faces and voices of the people. You could see it in their art. So many wonderful faces come to mind. Days at the crashop were characterized by an almost constant stream of humanity either to sell or show their creative work or simply to chat. Oen, people passing through on their way to and from other communities would stop in to chat. I saw, daily, hundreds of works of art in every media, from abstract works to traditional implements and clothing. It was a panorama of Inuit creativity. e focus at the time was the production of fabric-based cras. e government was still trying, as it had over the last 15 years, to create a source of self-sufficient economy for the Inuit who had relocated there to work for the North Rankin Nickel mine in the ’50s. roughout the building were examples of ceramics. ere were also pieces of soapstone, benches and vises. Soapstone carving, along with Stories from the Other Side Pierre Aupilardjuk, Leo Napayok


drawing and fabric art were among the other activities of the workshop. ere was something of the original simmering creative energy that still remained. With Claude Grenier as

2016 | 03

The Enchanted Bear An example of the Matchbox Gallery approach to collaborative ceramics by Roger Aksadjuak, Jack Nuviak, John Kurok and Leo Napayok. Done in 2013, each artist made a personal stylistic contribution in consultation with other creative artists.

its founding manager, it was one of the most innovative programs of its time — a starting point for most of the best artists in the region. e program was multi-disciplinary. It was strongly based on Inuit principles. Family members worked side by side; husbands and wives, parents and children. In collections of documentary photos were some of the great artists to come out of the Kivalliq; folks like Jessie Oonark, Pierre Karlik, Tiktak, John Kavik, Donat Anawak, Hakuluk, Patterk, Tatty, Prime Okalik, and many, many others who went on to distinguish themselves in a broad range of media.

Endings Become Beginnings Government involvement in arts programming was coming into its most volatile period. e government withdrawal from the operation of cra-shops in the early 1980s was a traumatic experience for those of us who had begun to see the role of government as an integral part of the protection of northern culture and for Inuit who had come to rely on them as a source of livelihood. e collapse of government involvement in the crashops created opportunities for folks like Keith Rawlings, Marie Bouchard and others like myself who had a vision of the potential of Inuit art that they could now encourage on their own. Although over two decades have passed since the government ceased to be involved in crashops, it is impossible not to be impressed with the rich legacy those operations le behind. It was the insights of government programmers, their empathy with the tremendous strengths of the culture of the day that inspired their programming. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

Man Holding Bird John Kurok, Leo Napayok


Beneath the Sea by Roger Aksadjuak Roger learned ceramics by working closely with his father, Laurent Aksadjuak. Like Yvo Samgushak, Laurent, a veteran of the government-run project, passed away in 2004. Roger, who developed as one of his themes scenes with multiple figures, was a master at figurative hand-building. He passed away in early 2014.

in a rapidly changing world. Experimenting with expressive media that were not a part of their traditions, Inuit drew confidently and fluently from the deep well of their narrative, cultural memories.

An Artistic Vision Unfolds e Matchbox Gallery opened in May of 1987. In 1988 to 1989, with government support, a large extension to the existing building was added that more than doubled the operating space. is area enabled us to begin our ceramics program. Originally, I had wanted some of the first protagonists of the ceramics project to continue their work in this new incarnation. Unfortunately, many veterans, like Philip Hakuluk and Donat Anawak had passed away. Our first ceramics workshop began with a group of younger carvers who were then active in the community. Yvo Samgushak and Laurent Aksadjuak came out of an extended retirement to work once again with ceramics and to teach a young group of beginning ceramists. Among this group of young ceramists was Roger Aksadjuak who has since become a master ceramist and one of our most important artists and teachers. I still have memories of Roger learning by working at his father’s side. It was the start of the kind of traditional learning that has made our program effective and rewarding. I established contact with some veteran ceramists in Montreal and other northern professional ceramists working with the Yellowknife Guild of Cras. Jeannie Sarich, then working as the ACDO with Economic Development, was also critical in getting our program on its feet. With the help of the Department of Education, we presented a basic ceramics In many communities, the arts and cras facilities were the centres for more than

training program which was tremendously successful.

commerce. ey were opportunities for an almost constant dialogue regarding what went before and what was to come, a dialogue in which the unspoken objective was

A Change in Fortunes

to confirm Inuit cultural strength and resourcefulness. Without the support and

For a variety of reasons, our government funding began to

encouragement of government in the production of the Inuit art of the period, there

diminish. We eventually abandoned our full-time production,

would be no such art form today.

moving from a wage labour to a piecework system. While

Back in the late 1970s, the creation of arts and cras for sale were important

we continued to work as a group, artists made ceramics only

moments of a rich cultural interchange that was going on everywhere. Art provided a

when they wanted to, or when we could afford to pay them.

visible expression of a renewal of the legendary capabilities of Inuit to adapt to change,

It was the shi to piecework that enabled us to survive.

whether that change came from the environment or from the tremendous upheaval of

We now had the chance to perfect our crasmanship and

their accelerated introduction to southern lifestyles and values. In the late ’70s, the

artistic expertise, taking the time to develop the technical

intensity of this moment of change was reflected in the better works. e same is the

skills of the artists we worked with, encouraging them to do

case today. For a culture that had never known or needed to know the functions and

their best work, and calling on them to focus on new creative

purposes of ‘art,’ their visual expressions became an essential element of their new identity

challenges. We discovered other ways to sustain the gallery


2016 | 03

Below: Yesterday Thoughts by John Kurok

beside the sale of work. We encouraged our artists to use

A Communal Approach to Learning

their skills in other ways. Many of them began to work as

e strength of much of our programming has its foundation in the communally based

teachers in smaller programs we created at the gallery, and

way that people share their learning with one another. In many ways, it is a replication

to provide support for other programming activities in the

of a traditional learning system, such as in the original cra-shop where people shared


information with one another, which accelerated and strengthened their learning

Aer several years without government support, we


began to deliver arts training programs with a premise that

In communicating with each other, people reinforce traditional communications

arts learning is an important catalyst and complement to

and values. e sad fact is that there are, at present, few places available in our community

academic learning. e program was a resounding success

where this kind of interaction can take place on a regular basis. Young adults would

with important implications for northern education.

benefit from this type of environment today, where they can develop self-confidence and social skills and share a positive and supportive interaction with others.

A Literacy of Touch

ere are also many outcomes, esthetically speaking. Working as a group gives

One of the senses that is least developed as far as southerners

the end results a kind of common approach and communal style. Still, the respect for

are concerned is the sense of touch. In our cosmopolitan

individuality, and for each person finding their own way, is paramount among the

life style, we have created tools which have replaced our

artists with whom we work.

hands, and perform some of the kinds of processes that, in an earlier stage of our technological growth, we had to do


for ourselves. For Northern people, the ability to manipulate

All of our work is hand-built. e wheel is never used. ere is a reason for this. Inuit

materials with their hands, to fashion tools, shelter and

have tremendous skills at manipulating materials, a skill that has enabled them to

clothing out of limited natural resources, was the corner-

survive some fairly rough conditions. is ability to manipulate materials was one of

stone of their ability to survive.

the foundations of their survival.

e artwork that comes out of the North, and out of Inuit communities in particular, are a testimony to their strength and capabilities at understanding and manipulating materials in all kinds of creative circumstances. ese abilities are still very present in women who work with skins, and maintain incredible detail in the construction of garments, and in men who still retain their traditional land and tool making skills. Understanding the nature of materials, and manipulating those materials with a refined sense of touch, are qualities that are essential if one is to be effective in working with clay.

