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Rethinking Facades for a New Skyscraper Vernacular

Dr. Antony Wood CTBUH Executive Director Facades+, New York, April 2015


Tall Buildings and Place: The Shortfall of Tall?


Historically – a connection with place? 1896. Fisher Building, Chicago, Burnham & Co

1930. Chrysler Building, New York, William van Alen


Shortfall 1: The Commercial Design Approach

1958. Seagram Building, New York, Mies van der Rohe & Philip Johnson


Shortfall 2: The Iconic Sculptural Design Approach

2007. RAK Financial City, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE, Rakeen


The Extreme Iconic-Sculptural Design Approach: A Tall Building Menagerie?


Canary Wharf / Docklands Development; early 1980’s – to date


Tall building-scape, Jakarta

Tall building-scape, Seoul


New Paradigms in High Rise Design: A New Vernacular for the Skyscraper? 10 Design Principles


Design Principle 1: Tall Buildings should relate to the physical characteristics of place


The Leadenhall Building, London Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, 2014


Design Principle 2: Tall Buildings should relate to the environmental characteristics of place • Light • Wind • Air

• Sun • Rain


Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou Skidmore Owings & Merrill, 2013


Solar Thermal Tower, Chicago Thomas Denny & Bradley Weston, Illinois Institute of Technology, 2007


Solar Power Station, Seville 2009


Harnessing Wind in Tall Buildings?

P = 0.5 pV3 T

where P = Turbine Wind Power, p = air density, V = Wind Velocity, T= Time

Bahrain World Trade Center, Manama Atkins, 2008

Strata, London BFLS, 2010

Pearl River Tower, Guangzhou Skidmore Owings & Merrill, 2013


Wind Farm Adam Chambers & Alex Dale-Jones, University of Nottingham, 2007


Natural Ventilation

CTBUH Technical Guide Natural Ventilation in High-Rise Office Buildings, 2012


The Benefits of Natural Ventilation

•  Improves the energy performance of a building, savings through reduced operating energy & embodied carbon in MEP plant •  Improves indoor air quality •  Higher employee productivity through higher quality internal environment •  The potential for night-time ventilation to cool down the building structure •  However, currently only HYBRID ventilation systems…….


The Chicago Aquifer Steven Henry & Hannah Cho, Illinois Institute of Technology, 2007


Design Principle 3:Tall Buildings should relate to the cultural characteristics of place


Literal Cultural Symbolism

Jin Mao Tower, Shanghai Skidmore Owings & Merrill, 1999

Taipei 101, Taipei C.Y. Lee & Partners Architects/Planners, 2004

Gyeongju Tower, Gyeongju 2007


Abstract Cultural Symbolism Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur Cesar Pelli Associates, 1997


Menara Dayabumi, Kuala Lumpur BEP Architects, 1984


Doha Tower, Doha Ateliers Jean Nouvel, 2012


Swadeshi Tower (Textile Tower), Mumbai Nishant Modi & Hiren Patel, Illinois Institute of Technology, 2009


Design Principle 4: Tall Buildings should vary with height – in form, texture, scale (and program) – not be just vertical extrusions of an efficient floor plan


Aqua, Chicago Studio Gang Architects; Loewenberg Architects, 2009

BUMPS in Beijing, Beijing SAKO Architects, 2011

Absolute Towers, Mississauga MAD, 2012


SkyBox Eva Young, University of Nottingham, 2003


The environment changes with height too! Burj Khalifa: 6-8 degrees Celsius dierence in external air temperature at top of tower, compared to bottom

Burj Khalifa, Dubai Skidmore Owings & Merrill, 2010


Design Principle 5: Tall Buildings should maximize layers of usage on all systems and materials


CTBUH 2014 Innovation Award Winner

NBF Osaki Building, Tokyo Nikken Sekkei, 2011 Piping referred to as “BioSkin”, alongside building acts as façade, but also collects rain water, which greatly helps to cool the building


Al Bahar Towers, Abu Dhabi Aedas, 2012 Smart faรงade opens and closes automatically, reacting to the direction of the sun