A Strong Sense of Spatial Reasoning I’ve lost count of the number of times I have been amazed at the ability of northern people to see objects and animals at long distances that I couldn’t see. It isn’t just a matter of eyesight, but of careful observation and discernment. ere is a kind of logic to this ability, particularly on the part of a nomadic people whose ability to see game over long distances determined whether they lived or died. e ability to correctly ‘read’ what is in front of you is another factor in working with form in three dimensions whether it is clay or stone. ese are the kinds of abilities which Inuit bring to their creative efforts that make them some of the world’s most naturally gied artists. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L


Matchbox Gallery Artists

Back Row, R to L: Helen Iguptak, John Kurok, Jermaine Napayok, Pierre Aupilardjuk. Middle Row, R to L: Roger Aksadjuak, Tanya Tungilik, Philip Ugjuk, Leo Napayok, Jack Nuviyak. Front Row, R to L: Philip Napayok, Yvo Samgushak, Amauyah Noah, Sue Shirley, Jim Shirley.

Exhibitions and Collections e ceramics produced as a result of these programs have been featured in major exhibitions in New York, Vancouver, Seattle, Colorado, Minneapolis, Toronto and Germany. Our work has also been exhibited in shows in commercial galleries throughout Canada and the United States. Our artists have participated in hand-building demonstrations in the U.S., Canada, Iceland and Greenland. We were invited to display our work, and to participate and attend the “Ipakhak Ulumit: Nunavut Arts en and Now” for the inaugural ceremonies for the creation of Nunavut. We also had a piece entered in a major show of contemporary Canadian ceramics on display at the Gardiner Museum of Ceramics in Toronto. e show was called “Earthworks”. Representatives from the gallery went to e predominance of the vessel shape in most of our earlier work takes its influence

Toronto to make a presentation before 300 ceramists,

from the work done by the government-run project. e combination of vessel shapes

curators and collectors from throughout Canada. We spoke

and sculptural appliqués gave a common starting point for everyone in the program.

about the Matchbox Gallery and the process of increasing

Artists had the opportunity to learn basic coil, slab and pinch-pot techniques in a

Canadian aboriginal involvement in ceramic arts.

communal setting. Because people were learning these techniques at the same time,

Our work was also featured in a show at the Winnipeg

they were able to support each other, and compare their individual approaches to basic

Art Gallery in the summer of 2002, and in a show at the

hand-building. Working with vessel shapes also helped them to develop a sense for the

Cerny Collection of Inuit Art in Bern, Switzerland, in 2005.

kinds of forms that are possible with clay.

e work was circulated in other European centres as well.

Laurent Aksadjuak and Yvo Samgushak, veterans of the government run project,

We have also had several exhibitions of our work at the

gave our group of learning ceramists a strong technical starting point. eir advice and

Legislative Assembly in Iqaluit. Our work was prominently

personal styles influenced much of the earlier work. Once the ceramists had confidence

featured at the Waddington’s International Auction ’05. Our

and could master basic hand-building techniques, they began to move in more purely

ceramics (and for the first time, some of our drawings) were

personal and sculptural directions.

featured in a showing at the Canadian Clay and Glass

Within the last few years, we have grown, and significantly developed our

Gallery June 4 to September 6, 2006. Several major ceramic

approaches to hand-building. An important influence on this new growth has been the

works were also included in a retrospective of the arts of

work of Leo Napayok, a superb carver from a family of good artists, who first studied

Rankin Inlet held at the National Gallery of Canada. From

with our TAW program around 2004-6. Leo, a well-established, antler and soapstone

April to May ’10, our works were featured in a display at the

artist, initiated works with elaborate low-relief incising into ceramic shapes. All of

Canadian Guild of Cras in Montreal.

the artists in our projects were affected and influenced by his outstanding work.

Our gallery has several works in ceramics and other

Oen, the low-relief incising of work requires that more than one artist work on a

media included in the permanent collection of the Nunavut

particular ceramic. Collaborative working is included in our arsenal of hand-building

Legislative Assembly; the Prince of Wales Northern

strategies. In many ways more than one artist working on a particular piece is

Heritage Centre; the Cerny Collection of Inuit Art in Bern,

more consistent with the traditional lifestyles (in which people most oen worked

Switzerland; the MacDonald/Stewart Collection; the

collaboratively on projects that were important to their survival) than creating artworks

Winnipeg Art Gallery; the Museum of Inuit Art in Toronto;

in isolation. It also offers new expressive opportunities and is consistent with our search

the National Gallery of Canada; and the Canadian Guild

for creative discovery and expanded learning.

of Cras in Montreal.

is workshop has become the anchor of the creative life of a community of Rankin inlet artists, a facility which is an unending source of pride and satisfaction to all of us.


2016 | 03

1. From 1958-1968, Bradley Air Services expanded its charter operations in the Arctic, with Beavers as part of their fleet. © First Air

6. The all-passenger Boeing 737 jets are introduced to the First Air fleet in the 21st century. © Simon Blakesley

2. Twin Otters were the backbone of the Bradley Air Services fleet for several decades. © Jason Miller

9. The 737-400 is entering the fleet in 2016 and provides increased capacity, greater fuel efficiency and a greener air transportation solution. First Air’s new logo celebrating our 70th anniversary in 2016 appears on the nose of the aircraft. © Mark Taylor

7. In 2009, the Boeing 767-223 SF (Super Freighter) is introduced as the first wide body freighter in the First Air fleet. © Mike Beedell

3. First Air purchases its first Boeing 727-100C in 1986. © First Air

10. First Air’s new 737-400 came into service in April 2016, complete with new artwork on the tail by Michelle Valberg. © Mark Taylor

8. The first ATR 42-500 joining the First Air fleet in February 2016 is a 44-seat, all-passenger aircraft with a generous seat pitch, perfectly suited for the harsh weather conditions in Canada’s North. © Mark Taylor

4. Hawker Siddeley HS748. © First Air

5. In the 21st century, ATR42-300 aircraft begin replacing the Hawker Siddeley HS748 fleet. Here, an ATR42 lands in Pangnirtung. © Jason Miller






4 6





2016 | 03

Celebrating First Air’s 70th Anniversary

First Air is...

Adaptable Originally founded in 1946 as Bradley Air Services in Ottawa, Ontario, First Air is celebrating

its 70th anniversary this year. Today, the airline is owned by Makivik Corp., the Inuit-owned organization responsible for administering the land claim settlement of the Inuit of northern Quebec.


irst Air serves 36 northern communities and offers non-stop flights to the North from Montreal, Ottawa, Winnipeg and Edmonton

together with its codeshare partners. First Air flies approximately 230,000 passengers annually. In addition, the airline carries more than 22 million kilograms of freight and mail to the northern territories. Some of the communities have few residents, but they depend almost entirely on air transport for their goods. Over the years, First Air has continued to adapt its fleet to suit the Northern environment and the communities it serves. From its early beginnings, fleet renewal has aided First Air in its ability to provide a much-needed service to Arctic communities.

In 2009, the Boeing 767-223 SF (Super Freighter) is introduced as the first wide body freighter in the fleet. By 2011, First Air becomes the only operator in the world to fly an ATR 72-212 with variable combi and a full custom designed cargohandling system. 2016 will be an exciting year for First Air as it continues to upgrade the fleet. A $110 million program is underway, with new and replacement aircra entering the fleet, including a new Boeing 737-400 all-passenger aircra and an additional Boeing 737-400 combi. A first in Canada, the airline introduced the ATR 42-500 aircra in February 2016, as a replacement for its aging ATR 42-300 series. e

In 1958, owner Russ Bradley and partner Weldy Phipps mounted

new ATR 500 series offers improved seating and comfort and has better

tundra tires on Piper Super Cubs and thus revolutionized Arctic explorations

performance. e upgraded cabin allows for better seating options, as

capabilities in the process. Over the next decade, Bradley Air Services

well as an increase in payload capacity.

continued to expand its charter operations in the Arctic by adding larger aircra to the fleet such as Beavers and single-engine Otters.

e first ATR 42-500 to enter the First Air fleet is a 44-seat, allpassenger aircra with a generous seat pitch, perfectly suited for the harsh

Twin Otters were the backbone of the Bradley Air Services fleet for

weather conditions in Canada’s North and able to operate on gravel

several decades, beginning in 1971. Whether on skis, floats or wheels, the

runways. e aircra services the two daily Yellowknife-Hay River flights,

Twin Otters were at home in the Arctic environment and had a reputation as

as well as Fort Simpson and selected Kitikmeot routes in Nunavut. e

versatile, dependable aircra in the fleet for scheduled and charter work.

second all-passenger ATR 42-500 was introduced in April 2016. First Air

Fast forward another 20 years, 1986 has the company, (now operating

will also be introducing several ATR 42-500 combi aircra later this year,

under the First Air brand since 1973) purchasing its first Boeing 727-100C for cargo and passenger applications, kicking off its first foray into jet services to the North. In the 21st century, ATR42-300 aircra begin replacing the Hawker Siddeley HS748 fleet and all-passenger Boeing 737 jets are introduced. A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L

with a fixed configuration for passengers and cargo. Fleet renewal offers First Air opportunities for growth and new business. From its early days to present day, First Air continues to be adaptable for the Northern environment and to the communities it serves, making it proudly — e Airline of the North.



2016 | 03

Heading out on Tasiujaq Lake. © Steve Deschênes / Nunavik Parks

A Giant amongst Quebec’s National Parks Tursujuq Reveals Its Hidden Treasures By Isabelle Dubois On the eastern coast of the mighty Hudson Bay, through a narrow channel etched in spectacular cuestas, concealed beyond the Northern village of Umiujaq, lies a

vast expanse of land and water. Named after this slender passage known to local Inuit as Tursujuq, the youngest of Nunavik’s parks is also the largest of Quebec’s

national parks network. Embracing no less than 26,107 square kilometres of ground, sprinkled with a myriad of lakes and rivers, the Parc national Tursujuq offers endless possibilities for those in search of adventure. Formally recognized

as such in July of 2013, the park welcomed its first official visitors in the summer of 2015, letting them in on this well-kept secret.

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L


Left: A piece of heaven awaits sightseers, just a stone’s throw away from Nastapoka Falls. © Steve Deschênes / Nunavik Parks

Below: Host of the Facing Waves TV adventure travel paddling series, Nikki Gregg (centre), unwinds with friends by a campfire after another great day shooting stunning images in the Tursujuq Park. © Facing Waves

e adventure begins in Umiujaq, a small Inuit community

point, a mere three kilometres from town, the surrounding cuestas will expose them-

snug between the open water of Hudson Bay and the natural

selves and the inland sea of Tasiujaq Lake — formerly known as Richmond Gulf —

fortress watching over the 450 souls or so that have taken

awaits kayaking enthusiasts.

up residence in the area since 1986. Greeted at the airport

But before any paddles are set in motion, the guests are treated to an overnight

upon arrival by the Tursujuq park staff, around a cup of tea and

excursion to Nastapoka Falls by motorboat up the Hudson Bay coast. Navigating north

a slice of freshly made bannock served at the park’s visitor

on the Nastapoka Sound, sheltered by a strip of islands of the same name, the salty

pavilion, the itinerary of the journey ahead is explained,

aroma of the sea is simply invigorating.

looking at maps and going over safety measures.

Aboard the Inuit’s freighter canoes, which they manoeuvre with skill, the islands

is essential introduction continues with an aernoon

stream by, along with occasional flocks of birds nesting close by. Amongst them are

guided tour of the village before everyone settles back in for

eider ducks, known for their down. Once the chicks leave the nest, Inuit collect this

the night at the new co-op hotel overlooking the beach,

precious material to insulate their parkas to keep them warm during the long winter

where local Inuit might pop by for a visit over dinner, for

months. Loons and even peregrine falcons can also be spotted for those with a keen eye.

an evening filled with stories and laughter.

Once at the mouth of the Nastapoka River, the striking force of its waterfall,

e next morning, a brisk hike on the nearby tundra will

tumbling down a 35-metre vertical drop at the end of a 170-km course, leaves everyone

give sightseers a taste of what’s to come. From a higher

speechless, overpowering even the sound of the outboard motors. e whirlpool created by the uproar of the Nastapoka Falls creates a sanctuary for belugas, which like to frequent this open spa to shed their skins at the bottom of the riverbed. Known to Inuit for generations, the estuary is also teeming with salmon, making it a prime fishing spot. While the park’s trained Inuit guides set up camp on a scenic sandbank next-door to the waterfall, and perhaps catch dinner, there’s time for another hike; this time to admire the falls from atop. Standing beside this flow of water, one can’t help but feel small next to it. Herds of muskoxen can oen be seen roaming the area as well.


In her outdoor kitchen under the tupik, local Inuit elder Sarah Tookalook shares a laugh as she prepares dough to make inaluujaq — Hudson-style bannock that curls up into a spiral. © Steve Deschênes / Nunavik Parks

2016 | 03

Tursujuq Park’s Visitor Experience Officer Michel Harcc-Morissette takes a hike with his dog on the plateau behind Umiujaq overlooking the cuestas of Tasiujaq Lake. © Pierre Trudel / Le Devoir

As this Northern summer day slowly comes to an end, the sun takes its time to set on Hudson Bay, making for a long and colourful evening show. Later in the season, starting in August, a second act takes stage, and can go on throughout the night, with Northern Lights dancing across a starry sky. Following a hearty breakfast alfresco, it is filled with these enchanting images that we wave the Nastapoka Falls goodbye and make our way back to civilization. Back in Umiujaq, the aernoon may be spent wandering around town, observing a carver give shape to soapstone or learning how to make Hudson-style bannock in a spiral with the ladies. If weather permits, it can also be a great opportunity to mingle with

An ancient cultural crossroad that Inuit and Cree still

the villagers during a barbecue picnic on the beach or on the outskirts of the community.

visit to this day, this vast territory is also home to remnants

Aer a good night’s rest at the co-op hotel, the real journey begins… It’s time to

of human occupation dating back more than 3,000 years,

pack up and head out on a sea-kayaking adventure on the majestic Tasiujaq Lake.

proof of which are the few archaeological sites that can be

Shaped somewhat like a triangle, this immense body of water that resembles a lake is

uncovered with the help of your Inuit guides and local elders.

actually a gulf, merely separated from the Hudson Bay by a 5-km long gorge —Tursujuq,

With arms pumped up from paddling kilometres of the

just 500 metres in width. Flooded with tidal seawater pouring through this hallway,

clearest water and legs stiff from hiking up the wonders of

the 712-km2 harbour makes an ideal playground for seals and paddlers alike.

nature that the cuestas are, the motorboat ride back to town

Accompanied by the park’s guides, the next four days are spent paddling some

through Tursujuq’s namesake opening on Hudson Bay, will

15 kilometres each day, all the while taking in the breathtaking vistas, at peace with the

seem like a breeze. With a farewell hike up the gentle slope

environment. Sculpted by the remarkable Hudson cuestas, the Tasiujaq coastline can,

of this salient canyon to soak up this grandiose panorama

at times, be reminiscent of the Grand Canyon, giving a far west like backdrop to this

one last time, the Inuit elders’ stories unfold before your

extraordinary Northern locale.

eyes, as this mythical place reveals its ultimate secrets.