Challenging traditional functions……………

2006. “Sports Tower”


Design Principle 6: Tall Buildings should provide significant communal, open, recreational space


Commerzbank Tower, Frankfurt Foster + Partners, 1997


Sapphire Tower, Turkey Tabanlioglu Architects, 2010


Shanghai Tower, Shanghai Gensler, 2015


Design Principle 7: Tall Buildings should introduce more faรงade opacity (and variation / texture) in skin/ envelope


National Commercial Bank, Jeddah Skidmore Owings & Merrill, 1984


O14, Dubai Reiser + Umemoto, 2009


Tree House Residence Hall, Boston ADD Inc, 2012


Design Principle 8: Tall Buildings should embrace organic vegetation as an essential part of the material palette


CTBUH Technical Guide Green Walls in High-Rise Buildings, 2014


The Purpose and Benefits of Natural Ventilation

Benefits: Building Scale •  Improvement of Thermal Envelope •  Solar Shading – impacts on Building Energy Efficiency •  Internal Air Quality, Air Filtration and Oxygenation •  Health/Productivity Benefits •  Possible Agricultural Produce

Benefits: Urban Scale •  Reduction of the Urban Heat Island Effect •  Improvement of External Air Quality •  Sequestering of Carbon (& Pollution) •  Aesthetic Appeal •  Providing Biodiversity and Creating Natural Animal Habitats •  Urban Noise Absorption


CTBUH 2014 Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia Award Winner One Central Park, Sydney Ateliers Jean Nouvel, 2014


Design Principle 9: Introduce physical, circulatory and programmatic connections – skybridges


Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur Cesar Pelli & Associates, 1998


Metropolis Erich Kettelhut, still from Fritz Lang’s film, 1927

The Cosmopolis of the Future Harry Petit, from King’s Views of New York. 1908

The Fifth Element Luc Besson, still from the film, 1997


Linked Hybrid, Beijing Steven Holl Architects, 2009


Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort Marina Bay Sands, Singapore Moshe Safdie and Associates, 2010


Marina Bay Sands Integrated Resort

The Pinnacle @ Duxton, Singapore ARC Studio, 2009


The Interlace, Singapore OMA / Ole Scheeren, 2013


The Interlace, Singapore OMA / Ole Scheeren, 2013


Design Principle 10: We need to challenge the conventional functions inside tall buildings and bring ALL aspects of the city up into the Sky


Abeno Harukas, Osaka Takenaka Corporation, 2014

Building Functions: Office Hotel Retail Observatory Gardens Art Museum School Hospital


High-Rise Educational Facilities

MODE GAKUEN Cocoon Tower, Tokyo Tange Associates, 2008

MODE GAKUEN Spiral Towers, Nagoya NIKKEN SEKKEI, 2008


Vertical Farm Paul Foster & Darran Oxley, University of Nottingham, 2006


The Future of Vertical Farming: Faรงade Farms?

Jinao Tower, Nanjing Skidmore Owings & Merrill, 2014


What is needed? . . . . A new regulatory, political & financial model for urban development . . . .


Consider a Low Rise Urban Scenario Current Population: 1 million


Ground plane = all urban ‘infrastructure’; physical, spatial, circulation, recreational, communal, etc


Population Growth & Urbanization: Driving the 1 million to 10 million inhabitants: where do they go?


Horizontal Growth of the City = Unsustainable


Vertical Growth = Concentrated Land & Resource Use = More Sustainable?


Overburden of the ground plane / infrastructure, and disconnected icons?


Overburden of the ground plane / infrastructure, and disconnected icons?


The Tall Building as a Piece of the City flipped Vertically……


……..including the Infrastructure


Replication of the Ground Plane & Connectivity of Infrastructure


Towards Sustainable Vertical Urbanism‌


The Future of Sustainable Cities?


Rethinking Facades For a New Skyscraper Vernacular Presentation  
Rethinking Facades For a New Skyscraper Vernacular Presentation  

Rethinking Facades For a New Skyscraper Vernacular Presentation by Anthony Wood of CTBUH, Facades+ New York 2015