Going from one delightful campsite to another, whether set along the shore or on a secluded island, each layover can be an occasion, at the end of the day, to stretch your

For more information on the Parc national Tursujuq, contact the

legs and explore the park’s wilderness from another angle. Watch your step, as it’s not

park’s Visitor Experience Officer in Umiujaq at 819-331-5454 or

rare to stumble upon a congregation of camouflaged ptarmigans furtively dining on

check out for details on the all-inclusive

wild berries. Also be on the lookout for potential encounters with black bears, which

packages offered this summer. For bookings, call 1-844-NUNAVIK

have made the park’s plentiful caves their home.

(686-2845) toll free. Paddling in perfect harmony with nature on Tasiujaq Lake’s sheltered waters. © Facing Waves

A B OV E & B E YO N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC T I C J O U R N A L



Northern Youth Leadership Camp Campers and camp leaders navigate the smoky weather on the 2014 North Arm Girls Leadership Trip. © NYL

Confidence and resilience building

outdoor adventure and environmental education

back to 2003 when two determined young

“they hadn’t really had experiences with

Kirsten Carthew, successfully completed their

camps, had started to treat her differently.

being out camping for extended periods of time,” recalls Goliah of that smoky, summer of

2014, “so when the weather craps out on them, they’re not used to putting up with it; it triggers a kind of homesickness, a feeling like, ‘I don’t

want to be here.’” having grown up hunting, Goliah (centre in the red coat) and five happy campers after successfully summiting a mountain at the Gana River Girls Leadership Camp in 2015. © Shannon Ward

Deep into a 125-kilometre canoe trip, shrouded

by forest fire smoke so thick it made navigating

trapping and canoeing around Fort Simpson,


of self-confidence, good nutrition, fitness, and

above all, goal setting — values they were eager to share.

“It broke my heart to hear any young person

strengths, what are you good at?’” remembers

what to do. they looked up to me to keep the

mood going, and to keep them going smoothly.”

Goliah was no longer a kid along for the

in a nutshell, is what Northern Youth Leadership

one of Northern Youth Leadership’s eight-day

costs. Along the way, they learned the importance

lot of experience with situations like that; I knew

weather holds over any land activities. “I had a

16-year-old Goliah Makletzoff-Cazon came to

five other girls canoeing the North Arm Paddle,

$6,000 toward the cause and to offset travel

not have goals and dreams, and unable to

ride, waiting for the three guides to take

a somewhat shocking personal realization. the

first marathon in honolulu. they had to raise

she was well versed in the sway that northern

the islands and channels of Great Slave Lake in

the Northwest territories nearly impossible,

Yellowknifers, Shannan Schimmelmann and

answer the simple questions, ‘What are your Schimmelmann. “I have always believed everyone

is amazing at something and it’s rewarding to have them realize and know what those things are.”

the pair organized workshops for girls in the

charge. She too was becoming a leader. And that,

NWt ages 11 to 18, received some funding

(formerly taiga Camps) is all about.

ment, and for the next three years visited

the non-profit, charitable organization that

is now a tides Canada project, traces its roots

from Sport North and the territorial govern18 communities, volunteering their time on

weekends. Demand was high, parents were

2016 | 03

Youth A male camper revels in a sunset on the Boys Leadership Canoe Trip in 2015. © NYL

Campers hike with Goliah at the Gana River Girls Leadership Camp in the Mackenzie Mountains in 2015. © NYL

“We want to ensure our campers are get-

Canada, and Northern Youth had approached

on northern values and that we’re paying respect

As fate would have it, on the last day a thick

ting a product that’s rooted in the North, based to the traditional territories we’re visiting,”

fog delayed their departure by a day. Goliah

steering committee. “By working with elders

campers busy and inspiring them with her

says Shannon Ward, who chairs Northern Youth’s on each trip we’re really incorporating the Dene values and leadership qualities.”

As in the beginning, Northern Youth Leader-

ship still relies heavily on fundraising and in-kind

donations to keep its program going, but charges Six campers hold up the word “Enough” from the song “I Am,” written by Miranda Currie, in honour of Northern Youth Leadership Campers. The girls carried the words to the top of a mountain and proudly displayed them; the song was part of confidence and resilience building curriculum at the camp. © Shannon Ward

thrilled, but the workshops needed to be more sustainable. they moved towards a summer

camp model, which allowed an immersive experience that strengthened on-the-land ties

while creating positive risk-taking opportunities, such as being away from home for an extended

a nominal (in relation to actual costs) fee of $250 per camper. Financial assistance is available to help families who can’t afford the fee,

woodworking and leadership-building activities. today’s camps continue in the same vein.

a Northern Youth Leadership camp, visit

Laurie Sarkadi

Laurie Sarkadi joined the Northern Youth Leadership steering committee in october 2015.

camps: a Whati to Behchoko canoe trip for

boys ages 13 to 17; a four-day environmental

leadership canoe trip on the Slave River for girls ages 14 to 17; and a trip to Gana River lodge in the heart of the Mackenzie Mountains for girls ages 11 to 13.

At Gana River, young girls worked with

building confidence around hiking. they started

rock-climbing, kayaking, overnight camping,

For more information and to register for

experiences to 35 boys and girls through three

with other communities.

community members, campers experienced

positive attitude — leading, by example.

Last year Northern Youth provided on-the-land

elders to hone their fishing skills and make dry

Working in tandem with the skills of

found herself once again keeping the young

to keep the programs accessible to everyone.

period of time. In a region as vast as the NWt, it also offered a chance to travel and connect

her to be a leader-in-training.

meat, but Ward says their main activity was

with shorter walks and by the end of the week, happy campers “were basically summiting a mountain.” Goliah was there too. Since that smoky, challenging canoe trip, she’d taken the

initiative to certify as an instructor with Paddle

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L

Camper Jacob Harder holds up a fish he caught on the Boys Leadership Canoe Trip in 2015. © NYL



Circumpolar Athletes compete in AWG Focus on team Nunavik-Québec

Members of team Nunavik-Québec landed in Nuuk, Greenland, ready to compete, as well as learn about another Inuit territory. Poor weather in Nuuk and Iqaluit, Nunavut, (where most teams were stopping to refuel) delayed nearly every athlete’s arrival by as many as three days and many sports lost a day of competition during the March 5 to 11 event. Despite this, the event organizers remained on

covered fjords and last held the games in 2002.

during regularly blowing snow throughout the

made for an interesting experience for many

track and the Games went smoothly. Even week, volunteers and just about every resident of Nuuk remained ready with a smile and a

helping hand to show visitors where to go or what to do.

Below: Team Nunavik-Québec held a pre-departure parade in the streets of Kuujjuaq on March 3, 2016. © Kativik Regional Government (6)

participants, who largely hailed from North

American regions like Nunavik, Nunavut, NWt, Yukon and Alaska.

team Nunavik (tNQ) has traditionally been

held every two years, the Arctic Winter

strong in Arctic (aka Inuit) Sports and Dene

Northwest territories, as a way for circumpolar

the team’s 21 ulus being earned in Dene Games

Games (AWG) started in 1967 in Yellowknife, Team Nunavik-Québec won a silver Ulu in Dene Games Pole Push in the Open Male category.

Its unique mix of Inuit and Danish culture

athletes to compete in sports while also

preserving traditional games and cultural activities. Nuuk — Greenland’s capital city of

17,000 — is surrounded by dramatic, snow-

Games. this AWG was no different with 13 of

competitions such as finger pull, stick pull, pole push and hand games. overall, tNQ’s 57 athletes

performed well, especially considering the team’s small size.

In Arctic Sports, Inukjuak’s Deseray

Cumberbatch earned an amazing four ulus in

one-foot high kick, two-foot high kick, sledge jump and arm pull. A veteran of six AWGs, she

later described Nuuk as her best ever Games, which may have something to do with her dad watching her live for the first time. under-

standably, the experience was, at times, visibly emotional for the two of them.

Cumberbatch’s father is one of many

Nunavik parents who travelled to Nuuk to cheer on tNQ athletes. the team also had a resident

Elder, Louisa Cookie-Brown, who helped

support the athletes and lifted team morale through her positive spirit and good nature.

During the games, Cookie-Brown also met with Greenlandic elders to share stories and perspectives from both regions.


2016 | 03

Below: Joanasi Arnaituq from Kangiqsujuaq represented TNQ in Table Tennis in the Junior Male category.

Six-time Arctic Winter Games participant Deseray Cumberbatch won a silver Ulu in 2016 in the Arctic Sport One Foot High Kick.

Bottom: Louisa Cookie-Brown (centre) represented Nunavik elders as part of the TNQ special guests contingent.

Left: Originally designed and created by artists Miki Jacobsen and Camilla Nielsen, the bronze cauldron held the flame during the AWG 2016.

who we are as Inuit has helped us realize how

much we have in common with Greenlandic

Inuit,” says Nancianne Grey, the team’s Chef de Mission. “It's also opened our eyes to how large the Inuit world really is. More than any-

Another tNQ sporting highlight from the

thing, members of team Nunavik-Québec feel

games were improved performances by its

they've gained many new friends."

cross-country and snowshoe athletes. these

Along with serving as Chef de Mission, Grey

results came through the athletes’ hard work,

which was supported by the implementation

works as the Director of the Kativik Regional

the Kativik Regional Government. the program

understands the importance of promoting the

Government’s Recreation Department. the KRG

of a pilot training and development program by

type of healthy lifestyles the games encourage,

hired full-time professional coaches in three Nunavik communities and the athletes responded.

“A lot of them are going out on their own and

throughout the week and at two impressive

who worked as tNQ AWG mission staff for the

Qulliq Band, which plays Inuktitut music

don’t need to be pushed,” said Conor Goddard, two sports and coordinated the pilot project.

“they’re thirsty for it. they’re showing up to

practice, sometimes six or seven days a week, because they love the fact they’re getting this training.”

gala shows. team Nunavik’s was Puvirnituq’s from the region. Along with its upbeat tunes,

it impressed the crowd with what it dubbed

“throat boxing,” a combination of hip hop beat boxing and Inuit throat singing.

overall, the team had an incredible time on a

which is why it’s working hard to increase the

number of Nunavik athletes who can attend

future games. Currently competing in Arctic

Sports, Dene Games, Badminton, table tennis, Snowshoe and Cross-country Skiing, the KRG is also hoping to increase the number of sports in

which tNQ can compete. hockey is of particular interest as it’s incredibly popular in the region.

After a great cultural and sporting experience

Along with being an athletic competition,

number of levels. “We've been overwhelmed by

in Nuuk, the next games will be held in 2018 in

circumpolar cultural performances. Each con-

their time, as well as how curious they are about

sure team Nunavik-Québec will be there!

the Games are also an incredible display of tingent brings a cultural team that performs

how generous people in Nuuk have been with

our region of Nunavik. Sharing information about

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L

the South Slave region of the NWt and you can be

Kativik Regional Government



2016 | 03

E D u C At I o N


Providing ‘a place to grow’ in Pond Inlet

the Pirurvik Preschool opened its doors in January 2016 and offers an Early Childhood Education (ECE) program for children ages two-and-a-half to four years old in Pond Inlet. the Program is child centred and based on the Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) principles and enriched through the use of Montessori materials, with a goal to provide a culturally relevant learning experience. Pirurvik is guided by the IQ principal Pilimmaksarniq, which allows children to learn at their own pace. Children follow their own natural curiosity by choosing topics that interest them. the learning materials are ‘hands on’ resources and allow for selfdirected development with teachers acting as facilitators by providing appropriate support. Students are internally motivated to learn based on their individual interest in each activity. this experiential approach to learning creates a classroom of engaged and happy children. this Pilimmaksarniq approach to education is

of development. Language development is key

preschool is an extension of the Arctic College

method of learning. As reflected in the IQ

aim to promote and enrich Inuktitut literacy

environment for the NAC practicum require-

facilitated by the resource rich Montessori principles, children are recognized as individuals

and are encouraged to make decisions for

themselves. Both IQ and Montessori put the emphasis of learning in the hands of the child

to ECE instruction and the classroom resources

and include: Inuktitut sandpaper syllabics, large moveable Inuktitut syllabics, Inuktitut sound bags and small moveable Inuktitut syllabics.

the Pirurvik Preschool has partnered with

by trusting her to know what she needs. this

the Nunavut Arctic College (NAC). the NAC is

values of the community of Pond Inlet as it builds

Diploma two-year program in Pond Inlet during

approach to ECE compliments the educational

confidence and independence at a critical age

providing a full-time Early Childhood Education

the 2015-17 academic period. the Pirurvik

L to R: Alashua Akpaleapik, Leah Kippomee (ECE student), and Balika Idlout trace sandpaper syllabics with their fingers, which helps them to prepare for writing skills.

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L

ECE training by providing a location and learning ments. the preschool serves a double role of

providing ECE while also building capacity in

education as the students can seek full-time employment upon graduation.

NAC students in the Program were asked to

reflect on their experiences and share their thoughts about ECE in Pond Inlet.

L to R: Edwin Simonee, Jedidah Merkosak (ECE instructor), and Kirt Arreak all enjoy a drumming lesson. © tessa Lochhead (2)


E D u C At I o N

Left: Kirt Arreak learns to tie up a full qamutiq with Sarahme Akoomalik.

Below: L to R: Andra Innuaraq (ECE student), Seanna Soucie, and Leetia Peterloosie enjoy reading together. © tessa Lochhead (3)

In your opinion, in what ways does the Pirurvik

Dina Arreak: there is also a drum that is made

What do you think is the positive impact

Samantha Koonoo: At the preschool there is

songs. the drum is the same as what our

Charlotte Maktar: We do our best to show the

Preschool model Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit?

seal skinning so children learn how to skin a seal. We teach them Inuit history and culture through songs in Inuktitut.

Leah Kippomee: We sing traditional songs like “Qalukpaajusii” and we also speak Inuktitut.

Charlotte Maktar: the students watch, learn, and try. I also notice inuuqatigiitsiarniq, pijitsirniq, and pilimmaksarniq being used a lot.

for the children to use when we are singing ancestors would use.

How do you feel the preschool

supports literacy in Pond Inlet?

Ruth Akpaleapik: It encourages students to

learn the basics before they enter kindergarten and gain a positive attitude towards school and learning to become life-long learners.

Dina Arreak: the preschool supports literacy by teaching the children to recognize and pronounce the Inuktitut symbols. We also talk to the children in our own language.

Charlotte Maktar: We read books to the children and we also have a stereo that we can listen to while reading the book. We also have

sandpaper letters and syllabics, flash cards, alphabet beanbags, a rug with the alphabet and some drawing and writing activities.

Masiva Pewatoalook: We hope children will be able to develop their literacy skills at their own

pace. At the preschool we show the value of having literacy activities that are fun for children.


Caelyn Kadloo scrapes a sealskin.

of Early Childhood Education in Nunavut?

children how to be independent. When they want to do an activity we show them how to use or do the activity they choose, depending

on their age and capability. once they know

how to do the activity, they are free to do them whenever they want. We teach them how to

observe and how to be patient. they learn and

practice Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit through the activities.

Samantha Koonoo: the preschoolers are doing

really well. they are learning to write their names and how to write in Inuktitut.

Masiva Pewatoalook: My role as an ECE

educator is to teach children through play what it means to be Inuk, how we talk, hunt, tell stories and speak our language.

Fiona Aglak: It is really nice to see the children enjoying the preschool because they will be going to school in the next couple of years and they will already be used to it.

tessa Lochhead

tessa Lochhead is the Co-Founder of the Pirurvik Preschool.

2016 | 03


2016 | 03

C u Lt u R E The iceberg form of the Piqalujaujaq gathering house. © Chris Grosset (2)

A Gathering Place

Qikiqtarjuaq highlights connection between Inuit and the sea

Piqalujaujaq, which means “the iceberg shaped building,” is a magnificent new building located at the shoreline in the heart of the community of Qikiqtarjuaq, Nunavut. Piqalujaujaq is a welcoming centre for residents and visitors alike, which includes the hamlet’s tourism services, cultural and interpretive displays, a gathering room for Elders, and the local Parks Canada office for Auyuittuq National Park. “A gathering house has been a long time goal

of our community,” explains Qikiqtarjuaq Mayor

Mary Killiktee. Planning for the centre goes back

which identified a gathering centre and tourism coordinator position as community priorities.

In 2012, the hamlet of Qikiqtarjuaq proceeded

to 2002. the hamlet of Qikiqtarjuaq recognized

with development of Piqalujaujaq. the hamlet

sector to provide services to travellers accessing

provide project guidance and oversee the

the opportunities for development of the tourism

the national park and the increasing number of cruise ships travelling along the coast of Baffin

Island. As part of a broad regional tourism strategy developed under the Inuit Impact and Benefits

Agreements for National Parks in the Qikiqtani region, Kakivak Association and Parks Canada

commissioned a tourism strategy for Qikiqtarjuaq

Council appointed an advisory committee to

planning. Committee members included Mayor Killiktee, Geela S. Kooneeliusie, Rosie J. Audlakiak,

Stevie Audlakiak, Markoosie Audlakiak, Jaypootie Aliqatuqtuq, Phillip Sanguya, and toomasie Newkingnak.

the first step in the project was to complete

a business plan for the gathering house to

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L


C u Lt u R E Displays in the interpretive area celebrate the vibrant culture and landscape.

The interpretive displays offer an insight into local history.

identify the development needs, plan the

Conservation Areas Inuit Impact Benefits Agree-

the plan for the building interior identified

Committee and Canadian Wildlife Service, a

centre, secure partnerships, and access funding. dedicated spaces for a tourism Coordinator to

greet and help visitors and handle arts and

crafts sales, an interpretive area to provide cultural and educational programming, an

the hamlet has hired a tourism Coordinator,

ment, the Sululiit Area Co-Management

Pasha Kooneeliusie, and has been working

3-D, life-size hanging mural of three migratory

Department of Economic Development and

bird species flies above the display area. the exterior of the building is to be landscaped in

2016 to provide space for performances during

closely with the Government of Nunavut’s transportation to identify tourism product development opportunities.

“the gathering house is an important part

cruise ship visits.

of our plan for economic development in

youth and with visitors.

says the Centre will be officially opened for the

is going to continue to support the efforts of

provide the necessary spaces and open up the

the role of welcoming visitors, “the gathering

office for Parks Canada, and a dedicated room

for Elders to gather and interact with local An existing building was renovated to

views of the bay and mountains from the beachfront lot. Construction of the building was completed in 2014 and the interior displays

were installed in 2015. the Advisory Committee

developed a storyline for the interpretive area, which celebrates the connection between Inuit and the sea and highlights the importance of

Economic Development officer David Grant

2016 summer tourism season, but that beyond

house is going to strengthen our community by providing a place for Elders to share their knowledge and experience with our youth”. Students from the Nunavut Arctic College Fur

Production program recently visited the centre to examine the sealskin clothing on display.

Qikiqtarjuaq,” says Mayor Killiktee. the hamlet local tourism providers, arts and crafts people, and businesses that benefit from heritage and

tourism. “We’ve received valuable support from Kakivak Association and other organizations in this initiative. our goal is to build on this opportunity.

Chris Grosset

sealing and seal products. Local craftspeople were commissioned to create clothing, tools

and art pieces for permanent display in the centre. A “touch table” is at the centre of the

room so that these products can be handled

during educational sessions. Large photographic

murals provided by Lee Narraway celebrate the natural and cultural beauty of the community and

surrounding region. A display wall also celebrates

the two National Wildlife Areas: Akpait and

Qaqulluit. through support provided under the


Nunavut Arctic College students in the Elders room. L to R: Dora Kopalie, Leahann Kakkee, Karen Kooneeliusie, Rosemary Metuq, and Danny Audlakiak. © Chris Grosset (3)

2016 | 03


the 5th thule Atlas

Bringing Inuit knowledge back

Between 1921 and 1924, a Danish anthropological expedition led by the Inuktitut speaking anthropologist

Knud Rasmussen completed the first comprehensive recording of traditional Inuit societies in Canada. this journey — which would come to be known as the 5th

thule Expedition — occurred during an era when many Inuit still adhered to a pre-contact and pre-Christian A team photo of the Fifth Thule Expedition’s members (Rasmussen is on the bottom row, second from the left). Photo by Leo hansen, 1924.

worldview and material lifestyle.

As Rasmussen’s team travelled by dogsled

information to theorize on the origins of Inuit

graphic objects, field notes and expedition

vast amounts of oral traditions, place names,

fading traditional lifestyle. While a select amount

museum collections where they are not acces-

between Greenland and Alaska, they collected linguistic information, Inuit drawn maps, photo-

graphs, and ethnographic objects, using this

and document what they recognized as a rapidlyof the information gathered was published in

a series of scientific reports, the bulk of ethno-

records remain stored in Danish archives and sible to Inuit.

In 2014, the Kitikmeot heritage Society

launched an initiative to return knowledge collected by the 5th thule Expedition to descendant Inuit populations. Efforts to

revitalize traditional language, skills and culture in Nunavut have become significantly challenged by the vacuum of knowledge created through

the passing of elder generations possessing first hand experience of life on the land. these

revitalization efforts have come to rely more

heavily on historical ethnographic resources, most of which exist in distant institutions. the

large-scale repatriation of physical artifacts

and cultural resources to Nunavut is not feasible due to a lack of local heritage training and storage facilities. the Kitikmeot heritage Society is

seeking to resolve these issues through the Søren Jensen exhibits unpublished expedition photos located in the Frederiksvaerk Industry Museum’s archives in Denmark.


2016 | 03


A screen capture of the Fifth Thule Atlas.

creation of the 5th thule Atlas, a digital data-

base that allows historical knowledge to be returned in a form that is both accessible and

usable by Inuit, without the original archival and physical collections being compromised.

the 5th thule Atlas allows users to discover

Inuit knowledge and materials by virtually re-navigating the expedition’s travel route.

Expedition field notes, data and collections are geo-located and searchable according to

mapped culture areas, regional groupings, and

camp locations. users can access various forms of archived knowledge linked to these places,

including recorded oral traditions and songs, historical photos, modern photospheres of places visited by the Expedition, digitized field

notes, Inuit-drawn illustrations and maps, 3D

renderings of artifacts and descriptions of ethnographic objects.

In November of 2015, the Kitikmeot

heritage Society and its project partners from

Carleton university’s Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre were invited to

Denmark to assess the materials relating to the expedition, and open discussions regarding the 3D scanning of roughly 4,000 ethnographic ar-

tifacts collected from Inuit. the project has opened exciting new diplomatic bridges between Canada and Denmark, in addition to

strong working relationships between Inuit and National Museum of Denmark staff.

the 5th thule Atlas will eventually cover

the entirety of the expedition’s travel route,

which includes more than two-thirds of the Nunavut territory. the Kitikmeot heritage

Society is currently launching the pilot phase of

its Atlas, which has been designed to geo-locate

knowledge related to Copper Inuit of the Central Arctic. We encourage the public to visit our prototype Atlas at

Brendan Griebel

KHS Director Pamela Gross locates some pictures of an ancestor in the Danish National Museum’s archive of Fifth Thule photographs. © Brendan Griebel

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L



Missing link to complex life found deep in the Arctic ocean

© uwe Dedering

the complexity of living things can be baffling. take one of your own cells, for instance. If you could zoom in

and look at it in detail, you’d be amazed by all of the machines toiling away inside. there is a head office called the nucleus, which contains your DNA, an intricate network of posts and beams called the cytoskeleton, which

maintain the cell’s shape, a high-powered generator called the mitochondrion, and many other cellular gears

and cogs. Although hidden from view, these tiny machineries provide the infrastructure needed to generate complicated organisms, from brewing yeast to beetles to polar bears. Scientists have long wondered about the origin

happened almost two billion years ago, these

the ocean floor close to Loki’s Castle and brought

simpler life forms, akin to present-day bacteria.

searching for an organism with an intermediate

one of the critters hiding in the sediment was a

of complex life. they know that it arose from

Bacterial cells are much more rudimentary than

those of humans, hippos, or tulips, for example.

Indeed, the millions of bacteria that cover your skin and line your gut don’t have a nucleus,

cytoskeleton or mitochondrion. Scientists haven’t been able to clearly explain how a simple

bacterial cell evolved into a complex one. how does something like the E. coli in your colon

theories are hard to test. Scientists have been

level of complexity, something in-between a typical bacterium and a human cell, in hopes

of gaining insights into the early stages of com-

plexity. For decades, the search has been in vain.

But a recent expedition into the Arctic ocean

unicellular species was aptly called Loki.

to better understand Loki, the team

taken five years — and an additional expedition

vents called Loki’s Castle. In 2010, a team of


for living in extreme environments. this new

About three kilometres beneath the Arctic

have been trying so desperately to find.

there are different theories and hypothetical

the events that gave rise to complex cells

a group called the Archaea, which are renowned

sequenced its DNA — the instruction manual

ocean, in a region between Greenland and

steps for how this leap occurred, but because

previously undiscovered bacterium belonging to

uncovered the missing link that researchers

make the evolutionary leap to the cellular equivalent of a Rolex watch?

the samples back to the laboratory for processing.

Norway, lay a field of deep-sea hydrothermal

mostly Scandinavian scientists surveying marine biodiversity collected sediment from

for making a cell and its internal machines. It has for more sediment samples — to assemble the puzzle of Loki’s DNA, but it was well worth

the wait. When the scientists explored Loki’s instruction booklet, they were amazed to find

genes for complicated cellular structures,

2016 | 03


similar to those found in animal, plant, and

event might have occurred in an extreme

philes, like Loki, are not so easily replicable. For

bacterium. using this information, the researchers

ocean near hydrothermal vents. these findings,

ocean sediment if they want to study Loki in

fungal cells, and never before uncovered in a pieced together details about Loki’s biology.

Loki appears to have intricate cellular

beams and posts (cytoskeleton), built using the same components found in human cells, as well as some of the basic building blocks for a

“head office,” such as a cellular trafficking

environment, perhaps at the bottom of the

which were published in the prestigious journal Nature, are making big waves throughout concepts in biology.

covered with an even greater organizational

reassessment of some of the most general unfortunately, Loki won’t be visiting your

which is a prerequisite for acquiring the cellular

except to other deep-sea ecosystems. the rea-

organisms. It is important to stress, however, that Loki is still more like a bacterial cell than a yeast or animal cell.

What this means is that complex life likely

arose billions of years ago from a bacterium

very similar to Loki. Moreover, this extreme

Although Loki has helped scientists pin-

point the origins and progression of complex

local museum or research centre anytime

generators (mitochondria) common to complex

greater detail.

the scientific community, and leading to a

system. Loki also has the cellular machines needed to engulf things from its environment,

now, scientists will have to keep collecting

soon. In fact, Loki won’t be going anywhere son for this is that nobody knows how to keep

Loki alive outside of its natural environment. things like plants, algae, fungi, and E. coli are

all relatively straightforward to grow in a lab,

largely because they exist in environments that are easy to replicate. the environments of

life, it is likely that other bacteria will be dis-

complexity than Loki. No one knows where

these new isolates will come from, but the vast, mostly unexplored hydrothermal vents

that line the Arctic ocean mountain ranges are a good bet.

David Smith

David Smith is an assistant professor in the Biology Department at the university of Western ontario. he studies the genomes and evolution of algae and can be found online at

deep-sea, hydrothermal-vent-loving extremo-

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L



2016 | 03


Arctica: the Vanishing North Sebastian Copeland teNeues September 2015

the untamed and largely pristine nature of

the Arctic is the topic of this comprehensive visual record of the North Pole. Written by Sebastian Copeland, polar explorer, award-

winning photographer, established author and journalist, and dedicated environmen-

tal activist, the author shares his passion

for this beautiful place while attempting to inspire readers to take note of the need to

sustain this land for future generations. the book includes a foreword by Sir Richard

Night Moves

Richard Van Camp Enfield & Wizenty September 2015

Branson and texts by Prof. Andrew Weaver, ted Scambos, Mayor Eric Garcetti, Sheila Watt-Cloutier and Børge ousland.

Keeping Promises

Night Moves, is a mix of 11 stories that cover

Edited by terry Fenge and Jim Aldridge McGill-Queen’s university Press November 2015

the modern and the ancient. At times funny,

of 1763, issued by King George III of Great Britain,

Van Camp’s fourth volume of short stories, the themes of medicine and the supernatural,

while at others sensual, heartbreaking or shocking, Van Camp continues to explore the

indigenous and authentic characters in Fort

Smith, Northwest territories, including some of his characters from earlier works.

Marking the 250th anniversary of the Royal Proclamation Keeping Promises shows how such treaties in Canada

are executed to maintain Aboriginal Rights. this

collection includes essays by historians, treaty negotiators, lawyers and Aboriginal leaders with

addresses by the Governor General of Canada and the federal minister of Aboriginal Affairs and Northern

Development. It is a testament to the research, advocacy, solidarity and accomplishments of the Land Claims Agreements Coalition.

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L



2016 | 03


Protecting tradition while supporting growth

As Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador, I am proud of our province and its people.

Newfoundland and Labrador is rich in culture

and heritage. our landscapes are rugged and

our coastlines are beautiful. the people of Newfoundland and Labrador are resilient, proud

and innovative. And we are diverse, with various

cultures living and operating together to create the unique culture of Newfoundland and Labrador. Newfoundland and Labrador have a strong

relationship with the Arctic region, especially through our Northern and Aboriginal commu-

nities. Labrador, in particular, has deep roots in

the traditional and modern Aboriginal way of life, through its governments and organizations. It’s

an area that has vast expertise operating in the Arctic. We understand the sometimes harsh, environment and how to navigate it.

our work in the Arctic is significant.

Newfoundland and Labrador has the knowhow, innovative technologies, cultural history and

there are several opportunities on the

the world. Inspired by the rich culture of the

our relationship and partnership opportunities

their traditions and inspire us all. our govern-

ingenuity to meet challenges presented in this

horizon for our province to further strengthen

to our work in Arctic research and development

with Labrador and the Arctic region. this

environment. From international shipping lanes, and the energy sector, Newfoundland and

Labrador has played a key role in the Arctic. our corporate partners also bring with them a

wealth of knowledge and experience in the

Arctic environment. the work is extensive and our passion for this region is strong. It’s our home. In July 2015, the Governments of

Newfoundland and Labrador and Nunavut signed

an Mou to build upon their long-standing

includes plans to expand our transportation

network, including the trans-Labrador highway and the possibility of a fixed link for Labrador and the island of Newfoundland. there are so

many ways we can grow and diversify the

while supporting growth. to achieve this, we are committed to working with industry,

academia, northern communities, Aboriginal peoples and all levels of government.

together we face a changing Arctic region,

toward this every day.

opportunities are emerging. And where there

as a whole. And our government is working Beyond the political and industrial successes

partnership as both jurisdictions prepare for

in the arts community. the beauty and unique-

activity in the Arctic.

ment is committed to protecting tradition,

which brings with it increasing challenges.

of the Northern region of Newfoundland and

future development and increased economic

North, these artists have captured the beauty of

economy, for the Arctic region and the province

history of successive cooperation. It is intended to encourage increased collaboration and

© Government of Newfoundland and Labrador

Labrador, there continues to be achievements

ness of the products and artistry that come from Labrador rival anything else found around

A B oV E & B E Yo N D — C A N A DA’ S A RC t I C J o u R N A L

however, it is from these challenges that new are opportunities, there is potential for growth and the prospect to work together to see our goals for the Arctic realized.

Dwight Ball

Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador



Participants in the kANGIDLUASUk Student Program participate in field research while learning the intricacies of Inuit culture and discovering Torngat Mountains National Park. Š kANGIDLuASuk Student Program

the pursuit of Inuit self-determination in research

Š Letia obed

As summer approaches in Inuit Nunangat, southern researchers are preparing for their annual migration North to undertake field research on our land, animals, environment, and on us, Inuit, the most studied Indigenous people on the planet. Research can have a positive role in influencing the policies that affect our lives, which is why we encourage research projects carried out in partnership with Inuit that are designed to create positive, lasting change to our social, environmental, and economic reality. Research in Inuit Nunangat has a negative legacy in many of our communities, where all too often Inuit have been the subjects of research but have not directly benefited from it in any meaningful way. this is especially true of the social sciences. For example, anthropologists have published thousands of academic articles and books about Inuit, and convened hundreds of academic conferences over the last several decades that discuss our people and culture in great detail. Yet despite the vast resources leveraged to carry out this research, the overall benefits to Inuit have been negligible and in many cases systemic non-Inuit biases in research methodology have led to skewed results that hurt our efforts to accurately assess our culture, identity, and environment. Many researchers and research institutions continue to exploit Inuit and the challenges we face for their own gain. Inuit self-determination in research is about changing this reality so that our people and communities benefit from research. this involves Inuit deciding what issues are worthy of study, how research


about our people is carried out, how data about Inuit are used and interpreted, and with whom and in what manner research findings are shared. there are practical, mutual benefits to this. For example, Nunavut is the only jurisdiction in Inuit Nunangat that tracks Inuit-specific data on suicide. this means that Inuit-specific data related to this challenge are not readily available in three of our four Inuit regions, which makes it more difficult for us to understand and address the most challenging and devastating social issue of our time. Jurisdictions in Inuit Nunangat would benefit by partnering with Inuit to ensure that the methods they use to gather and track suicide data capture the information that we need to take action. the barriers that Inuit often encounter around research are, sadly, rooted in outdated colonial attitudes and beliefs about the role Indigenous peoples are expected to play in research. our science and our people are expected to play secondary and supporting roles to authoritative southern researchers, and the fact that there is no university in Inuit Nunangat speaks to this commonly held view.

these attitudes are slowly changing as more researchers act on their responsibility to work in equal partnership with Inuit. We now have amazing work being carried out by Inuit in each of our regions, at the Nunavik Research Centre in Kuujjuaq, for instance, and within the Nunatsiavut Government. Inuit selfdetermination in research is about defining the reality we wish to see, and ascertaining how research and research institutions can best help us achieve that reality. ItK is committed to defining a path forward toward greater Inuit self-determination in research that has as its focus the improved health and well being of our people. After so many decades of being preyed upon, mischaracterized and marginalized by researchers and research institutions, our people are now standing up and demanding a new reality. I look forward to partnering and working with all those who stand with Inuit within the research community as we take these difficult but necessary de-colonizing measures.

Natan obed

President, Inuit tapiriit Kanatami

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ᓄᓇᓕᓐᓅᖓᔪᖅ, ᐊᑲᕐᕆᓇᖅᑐᖅ, ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᖃᑦᓯᐊᖅᑐᖅ

Nunallaat, Ihuarniq, Atuttiarniq Community, Comfort, Convenience

ᑲᓲᑎᓯᒪᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᑉ ᖄᖓᒍᑦ

Haniliriikhutik Hilarjuap Qulaani Spanning the Top of the World

( 1-888-To-North

ᓄᓇᓕᒻᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᓇᒻᒥᓂᕆᔭᐅᔪᑦ ᑐᔪᕐᒥᕖᑦ, ᑲᑐᔾᔨᖃᑎᒌᑦᑐᑦ ᐅᑭᐅᖅᑕᖅᑐᕐᒥᑦ.

Nunalimmiunut namminirijaujut tujurmiviit, katujjiqatigiittut Ukiuqtaqturmit. Locally owned hotels, working together across the Arctic.

Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2016 | 03  
Above & Beyond | Canada's Arctic Journal 2016 | 03